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5.1 Introduction

Addition is the most commonly used arithmetic operation on microprocessors, digital signal processor (DSP), etc. So, binary adders are crucial building blocks in very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. Often is the speed limiting element as well. Therefore, careful optimization of the adder is of most importance. This optimization can proceed either at the logic or circuit level. Typical logic level optimizations try to rearrange the Boolean equations so that a ,,m.,,/m, styles. Six 1-bit full adder circuits based on these logic styles are chosen for the extensive evaluation. From the previous works it has been concluded that there is no ideal cell that can be used by all types of applications. Therefore, many different circuits for binary addition have been proposed over the last several decades, covering a wide range of performance characteristics to satisfy the constraints enforced by different applications. The logic style used in adder cells basically influences the speed, size and power dissipation of the circuits. The circuit delay is determined by the number of inversion levels, the number of transistors in series, and transistor sizes. Circuit size depends on the number of transistors and their sizes. Finally power dissipation is determined by the switching activity and the node capacitance made up of gate, diffusion, and wire capacitance. All these characteristics may vary considerably from one logic style to another and thus make a proper choice of logic style crucial for circuit designer to satisfy their needs. In this chapter the complementary CMOS logic, complementary pass transistor, double pass transistor, transmission gate, pseudo NMOS and a combinational of XOR and transmission gate, all of which belongs to the class of the static logic, are used as a basis for comparison. Different design requirements such as area, speed and power consumption generally translate into use of different logic styles. Proper choice of the logic of the logic style can considerably improve different aspects of the performance of a 1-bit full adder cell. A major distinction has been made between static and dynamic logic styles. In static logic each output of the gates assume at all times the value of the Boolean function implemented by the circuit. This means that at every point time, each output is connected to either VDD, or VSS, via a low resistance path. Static logic is viable candidate for low power circuit design because this logic style eliminates the pre-charging and decreases extra power dissipation by the clocking. The

complementary CMOS, complementary pass-transistor (CPL), pass transistor logic styles), double pass transistor (DPL) and single-rail pass transistor (LEAP), the pseudo NMOS are the most known static logic styles.

Complementary CMOS full adder (CMOS) has 28 transistors and is based on the regular CMOS structure (pull-up & down networks) (Fig.5.1). The complementary CMOS circuit style falls under a broad class of logic circuits called static circuits in which at every point in time (except during the switching transients), each gate output is connected to either VDD or VSS via a low-resistance path. Also, the outputs of the gates assume at all times the value of the Boolean function implemented by the circuit (ignoring, once again, the transient effects during switching periods).

Figure 5.1 Complementary CMOS full adder schematic This is in contrast to the dynamic circuit class, which relies on temporary storage of signal values on the capacitance of high-impedance circuit nodes. The latter approach results in simpler and faster form. Its design and operation are however more involved and prone to failure due to an increased sensitivity to noise. One of the advantages of the complementary CMOS full adder cell is high noise margins and thus reliable operation at low voltages and arbitrary transistor sues (ratio less logic). The layout of CMOS gates is straight forward due to the complementary transistor pairs. The above figure shows a 3 input logic gate where all inputs are distributed to both the pull-up and pull-down networks. The function of the PUN is to provide a connection between the output and VDD anytime the output of the logic gate is meant to be 1 (based on

