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Boiler Control and Burner Management Simulator

User Manual

Version 4.02 Copyright c 2002 Edutech

Table of Contents 1 Introduction to Win Boiler Sim 1.0 Overview 1.1 Boiler Description 1.2 Controls and Monitoring 1.3 Alarm and Shutdown 1.4 Burner Management 1.5 Navigating Through The Program 2 Boiler and Controls Monitoring Window 2.1 Trend Recorder 3 Controller Tuning Windows 4 Boiler Initialize Window 4.1 Cold Start and Ignition Using Burner Management System 5 Boiler Animation Window Steam Demand Settings Window 7 Shutdown and Alarms Window 8 Boiler Process Variables Window 9 Boiler Dynamics Window 10 Drum Level Control Window 10.1 Three Element Drum Level Control 10.2 Inverse Response and Effects on Control 10.3 Single Element Control 11 Air Fuel Control Window 11.1 Cross Limiting 12 Burner Management Window 12.1 Pushbutton Descriptions Appendix A Glossary of Control Terms Appendix B Glossary of Boiler Terms

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1 Introduction to Win Boiler Sim 1.0 Overview Win Boiler Sim is a Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP PC simulator. The software simulates a single burner Fuel Gas fired Boiler and is primarily used for training of Boiler plant operators, as well as instrumentation and control personnel. The simulation includes 3 element / 1 element drum level control, cross limited fuel air ratio control and a burner management system that follows the requirements set down set down in NFPA 8501 Chapter 2 Single Burner Boilers. Win Boilersim makes use of animation in displaying operation of the boiler. On the boiler animation graphic, steam bubbles, valve position, flame size, drum level, fan and feedwater pump are all animated variables that change with the appropriate process or controller variable. 1.1 Boiler Description The boiler is a Fuel Gas fired type of 80000 lbs/hr (the engineering units can be displayed in British or SI). The gauge displays a range of 0 to 100%. The air is supplied with a forced draft fan and varied using a damper.
Installed Valve Capacity % 100

0 0 100

Valve Lift %

The feedwater valve, Fuel Gas valve, and air damper have an installed 'S' shaped characteristic. A graph illustrating installed valve capacity versus position is shown above. The dynamics of the boiler can be easily changed to mimic slower or faster responding boilers. The drum level exhibits an inverse response due to feedwater or steam flow. The effect can be easily varied (see Controls description below). The boiler can be started cold, using the burner management system or can be initialized to any steady state condition for fast "what if" type experiments. Steam demand can be base loaded and set to change in a random drifting manner, or in a square wave, sine wave or triangular manner. The amplitude and period of the sine, square, and triangle wave steam demand can easily be changed.

1.2 Controls and Monitoring The PID controllers are all tunable from the tuning window. The controllers have auto/manual switches and manual output adjustment. Manual/Auto switchover is bumpless. Integral has reset windup protection. Drum level and steam pressure set points are easily changed from the controller faceplate.The drum level control can be selected from either single element or three element control. Drum level exhibits an inverse response. That is, a step increase in feedwater flow results in an initial transient drop in drum level due to the quenching effect of feedwater. Also a sudden increase in firing rate and steam production results in an initial transient rise in drum level. The inverse effect can be easily modified or eliminated. The cross limited air / fuel ratio control has an air to fuel ratio that can easily be changed from the Air Flow controller window. Trend recording allows selectable plotting of all boiler process variables, controller variables, steam demand and boiler efficiency. From the trend recorder, plotting can be halted, simulation paused, time stopped, and time reset. The recorder can be scrolled backward to review previous responses. In addition, all plotted variables can be saved in a comma delimited text file making it easy to import into a spread sheet for further analysis. 1.3 Alarm and Shutdown The alarm and shutdown windows allow easy adjustment of alarm and shutdown settings. In addition all the alarms and/or all the shutdowns can be disabled. The annunciator logic follows standard practice. That is, when an alarm occurs, there is an audible annunciation and coloured alarm message. Depressing the acknowledge pushbutton silences the alarm. Depressing reset clears the message, provided the variable is no longer in the alarm state. 1.4 Burner Management The Burner Management system follows NFPA 85 Chapter 2 Single Burner Boilers requirements. The boiler is equipped with double block and single vent valves on the Main Burner and Pilot. One of the Main Burner block valves requires manually latching open (simulated with command button adjacent to valve) after electrical permissives have been met. Starting up the boiler consists of setting low fire, opening combustion air valve, establishing combustion air, setting drum level, enabling shutdowns, followed by timed purge, timed pilot ignition and flame proven, followed by timed main burner ignition and flame proven. On the burner management window, the status of the block and vent valves and their limit switches along with pilot and main flame, purge, pilot ignition, and main gas ignition are all displayed.

