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Which resources or commodities contributed most to the economic success of Jamestown colony A. coal B. cotton C. tobacco D. naval stores 1619 is significant to Jamestown because the first blacks were brought from Africa and: A. Jamestown became a royal colony B. the London Company went bankrupt C. there was a serious Indian attack on the colony D. the first elected legislative assembly, the House of Burgesses, convented Which of the following colonies was founded as a refuge for Catholics A. Albemarle B. Carolina C. Maryland D. New Hamshire Puritans in Massachusetts Bay in the seventeenth century came to be known as: A. Congregational B. Episcopal C. Methodist D. Unitarian The description of Massachusetts Bay colony as a "city upon a hill" is related to the Puritan founders' idea that the colony should be: A. located in a healthful site B. located in an easily defensible site C. a refuge for all religious dissenters D. a model for the world as a holy commonwealth Roger Williams is a controversial figure because of his novel contention that: A. land should be bought from the Indians B. the Puritans should rejoin the Catholic church C. the Puritans should adopt the Anglican liturgy D. all believers should be guided by the Holy Spirit within themselves Three of the following are characteristics of the Quakers. Which is the exception A. a belief in the "Inner Light" B. a refusal to take oaths to fight wars C. a highly structured church organization D. a disregard for distinctions of sex and class One of the purposes for Georgia was to: A. open up trade B. establish ports trade C. serve as a storehouse for sugar plantations D. create a buffer state between the English settlers and the Spanish in Florida According to mercantile theory, colonies could strengthen the mother country by: A. producing manufactured goods B. providing needed raw materials C. providing an outlet for political and religious dissidents D. providing land for sale by the proprietors and speculators A person who served a master in return for passage to the New World was: A. a slave B. a freedman C. an apprenticed slave D. an indentured servant Compared with women in the New Ingland colonies, women in the Chesapeake colonies tended to: A. have a shorter life span B. marry at a much older age C. raise more of their children to maturity D. equal or actually outnumber the male population Which of the following is true concerning the distribution of slavery in the late colonial period A. the slaves were confined to the southern colonies B. the slaves were confined to the southern and middle colonies C. there were some slaves in all three groups of colonies but the majority were in the middle group D. there were some slaves in all three groups of colonies, but the majority were in the southern group The "middle passage" of the triangular trade involved transportation of: A. rum from New England to Africa B. slaves from Africa to the Caribbean islands

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C. sugar from the Caribbean islands to New England D. manufactured goods from England to the Southern colonies One feature of the English mother country that was not transplanted to the colonies was the: A. aristocratic class structure B. principle of tax-supported churches C. notion of loyal British subjects D. notion of possessing the rights of English subjects In New England towns, the "common" was: A. a grain storehouse B. the corpus of civil law C. a meetinghouse for the selectmen D. a centrally located shared pasture One feature of the English mother country that was not transplanted to the colonies was the: A. aristocratic class structure B. principle of tax-supported churches C. notion of loyal British subjects D. notion of possessing the rights of English subjects In New cent England towns, the "common" was: A. a grain storehouse B. the corpus of civil law C. a meetinghouse for the selectmen D. a centrally located shared pasture The most famous witchcraft hysteria in colonial America occurred in: A. Salem B. Newport C. Charleston D. Winston Salem The trial of John Peter Zenger established the principle that: A. no government could be sued B. criticism of government was not libel if factually true C. British public officials were immune from prosecution D. any criticism of the British colonial administration was libel British administration of the North American colonies was weakened by three of the following circumstances. Which is the exception A. few officials had any firsthand knowledge about the colonies B. officials sent to the colonies were often incompetent, and some were dishonest C. there was no centralized governmental authority in London with exclusive responsibility for the colonies D. Elected colonial legislative assemblies in the colonies were not responsive to the needs of the people The ultimate outcome of the Albany Plan is evidence that the American colonies: A. were beginning to develop a sense of nationalism B. did not have very strong bonds of unity with one another C. no longer felt the Indians to be a serious threat to their survival D. were ready to subordinate their differences and unite for common defense The French and Indian war began as a dispute between the English and the French over: A. control of the Ohio Valley B. Trading rights with the Indians C. navigation rights on the Mississippi River D. French violations of the Navigation acts The effect of the Treaty of Paris of 1763 was that: A. the territorial status was restored B. France lost all territorial possessions on the North American mainland C. The British were never again troubled by Indians D. France retained some holdings on the North American continent The British forbade American colonists from moving westward beyond the Appalachian Mountains in the: A. Northwest Ordinance B. Indian Emergency Act C. Pontiac Proclamation D. Proclamation Line of 1763 Which of the following industries played an important role in the late nineteenth century in attracting immigrants to the United States A. ranching B. railroads C. shipbuilding D. cotton farming