the inputs). Similarly, the function of the PDN is to connect the output to VSS when the output of the logic gate is meant to be 0. The PUN and PDN networks are constructed in a mutually exclusive fashion such that one and only one of the networks are conducting in steady state. In this way, once the transients have settled, a path always exists between VDD and the output , realizing a high output (one), or, alternatively, between VSS and F for a low output (zero). This is equivalent to stating that the output node is always a low-impedance node in steady state. A transistor can be thought of as a switch controlled by its gate signal. An NMOS switch is on when the controlling signal is high and is off when the controlling signal is low. A PMOS transistor acts as an inverse switch that is on when the controlling signal is low and off when the controlling signal is high. The PDN is constructed using NMOS devices, while PMOS transistors are used in the PUN. The primary reason for this choice is that NMOS transistors produce strong zeros, and PMOS devices generate strong ones. The output capacitance is initially charged to VDD. Two possible discharge scenarios are shown. An NMOS device pulls the output all the way down to GND, while a PMOS lowers the output no further than |VTP| the PMOS turns off at that point, and stops contributing discharge current. NMOS transistors are hence the preferred devices in the PDN. Similarly, there are two alternative approaches to charge a capacitor with the output initially at GND. A PMOS switch succeeds in charging the output all the way to VDD, while the NMOS device fails to raise the output above VDD VTN. This explains why PMOS transistors are preferentially used in a PUN. Complementary CMOS gates inherit all the nice properties of the basic CMOS inverter. They exhibit rail to rail swing with VOH = VDD and VOL = GND. The circuits also have no static power dissipation, as the circuits are designed in such a way that the pull-down and pull up networks are mutually exclusive. While complementary CMOS is a very robust and simple approach for implementing logic gates, there are two major problems associated with using this style as the complexity of the gate (i.e., fan-in) increases. First, the number of transistors required to implement an N fan-in gate is 2N. This can result in significant implementation area. The second problem is that propagation delay of a complementary CMOS gate deteriorates rapidly as a function of the fan-in. The large number of transistors (2N) increases the overall capacitance of the gate. For this gate, the output capacitance increases linearly with the fan-in since the number of PMOS devices connected to the output node increases linearly with the fan-in. Also, a series connection of transistors in either the PUN or PDN slows the gate as well, because the effective (dis)charging resistance is increased. For the same full adder gate, the effective

resistance of the PDN path increases linearly with the fan-in. Since the output capacitance increase linearly and the pull-down resistance increases linearly, the high-to-low delay can increase in a quadratic fashion. The fan-out has a large impact on the delay of complementary CMOS logic as well. Each input to a CMOS gate connects to both an NMOS and a PMOS device, and presents a load to the driving gate equal to the sum of the gate capacitances. At first glance, it would appear that the increase in resistance for larger fan-in can be solved by making the devices in the transistor chain wider. Unfortunately, this does not improve the performance as much as expected, since widening a device also increases its gate and diffusion capacitances, and has an adverse affect on the gate performance. For the N-input NAND gate, the low-to-high delay only increases linearly since the pull-up resistance remains unchanged and only the capacitance increases linearly. An often mentioned disadvantage of complementary CMOS full adder cell is the substantial number of large PMOS transistors, resulting in high input loads, more power consumption and larger silicon area. This adder cell uses CO signal to generate Sum, which produces an unwanted additional delay. Another drawback of CMOS is the relatively weak output driving capability due to series transistors in the output stage.

Pseudo NMOS full adder cell operates based on pseudo logic, which is referred to ratio-ed style. This cell uses 14 transistors to realize the negative addition function (Fig. 5.2). The advantage of pseudo NMOS adder cell is its higher speed (compared to complementary full adder) and low transistor count. Ratio-ed logic is an attempt to reduce the number of transistors required to implement a given logic function, at the cost of reduced robustness and extra power dissipation. The purpose of the PUN in complementary CMOS is to provide a conditional path between VDD and the output when the PDN is turned off. In ratio-ed logic, the entire PUN is replaced with a single unconditional load device that pulls up the output for a high output (Fig5.2). Instead of a combination of active pull-down and pull-up networks, such a gate consists of an NMOS pull-down network that realizes the logic function, and a simple load device. Fig5.2 shows an example of ratio-ed logic, which uses a grounded PMOS load and is referred to as a pseudo-NMOS gate. The clear advantage of pseudo-NMOS is the reduced number of transistors (N+1 versus 2N for complementary CMOS). For this full adder circuit it has 18 transistors to implement this Boolean function. The nominal high output voltage (VOH) for this gate is VDD

since the pull-down devices are turned off when the output is pulled high (assuming that VOL is below VTN). On the other hand, the nominal low output voltage is not 0 V since there is a fight between the devices in the PDN and the grounded PMOS load device. This results in reduced noise margins and more importantly static power dissipation.

