Sie sind auf Seite 1von 29

Cultural Differences between Australia and China History Nomadic homanids roamed China for around 850,000 years.

Around 5,000 years ago, a group settled down to become farmers. For the Chinese, the commencement of farming is marked as the beginning of the Chinese civilisation. Between 221 and 210 BC, China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang, invaded neighbouring kingdoms, unified the country, standardised the writing system, and built the first Great Wall. Over the next 2,000 years, China was invaded and ruled by neighbouring minorities, including Mongolians and Manchus, who in turn expanded Chinese territory. In 1911, the last emperor of China fell. In the chaos of the subsequent years, provinces such as Tibet and Xijiang declared independence and sections of China became ruled by foreign powers. Social disharmony gave rise to a communist rebellion that joined with the Nationalists to expel foreign invaders. After defeating the foreigners, the Communists defeated the Nationalists. For the first time in almost 500 years, the majority Han people were again in control of China. In 1966, the Communists commenced the Cultural Revolution that aimed to purge China of the old customs, old culture, old habits and old ideas of their former masters. Religion and traditional culture was banned as communism was elevated as the sole identity to unite all of the diverse people of China. The progressive ideas left China in ruins. In 1979, the Communists commenced undoing the damage caused by their progressive ideals. Foreigners were welcomed back, and respect was given to China's heritage- both Han and minority. Although Australia's history is quite different to China's, it has produced some modern day commonalities. For 50,000 years, nomadic humans roamed Australia. They probably never built cities because Australia lacked a high yeild agricultural crop to build a civilisation around. Between the 15th and 17th centuries, Chinese, Dutch, Portuguese, Indonesian and Spanish reached Australia, took a look around and then kept sailing. In the 18th century, the English arrived, took a look around and decided Australia would make a great place to punish criminals. For the next 80 years, England dumped its Convicts in Australia. The type of criminals dumped in Australia were very similar to the type of people that supported Chairman Mao in the communist uprising. They were political rebels, communists and the poor who lacked food to eat. They also found themselves alienated from an elitiest class that treated them with contempt. Just as they did in China, the left-wingers of Australia responded by championing progressive ideals in the belief that equality could only be achieved via the destruction of the past. However, they were never able to fully enforce their ideals because he British had implemented a parliamentary system that diversified power and forced community consultation. The result was a system of government that addressed some of the problems that led to communist rebellions without suffering the damage caused by communist rebellions. This unique mix was noted by Vladimir Lenin, the father of the Russian revolution. Lenin said of Australia: " What sort or peculiar capitalist country is this in which the workers' representatives predominate in the upper house....and yet the capitalist system is in no danger?" Today, the Chinese have reacted to their history of civil conflict by deciding intellectual unity and consolidated power is the best way to achieve social harmony. Furthermore, they believe that pride in history and culture is one way to achieve unity. Australia is quite different. In Australia, there are still left-wingers that want to attack old ideas, deconstruct culture, consolidate power and work through government to enforce their agendas. They are

not able to fully implement their agendas because Australia has so much intellectual diversity that would-be revolutionaries can't get their fellow Australians to unite on anything. The inability to get united has prevented Australians from joining campaigns that could lead to violent conduct in the streets, the break up of their country or even independence from Britain. On the other hand, China still suffers such threats. Because Chinese have been conditioned to obey and always support China, when rumours circulate, they are believed without question leading to vigilantes fighting to protect China. Art painting Traditional Chinese painting uses ink on paper, which leaves no room for error. A nearly complete painting may be ruined in a matter of seconds by an excess application of ink that runs and blurs. When such a mistake occurs, there is no way of painting over the top to remedy the error. Because the use of Chinese ink requires great mastery of brush use, it is quite easy to understand why Chinese art changed little over the centuries. Once the apprentice has learned from the master, the brush is passed on and the tradition continues. Wu Chens paintings completed in the 13th century would not look out of place in an exhibition of contemporary ink artists. Although many modern Chinese painters still use ink, others use oils. While the medium has changed, they show the influence of their tradition by maintaining very advanced skills in the use of brush strokes and colour mixing. They use these skills to explore political concepts that appeal to westerners. Most of the themes involve pairing two incongruent ideas. For example, Chairman Mao might be depicted in a Nike shirt. The paintings generate the same kind of feeling that might be provoked by seeing a Starbucks coffee house in the Forbidden City (the old home of the Chinese emperor.) Because the ideas don't match, the viewer is forced to reflect upon the contradiction. Yue Minjun is arguably Chinas most famous contemporary artist. Based in Beijing, Yue paints himself with a happy face in a variety of incongruent situations, such as Tiananmen Square 1989. For his western customers, Yue is a dissident who expresses his dissent via sarcastic conformity. By "fooling" China's rulers, Yue can protest without being taken away and shot. While westerners see him as a dissident, most Chinese see Yue as a clever man who has made a lot of money by giving westerners what they want. Australias newspaper cartoonists create art that has some similar elements to the contemporary Chinese artists. They take a political issue and either demonstrate the inconsistencies in a visual manner or try to represent the issue in visual manner. The intention is to mock the issue, provoke thought on the issue, or help readers understand the issue. In regards to painting, contemporary Australian art is quite different to contemporary Chinese art. As a result of significant government funding, Australian art is more political than Chinese art and suffers a schism between the private art market and the governmentfunded arts culture. From the private sector came Pro Hart, Australia's most commericially successful artist. Hart depicted the Australian outback, its miners, its community and its natural environment in a positive way. The positive approach ran contrary to the governmentfunded culture that wanted to see the outback as home to racists, environmental vandals and culturally ignorant homophobes. For the government-funded culture, the outback was old Australia and needed to be attacked to make Australia a progressive society. Hart was rejected by the government-funded arts establishment of Australia. Neither the National Gallery of Australia nor the Art Gallery of NSW (Hart's home state) ever bought his works. According to Barry Pearce, head curator of Australian Art at the Art Gallery of NSW,

comparing Hart with the artists who normally hang in the gallery was "rather like Slim Dusty being compared to Mozart." Likewise, Alan Dodge, Director of Art Gallery of Western Australia, said of Hart, "He is one of the most delightful illustrators of the Australian folk idiom, but let's not use the word art anywhere." Poetry Traditional Chinese poetry blends environmental imagery with beautiful verse to create an emotional aesthetic. Unlike English poetry, traditional Chinese poetry doesn't have much obscurity and its purpose isn't to provoke thought. Consequently, when translated into English, the poems lose their emotional aesthetic in a way that leaves them sounding a bit silly. For example, the ancient poem: Guan guan jiu he zhi zhou Yao tiao shu nu jun zi hao qiu translates to Guan! Guan! Cry the fish hawks, on sandbars in the river. A mild-mannered good girl, fine match for the gentleman. On the whole, most Australian poetry subscribes to the English tradition of retaining some obscure elements and/or telling an inspiring story. In the 19th century and early 20th century, Australians such as Banjo Patterson and Henry Lawson used poetry to tell emotionally appealing stories that encouraged national pride. Kenneth Slessor used poetry to capture the melancholic feelings of war. In his most famous poem, Five Bells, Slessor applied the melancholic feelings to peace time when he wrote about a friend found dead in Sydney Harbour. Arguably, A.D Hope was Australia's most psychologically challenging and technically skilled poet. Hope used regimented rhyming structures to push readers towards the edges of the mind. Movies Art-house Chinese movies are a bit like Chinese poetry in that they are more concerned with an emotional aesthetic than with a complex story or even character development. In the Mood for Love (2000) deals with the sexual tension between a man and a woman whose respective spouses have run off with each other. The Road Home (1999) deals with a son coming home to organise his father's funeral, and then telling the story of his parents falling in love. Help Me Eros (2003) revolves around three characters living on the edges of respectable society; a recently fired stockbroker in financial ruin, a fat woman married to a homosexual man, and a provocatively dressed betel nut girl. Modern day art house movies in Australia are dominated by political ideologies that override an emotional aesthetic. The political focus came about as a result of Paul Keating, ex-prime minister of Australia, wanting to use the movie industry to shape community values in his own interests. In 1988, Keating scrapped the system of tax concessions that had proved successful and announced it would be replaced with funding for film distributors, sales agents, and broadcasters. The funding system allowed Keating to ensure that Australian movies were biased towards left-wing culture. In 1992, Romper Stomper promoted the idea that pride in Australia amounted to pride in white supremacy. In 1994, the transvestite road flick Priscilla promoted the idea that the Australian outback was home to lewd, racist and uncultured homophobes that were nothing like the good natured larrikins portrayed in Crocodile Dundee. In 2002, the political Rabbit-proof Fence promoted the idea that Australians had lost their humanity because they elected a prime minister that wouldn't apologise to the stolen