1.5 Navigating Through the Program In the text of the User Manual, main menu items will be highlighted in Bold, Italicized, and Underlined. Shown below are the main menu items, as they will be highlighted in the text of the User Manual.
File Controller Boiler Initialize Trend Recorder Equipment Switches Window Help

Sub menu items are those items that appear after a main menu item has been clicked on. In the text of the User Manual, the sub menu items will be highlighted in Bold and Italicized only. Shown below are examples of highlighted sub menu items that appear when main menu item File has been clicked.
File Boiler Variables Exit

Where mouse clicks are required that are not menu or sub menu items, the text will be highlighted in Bold only.

Menu Item Trend Recorder

Sub-Menu Item Steam Pressure

Not a Menu or Sub-Menu Item Pause

2 Boiler and Controls Monitoring Window The main Boiler and Controls Monitoring Window contains 5 controller faceplates as well as a steam flow display faceplate.

The functions for the steam pressure controller faceplate are shown above: The controller functions are described below: Auto/Manual Mode - A controller operating to automatically regulate a process variable is said to be in automatic mode. A controller whose output has been fixed to a set value and thus will not regulate is said to be in manual mode. Automatic mode of a controller assumes that the feedback path is complete or unbroken and the controller is comparing the set point to the process variable. In manual mode, the feedback path is broken, and while the controller may still register the process variable, the output is manipulated by an operator. Set Point - An input variable which sets the desired value of the controlled variable . The input variable may be manually set, automatically set, or programmed. It is expressed in the same units as the controlled variable. Controlled Variable - The variable which the control system attempts to keep at the set point value. The set point may be constant or externally adjusted. The controlled variable is often referred to as the process variable. In this course process variable and controlled variable are used interchangeably. Controller Output - The output from the controller calculated from the PID equation based upon the error, proportional gain, integral and derivative. This is the variable that adjusts the final control element In addition to the above, Feedwater Pump, Fan, 3 Element/ 1 Element Drum Level , and Boiler Blowdown Valve can be selected/deselected from the Boiler Control and Monitoring Window by clicking Equipment Switches:

2.1 Trend Recorder The trend display is shown plotting 7 boiler variables including Feedwater Flow, Fuel Gas Flow, Air Flow, Drum Level, Steam Pressure, Steam Flow, and Steam Demand. Trend recorder variables can be selected/deselected by clicking on Trend Recorder. The trend variables that can be selected are shown below: The colours referenced are those that are used on the controller faceplates.

The Clear on Rollover is selected by default. This will cause the screen to automatically clear and display the most recent 125 seconds (note that depending on the PC, there will be some error in actual time versus time displayed on the trend recorder - this does not affect the simulator performance). When the Clear on Rollover is unchecked, and the display exceeds 125 seconds, the previous trend can be redisplayed by clicking on the --> icon at the bottom of the trend recorder. This will "roll" the trend recorder back by 0.25 seconds for each click. If the X10 icon is clicked then clicking on the --> icon will roll the trend recorder back by 2.5 sec per click. The trend will also be automatically paused. When the paused button is clicked again, the trend recorder will resume from the time before the rollback was clicked. Clicking on Clear button will clear the trend recorder screen but time is retained. Clicking the Pause button will stop the simulation and trend recorder retaining time. Clicking on Stop will stop the timer and hold the time while allowing the trend recorder and simulation to continue. Clicking on Reset will reset the clock to 0 seconds while allowing the simulation and trend recorder to continue. Checking the click to Save File, will result in all the trend variables being saved in a comma delimited file trendrecord.txt in the subdirectory where Win Boiler Sim is installed. This data can be easily imported into a spread sheet program such as Excel for analysis. 3 Controller Tuning Windows

Any of the controller tuning windows can be selected by clicking on Controller from the Boiler Controls and Monitoring window. The window shown is the Air Flow Controller tuning window which is similar to Feedwater, Fuel gas, Drum Level, and Pressure Controller tuning windows. The Air Flow Controller tuning window is different in that it has an additional Air / Fuel Ratio adjustment. The proportional band is increased (gain decreased) or decreased (gain increased) by clicking on the appropriate button. The proportional band can also

be entered in the text box. The gain is also displayed to the right of the proportional band text. The minimum proportional band setting is 0.1 (gain of 1000). In a similar manner integral and derivative can be increased or decreased. The minimum integral time is 0.1 seconds/repeat, and the minimum derivative time is 0 seconds. The PID equation is:

Where PB is proportional band is in %, Ti is integral time in seconds ( sometimes referred to as seconds per repeat), Td is derivative time in seconds, e is error, and Cout is the controller ouptut. The air fuel ratio has an adjustable range of 0.9 to 1.5. 4 Boiler Initialize Window