The sizing of the load device relative to the pull-down devices can be used to tradeoff parameters such as noise margin, propagation delay and power dissipation. Since the voltage swing on the output and the overall functionality of the gate depends upon the ratio between the NMOS and PMOS sizes, the circuit is called ratio-ed. This is in contrast to the ratio-less logic styles, such as complementary CMOS, where the low and high levels do not depend upon transistor sizes. The value of VOL is obtained by equating the currents through the driver and load devices for VIN = VDD. At this operation point, it is reasonable to assume that the NMOS device resides in linear mode (since the output should ideally be close to 0V), while the PMOS load is saturated. On the negative side is the static power consumption of the pull-up transistor as well as the reduced output voltage swing, which makes this cell more susceptible to noise. To increase the output swing two CMOS inverters are added to this circuit, which increases the total transistors count of this cell to 18 transistors. A major disadvantage of the pseudoNMOS gate is the static power that is dissipated when the output is low through the direct current path that exists between VDD and GND. The trade-off between the static and dynamic properties is apparent. A larger pull-up device improves performance, but increases static power dissipation and lowers noise margins (i.e., increases VOL).

The static power dissipation of pseudo-NMOS limits its use. However, pseudoNMOS still finds use in large fan-in circuits. When area is most important, the reduced transistor count compared to complimentary CMOS is quite attractive.

Double pass transistor full adder cell has 48 transistors and operation of this cell is based on the double pass transistor logic in which both NMOS and PMOS logic network are used. This cell is similar in structure to the complementary pass transistor counterparts, but it uses complementary transistors to keep full swing operation and reduce the power consumption. For high performance design, a differential pass-transistor logic family, called CPL or DPL, is commonly used. The basic idea (similar to DCVSL) is to accept true and complementary inputs and produce true and complementary outputs. A number of CPL gates are shown in Fig 3.3. These gates possess a number of interesting properties. Since the circuits are differential, complementary data inputs and outputs are always available. Although generating the differential signals requires extra circuitry, the differential style has the advantage that some complex gates such as XORs and adders can be realized efficiently with a small number of transistors. Furthermore, the availability of both polarities of every signal eliminates the need for extra inverters, as is often the case in static CMOS or pseudoNMOS. CPL belongs to the class of static gates, because the output-defining nodes are always connected to either VDD or GND through a low resistance path. This is advantageous for the noise resilience. The design is very modular. In effect, all gates use exactly the same topology. Only the inputs are permutated. This makes the design of a library of gates very simple. More complex gates can be built by cascading the standard pass-transistor modules. CPL is a conceptually simple and modular logic style. Its applicability depends strongly upon the logic function to be implemented. The availability of a simple XOR as well of the ease of implementing some specific gate structures makes it attractive for structures such as adders and multipliers. Some extremely fast and efficient implementations have been reported in that application domain [Yano90]. When considering CPL, the designer should not ignore the implicit routing overhead of the complementary signals, which is apparent in the layout. Unfortunately, differential pass-transistor logic, like single-ended pass-transistor logic, suffers from static power dissipation and reduced noise margins, since the high input to the signal-restoring inverter only charges up to VDD VTN.

Transmission gate full adder cell has 20 transistors (Fig.3.4). This circuit generates A+ B and use it and its complements as a selected signal to generate the output signals (Sum & CO*) [9]. It also requires complementary input signals (A, B, C,) as the complementary CMOS full adder; however, it exhibits better speed than CMOS full adder at the same power dissipation due to the small transistor stack height [I].

The most widely-used solution to deal with the voltage-drop problem is the use of transmission gates. It builds on the complementary properties of NMOS and PMOS transistors: NMOS devices pass a strong 0 but a weak 1, while PMOS transistors pass a strong 1 but a weak 0. The ideal approach is to use an NMOS to pull-down and a PMOS to pull-up. The transmission gate combines the best of both device flavors by placing a NMOS device in parallel with a PMOS device (Fig3.5).The control signals to the transmission gate (Cin and Cout) are complementary. The transmission gate acts as a bidirectional switch controlled by the gate signal Cin. When Cin = 1, both MOSFETs are on, allowing the signal to pass through the gate.