generations (mixed race Australians removed from Aboriginal communities and raised in religious missions.) In the 1970s, Australia produced some decent art-house movies. Picnic at Hanging Rock (1975) explored restrained English customs breaking down in the Australian wilderness. Gallipoli (1981) contrasted the various motivations of Australians to fight in World War 1, and their ultimate loss of innocence in a tragic battle. Education Chinese classrooms are teacher focussed while Australian classrooms are more student focussed. In more simple terms, a Chinese teacher is more likely to deliver the answer whereas an Australian teacher is more likely to give students some basic knowledge and subsequently expect them to do something with it. Furthermore, whereas Chinese classes don't have a great deal of interaction between students, Australian classes do. Although the teaching styles are expressed in all classes, it is the physical education classes where the differences are most salient. In China, it is common to have a teacher standing in front of students demonstrating a skill. The students then copy it. In Australia; however, teachers usually aren't involved in the activity itself. Like a coach of a football team, they design exercises that develop skills and subsequently tell students to do them. Students learn by doing, by interacting with other students, and by their own initiative. The teacher is more of a facilitator than an instructor. Arguably, the differences in teaching styles originate from language differences. The pictorial writing systems of China can only be taught via teacher instruction followed by student repetition. On the other hand, Australian students only need to learn the 26 characters of the alphabet. Once they are mastered, teachers need to instruct students in grammar. There are strengths and weaknesses of each approach. The Chinese approach encourages people to learn from others. This approach can cause problems when others say silly things, such as the myth that the Great Wall of China can be seen from the moon. In such circumstances, silly ideas can be written in textbooks, taught by teachers and accepted without question by students. The students then make a fool of themselves by telling foreigners the Great Wall of China can be seen from the moon. The Australian approach encourages individuals to express their ideas even if they are in contradiction to established thought. Education in Universities First of all, the difference between entrance and graduation .China has got a different education system with Australia. China has 9 years compulsory education, it means student must finish grade 1 to grade 9 before they could proceed to their social life. Everyone has a chance to choose whether they go to University or not. China has a large population living within 34 provincial-level administrative units. Universities in different province have their own standard admission requirement, which including cumulative grade average point (CGPA).The degrees of highly ranked universities are very useful for student to find a suitable job in the future. The grade 12 national exams at the end of the semester are very important for students who want to continue their study in a post-secondary school. After the admission of the university, everything goes well comparing to entrance, the process leading to graduation will be much easier. However, in Australia, its more difference because of their small population. It is a much easier process for students to enter the gate of university. Schools dont just have grade 12 courses, but also have foundation course and Tafe course for students who want to go to university. Tafe and foundation are all the

bridges for university. For example, when you finish Tafe courses, you can transfer to the second year of university. These courses depend on students study level. Another difference between Chinese university and Australian university is when student enter Australian university, it is a hard way to go. In Australia, you can learn different writing styles than high school, and learn more about academic knowledge to focus on the course that you choose in university. In addition, it can be even more difficult for some international students studying in a foreign language background. Secondly, the difference in universitys learning methods between China and Australia.The similar learning methods between studying in these two countries are there are all self directed learning in university.Also in China, it is easier that all the learning is to focus on the textbook. Students who study in Chinese university need to study more subjects like Principle of Marxism, College English, Microcomputer Control Technology and others. If they want to apply for master, they need to have a master exam including Advanced Mathematics, English and other subjects, even for students who do not study Math and English course in the future. That means the universities in China are focusing broadly on all field of study. Because the university wants student to develop in every field of education, furthermore, the timetable are made by the university about when they have class and the schedule of subject are all the same with students who study the same major. On the other hand, in Australia, the learning methods are more specific comparing to Chinese university. Many agreed that the learning style in Australia is more flexible; Student can choose their own timetable and subject (except the major subject) by themselves. They can depend on the schedule of their biological clock and part-time job. It is better for some students who get up late to schedule class in the afternoon. It is really flexible. They only need to focus on these subjects after they have selected them. For example, if you studied history, you would not need to study Math and physics. Thirdly, compare the difference in universitys assessment methods between two countries. In China, nearly 90% of the grade are from the final exam, but when students do their homework it is more easier, because all the works are focusing on their textbook, if student understand the book clearly, they will know how to do well on their assignment. The most important assessment in the university is the final major Graduation thesis. That is a paper to show how students do with their course which includes the research and academic skill. In Australia, there are attendances marks, participant marks, exercise marks, major paper marks, exam marks etc., all of them adding together to make your final grade. AUSTRALIA: Average years of schooling of adults Duration of compulsory education Duration of education > Primary level Duration of education > Secondary level Education spending (% of GDP) Educational attainment > Tertiary Enrolment ratio > Secondary level Literacy > Adults at high literacy level Literacy > Total population Primary teacher salary > Starting School life expectancy > Total Student attitude > Dislike of school Student attitude > Find school boring 10.9 11 years 7 6 4.9% 29% 89.7% 17.4% 99% $25,661.00 16.6 years 34% 60% [6th of 100] [22nd of 171] [12th of 181] [104th of 181] [59th of 132] [7th of 18] [14th of 135] [12th of 17] [25th of 160] [6th of 22] [3rd of 110] [7th of 17] [4th of 17]

Tertiary enrollment CHINA:


Average years of schooling of adults Duration of compulsory education Duration of education > Primary level Duration of education > Secondary level Education enrolment by level > Tertiary level Education, primary completion rate Expected duration of education for all students Female enrolment share > Secondary level Geographical aptitude results Hours of instruction for pupils aged 13 Hours of instruction for pupils aged 9 Literacy > Total population Public spending on education, total > % of government expenditure Public spending per student > Primary level Pupil-teacher ratio, primary Tertiary enrollment Universities > Top 100 Universities > Top 500

63.3%

[7th of 151]

[45th of 10 0] [78th of 17 9 years 1] [59th of 18 6 1] [93rd of 18 6 1] 15,186,21 [2nd of 150 7 ] 103 [6th of 148] 10.3 [29th of 30] years [130th of 1 45.3% 70] [92nd of 19 70.305 1] 1,020 [14th of 38] hours 771 hours [23rd of 38] [92nd of 16 86% 0] [47th of 10 12.97 % 3] [110th of 1 6.1 26] [81st of 159 21.05 ] [103rd of 1 7.5% 51] 4 [7th of 22] 8 [12th of 38] 6.4