The Boiler Initializtion window can be selected from the Boiler Controls and Monitoring window by clicking on Window followed by Select Steady State Operating Conditions. The Boiler Initialize window allows the boiler to instantly be set to steady state conditions at the operating conditions shown. This feature allows rapid "what if ?" testing of the boiler control system without having to wait for the boiler to come to steady state . Several sets of steady state operating conditions have been included (including cold start). These can be selected by scrolling through using the Select Boiler

Initialize Set scroll bar. Once selected, the boiler can be reinitialized by clicking on File, followed by Accept Initial Conditions and Return. The user can create new steady state operating conditions and save them as follows: 1) Run the boiler with the user desired base demand and steam pressure settings. Note: The air fuel Ratio must be set to 1.0. 2) Wait until the boiler reaches steady state. 3) Note the new values of the Air Flow, Feedwater Flow, Fuel Gas Flow, Steam Flow, Steam Pressure, Drum Level, Feedwater Controller output, Drum Level Controller output, Pressure Controller output, Fuel Gas Controller output, Air Flow Controller output, and Base Demand. 4) In the Boiler Initialize Window, Click File , Click Add Initial Conditions. 5) Enter the new settings that were noted down from step 3). 6) Click Save Initial Conditions The new set of conditions will be stored permanently and can be used to initialize the boiler as described above. Boiler state can also be deleted from the data base, by clicking File , scrolling through the set of states, and then clicking Delete Initial Conditions. 4.1 Cold Start and Ignition Using Burner Management System The initial start up state of the boiler is cold and ready for full ignition using the burner management system. By clicking Cold Start With Burner Management System, the alarms will be disabled, the fan set to off, feedwater pump set to off, the shutoff valves for main gas and pilot set to off (and corresponding vent valves open). The controllers are set to Manual. The control and burner management systems are essentially in a state ready for a full start up including ignition. 5 Boiler Animation Window The Boiler Animation window can be selected from the Boiler Controls and Monitoring window by clicking on Window followed by Boiler Dynamic Graphic. The Boiler Animation window displays the fan, feedwater pump, valves, drum , flames, and steam flow status using animated displays. When the pump or fan is

switched ON, the object is animated. The main flame size varies as a function of the firing rate. The steam flow bubbling varies as a function of firing rate . The drum level also varies as a function of the difference between feedwater flow and steam flow.
Drum level animated

Steam flow is animated production of bubbles varies with steam flow

Display percent valve opened ON / OFF Status Displayed

Flame size animated and varies with firing rate

6 Steam Demand Settings Window The Steam Demand Settings window can be selected from the Boiler Controls and Monitoring window by clicking on Window followed by Steam Demand Settings .

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Steam demand can be made to vary in the following manner: With no option selected (Disabled) the steam base demand is held constant (default = 50%). With the window open, the base demand can be changed by clicking on the appropriate scroll bar button. If Sine, Square or Triangle option is selected, a sine, square, or triangle wave is symmetrically superimposed on the base demand allowing the steam demand to vary in the selected manner. In addition, if the drift factor is set above 0 using the scroll bar, a random drift will be superimposed on the steam demand signal. The amplitude, and frequency of the sine, square, and triangle can be adjusted by clicking the appropriate scroll bar button. The graph below shows steam demand varying in a triangular wave manner. The base demand adjustment will move the triangular wave demand up or down.

Steam Demand

Tringle Steam Demand Base Demand

Time

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7 Shutdown and Alarms Window The Shutdown and Alarms window can be selected from the Boiler Controls and Monitoring window by clicking Windows followed by Alarm and Shutdown Settings .

When an alarm condition occurs, window turns light red and an audible alarm occurs along with the message. Clicking the Alarm Acknowledge will silence the alarm but not clear the message. The message can only be cleared when the alarm condition clears (process variable in normal state). Click and hold down the Alarm Reset for about one second to clear the alarm message. If the process is still in the alarm state, then clicking and holding Alarm Reset will result in the audible alarm being activated again. Clicking Alarm Acknowledge will silence the alarm. Any subsequent alarm conditions occurring will result in a new message as well as cause an audible alarm. The above sequence occurs for shutdowns except that the message window is a bright red. Shutdowns result in Fuel Gas being cutoff from the boiler. The burner

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management window will show the boiler in the shutdown state. To start up the boiler, either a full ignition procedure from the burner management system will be required or alternatively, the boiler can be initialized using the procedure described in the Boiler Initialize window section. 8 Boiler Process Variables Window The Boiler Process Variables window can be selected from the Boiler Controls and Monitoring window by clicking Windows followed by Boiler Process Variables.

The process variables are displayed in engineering units (either British or S.I.).