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Which is the exception Both Social Darwinism and classical economics agree... A. humans are descended from lower animals B. free competition promotes human progress C. government ownership of some of the means is desirable D. the government should ease the lot of the poor In the late nineteenth century, the American working classes suffered from three of the following conditions. Which is not true A. no job security; layoffs due to seasonal, cyclical, or technological factors B. no government health and safety regulations C. declining standard of living, in both absolute and relative terms D. little or no worker's compensation for injury The immediate cause of the railroad strikes of 1877 was... A. the refusal of the owners to adopt safety measures B. the infiltration of unions by anarchists C. 10 percent cut in wages D. the refusal of the owners to agree to cost-of-living increases Which of the following men suggested a socialist solution to the problem of maldistribution of wealth A. Henry George B. Lester F. Ward C. Edward Bellamy D. William Graham Sumner Which of the following emphasizes most strongly the duty of the rich to do good works for the public A. Social Darwinism B. classical economics C. socialism D. the Gospel of Wealth Electricity as a source of light and power was introduced in the: A. l860s B. l870s C. l880s D. l890s Both the Bessemer process and the open-hearth process are methods of: A. pasteurizing milk B. refining petroleum C. mining coal D. producing steel Andrew Carnegie made his fortune in the field of: A. shipping B. steel C. banking D. petroleum A vertically integrated system of production is one in which: A. management and labor share equally in the profits B. one company controls the entire industrial process from source of raw material to the final market. C. all the employees belong to one union. D. employees of different ethnic origins work together John D. Rockefeller made his fortune in the field of: A. steel B. banking C. shipping D. petroleum Both Social Darwinism and Darwin's theory of biological evolution agree with the doctrine of: A. Social Gospel B. instant creation C. biblical inerrancy D. survival of the fittest A major feature of the program of the American Federation of Labor was its emphasis on: A. mass organization of all laborers--skilled, unskilled, and agricultural B. political action to achieve its goals C. immediate objectives, such as wages, hours, and working conditions D. reforming and altering the capitalist system The Homestead strike of 1892 and the Pullman strike of 1894 were similar in that: A. both started when management ordered pay cuts for workers B. both involved the American Railway Union

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C. federal troops were used to restore order in both D. strikers fought Pinkerton guards in violent pitched battles at both locations In seeking a court injunction against the Pullman and related railroad strikes, the federal government invoked... A. its powers over interstate transport of the mails B. its general police power C. its powers of national defense D. the due-process clauses of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments Which of the following novels is an account of the struggle between oppressed wheat farmers and powerful railroad interests in California A. Kate Chopin's Awakening B. Frank Norris's Octopus C. Frank Norris's Pit D. Upton Sinclair's Jungle Which of the following novels is a shocking expose of the horrible conditions in the Chicago meat-packing industry A. Kate Chopin's Awakening B. Frank Norris's Octopus C. Frank Norris's Pit D. Upton Sinclair's Jungle Life in the American city in the late nineteenth century required a more conscious awareness of: A. clock time and time schedules B. public health C. fire safety D. all of the above Louis Sullivan was significant to American urban development as: A. the inventor of the flush toilet B. the builder of the first subway C. the inventor of the elevator D. an architect, especially of skyscrapers Unlike the earlier immigrants, virtually all the new immigrants of the late nineteenth century: A. settled in the South B. settled in industrial cities C. were skilled artisans or well-educated professionals D. were very easily and quickly assimilated into the mainstream of American life Three of the following categories of immigrants were prohibited from entering the united States by a general immigration law of 1882. Which is the exception A. convicts B. idiots C. illiterates D. paupers A significant factor in enabling cities to expand was the development of: A. the electric trolley B. improved sewage systems C. arc lighting for city streets D. the borough system of government The principal purpose of the Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 was to promote: A. adult literacy programs B. free elementary education in rural areas C. college education in agriculture and mechanics. D. higher standards in secondary education and, especially, college-preparatory programs Wellesley, Bryn Mawr, and Radcliffe are significant names in the field of higher education for: A. women B. blacks C. the mentally retarded D. the physically handicapped Three of the following accurately describe or characterize city bosses in the late nineteenth century. Which is the exception A. They were typically of foreign birth or parentage B. They depended for their power on the vote of the poor C. They dispensed welfare and patronage to their supporters D. They always held the most powerful elected positions in the government Three of the following were new developments in retail marketing in late-nineteenth-century America. Which is the exception A. mail-order houses B. department stores C. installment buying D. national chain stores