Social activism The Chinese government is concerned that social activism could lead to the break up of China or civil conflict that would decrease the quality of life for all Chinese. To reduce the risk, the Chinese education system discourages independent thinking or a plurality of views. The Chinese believe that an absence of intellectual diversity and a love of China will keep Chinese united. Government can then rely on reasoned experts to form policy direction. The goal for intellectual unity has led to a few problems. The first problem is that it has increased the chances of the very social disharmony that it aims to avoid. Because Chinese are socially conditioned to follow, when an unsanctioned activist campaign breaks out, many Chinese follow it without any scrutiny of its goals or the logic behind it. For example, in 2008, Chinese reacted to seeing some French protesting the Olympic Torch in Paris by protesting the French supermarket chain of Carrefour in China. Also in 2008, after a Chinese woman was found dead following "associations" with three South Koreans, Chinese

commenced a campaign against South Korea as a whole. Although a police investigation concluded that the woman had committed suicide, this explanation was not believed once the activism campaign had begun. In 2009, a rumour developed amongst Han Chinese in the province of Xinjiang that Uigurs had raped Han Chinese women. The rumour spread without question and led to Han attacks on Uigurs, who retaliated, which in turn led to a government crackdown. Each year, China suffers thousands of protests that spontaneously break out and are supported without scrutiny. The second problem of top-down intellectual unity is that it discourages individual Chinese from taking the initiative to solve some of the problems in the immediate world around them. While Chinese support protests, they don't feel empowered to solve problems. For example, if a Chinese person sees all his neighbours throwing rubbish on the ground, he or she is unlikely to take the lead and try to educate his neighbours to change their ways. Instead, he or she will wait for the government to act. If the government has other priorities, nothing gets done. Even if the government acts, top-down activism often fails to generate the sense of grassroot ownership that increases the chances of success. In Australia, a diversity of opinions has made it very unlikely that Australia could ever break up. It is just impossible to imagine an Australian standing before a crowd and rallying the majority of the population behind them. Even becoming a republic has proved problematic. In 1999, polls showed that 90 per cent of Australians were in favour of a republic. However, proponents of the republic just couldnt get agreement on the model and the no vote prevailed. Ironically, failure to persuade the wider community has made many social activists work through government to forcibly implement their activism goals on a unwilling community. Encouraging a diversity of views has also resulted in Australians having more initiative to solve problems. Sometimes, the initiatives lead to improvements in Australian society, such as Clean Up Australia Day. At other times, the initiatives are ill conceived, stupid and quickly labelled as such. The ill-conceived campaigns then die out before they can lead to the same kind of damage seen in China's ill-conceived campaigns such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. Perhaps the biggest difference between activists in China and those in Australia is their attitude to state-controlled media. Activists in China are suspicious of state media, such as CCTV, and simply dont trust it. Activists in Australia love state-controlled media, such as the ABC, and see it as a bastion of balanced reporting that cant be found in privately run media. Attitude to history If attitude to history can be divided into the "three cheers" approach, and the "blackarmband approach" then China is very much the three cheers, while Australia is very much the black-arm band. The Chinese take a positive view of history because their primary aim is social harmony. For example, the Chinese celebrate Chairman Mao as a great hero that encouraged Chinese to stand up against foreign invaders. The individual members of the Communist Party that came to power after Mao's death were not ignorant to the damage caused by the Great Leap Forward or the Cultural Revolution. Furthermore, they were Mao's enemies. Despite experiencing first hand the damage caused by Mao's policies, they preserved the positive myth of Chairman Mao because the alternative would have been to continue the civil strife of the Cultural Revolution. In 2008, the official policy of the Communist Party was that Mao was 70 per cent good and 30 per cent bad. Australia's black arm band approach probably stems from cultural conflict between different groups of Australians that really don't like each other at all. Although the blackarmbanders use words like "we", they really mean "them."

A very good example of the cultural difference can be seen in a comedy sketch by the leftwing Chaser from the government funded ABC. Offended by deceased Australian icons being praised, the Chaser wanted to criticise the positive approach, and so created what has been referred to as "The Eulogy song." The song included paragraphs like: "Stan Zemanek was a racist, Dr Fatso xenophobic cock, whose views were more malignant than his brain." (Audience laughs) "And Brocky was some revhead, who pumped the air with pure lead, so anti green he drove into a tree." (Audience laughs) "Don Bradman was a total farce, a grumpy, greedy tired-arse, who couldnt even score one run last time he played." (Audience laughs) Australian historians have been even more deceitful about Australian history than Chinese have been. Ironically, whereas Chinese historians have distorted their history to make it more positive, Australian historians have distorted their history to make it more negative. In 2002, rogue historian Keith Windschuttle released The Fabrication of Aboriginal History, which showed Australians blatantly lying about history. In the book, Windschuttle used empirical research to show that left-wing historians had fabricated statistics, and misrepresented evidence in order to achieve some kind of self-interest. Windschuttle landed a particularly telling blow on Lyndall Ryan - Head of the Women's Studies Program at Flinders University. Ms Ryan had cited the diary of John Oxley when revealing the deaths of 100 Aborigines at the hands of colonists. Upon checking the diary, Windschuttle found no mention of any deaths. Ryan then cited another source that mentioned four deaths. On national television, Ms Ryan confessed: historians are always making up figures. National goal The national goal of China is to become more powerful. Australia's national goal is more difficult to define. Perhaps the only widely held goal is for the government to spend more money on schools and hospitals. National identity Chinese national identity tends to be more rigid than the Australian identity. These differences were seen in 2008 when the Chinese government arrested Chinese born Australian citizen Stern Hu, Rio Tintos head of iron ore marketing in China. As far as the Chinese media was concerned, Stern Hu was Chinese. His Australian passport meant nothing. As a consequence, Chinese bloggers referred to Stern Hu as a traitor for putting the interests of his employer, Rio Tinto, over the interest of Chinese steel makers. As far as the Australian media was concerned, Stern Hu was an Australian and the arrest of an Australian was a cause of serious concern. The different reactions illustrated that the Chinese media views race as more important in identity than does the Australian media, which generally promotes a doctrine of egalitarianism in regards to national identity. In Australia, a migrant can be seen as equally Australian to the native born. In China, a migrant will always be a foreigner. AUSTRALIA: Foreign population Foreign population outflow Immigrant population > Immigrants as percentage of state population 23.6 50.8 thousand 19.93 [3rd of 27] [5th of 13] [21st of 195]

Immigrant population > Number of immigrants Immigrant population > Percentage of total number of immigrants in the world International migration stock > % of population International migration stock, total Net migration Net migration rate New citizenships Refugee population by country or territory of asylum Refugees Refugees > Convention on refugees Refugees > Inflow 1990-99 US visa lottery winners

4,097,000 2.196

[11th of 195 ]

[29th of 205 ] [11th of 205 4,097,204 ] 500,000 [9th of 180] 6.34 migrant(s)/1,000 [18th of 225 populati ] 70.8 thousand [6th of 20] [29th of 151 64,964 ] [36th of 110 64,100 ] 22 Jan 1954 a 112 [8th of 18] 362 US visa lottery [46th of 178 winners ] 20.15 % 0.2944 [185th of 195 ]

CHINA: Immigrant population > Immigrants as percentage of state population Immigrant population > Number of immigrants

3,852,00 [12th of 195] 0

Immigrant population > Percentage of total number of immigrants in 2.064 the world Immigration to the United States > Immigration summary 1830 to 104 2000 > 1880 Immigration to the United States > Immigration summary 1830 to 1,391 2000 > 2000 Immigration to the United States > Origin > #/year 50,900 1,594,60 Immigration to the United States > Origin > 2004 0 Immigration to the United States > Origin > 2010, % 4.7 % International migration stock > % of population International migration stock, total Net migration Refugee population by country or territory of asylum Refugee population by country or territory of origin Refugees Refugees > Outflow 0.05 % 595,657. 9 1,950,00 0 301,041 124,101 292,300 110,000