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9 Boiler Dynamics Window The Boiler Process Dynamics window can be selected from the Boiler Controls and Monitoring window by clicking Windows followed by Boiler Process Dynamics.

The boiler dynamics can be changed by scrolling through the sets of dynamics stored in the database. The user can create a new set of dynamics by doing the following: Click File Click Add Dynamics Enter new values into each of the text boxes Click Save Dynamics To use the new set of dynamics, Click File, Click Accept Dynamics and Return By changing the dynamics, the characteristics of the boiler can be changed such that the boiler behaves like a much larger or smaller boiler. In addition, the shrink/swell effects due to changes to firing rate , or to quenching effect of the feedwater flow can be increased, decreased, or eliminated. When the dynamics are altered, the controller tuning may have to be adjusted.

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10 Drum Level Control Window The drum level Control window can be selected from the Boiler Controls and Monitoring window by clicking Windows followed by Drum Level Control.

The animated valves and gauges display the status of the drum level control system. In water tube boilers the drum level control system must ensure that the drum level is always maintained above the top of the risers/downcomers to prevent overheating of the riser/downcomer tubes. Most water tube boilers make use of a separate shutdown that automatically cuts the boiler fuel source off when the drum level drops below a predetermined Low Water Cutoff level. In addition it is important that the drum level does not rise to a high level such that water from the drum is carried over into the steam system (This could result in serious damage to superheaters or high-pressure turbine blades in a power plant generator for instance). A phenomenon that makes drum level difficult to control is the inverse response of the drum on changes in firing rate, and feedwater flow. When firing rate suddenly increases, there is an increase in steam production, causing the density of the mixture in the risers to decrease and the level to rise. Even though more mass is leaving the boiler drum than coming in when the firing rate increases, the level has risen. This is the opposite of what one would expect when the out flow in a drum is greater than the inflow. For this reason this effect is known as inverse response. A tightly tuned level controller would tend to cut off the feedwater when in fact feedwater will eventually have to rise to meet the increased steaming rate.
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Another inverse response occurs in the drum when the relatively cooler feedwater suddenly enters the drum. The cooler water tends to quench the steam water mixture in the drum causing the level to drop. Again, the drum is seeing a rise in mass inflow but the level decreases. From the above discussion it is apparent that the water inventory held in the drum is a function of the steaming rate i.e. the higher the steaming rate the lower the density of the water steam mixture and thus the lower the inventory for the same drum level. 10.1 Three Element Drum Level Control The three element control scheme is designed for all operating conditions except low load (where one element is more effective). One element drum level control consists of a controller whose output directly adjusts the feedwater valve and thus feedwater flow. Three element control is nothing more than drum level to feedwater flow cascade control with a feed forward element which is the steam flow. Steam flow is summed along with the output of the drum level controller to establish the set point for the feedwater controller. This scheme is effective because steam flow changes are immediately fed forward to change the feedwater set point. In this way feedwater flow tracks steam flow. The drum level to feedwater cascade will quickly arrest any disturbances in the feedwater system. i.e. should the feedwater suddenly increase due to, for example, an increase in the pressure on the upstream side of the feedwater valve, the feedwater flow controller loop will quickly bring the feedwater flow back to set point. 10.2 Inverse Response and Effects on Control As has been described, an increase in fuel firing rate results in a swelling and resultant rise in drum level. If the level controller is tuned tightly (ie if the proportional band is very low and integral small) the feedwater will be cut off when in fact, material balance is such that more mass is leaving the drum (steam) than entering (feedwater). On the other hand loose tuning of the drum level controller will result in the feedforward element from steam flow immediately raising the feedwater setpoint. At first glance this may sound like the right response. However, keep in mind that at the increased steaming rate the reduced density in the drum will require a net reduction of inventory (water held in drum, risers, downcomer, mud drum).

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Some boiler control engineers recommend adjusting the proportional band of the level controller such that the sum of the level controller output and the feedforward steam flow results in no change in feedwater setpoint at the instant of the steam demand increase. In effect, the change in level controller output exactly cancels the change in output from the feedforward steam flow signal. 10.3 Single Element Control At low steaming rates, steam flow measurement becomes noisier and inaccurate. In addition the holdup time of the drum at low steam flow is large. The drum acts as a large capacitance with a resultant slower change in drum level for variations around the operating point. Under these conditions single element control can be a more effective means of controlling drum level. 11 Air Fuel Control Window The Air Fuel Control window can be selected from the Boiler Controls and Monitoring window by clicking Windows followed by Air Fuel Control.

The animated valves and gauges display the status of the air fuel control system.