The full adder cell realization of the circuit using 16 transistors is shown in figure. This circuit can operate with full output voltage swing but consumes significant power and have more delay compared to other adders having less transistor count. The 16Transistor consists of 8PMOS and 8NMOS devices. These PMOS and NMOS should be with properly designed width and length values. Based on PMOS and NMOS values the circuit is designed. This 16 transistor have three inputs A, B, C and two output values SUM and CARRY. Depending on input values A, B, C, the output values will be generated.

Figure 3.5 16Transistor Full Adder The design of 16Transistor implemented using S-edit and its corresponding LAYOUT as shown in figure 3.5.1.

This adder cell has been developed based on a XOR gate presented in combination with the transmission gate, which requires a total of 14 transistors [11] (Fig.3.5). This cell

occupies less area compared with complementary CMOS full adder cell. In terms of power dissipation this cell is superior; this is due to its low activity factor and passing a strong signal in less number of pass logic unlike the other cells where the signal had to go through more number of logic.

Figure 3.5 XOR and Transmission Gate Full Adder schematic The pass-transistor and the transmission gate are, unfortunately, not ideal switches, and have a series resistance associated with it. To quantify the resistance, consider the circuit in Figure 3.6, which involves charging a node from 0 V to VDD. In this discussion, we use the large-signal definition of resistance, which involves dividing the voltage across the switch by the drain current. The effective resistance of the switch is modeled as a parallel connection of the resistances RN and RP of the NMOS and PMOS devices, defined as (VDD Vout)/IN and (VDD Vout)/IP, respectively. The currents through the devices are obviously dependent on the value of Vout and the operating mode of the transistors. During the low to- high transition, the pass-transistors traverse through a number of operation modes. The effective use of transmission gates is the popular XOR circuit shown in Figure 3.5. The complete implementation of this gate requires only six transistors (including the inverter used for the generation of B), compared to the twelve transistors required for a complementary implementation. To understand the operation of this circuit, we have to

analyze the B = 0 and B = 1 cases separately. For B = 1, transistors M1 and M2 act as an inverter while the transmission gate M3/M4 is off; hence F = AB. In the opposite case, M1 and M2 are disabled, and the transmission gate is operational, or F = AB. The combination of both results in the XOR function. Notice that, regardless of the values of A and B, node F always has a connection to either VDD or GND and is hence a low-impedance node. When designing static-pass transistor networks, it is essential to adhere to the low-impedance rule under all circumstances. Other examples where transmission- gate logic is effectively used are fast adder circuits and registers.

10-transister full adder is based on 4-transister XOR gates as shown in the figure--- . These low power full adders are ratioed logics. These adders suffer from threshold voltage loss problem. Even though there are several advantages like low area less propagation delays etc make these device suitable for applications like biosensors.

The 4-Transistor XOR and XNOR Gates are shown in the figure (1). The XNOR gate uses pass transistor logic. The pull down network is built in such a way that, the input of one transistor is used as source to another transistor. A is always compared with B and vice versa. If both are same then only the transistors will be ON and creates the discharging path.

Fig1:XNOR

The 10Transistor consists of 5PMOS and 5NMOS devices. These PMOS and NMOS have width and length values. Based on PMOS and NMOS values the circuit is designed. This 10 transistor have three inputs A, B, C and two output values SUM and CARRY. Depending on input values A, B,C ,the output values will be generated

This design of proposed full adder is based on three transistor XOR gates. It shows the better performance than the earlier designed full adder and acquires less silicon area as the aspect ratio of transistors is less compared to previous 8T full adder design. This circuit shows approximately 45% improvement in threshold loss (0.2v) as compared to other adders stated above. It is the fastest and consumes least power. Therefore we report it to be the best in power consumption, delay and power-delay product. The 8Transistor consists of 4PMOS and 4NMOS devices. These PMOS and NMOS have width and length values. Based on PMOS and NMOS values the circuit is designed. This 4-transistor have three inputs A, B, C and two output values SUM and CARRY. Depending on input values A, B, C, the output values will be generated. Figure 4.10 Proposed 8T full adders. The design of 8Transistor implemented using S-edit and it s corresponding LAYOUT as shown in figure 4.12

In this section, design of four different types of full-adder implementation is presented. Transistor-level schematic of these designs is illustrated and tradeoff involved in them is discussed.