[8th of 9] [2nd of 10] [3rd of 10] [2nd of 10] [2nd of 10] [204th of 205 ] [56th of 205] [173rd of 180 ] [7th of 151] [15th of 77] [14th of 110] [13th of 76]

Hospitality The Chinese pride themselves on their hospitality that expresses itself in many areas of Chinese life. In country areas, a farmer may invite a traveller to their home, serve a banquet and bring out the baijui (spirits). The host is more than happy if the traveller leaves completely full and then falls down in a drunkard stupor. In cities areas, Chinese men often sit on the street drinking beer, baijui and having a chat. If a friendly stranger passes by, they may welcome him to sit down and drink with them. Australians are a bit more suspicious of strangers than are Chinese. Furthermore, there isn't a strong desire to be hospitable in order to give the stranger a positive reputation of their region of country. This cultural trait is probably a legacy of left-wingers who make a concerted effort to denigrate Australia. Because left-wingers want foreigners to dislike Australia, they make no effort to be hospitable towards them. It is mainly in country areas of Australia where a Chinese-style hospitality can still be found. In country pubs, Australian men behave in a relatively similar way to Chinese men on city streets. They like nothing more than sharing a beer and a chat with a stranger. Multiculturalism Although both Chinese and Australians define their respective countries as multicultural, the word means something different in each. In China, multiculturalism refers to the 56 different groups that have distinct cultures anchored in a region. These groups may speak different languages, wear different clothes, and be of different racial groups. The cultural integrity of the ethnic groups is supported by the central government; however, the ethnic groups are required to learn Mandarin Chinese as a common language. In Australia, multiculturalism basically means lots of people with different coloured faces living together. CHINA/AUSTRALIA: Racial Han Chinese 91.5%, Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, groups Uyghur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5% (2000 census) Egalitarian Most Australians like the idea of a labourer being able to sit down and have a beer with the Queen and see her as different but his equal. For example, the trucking magnate Lindsay Fox (net worth $350 million) said of Australia: 'We don't have a class structure. We have people who relate to people. No body is superior. No body is inferior. The people who I went to school with collect the garbage around here. But if they want to come in and have a drink, that's fine with me.' In China, mixing of people from different classes rarely occurs. Higher class people expect to be treated with respect. Lower class people are open to being friends with everyone, but people above them in social status just don't accept their hand of friendship. Confidence At school, Chinese are taught that they are smart, considerate, intelligent, and have good morals. The education is intended to counter some of the feelings of inferiority that many Chinese feel when they meet foreigners. Some Chinese say they feel inferior because the best quality products are made abroad. Others say it is because expats return to China and say everything is better abroad. White 92%, Asian 7%, Aboriginal and other 1%

Unlike the Chinese, few Australians suffer an inferiority complex when they compare themselves to other nations. Even though most things in Australia are made in China or Japan, this doesnt seem to bother Australians. Likewise, when expat Australians, such as Germaine Greer or John Pilger, say everything is better abroad, it is only a small minority of Australians that feel any sense of shame. Instead, the majority of Australians just think the whinging expats are morons who benefiited Australia by leaving it. In addition to not making much and being insulted by expats, the Australian civilisation commenced with the forced transportation of criminals, which isn't quite as impressive as China's 5,000 years of civilisation that produced great thinkers, big walls, lots of temples, and terracotta warriors. Australians probably have more confidence because Australia is an egalitarian society. From an early age, Australians are taught to believe in themselves, even when the selfconfidence is not warranted. Respect for achievement is somewhat lacking as is respect for self-important people. This confidence in themselves as individuals takes away any sense of shame when meeting foreigners. Consideration In China, it is important to show consideration for others. Typical shows of consideration include sending a getwell text message when a friend is sick, giving some health advice, or helping an elderly person down the stairs. While the Chinese show consideration to their friends and acquaintances, public consideration is a bit lacking. For example, Chinese spit in swimming pools, on the street, and sometimes even inside buildings. Chinese people also casually throw rubbish on the street, and men frequently urinate on the street. Australians are less likely to show consideration on an individual level. The general idea is that a person is able to take care of themselves and doesn't need well wishes or help. Receiving help, when it hasn't be asked for, is usually seen as annoying. Australians are; however, more likely than Chinese to show public consideration. Few Australians throw rubbish on the street and most would never spit in a swimming pool. Occasionally drunk men urinate in public; however, etiquette stipulates that they should at least seek out a tree to prevent a urine smell from lingering. Family values Because Australia is populated by migrants and decedants of migrants, Australians don't have extended families as large as in China. Aside from having smaller extended families, the nuclear family in Australia operates in a different fashion to China. In Australia, each generation tends to be independent. Parents will support children until they are around 18, and then they concentrate on saving for their own retirement. Parents will then live independently until they are unable to care for themselves. When that occurs, their children will be put them in a old-age home, or convince their parents to live with them. In China, parents will almost bankrupt themselves giving their children every possibility in life. Huge loans may be taken out to fund the child getting an international education, or buying a home for the boys in the family. In return, the parents will move into their children's home once they get married. The living situation is not ideal for everyone. Chinese men, like men all around the world, are not always fans of their mother-in-laws. Because parents share a very significant part of their child's adult lives, they naturally want to take part in the selection of their child's spouse. In China this is particularly important as

the one-child policy may result in one man supporting 7 people (two sets of parents, wife, child and himself) and naturally parents would like a son-in-law or daughter-in-law with a good income and a prestigious family that doesn't require a lot of supporting themselves. AUSTRALIA: Age at first marriage for men Age at first marriage for women Average size of households Birth rate Divorce rate Divorces per 100 marriages Marriage rate Population growth rate Sex ratio > Under 15 years Teenage birth rate Total fertility rate CHINA: Birth rate Death rate Divorce rate Gender development Population growth rate Sex ratio > 15-64 years Sex ratio > Total population Sex ratio > Under 15 years Total fertility rate Total Population 30.6 years 28.6 years 2.6 12.55 births/1,000 population 2.52 per 1,000 people 46 divorces per 100 marriag 6.9 1.221% 1.05 male(s)/female 18.4 1.78 children born/woman 13.71 births/1,000 population 7.03 deaths/1,000 population 0.79 per 1,000 people 0.724 0.629% 1.06 1.06 male(s)/female 1.13 male(s)/female 1.77 children born/woman 1,313,973,713 [9th of 19] [6th of 19] [4th of 17] [164th of 226] [7th of 34] [9th of 20] [8th of 27] [112nd of 235] [81st of 224] [11th of 28] [156th of 225] [153rd of 226] [129th of 226] [19th of 34] [75th of 141] [150th of 235] [27th of 223] [21st of 224] [4th of 224] [159th of 225] [1st of 227]

The graphic below compares the total fertility rates of Australia and China from 1950 to 1979 when China initiated its one-child policy. Chinas fertility levels have fluctuated dramatically while Australias fertility rate has been declining more steadily. The drop in the Australian total fertility rate in the 1960s and early 1970s was the result of falls in fertility at nearly all ages (Kippen, 2003, p. 2). In contrast, the fertility rates in China in the same period, just before the one-child policy, were very high for all ages and the total fertility rate reached as high as 7.5 in 1964. By 1979 Chinas fertility was still relatively high at 2.9 children per woman while Australias fertility was already below replacement level. Total Fertility Rates of China and Australia, 1950-1979:

Stereotypes Chinese like stereotypes. They constitute a large part of their social identity and are frequently used in public persuasion campaigns. For example, the website www.indexchina.com describes Chinese people as: "peaceful, hardworking and easily contented. They respect elders, love children and are patient with their fellows. Chinese in general are reserve and humble. They believe in harmony and never look for confrontation." Although not all individual Chinese could be defined with these personality characteristics, almost all Chinese would be happy to be defined with these personality characteristics. Furthermore, if the stereotype were evoked in an international situation, almost all Chinese would temporarily conform to it to make it a reality. In these two regards, the stereotypes are an accurate reflection upon reality. In Australia, there are a large number of egocentric individuals with a strong aversion to stereotyping. If confronted with an international stereotype of Australians, they may respond to it with something like "I don't do that." In their own minds, because they don't personally conform to the stereotype, no other Australian does. Ironically, that behaviour is unique and defining of their sub-culture. As well as being reluctant to personally conform to stereotypes, egocentric Australians are also highly motivated to deconstruct positive stereotypes of their fellow Australians. For example, there is a stereotype that Australians believe in a fair go. For some concerned citizens, the stereotype is not accurate and the inaccuracy of the stereotype should be exposed. One of these concerned citizens is Dr Tanja Dreher, UTS Shopfront Research Manager. Ms Dreher has actively gone searching for examples of the stereotype not being accurate in order to deconstruct it. Subsequently, she has released press-releases of the vein: "There is in fact evidence of a serious gulf between the myth of 'a fair go' Australia and the reality. As a society we need to start taking responsibility for the intolerant and frequently ignorant nation we have become."

The Australian aversion to stereotypes is particularly strong because Australia has never been a united country. The existence of three distinct accents in Australia is a reflection upon distinct social identities that have never really liked each other, and don't want to be covered by each other's labels. One of these accents is the broad Australian accent spoken by the likes of ex-Prime Minister Bob Hawke. Australians who speak with this accent have traditionally being biased in favour of Australia and its culture, and have been quite comfortable with social stereotypes of Australia. At the other extreme is the cultivated accent spoken by the likes of ex-Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser. Fraser grew up with a very pro-British social attitude and this was reflected in the way he spoke. Fraser finished his career with an attitude strongly in favour of multiculturalism. His cultivated accent revealed a social identity that was hostile to an Australian identity. Not surprisingly, Fraser was never one to evoke positive stereotypes of the Australian character. Instead, multiculturalism became an excuse to say that no Australian culture existed. Freedom Freedom can be difficult to define. Every government on earth imposes restrictions on individuals to protect other individuals. For example, Singapore restricts the freedom of the individual to chew gum in order to protect the freedom of people who want to walk down the street without stepping on used gum. The Australian government is very bureaucratic and imposes many restrictions on its people that Asian governments do. For example, Australians can not smoke inside, drink alcohol in many public areas, ride a bicycle without a helmet, or defame public figures. Furthermore, Australians may lose up to 47 per cent of their income in taxes, which is far more than the 10-20 per cent in China. The Australian government uses this income tax revenue to alter the natural balance of social society. Although the altering of the balance may help Australia, governments have an uncanny habit of getting things wrong, or using revenue for their own agendas. In the process, the individual Australian is denied freedom. While Chinese have more freedom from government than Australians, they lack freedom in their social sphere. Because they have very strong cultures, a great deal of social pressure is exerted upon the individual in almost every facet of his or her lives. This pressure can be likened to a form of political correctness that constrains the individual when they choose a marriage partner, career, clothes to wear, values to hold, or morals to support. If the individual's desires and values are in conformity with the cultural norms, then the individual feels a sense of belonging. If they are incongruent; however, then they can suffer the same kind of stress that is suffered by Australians when they feel that politically correct values or concepts are stifling their free expression. If individuals break the cultural taboo by exerting their individual values, they are not going to be taken away and shot anymore than Australians would be taken away and shot for getting a swastika tattooed on their foreheads. However, they will find that their friendships, job opportunities and family prestige will all suffer. Because Australia lacks a strong culture, individuals can free themselves of a great deal of conformity pressures. Furthermore, they can make excuses about multiculturalism as a reason not to conform. Admittedly, Australia has subcultures that exert conformity pressures on the individual, but it is relatively easy for the individual to simply leave the subculture and join another one. Consequently, the subculture can never be too strict. The same can't be said of China. For Chinese who feel constrained by social pressure, the only real option available to them is to migrate to a foreign country. Sexual morality

Men and women all over the world share similar sexual desires that they disguise with different types of morality. In China, sex is generally a taboo topic for conversations, and a virgin woman is valued for marriage. In Australia, sexual topics are quite openly discussed and not many men seek a virgin woman for marriage. As a result, most Australian men and women are very sexually experienced by the time they get married. In the eyes of most older Chinese, Australians are very immoral for engaging in promiscuous sex. Chinese; however, have numerous practices that are quite immoral for Australians. Because Chinese often have little sexual experience before marriage, they often find themselves in sexually unfulfilling marriages. Because a lack of sexual fulfilment is so common, it is relatively acceptable for married men in China to visit prostitutes or to have a mistress. In Australia, there is far less tolerance of married men visiting prostitutes or taking a mistress. As a general rule, Chinese uphold their morality before marriage and then they have their fun. Australians have their fun before marriage, then accept the morality associated with the ball and chain. (Younger generations of Chinese are becoming more like Australians.) Aside from having different morals in regards to virginity in women, Chinese and Australians have different morality in regards to what constitutes negative sexualisation of women. For Chinese, the practice of Australian women topless sunbaking is quite immoral. For Australians, the sexualisation of school girls in Taiwan is immoral. (Mainland China does not sexualise school girls like Taiwan. The Communist Party tends to crack down quite harshly on any form of sexualisation of Chinese women.) Drinking Alcohol is important to the Chinese, as well as to Australians. The manner of consumption; however, is different. Chinese men skull their booze, and get drunk very quickly. Once drunk, they find it quite acceptable to act in an uncontrolled fashion. Furthermore, drinking is used to show respect. Chinese will tap the glass and bottoms up. Failure to bottoms up denies the initiator face. In Australia, it is only university students who skull their booze or have drinking games. Older Australians drink more slowly, mix in conversation with the drinking, and generally frown upon people who seem unable to function in a relatively normal manner while intoxicated. Australians will toast, but the toast only requires a little alcohol be drunk. It doesn't require the whole glass be downed. AUSTRALIA: Alcohol consumption > 2000 Alcohol consumption > Current Beer consumption beverages and tobacco > % of value added in manufacturing exports > % of merchandise exports imports > % of merchandise imports Soft drink consumption Wine consumption 10.1 litres per [15th of 30] capita 9.8 litres per capita [14th of 30] 89 litres [7th of 18] 14.13 % 16.85 % 4.73 % 100.1 litres 21 litres [54th of 103] [42nd of 156] [100th of 155 ] [6th of 18] [8th of 18]

CHINA: beverages and tobacco > % of value added in manufacturing exports > % of merchandise exports imports > % of merchandise imports Socialising

13.21 % [55th of 103] 3.23 % [94th of 156] 3.26 % [109th of 155]

When Chinese get together, they are prone to do things rather than have conversations. For example, they like to go to karaoke boxes, play games with dice, or have drinking games. When Australians get together, they have lots of conversations. Admittedly, ockers might go pig shooting together, but generally the focus is more towards communicating. Population China is currently the most populous country on earth. Although the rate of its population growth is close to being arrested, the population growth momentum continues contributing to the overall global population increase. Accounting for one sixth of the worlds population, China welcomed its 1.3 billionth baby at the beginning of the year 2005, while Australia celebrated its record of 20 million Australians on 4 December 2003 (ABS, 2004a) which is just above the population size of any of Chinas biggest cities 3 million more than Shanghai (population of Shanghai was 17.11 million in 2003) and 6 million more Beijing (population in Beijing was 14.56 million in 2003) (National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2004). China has been important as a source of regional migration to Australia and the impact of Chinese migration has been felt particularly strongly in most recent years. According to the 2001 Australian Census, there are 142,780 China-born living in Australia and they make up3.5 percent of the overseas-born population in Australia.