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The purpose of the air fuel system is to take the firing demand signal from the master pressure controller output and use this signal to establish the set point for the Fuel Flow and Air Flow controllers. The air/fuel system should also ensure that under no circumstances will an insufficient amount of air ever occur that would result in incomplete combustion. This must be prevented not only because of the loss in efficiency due to not completely combusting the fuel but also for safety reasons in preventing pockets of fuel rich mixtures from building up in the firebox and posing an explosion threat. In addition the fuel/air system should allow an adjustment of the air fuel ratio. The fuel/air control system consists of an Air Flow controller and a Fuel Flow controller, the set points of which come from the output of the master pressure controller via cross limiting logic (more will be said about cross limiting later on in this section). In the Win Boiler simulator the Air Flow is displayed in mass flow units (Kgm/hr or Klbs/hr) and the Fuel Flow controller in units of heat flow (KW or MMBtu/hr). In Win Boiler Sim, the excess oxygen measurement is based on the fact that almost all fuels require approximately 7.2 lbs of air per 10000 BTU's of fuel for complete combustion. 11.1 Cross Limiting The cross limiting system ensures that a fuel rich mixture can never occur in the boiler. This is achieved using the high and low selectors. i.e. the low selector selects the output from the master pressure controller (firing rate demand signal) or the Air Flow signal modified by dividing by the air / fuel ratio, which ever is lower. The output from the low selector becomes the set point to the Fuel Gas controller. In this way when a firing rate demand increase occurs, the Fuel Flow controller cannot start firing more fuel before the Air Flow has increased. For a firing rate demand decrease, the logic does not inhibit the Fuel Flow controller set point from being immediately reduced. In the same way the high selector chooses the greater of either the firing rate demand signal (master pressure controller output) or the Fuel Flow in establishing the set point for the Air Flow controller. When a firing rate demand increases, the logic allows the Air Flow set point to immediately change. Conversely when the firing rate demand decreases the high selector prevents the Air Flow set point from being reduced before the Fuel Flow is first reduced.

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The output from the high selector is modified by multiplying by the air / fuel ratio, the result of which becomes the set point to the Air Flow controller. As described above, the cross limiting system prevents any occurrence of a fuel rich mixture after a rise or fall in firing rate demand. The cross limiting system will also prevent an unsafe situation from occurring should either the Fuel Gas valve or Air Flow damper freeze or stick or fail open/closed. 12 Burner Management Window The Burner Management window can be selected from the Boiler Controls and Monitoring window by clicking Windows followed by Burner Management System. The Burner Management system window is shown on the next page.

12.1 Pushbutton Descriptions: Enable: In the OFF position the alarms and shutdowns are disabled, the main and pilot block valves closed, the main and pilot vent valves open, the purge, ignition, and the main gas pushbuttons are not visible and disabled. In the ON position the alarms and shutdowns are enabled, the main and pilot block valves remain closed, and the main and pilot vent valves remain open. However the logic is enabled such that when the burner management permissives have been satisfied these valves' states will be changed (block valves opened and vent valves closed). The purge, ignition, and the main gas pushbuttons are enabled and visible.

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Fan: Clicking the pushbutton starts the fan. It can also be started from the Boiler Monitoring and Control Window by clicking Equipment Switches followed by Fan. An indicator light turns green when the fan is ON and the pushbutton is shown in the depressed position. In the OFF position the indicator light is grey. Purge: Clicking purge initiates a timer resulting in the appropriate number of air changes (purge timer set to 10 seconds) to ensure the boiler has been purged of any pockets of Fuel Gas. While purge is in operation the green indicator light is flashing. When purge is complete the green light stays steady and the pushbutton moves back to its extended position. Purge can only be started if the Air Flow control valve is open greater or equal to 67%, the Air Flow measurement indicates adequate combustion air (70% or greater), and Fuel Gas flow valve in the low fire position (10%) open. Ignition: After purge has been completed, the Air Flow must be reduced to less than 40% by decreasing the air flow controller output signal to the air flow damper. This will prevent blowing out the pilot at ignition due to too large an air flow. Clicking ignition starts a timer (set to 10 seconds), closes the pilot vent valve, opens the pilot block valves, and starts the pilot ignitor. The pilot flame must be established within 10 seconds and for a duration of 2 seconds before which a pilot proven signal is initiated. During the ignition period, the green indicator light flashes. When the pilot has been proven, the green indicator light stays steady and the pushbutton moves back to the extended position. Main Gas: If pilot has been proven, clicking main gas starts a timer (10 seconds), closes the main gas vent valve and opens main block valve 3. In addition main block valve 1 logic has been enabled such that when the valve is manually lifted open (simulated by clicking the Open Valve pushbutton) it will electrically latch open. This must be done before the 10 second timer times out. If this is not done before the time out period, the pilot block valves and main gas block valve 3 will close and the pilot and vent valves open requiring a repurge. Main gas is proven when the flame has been established for 2 seconds. . During the main gas timing period, the green indicator light flashes. When the main gas has been proven, the green indicator light stays steady and the pushbutton moves back to the extended position. Vent and Block Valve Status: The status of the valves is indicated by the indicator lamps associated with the valve limit switches. A green lamp indicates the valve is in the associated position. For instance, with the block valves, the upper indicator lamp (furthest

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from the valve body) is associated with the open limit switch while the lower indicator lamp (closest to the valve body) with the closed limit switch.