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William Randolph Hearst was most significant to American history in the field of: A. shipbuilding B. architecture C. banking and finance D. newspaper publishing In the 1880s, an important new development in magazine publishing was the introduction of: A. the popular magazine designed for mass circulation B. comic books C. the literary journal catering to the reading tastes of the urban sophisticate D. multicolor photographs The abbreviation "GOP" stands for: A. the Grand Old Party; that is, the Democratic party B. an organization of veterans of the Union army C. a federal agency created to protect the voting rights of blacks D. the Grand Old Party; that is, the Republican party In the late nineteenth century, which of the following groups would least likely vote Democratic A. Protestant farmers of the south B. unskilled wage earners C. Northern blacks D. Roman catholics of immigrant origin President James Garfield was assassinated by a deranged man who called himself: A. a stalwart B. an anarchist C. a Democrat D. a Half-Breed Which of the following acts was passed as a direct result of the assassination of Garfield A. the Pendleton Act B. the Dependent Pension Act C. the Sherman Antitrust Act D. the Mills Act In the election of 1884, when Dr. Samuel Burchard spoke of the part of "Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion," he was referring to the: A. populists B. Democrats C. stalwarts D. Liberal Republicans The expression "Crime of '73" refers to the: A. fixing of the ratio between silver and gold at 16 to 1 B. discontinuance of silver coinage C. inflation produced by the unlimited coinage of silver D. adoption of a bimetallic standard The most important issue in the 1896 presidential campaign was: A. the money question B. foreign policy C. the tariff D. the civil service The significance of the "cross of gold" speech was that: A. the populists refused to support William Jennings Bryan B. Bryan won the 1896 Democratic presidential nomination C. Congress was persuaded to adopt the Gold standard Act of 1900 D. it ended the "battle of the standards." The significance of the Supreme Court's ruling in the case of United States v. E. C. Knight was that A. The Sherman Antitrust Act was strenghtened B. The Sherman Antitrust Act was considerably weakened C. Congress's exclusive power over interstate commerce was affirmed D. private veterans' persions bills were declared unconstitutional The so-called Granger Laws were designed to regulate: A. the export of farm crops B. railroad and warehouse rates C. child labour D. minimum wages and maximum hours The Supreme Court decision in Munn v. Illinois was a victory for A. organised labour B. the Interstate Commerce commission C. the Grangers