Figure 1 Crude Birth Rates, China and Australia (per thousand), 1949 2002

Figure 2 Crude Death Rates, China and Australia (per thousand), 1949 2002

Figures 1and 2 compare the crude birth and death rates in China and Australia for the past 53 years, namely since 1949 when the Peoples Republic of China was founded. Staring from very different points, both countries have ended with very similar level of these indicators in recent years. Over the past fifty years, Chinas birth and death rates have experienced dramatic up and down periods. Compared with China, Australias birth and death rates have been declining steadily to reach the same levels as those in China. The history of population policies has also been very different. China chose policies that are direct and enforced while Australia controls population indicators indirectly through its migration policies.

The following graphics show that Chinas population is younger than Australian but will age faster within 20 years or so. Population Pyramid of China, 2006

Population Pyramid of Australia, 2006

Media As we all know that China is a socialist state, as a result, what the media do is to play a mouthpiece role and serve the people and the Party. However, Australia is a typical country that is deeply influenced mostly by UK and USA. Therefore, the media organization in Australia will enjoy more press freedom and more rights than the media in China. Though the media of China have changed a lot since the Reform and Open policy in 1979. After reading

this essay, we can easily draw a conclusion that political factor plays a role in media control while social factor doing more in the media control by the government. The Chinese news media system and the Australia news media system show both similarities and differences. There is no denying the fact that in China government has stronger control in media from the ownership, regulation and the law of media. And the media plays different part in the social system for a socialist country as China is. Since the 1979 Reform and Open policy, Chinese news media system changed a lot. But government still have a strong control which can be find in the case of 2003 SARS epidemic. Even though the situation is severe and the process of press freedom is to be faced with the unprecedented circumstance of being open to the whole world for the Reform and Open Policy. But we also can see the development of press freedom by the period of Wenchuan earthquake. And Australia is a democratic country. media have much more freedom to report. Journalists in Australia dare to report the political scandal. However, the Howard Government of Australia tried to control the media through deregulate the ownership of media. Chinas government maybe can learn something beneficial from Australia government. and journalists in China may also learn from the journalist in Australia. AUSTRALIA: Average cost of local call 0.11 [34th of 151] Cable TV subscribers 68 [14th of 18] Cinema attendance 80,000,000 [13th of 78] Fax machines 29.37 per 1,000 people [11th of 103] Films produced 16 [37th of 50] Households with television > % 96.28 % [15th of 160] Mobile phone subscribers 18,420,000 [23rd of 198] Mobile phones 63.97 per 100 people [25th of 43] Newspapers and periodicals > Circulation > 3,083,000 [17th of 90] Daily Newspapers and periodicals > Number of 48 [27th of 106] titles > Daily Number of PCs 13,720 [11th of 169] Phone subscribers 1,095.01 [23rd of 178] Radio receivers 25,500,000 [16th of 188] Radios 25,500,000 [16th of 221] Telephone system > International country code - 61; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable with links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Southern Cross fiber optic submarine cable provides links to New Zealand and the United States; satellite earth stations - 19 (10 Intelsat - 4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean, 2 Inmarsat - Indian and Pacific Ocean regions, 2 Globalstar, 5 other) Television broadcast stations 104 [7th of 89] Television receivers 10,150,000 [20th of 185] 22 hours per person per Television viewing [7th of 13] wee Televisions 10,150,000 [21st of 215] Website defacements 156 [12th of 129]

CHINA: Cinema attendance 140,000,000 [7th of 78] DVD region 6 [1st of 171] Fax machines 0.44 per 1,000 people [79th of 103] Films produced 212 [4th of 50] Households with television > % 89.17 % [56th of 160] Mobile phone subscribers 393,428,000 [1st of 198] Mobile phones 16.09 per 100 people [38th of 43] Newspapers and periodicals > Circulation > 75,603,000 [1st of 90] Daily Newspapers and periodicals > Number of titles 909 [2nd of 106] > Daily Number of PCs 52,990 [2nd of 169] Phone subscribers 247.72 [90th of 178] Radio broadcast stations AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 Radio receivers 417,000,000 [2nd of 188] Radios 417,000,000 [2nd of 221] Telephone system > International country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) Telephones > Mobile cellular 547,286,000 [1st of 186] Television broadcast stations 3,240 [1st of 89] Television receivers 400,000,000 [1st of 185] Televisions 400,000,000 [1st of 215] Website defacements 394 [3rd of 129] Health China and Australia have very different health systems but share some common challenges with the rise of chronic disease as the largest preventable cause of death. With causes including diet and lifestyle changes related to urbanisation, an expert meeting in Shanghai found that one possible solution might involve tackling climate change. Participants surveyed the latest in childhood obesity and diabetes research and, together with policy experts, mapped how to translate research findings into real health outcomes for Australian, Chinese and global populations. "Non-communicable diseases such as these that are the growing epidemic in both our countries" said Professor John Horvath AO, a senior official from the Australian Department of Health and Ageing. "We have shared problems and, despite different structures, there are some common solutions for prevention and better management of people's health." The Hon Dr Geoff Gallop AC, former Premier of Western Australia and member of the National Hospitals and Health Reform Commission and counterparts from the China Health Economics Institute and other practitioners discussed engaging governments, city planners, the food industry and communities in finding solutions rather than blaming the victims of childhood obesity and diabetes.

Some of the social and economic factors discussed were increased intake of processed foods, larger portion sizes, busier lifestyles with less time for considered food preparation and choice, and decreased physical activity. To galvanise action to solve the problems, Professor Louise Baur AM of the University of Sydney proposed linking childhood obesity and diabetes with policies to reduce and mitigate climate change. "If we link these two issues, the need to reduce carbon emissions and deal with these serious health issues, then we can get more people out of their cars and school students walking to school, we can encourage the consumption of locally grown unprocessed foods and we will be making a contribution to both climate change and diabetes and childhood obesity." AUSTRALIA: Breast cancer incidence Daily smokers Death from cancer Drug access Heart disease deaths Hospital beds Hospital beds > per 1,000 people Infant mortality rate Life expectancy at birth > Total population Obesity Physicians > per 1,000 people Spending > Per person Suicide rate > Females Suicide rate > Gender ratio Suicide rate > Males Teen birth rate Teenage pregnancy Tobacco > Cigarette consumption Tobacco > Total adult smokers CHINA: Access to sanitation Birth rate, crude > per 1,000 people Contraception Drug access HIV AIDS > Adult prevalence rate HIV AIDS > Deaths Hospital beds > per 1,000 people Infant mortality rate Life expectancy at birth > Female Life expectancy at birth > Male Life expectancy at birth > Total population Malaria cases > per 100,000 Maternal mortality 83% 12.22 per 1,000 people 84% 80% 0.1% 44,000 2.45 per 1,000 people 25.28 75.18 years 71.37 years 73.18 years 1 55 per 100,000 [64th of 129] [139th of 195] [2nd of 89] [63rd of 163] [75th of 136] [15th of 102] [2nd of 149] [81st of 179] [119th of 226] [97th of 226] [105th of 225] [90th of 94] [80th of 136] 21.6 per 100,000 females 19.8% 298.9 deaths per 100,000 peopl 95% 110.9 per 100,000 people 7.9 per 1,000 people 7.4 per 1,000 people 4.76 81.53 years 21.7% 2.5 per 1,000 people 1,714 5 per 100,000 people 4.3 per 100,000 people 21.5 per 100,000 people 21 11,849 births 1,907 19.5 [14th of 26] [27th of 30] [10th of 16] [24th of 163] [10th of 26] [13th of 29] [9th of 149] [166th of 179] [7th of 225] [6th of 29] [26th of 148] [15th of 133] [36th of 80] [20th of 76] [26th of 80] [25th of 40] [7th of 26] [28th of 106] [93rd of 121]