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Appendix A Glossary of Control Terms Auto/Manual Mode - A controller operating to automatically regulate a process variable is said to be in automatic mode. A controller whose output has been fixed to a set value and thus will not regulate is said to be in manual mode. Automatic mode of a controller assumes the feedback (or feedforward path) is complete or unbroken and the controller is comparing the set point to the process variable. In manual mode, the feedback (or feedforward) path is broken, and while the controller may still register the process variable, the output is manipulated by an operator. Bumpless transfer - When referring to cascade control a bumpless transfer is a transfer (either automatically or manually by an operator) from open cascade to closed cascade without a sudden change in the output of the controller taking place. When referring to a single controller, a bumpless transfer is a transfer from manual to automatic or from automatic to manual mode without a sudden change taking place in the controller output. Controlled Variable - The variable which the control system attempts to keep at the set point value. The set point may be constant or externally adjusted. In this course process variable and controlled variable are used interchangeably. Controller - A device or program which operates automatically to regulate a controlled variable. Critically damped response - The fastest response to a step change that contains no oscillations. Damped Period of Oscillation - The period of oscillation of the decaying or damped oscillatory response that may occur in a process control system after either a load disturbance or set point change is made. Dead Time - The interval of time between initiation of an input change or stimulus and the start of the resulting response. Derivative Time - A term that multiplies the rate of change of Error producing Derivative action. For a ramping Error, Derivative time is the interval by which Derivative (rate) action advances the effect of Proportional control on the final control element. Derivative Control Action (Rate Action) - Control action in which the output of the controller (this is in fact the input to the process) is Proportional to the rate of change of input.

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Direct Acting Controller - A controller in which the value of the output signal increases as the value of the input (measured variable or controlled variable) increases. Error - In a single reverse acting automatic control loop, the setpoint minus the controlled variable. In a single direct acting automatic control loop, the controlled variable minus the setpoint. Final Control Element - An instrument that takes action to adjust the manipulated variable in a process. This action moves the value of the controlled variable back towards the set point. First Order System - A system definable by a first order differential equation. A first order system contains only one Time Constant and is characterized by a step response that is exponential reaching 63.2 % of its final steady state value in a time equal to the Time Constant. Gain, Proportional - The ratio of the change in output due to proportional control action to the change in input. Integral Control Action (Reset) - Control action in which the output of the controller (this is in fact the input to the process) is Proportional to the time integral of the Error input, i.e., the rate of change of output is Proportional to the Error input. Integrated Absolute Error (IAE) - A measure of controller Error defined by the Integral of the absolute value of a time-dependent Error function; used in tuning automatic controllers to respond properly to process transients. Loop Gain - The product of the gains of all the elements of the loop. Manipulated Variable - The part of the process that is adjusted to close the gap between the set point and the controlled variable. Manual Reset - An adjustment or bias that can manually be set by the operator. The manual reset directly adds to or subtracts from the output of the controller. Non-linear Process - A process is non-linear if process gain doesn't remain constant over the entire operating Range of the process variable. Offset - A constant and steady state of deviation of the measured variable from the set point. Overdamped Response - A response to a step change that contains no oscillations in reaching a steady state .

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Overshoot - A transient response to a step change in an input signal which exceeds the normal or expected steady state response. Phase Shift - The time difference between the input and output signal or between any two synchronized signals, of a control unit, system, or circuit, usually expressed in degrees or radians Process Dynamics - A set of dynamic interactions among process variables in a complex system, as in a petroleum refinery or chemical process plant. The dynamics of a process characterize the process's time response for different input stimuli such as step changes, impulses, and ramps. Probably the most often used input is the step change. Process Gain - The process gain refers to the process sensitivity; That is, a sensitive process will have a high process gain, producing a large change in the output process variable for small changes in input variable. The process gain can be either expressed as a dimensionless constant (% of calibrated Span/% of calibrated Span) or in engineering units. Process Variable - In the treatment of material, any characteristic or measurable attribute whose value changes with variations in prevailing conditions. Common variables are flow, level, pressure, and temperature. The controlled variable is a process variable . Process Model - a mathematical representation of the dynamic and steady state behaviour of a process Proportional Band - The change in input required to produce a full Range change in output due to proportional control action. Quarter Amplitude Decay (QAD) - A process control tuning criteria where the amplitude of the deviation (Error) of the controlled variable, following a disturbance, is cyclic so that the amplitude of each wave is one quarter of the previous peak. Range - The set of values over which measurements can be made without changing the instrument's sensitivity. The extent of a measuring, indicating, or recording scale. Reaction Rate - Term used in Ziegler-Nichols open loop method. This is the slope of a line drawn tangentially to the point of inflection of the open loop response curve Reaction Lag - Term used in Ziegler-Nichols open loop method. This is the time between the start of the open loop response curve and the intersection of a line that is tangential to the point of inflection of the response curve to a horizontal