Transistor-level schematic of 1-bit full-adder circuit is given in Figure 3.3 [1]. This representation is based on the expression of equation 3.4. In this alternate design, NMOS and PMOS networks are completely symmetric which is very important from layout point of view. This circuit is relatively slower than others mainly because of tall PMOS transistor stacks that is present in both carry and sum generation networks. The intrinsic load capacitance of Cout is also quite large which consists of two diffusion and six gate capacitances along with some wiring capacitance [20]. In the design of any high-speed adder circuit, minimizing the carry path delay is prime goal. This is done in this circuit by placing all NMOS and PMOS transistors connected to C in as close as possible to the output of the gate. This reduces the load on C in signal. Moreover C in signal is the part of a smaller PMOS transistor stack in carry generation circuit, which lowers its logical effort to 2 [20]. An N-bit adder can be constructed by cascading N full-adder circuits in series, connecting Cout of preceding stage to C in of next stage, and the first carry-in Cout to 0. This configuration is called a ripple-carry adder, since the carry bit ripples from one stage to other. A 4-bit ripple-carry adder is shown in Figure 3.7. The delay through the circuit depends upon the number of logic stages that must be traversed and is a function of the applied input signals. For some input signals, no rippling effect occurs at all, while for others, the carry has to ripple all the way from the least significant bit (LSB) to the most significant bit (MSB).

A0 B0

A1

B1

A2 B2

A3 B3

Ci

Co

S0

S1

S2

S3

The propagation delay of such a structure (also called the critical path) is defined as the worst case delay over all possible input patterns. The worst case delay of a ripplecarry adder happens when a carry generated at the least significant bit position propagates all the way to the most significant bit position. This carry is then consumed in the last stage to produce the sum. The delay is then proportional to the number of bits in the input words N and is approximated by where tcarry and tsum equal the propagation delays from C in to Cout and S, respectively [20].

(3.4)

Carry look-ahead (CLA) adders are designed to overcome the latency introduced by the rippling effect of the carry bits [2]. The main idea of the CLA is to first calculate the values of propagate (Pi) and generate (Gi) signal for every bit, then use them to find carry bits Ci+1. The equation for the carry out and sum bit is given as: From this the 4-bit CLA equations can be derived as under: S i = Pi Ci Ci (3.5)

Ci +1 = Gi + Pi

C1 = G0 + P0C0

(3.6)

(3.7)

C3 = G2 + P2 C2 = G2 + P2 G1 + P2 P1 G0 + P2 P1 P0 C0 = G2:0 + P2:0 C0

(3.8)

A0,B0

A1,B1

An-1,Bn-1

Ci,0

P0

Ci,1 P1

Ci,n-1 Pn-1

S0

S1

..........................

Sn-1

For a carry-look-ahead group of N bits, the transistor implementation has N+ 1 transistor in the stack. Since wide gates and large stacks display poor performance, the carrylook-ahead computation has to be limited up to two or four bits in practice. In order to build very fast adders, it is necessary to organize carry propagation and generation into recursive trees. A more effective implementation is obtained by hierarchically decomposing the carry propagation into subgroups of N-bits.