Physicians > per 1,000 people Smoking prevalence, males > % of adults Spending > Per person Tobacco > Cigarette consumption Tobacco > Total adult smokers Water availability

1.51 per 1,000 people 67 % 40 1,791 35.6 2,259 cubic meters

[1st of 148] [1st of 42] [87th of 133] [33rd of 106] [31st of 121] [118th of 169]

Cost of living Australia China

Restaurants Meal, Inexpensive Restaurant 13.94 $ Meal for 2, Mid-range Restaurant 54.46 $ Combo Meal at McDonalds or 6.80 $ Similar Domestic Beer (0.5 liter draught) 5.27 $ Imported Beer (0.33 liter bottle) 6.03 $ Coke/Pepsi (0.33 liter bottle) 2.43 $ Water (0.33 liter bottle) 2.17 $ Markets Milk (regular), 1 liter Loaf of Fresh Bread Eggs (12) Fresh Cheese (1kg) Chicken Breasts (Boneless, Skinless), (1kg) Water (1.5 liter bottle) Bottle of Wine (Mid-Range) Domestic Beer (0.5 liter bottle) Imported Beer (0.33 liter bottle) Pack of Cigarettes (Marlboro) Transportation One-way Ticket (local transport) Monthly Pass Taxi (5km within center) Gasoline (1 liter) Volkswagen Golf 1.4 90 KW Trendline (Or Equivalent New Car) Utilities (Monthly) Basic (Electricity, Gas, Water,

Restaurants Meal, Inexpensive Restaurant 3.23 $ Meal for 2, Mid-range Restaurant 13.69 $ Combo Meal at McDonalds or 3.83 $ Similar Domestic Beer (0.5 liter draught) 1.28 $ Imported Beer (0.33 liter bottle) 2.34 $ Coke/Pepsi (0.33 liter bottle) 0.52 $ Water (0.33 liter bottle) 0.28 $ Markets Milk (regular), 1 liter Loaf of Fresh Bread Eggs (12) Fresh Cheese (1kg) Chicken Breasts (Boneless, Skinless), (1kg) Water (1.5 liter bottle) Bottle of Wine (Mid-Range) Domestic Beer (0.5 liter bottle) Imported Beer (0.33 liter bottle) Pack of Cigarettes (Marlboro)

1.78 $ 2.94 $ 3.75 $ 9.59 $ 10.73 $ 2.25 $ 12.43 $ 3.56 $ 3.92 $ 13.71 $

1.53 $ 1.15 $ 1.39 $ 15.04 $ 3.77 $ 0.59 $ 8.46 $ 0.58 $ 2.05 $ 2.07 $

Transportation 3.21 $ One-way Ticket (local transport) 87.88 $ Monthly Pass 12.79 $ Taxi (5km within center) 1.16 $ Gasoline (1 liter) Volkswagen Golf 1.4 90 KW 27,930.81 $ Trendline (Or Equivalent New Car) Utilities (Monthly) Basic (Electricity, Gas, Water,

0.32 $ 18.84 $ 2.42 $ 0.90 $ 22,513.59 $

151.13 $

21.76 $

Garbage) 1 min. of Prepaid Mobile Tariff (no discounts or plans) Internet (2 Mbps ADSL flat)

0.39 $ 44.83 $

Garbage) 1 min. of Prepaid Mobile Tariff (no discounts or plans) Internet (2 Mbps ADSL flat)

0.10 $ 15.52 $

Sports And Leisure Fitness Club, Monthly Fee for 1 77.98 $ Adult Tennis Court Rent (1 Hour on 21.98 $ Weekend) Cinema, International Release, 1 14.63 $ Seat Clothing And Shoes 1 Pair of Levis 501 1 Summer Dress in a Chain Store (Zara, H&M, ...) 1 Pair of Nike Shoes 1 Pair of Men Leather Shoes Rent Per Month Apartment (1 bedroom) in City Centre Apartment (1 bedroom) Outside of Centre Apartment (3 bedrooms) in City Centre Apartment (3 bedrooms) Outside of Centre Buy Apartment Price Price per Square Meter to Buy Apartment in City Centre Price per Square Meter to Buy Apartment Outside of Centre

Sports And Leisure Fitness Club, Monthly Fee for 1 17.20 $ Adult Tennis Court Rent (1 Hour on 10.98 $ Weekend) Cinema, International Release, 1 8.52 $ Seat Clothing And Shoes 1 Pair of Levis 501 1 Summer Dress in a Chain Store (Zara, H&M, ...) 1 Pair of Nike Shoes 1 Pair of Men Leather Shoes Rent Per Month Apartment (1 bedroom) in City Centre Apartment (1 bedroom) Outside of Centre Apartment (3 bedrooms) in City Centre Apartment (3 bedrooms) Outside of Centre Buy Apartment Price Price per Square Meter to Buy Apartment in City Centre Price per Square Meter to Buy Apartment Outside of Centre

81.66 $ 56.75 $ 116.16 $ 131.19 $

? ? ? ?

1,170.04 $ 892.41 $ 1,970.11 $ 1,437.67 $

456.06 $ 266.68 $ 932.13 $ 537.83 $

5,844.10 $ 3,716.23 $

2,796.05 $ 1,668.89 $

Salaries And Financing Salaries And Financing Median Monthly Disposable Median Monthly Disposable 3,770.98 $ 375.97 $ Salary (After Tax) Salary (After Tax) Mortgage Interest Rate in Mortgage Interest Rate in 7.04 4.05 Percentanges (%), Yearly Percentanges (%), Yearly Index differences: Consumer Prices in China are 67.21% lower than in Australia Consumer Prices Including Rent in China are 64.79% lower than in Australia Rent Prices in China are 59.92% lower than in Australia Restaurant Prices in China are 70.22% lower than in Australia

Groceries Prices in China are 53.48% lower than in Australia Local Purchasing Power in China is 71.69% lower than in Australia Economic Growth

China China is classed by the World Bank as a lower middle-income country. China's real GDP grew at a rate of 9.1% in 2003, up from 8.0% in 2002, meaning that even economic growth is increasing rapidly in China. China's GDP growth rate is even faster than the US, and has enjoyed some double-digit growth rate since it has opened to economic reform. This rapid growth had brought opportunities and challenges - both for China and for the rest of the world. - PPP GDP - $6.5 trillion US, second in the world - PPP GDP/capita - $5 000 US -GDP - $1.46 trillion US -GDP growth - 9.4% -GDP/capita - $1 100 US - GNI - $1.4 trillion US - GNI/capita - $1 010 US - Exchange rate - 8.28 RMB for 1 US, 10.24 RMB for 1 Euro This is an economy with much catching up to do. Continued rapid growth will be essential if poverty rates in China are to be reduced further. The challenge for the Chinese authorities is to ensure that growth rates are sustainable over a long period of time if they wish to continue reducing poverty rates in the country. But China is undergoing some major and sometimes painful restructuring, due to: - Larger gap between rich and poor - Large debts to pay off to several countries Australia Australia has an enviable Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies. Since the recession in 1990-91, GDP has grown in Australia every year. Growth in 199192 was relatively low (0.3%), by 1995-96 it had accelerated to 4.2%, a growth rate which was generally maintained until 1999-2000. GDP growth has fluctuated since then, at 2.0%, in 2000-01, 3.9% in 2001-02 and 2.8% in 2002-03. - PPP GDP - $571.4 US billion - PPP GDP/capita - $29 000 US billion - GDP - $571.4 US billion (ranked 18) - GDP/capita - $29000 US (ranked 14)