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line the vertical height of which is equal to the process variable before the step change Reset Windup - Saturation of the Integral mode of a controller developing during times when control cannot be achieved, which causes the controlled variable to overshoot its setpoint when the obstacle to control is removed. Reverse acting controller - A controller in which the value of the output signal decreases as the value of the input (measured variable or controlled variable) increases. Second Order System - Two first order systems cascaded together will form a second order system. A step change to this type of system will result in a further delay to the response making it look somewhat 'S' shaped. This definition refers to systems that are over or critically damped. Most processes behave as overdamped systems. Seconds/Repeat (Minutes/Repeat) - For a constant Error, the time taken for the integral action to change (repeat) the output of the controller by the same amount that the Proportional action changes the output for the same Error. Self Tuning - A technique whereby the tuning constants for the PID controller are automatically calculated and downloaded into the PID controller. The tuning constants are usually obtained by measuring various characteristics of the controlled variable after small disturbances have occurred. Set Point - An input variable which sets the desired value of the controlled variable . The input variable may be manually set, automatically set, or programmed. It is expressed in the same units as the controlled variable. Span - The difference between maximum and minimum calibrated measurement values. Example: an instrument having a calibrated Range of 20 - 120 has a Span of 100. Steady State - A characteristic of a process variable at equilibrium where no further changes take place. Step Input Change - A change to the input to a process such that the input rises or falls from one input value to another almost instantly. Time Constant or Lag Time - Refers to the dynamic element of a process that results in a response that falls behind the change in input. That is, if a Step Input change occurs to a process, the time constant or lag time results in a response that begins to change at the instant the step change occurred but that takes some time before reaching a steady state value. The curve of the response will be affected by how many time constants there are in the process.

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Transient - A process variable that is in transition. i.e. not at steady state. Ultimate Period - Term used in the Ziegler Nichols closed loop response tuning method. When the Integral and Derivative actions have been turned off or minimized, the ultimate period is the period of the continuously oscillating wave that occurs after the Proportional band has narrowed (Gain increased) to a value where oscillation is sustained. Ultimate Proportional Band (PB ult) - Term used in the Ziegler Nichols closed loop response tuning method. This is the value of Proportional band at which the ultimate period (see above) is measured. Underdamped Response - A response to a step change that contains oscillations in reaching a

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Appendix B Glossary of Boiler Terms Air-Fuel Ratio The ratio of the weight, or volume, of air to fuel. In a boiler, the air/fuel ratio is usually controlled to a fixed ratio. The addition of an oxygen sensor can be used in conjunction with the air to fuel control system, to trim the ratio and maintain the excess oxygen content of the Flue Gas either constant, or adjusted as a function of load. Alarm A suitable horn, bell, light, computer screen, or other device which when operated will give notice of malfunction or off normal condition. Base Load Base load is the term applied to that portion of a station or boiler load that is practically constant for long periods. In power plant systems, often one or more boilers will be designated as base load boilers, while other boilers will be used to accommodate a changing load. Blowdown Boiler water that is removed from the boiler in order to maintain the desired concentration levels of suspended and dissolved solids in the boiler. Blowdown is also used to remove sludge. Boiler Efficiency The term "boiler efficiency" is often substituted for combustion or thermal efficiency. True boiler efficiency is the measure of fuel-to-steam efficiency. British Thermal Unit (Btu) The mean British Thermal Unit is 1/180 of the heat required to raise the temperature of 1lb of water from 32 F to 212 F at a constant atmospheric pressure. A Btu is essentially 252 calories. Burner A device for the introduction of fuel and air into a furnace at the desired velocities, turbulence and concentration.