The carry propagation process is decomposed into subgroup of two bits, Gi,j and Pi,j denote the generate and propagate functions, respectively, for a group of bits (from bit position i to j). Therefore, we call them block generate and propagate signals. Gi,j equals 1 if the group generates a carry, independent of incoming carry. The block propagates Pi,j is true if an incoming carry propagates through the complete group. This condition is equivalent to carry by pass. Another generalization is possible by treating the generate and propagate functions as a pair (Gi,j, Pi,j), rather than considering them as a separate functions. A new Boolean operator, called the dot operator (.), can be introduced. This operator on the pairs

and allows for the combination and manipulation of blocks of bits. Using this operator we can now decompose. The dot operator obeys the associative property, but it is not commutative. (G3:2 , P3:2 ) = (G3, P3). (G2, P2) (G, P). (G, P)= ( G +PG, PP) (3.11)

By exploiting the associative property of the dot operator, a tree can be constructed that effectively computes the carries at all 2i -1 positions (that is, 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, etc,) for i= 1log2(N). The crucial advantage is that the computation of the carry at position 2i -1 takes only log2 (N) time. This is a improvement over the previously described adders. For example, for an adder of 32bits, the propagation delay of a linear adder is proportional to 32. For a square-root select adder, it is reduced to 4, while, for a logarithmic adder, the proportionality constant is3. Now in this which frequently is referred to as a kogge-stone tree , is a member of trees. Radix-2 means that the tree is binary. It combines two carry words at a time at each level of hierarchy. The total adder requires 49 complex logic gates each to implement the dot operator. In addition, 16 logic modules are needed for the generation of the propagate and generate signals at the first level (Pi and Gi), as well as 16 sum-generation gates.

Radix -2 has some interesting properties. First, its interconnect structure is regular, which makes implementation quite easy. Furthermore, the fan out throughout the tree is fairly constant, especially on the critical paths. The task of sizing the transistors for optimal performance is therefore simplified. At the same time, however, the replication of the carry trees to generate the intermediate carries comes at a large cost in terms of both area and power.

Designers sometimes trade off some delay for area and power by choosing less complex trees. A simpler tree structure computes only the carries to the power of two bit positions[brent82], as shown in figure signals only at positions 2 -1 .

i

(C0,0,0)= (G0, P0) . (Ci,o, 0) (C0,1,0)=[ (G1,P1) . (G0, P0) ] . (Ci,0, 0) = (G1:0, P1:0) . (Ci,0, 0)

(3.12)

(3.13)

(C0,3,0)=[ (G3:2 ,P3:2 ).(G1:0,P1:0) ] .(Ci,0, 0) = (G3:0,P3:0) . (Ci,0,0) (C0,7,0)=[(G7:4,P7:4).(G3:0 ,P3:0 )] . (Ci,0, 0) = = (G7:0,P7:0 ) . (Ci,0,0)

(3.14)

(3.15)

(C0:11,0) = [ (G11:7,P11:7).(G7:0 ,P7:0 )].(Ci,0, 0) = = (G11:0 ,P11:0 ) . (Ci,0,0) (C0,15,0)=[ (G15:11 ,P15:11 ). (G11:0,P11:0) ].(Ci,0, 0) = (G15:0,P15:0) . (Ci,0,0)

(3.16)

(3,17)

An option to reduce the depth of the tree is to combine four signals at a time at each level of the hierarchy. The resulting tree is now of class radix-4, because it uses building blocks of order 4 as shown in figure a 32-bit addition needs only two stages of carry logic. Be aware that each gate is more complex and that having less stages may not always result in faster operation.

A look-ahead adder is several times larger than a ripple adder, but has dramatic speed advantages for large operands. The logarithmic behavior makes it preferable over bypass or selects adders for large values of n. the exact value of the cross point depends heavily on technology and circuit design factors.

RESULTS:

The 16 transistor design of Full Adder is operated at supply voltage of 3v, In this input A is a sequence of 0000111100 of period 80ns, B sequence 0011001100 of period 40ns Cin sequence 0101010101 of period 20ns.The SUM output is 0110100101 from 0ns to 100ns and CARRY output is 0001011100. In figure 5.1 top two waveforms represent SUM and CARRY.