- GDP growth rate - 3% (ranked 109) - GDP/capita growth rate - 2.6% - GNI - $440 US billion - GNI/capita - $21 650 US Conclusion Economic growth for Australia however has slowed down over the last two quarters, with only 0.2% in each. If this continues for the rest of the year, then the annual growth rate for 2005 would only be 0.8%. However, China is still going strong with its growth. It may even be accelerating. What has changed is the extent to which all of Australia's economic fortunes are now linked with those of China. Its sheer size and its dynamism makes it increasingly important for global economic growth. With Japan's economy largely stagnant for much of the 1990s, China played a crucial part in sustaining and helping to fuel Asian economic growth. With European growth still lacklustre, the opportunities offered by Chinese growth are increasingly important for the world outside Asia. It is in all of Australia's interests that the Chinese economic miracle is sustained. Employment and Unemployment China GDP composition/sector : Agriculture - 14.8% Industry and construction - 52.9% Services - 32.3% Unemployment Rate - 4.1% or 80 million people From 1990 to 2003, the employed population increased by 96.83 million, an average increase of 7.45 million per annum. In rural areas the unemployment rate is higher than in urban areas. The increase can be blamed on rapid economic growth as well as other factors that have come to affect Asia, such as SARS. Agriculture: rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, cotton Industries: textiles and apparel, iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments Improving the public employment service system, and fostering and developing the labor market: -Establishing a market-oriented employment mechanism. -Developing and improving the public employment service system. -Improving the unemployment insurance system. Australia Although Australia's unemployment rate is only 5.1%, which is its lowest for 24 years, Australia is still only 55th in the world in unemployment. Jan 2005Status:

Employed persons ('000)9,851.6I Unemployed persons ('000)526.4D Unemployment rate (%)5.1D Participation rate (%)63.9I Seasonally Adjusted employed persons ('000)9,868.2I Unemployed persons ('000)533.3D Unemployment rate (%)5.1D Participation rate (%)64.1I Also, over the past few years, more and more people are starting to work part-time instead of full time. Also, in Australia the labour force participation rate for men was 83.6% whilst it was 67.8% for females, however, this is comparatively high for women as they are now returning to the work force. Stats show that 46% of women work part time mainly due to children. Employment from sectors: Primary: 5.6% Secondary: 11.9% Tertiary: 82.5% GDP composition/sector : Agriculture: 3.5% Industry: 26.3 Services: 70.2% Quality of Life China Life expectancy - 70.9 Adult literacy rate - 90.9 HDI - 0.745, ranked 94 China's ranking of Human Development Index (HDI) subsequently rises from 104 to 94 in 177 countries in the world. According to the survey, 80.1 per cent of Chinese people feel positive about China's overall quality of life, while only 2.6 per cent feel negative. Findings from this study underscore the environmental concerns of the Chinese leadership: -Each year, an estimated 178,000 Chinese in major cities suffer premature deaths because of atmospheric pollution in excess of standards. Also, acid rain from high sulfur regions heavily damages the environment each year to crops and forests. -Water pollution, a major focal point of recent Chinese policy, has contaminated 52 of 135 monitored urban river sections. These sections do not even meet the lowest standards necessary for irrigation water. Fertility rate - 1.9 children/woman Infant mortality rate - 30 per 1000 live births Under 5 mortality rate - 38 per 1000 children Australia

Life Expectancy - 80.2 Adult Literacy Rate - 100 HDI - 0.946, ranked 3 Australia's HDI has increased steadily from 0.847 in 1975 to 0.946 in 2000. When issues of cost and quality of life are considered together, Australia stands out as one of the world's most desirable places in which to live and work. Australia's quality of life is high: lack of congestion, high quality housing and urban environments, access to sporting and leisure facilities, and a clean natural environment. Australia has a high level of environmental quality despite being a highly urbanized society with over 80% of its population residing in its major capital cities. Land use is zoned and therefore commercial and industrial land use is separate from residential land use and agriculture. Strict environmental standards are enforced through Clean Air and Water Acts in various states but some problems still exist such as: Air pollution Land degradation Water contamination Greenhouse gas emissions Forests and natural heritage area destruction Fertility Rate - 1.7 children/woman Infant Mortality Rate - 4.96 per 1000 children Under 5 Mortality Rate - 5.76 per 1000 children Conclusion Australia clearly has the better quality of life, measuring a higher HDI, life expectancy and a lower child mortality rate. Australia also has a lower percentage of its population infected with HIV/AIDS, less than 0.1%; China with a slightly higher percentage. China has come a long way from being a very low position to a position in the top 100. This is a major achievement for China as it is a symbol of success of its economic transition. Australia, however, is becoming more and more like an industrial country and its HDI has dropped from No. 2 a few years ago to No. 3 now. Role of Government China Budget: Total revenue - $268 billion Total expenditure - $303.2 billion China's relatively low revenue is due to the low tax rates it has set upon the economy. Public Debt - 30.1% of GDP Current Account Balance - $31.3 billion

Over the past few years, due to economic reform, the government has constantly been in a deficit of between 5 and 20% of total revenue. Exports - $436.1 billion Imports - $399.4 billion Surplus/Deficit - Surplus of $36.7 billion China's share of world trade has grown rapidly over the past few years, with it now having 6.2% of total imports and 5.9% of total imports. China does not currently have an economic aid recipient, as it is not presently in need of any economic aid. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China (PRC) stipulates that the country's central State organs comprise six components: the National People's Congress (NPC), the Presidency of the PRC, the State Council, the Central Military Commission, the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's Procuratorate. The NPC has the most power in the system, as it has the power to: Amend the Constitution and other basic laws Elect, decide on and remove leaders of the State organs Make decisions on plans for national economic and social development The five state organs - the Presidency of the PRC, the State Council, the Central Military Commission, the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's Procuratorate - are formed by the NPC, and are responsible to the NPC and its Standing Committee. Australia Percentages and numbers of total expenditure: (mil) Defence7.1%12937D Education7.4%13398S Health15.9%30771I Social security and welfare45.8%81103I Housing and community0.9%1634D Recreation and culture1.2%2168I Economic services7.8%14223I General public services7.3%13234I Public debt interest2.2%4001D Other4.3%7770D Budget: Total revenue - $187 billion Total expenditure - $181 billion Public Debt - 18.2% of GDP Current Account Balance - 30.14 billion General government consumption accounts for 18% of GDP in Australia. Australia collects 23% of GDP from taxes. Australia provides a well targeted and means tested welfare system with 67% of total government expenditure on social services. No one in Australia is below

the international poverty line of $2 US a day. Also, the top 10% of income earners earn 26% of total income. Australia currently operates under a mixed economic system. This means that the government has partial control over the economy and has the ability to influence the markets. Recent moves by the government that shows the government's role in the economy to be shrinking includes the privatisation of government business enterprises (GBE) and deregulation of the financial market. Australia is a constitutional democracy based on a federal division of powers. After an election, the Governor-General sends for the leader of the leading party or coalition, and commissions that person to assume the office of Prime Minister and to form a government. The incoming Prime Minister then nominates members of his or her parliamentary party or coalition to serve as ministers in the Government. The Prime Minister has the following powers: advising the Sovereign on the appointment of the Governor-General acting as the sole source of formal advice for the Governor-General advising the Governor-General as to when Parliament should be dissolved setting the date for House of Representatives elections allocating positions in the Cabinet chairing Cabinet meetings. The Cabinet consists of the most senior ministers of the party, which includes the PM.

APOSTU ANDREEA VLAD OANA