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Calorie The mean calorie is 1/100 of the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from Zero C to 100 C at a constant atmospheric pressure. It is about equal to the quantity of heat required to raise one gram of water 1 C. Another definition is: A calorie is 3600/860 joules. Carbon Element. The principal combustible constituent of all fuels. Co Carbon monoxide. A product of Incomplete Combustion of air. CO2 Carbon dioxide. A product of complete combustion of fuel and air. Combustion Air Air used in the combustion process. Air contains oxygen which is required to combust fuel. Control Valve A valve used to control the flow of air, gas, water, steam or other substance. Convection The transmission of heat by the circulation of a liquid or gas. It may be natural, with the circulation caused by buoyancy affects due to temperature differences, or forced with circulation caused by a mechanical device such as a fan or pump. Damper A device for introducing a variable pressure drop in a system used for regulating the volumetric flow of a gas, such as air. Downcomer A tube or pipe in a boiler or waterwall circulating system through which fluid flows downward. The opposite of a downcomer tube is a riser where the fluid flows upward. Draft The difference between atmospheric pressure and some lower pressure existing in the furnace stack or gas passages of a steam generating unit. Drum A cylindrical shell closed at both ends designed to withstand internal pressure. A steam drum is a boiler vessel where separation of steam and water occurs. The level in a boiler stream drum must be closely controlled.

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Efficiency The ratio of output to input. Usually refers to ratio of energy output to energy input. Excess Air Air supplied for combustion in excess of that theoretically required for complete oxidation. Modern burners often operate with levels of excess air of 10 to 20% or less. Fan A machine consisting of a rotor and housing for moving air or gases at relatively low pressure differentials. Fans can be driven by steam turbines or electric motor drives at fixed or variable speeds. Feedwater Water introduced into a boiler during operation. It includes make-up and return condensate. Except for losses due to leakage and blowdown, feedwater is eventually converted to steam. Firing Rate Control A pressure temperature or flow controller which controls the firing rate of a burner according to the deviation from pressure or temperature set point. The system may be arranged to operate the burner on-off, high-low or in proportion to load demand. Flame Detector A device which indicates if a fuel (liquid, gaseous, or pulverized) is burning, or if ignition has been lost. The flame status may be transmitted as a signal for indication or as an input to a burner management system. Flue Gas The gaseous product of combustion in the flue to the stack. Forced-Draft Fan A fan supplying air under pressure to the fuel burning equipment. Heating Value The quantity of heat released by a fuel through complete combustion. It is commonly expressed in Btu per lb, per gallon, or cu-ft. High Gas Pressure Control A control to stop the burner if the gas pressure is too high. Ignition The initiation of combustion.

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Incomplete Combustion The partial oxidation of the combustible constituents of a fuel. Interlock A device to prove the physical state of a required condition, and to furnish that proof to the primary safety control circuit. Limit Control A switching device that completes or breaks an electrical circuit at predetermined pressures or temperatures. Also known as an Interlock. Load The rate of output required; also the weight carried. With respect to a boiler, load refers to the steam flow required by the equipment being supplied the steam from the boiler. Low Gas Pressure Control A control to stop the burner if gas pressure is too low. Low Water Cutoff Safety device that shuts off the boiler/burner in the event of low water, preventing pressure vessel failure. In a steam drum for a water tube boiler, it is extremely important to keep the tops of the risers and Downcomers covered with water to prevent overheat with subsequent mechanical damage to these tubes. Manual Gas Shutoff Valve A manually operated valve in a gas line for the purpose of completely turning on or shutting off the gas supply. Mmbtu Millions of Btus (British Thermal Units). Packaged Boiler A boiler supplied with all of its components - burner, controls and auxiliary equipment, designed as a single engineered package, and ready for on-site installation. Pilot A flame which is utilized to ignite the fuel at the main burner or burners. Post Purge A method of clearing the furnace and boiler passes of all combustible gases after flame failure controls have sensed pilot and main burner shutdown and safety Radiation Loss are closed.

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Products Of Combustion The gases, vapors, and solids resulting form the combustion of fuel. Purge To introduce air into the furnace and the boiler flue passages in such volume and manner as to completely replace the air or gas-air mixture contained within these areas. Radiation Loss A comprehensive term used in a boiler-unit heat balance to account for the conduction, radiation, and convection heat losses from the boiler to the ambient air. Relief Valve An automatic pressure relieving device actuated by the pressure upstream of the valve and characterized by opening pop action with further increase in lift with an increase in pressure over popping pressure. Safety Shut-Off Valve A manually opened, electrically latched, electrically operated safety shut-off valve designed to automatically shut off fuel when de-energized. Saturated Steam Steam at the temperature and pressure at which evaporation occurs. Saturated Temperature The temperature at which evaporation occurs at a particular pressure. Saturated Water Water at its boiling point. Specific Heat The quantity of heat, expressed in Btu, required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of a substance 1F. Superheated Steam Steam with its temperature raised above that of saturation. The temperature in excess of its saturation temperature is referred to as superheat. Theoretical Air The quantity of air required for perfect or complete combustion. Water Tube A tube in a boiler having the water and steam on the inside and heat applied to the
outside.

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