The 14 transistor design of Full Adder is operated at supply voltage of 3v, In this input A is a sequence of 0000111100 of period 80ns, B sequence 0011001100 of period 40ns Cin sequence 0101010101 of period 20ns.The SUM output is 0110100101 from 0ns to 100ns and CARRY output is 0001011100. In figure 5.1 top two waveforms represent SUM and CARRY.

Fig.5.2 14 Transistor full Adder The 8 transistor design of Full Adder is operated at supply voltage of 3v, In this input A is a sequence of 0000111100 of period 80ns, B sequence 0011001100 of period 40ns Cin sequence 0101010101 of period 20ns.The SUM output is 0110100101 from 0ns to 100ns and

Fig.5.3 10 Transistor full Adder The 8 transistor design of Full Adder is operated at supply voltage of 3v, In this input A is a sequence of 0000111100 of period 80ns, B sequence 0011001100 of period 40ns Cin sequence 0101010101 of period 20ns.The SUM output is 0110100101 from 0ns to 100ns and

CARRY output is 0001011100. In figure 5.1 top two waveforms represent SUM and

Delay of 16 Transistors

In fig.5.5 below the delay for 16Transistor is shown. The two lines in middle represent 50% of input voltage to the 50% output voltage.

Delay of 16 Transistor full Adder The Delay o f a 16Transistor 158.42p The Average power consumed of a 16Transistor 5.933604e-006 watts

Delay of 14Transistor

In fig.5.6 below the delay for 16Transistor is shown. The two lines in middle represent 50% of input voltage to the 50% output voltage.

Delay of 10Transistor

In fig.5.7 below the delay for 16Transistor is shown. The two lines in middle represent 50% of input voltage to the 50% output voltage.

Delay of 10 Transistor full Adder The Delay o f a 10Transistor 196.28p The Average power consumed of a 10Transistor 2.472365e-007 watts

Delay of 8 Transistor

In fig.5.8 below the delay for 16Transistor is shown. The two lines in middle represent 50% of input voltage to the 50% output voltage.

The Delay of a 8 Transistor 195.48p, The Average power consumed of a 8Transistor 3.854102e-007watts

The study of different types of Full Adder cells and their respect ive power consumption and delay has measured in 250nm CMOS process, from the analysis we observed that lower delay is observed in 14Transistor and power consumption in 10Transisitor as it is operated at supply voltage of 3.0v.

All the lower power full adders discussed above are designed based on the pass transistor logic .Low power adders produces weak logic 0 and weak logic 1 i.e. threshold voltage loss. Even though they are used in circuits such biosensors applications where compact size is so much essential. But in 45nm technology this problem may cause even malfunction also because the voltage used in this technology is 1v. Following results are for the same above circuits with 45nm technology.

8 Transistors

Power Results:

vdd from time 1e-009 to 1e-007 Average power consumed -> 9.605227e-003 watts Max power 2.300812e-002 at time 7.0001e-008 Min power 6.478764e-012 at time 1e-009

10 Transistor : Waveform

Power Results:

vdd from time 1e-009 to 1e-007 Average power consumed -> 4.006624e-008 watts

Max power 5.492911e-003 at time 8.00005e-008 Min power 8.088337e-012 at time 5.111e-009

14 Transistor:

Waveform:

Power Results

vdd from time 1e-009 to 1e-007 Average power consumed -> 1.121040e-004 watts

Max power 1.117429e-002 at time 8.00005e-008 Min power 1.233788e-007 at time 1.50802e-008 Full Adder 8T 10T 14T 16T Power(w) 9.605227e-003 4.006624e-008 1.121040e-004 4.83e-005 Delay(ps) 163.12 180.2 120.23 140.06

Conclusion:

In this project 1-bit full adder circuits are studied using various CMOS circuit style and design. These circuits are then compared for power, speed and area. The various circuits were designed and compared i.e. 16 transistors, 14 transistors, 10 transistors, 8 transistors using Tanner tools 250nm technology, 45nm technology. The main problem with low power full adders is threshold voltage loss. It is observed that performance is degraded in the case of 45nm technology.