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D. opponents of state regulation of industry During the 1860s and 1870s, the Grangers carried out three of the following activities. Which is the exception A. They established cooperatives B. They supported political candidates sympathetic to the farmers' needs C. They forged a political coalition with organized labor D. They disseminated information about new scientific agricultural techniques The populists in 1892 favored three of the following. Which is the exception A. the establishment of "subtreasuries" that would advance loans against stored crops B. the direct election of senators C. the abolition of the graduated income tax D. government ownership of railroads, telephones, and telegraphs Three of the following were contributory causes of the Panic of 1893. Which is the exception A. excessive capital investments, especially by railroads B. the loss of American markets abroad due to depressed conditions in Europe C. the tax policies of the federal government on big business D. the weakened purchasing power of farmers due to depressed prices in agriculture Three of the following were factors that contributed directly or indirectly to the development of the new Manifest Destiny at the turn of the century. Which is the exception A. the depression of 1893 B. the Populist movement and other class protests C. the closing of the frontier D. the declining volume of American foreign trade Alfred Thayer Mahan was significant to the development of American imperialism through his writings on: A. dialectical materialism B. Christian missions. C. Social Darwinism D. sea power In 1893, a revolution in Hawaii overthrew the government of Queen Liliuokalani. This revolution was carried out by: A. native inhabitants of Hawaii. B. American planters residing in Hawaii. C. Oriental immigrants to Hawaii. D. Spanish imperialists. The expression 'yellow press' refers to the newspapers that emphasize: A. a liberal viewpoint. B. lurid and sensational news C. pacifism in foreign affairs. D. the dangers of Oriental immigration. The significance of the Teller Amendment to the resolution on Cuba in 1898 was that the United States: A. announced its definite intention to annex cuba B. announced its definite intention to annex the Philippines C. disclaimed any intention of annexing Cuba D. disclaimed any intention of annexing any territory that belonged to Spain. Commodore George Dewey was noteworthy to the Spanish-American War for: A. sinking the Spanish fleet in Santiago harbor B. sinking the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay C. capturing Puerto Rico D. preventing spanish reinforcements from reaching Cuba In addition to military expeditions against the Spanish Cuba and the Philippines, the United States invaded: A. Morocco. B. port of Spain C. Puerto Rico D. Spain The Treaty of Paris of 1898, which ended the Spanish-American War, provided for Spain to transfer to the United States three of the following. Which is the exception A. Midway B. Guam C. the Philippines D. Puerto Rico The significance of the Supreme Court's ruling in the so-called Insular cases (1900-1904) was that: A. the Constitution follows the flag without exception B. native inhabitants of American colonies automatically gain American citizenship C. Congress is free to govern the recently acquired colonies in almost any way it sees fit D. the president, as Commander in Chief of the armed forces, has exclusive power to rule the colonies

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During the Progressive period, a new form of city government was developed in which the elected city officials hired a professionally trained adminstrator to run the government. This administrator was usually known as: A. a city manager B. an urban administrative specialist C. a mayor D. a commissioner Progressives fought for three of the following changes in political rights. Which of the following did the Progessives not want A. initiative B. primary elections C. recall D. sales tax Robert M. La Follette was significant in the progressive period of American history as: A. a reform governor of Wisconsin B. a reform mayor of Cleveland. C. an investigative reporter. D. a corrupt city boss of New York. Three of the following were included in the progressive reforms enacted in Wisconsin during the early 1900s. Which is the exception A. graduated taxes on inheritances B. the reduction of corporation taxes C. provisions for worker's compensation for on-the-job injuries D. the effective state regulation of railroads and utilities Which of the following organizations was most influental in securing the passage of the industrial safety laws ln the state of New York during the progressive period A. the Industrial Workers of the World B. the National Association of Manufacturers C. Tammany Hall D. the newly formed Progressive party During the first two decades of the twentieth century, before the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, women gained the right to vote in at least some elections in: A. all the states B. the majority of the states C. only a few of the Far Western states D. none of the states The first organization to demand an Equal Rights Amendment for women was the: A. National organization for Women (NOW). B. Women's Trade Union League C. National Woman's party D. National American Woman Suffrage Association. Ida Tarbell and Lincoln Steffens were most closely associated with: A. sociological jurisprudence. B. social Darwinism. C. the social Gospel. D. muckraking Although Wilson had campaigned in 1912 on the principles of the New Freedom, in practice his first term went far toward enacting the program of the: A. New Deal B. New Nationalism C. Deep South Democrats. D. Republican Old Guard. 1916, Congress passed the Keating-Owen Act to regulate child labor. Congress attempted to justify this legislation under its power to: A. tax. B. promote the general welfare C. regulate interstate commerce D. protect the health and safety of all citizens. Theodore Roosevelt's mediation was important at the Portsmouth peace conference of 1905, which: A. ended the Sino-Japanese War B. ended the Russo-Japanese War. C. settled the Franco-German dispute over Morocco D. settled the Venezuela boundary dispute with Great Britain The aphorism "Speak softly and carry a big stick" was used by Roosevelt in reference to his: A. foreign policy B. policy toward labor unions

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C. technique when on safari in Africa D. political strategy toward the Democrats The purpose of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was to A. safeguard existing American investments in Latin America B. open up new investment opportunities for Americans in Latin America C. provide legal grounds for the extension of America's colonial empire in Latin America D. forestall European intervention in Latin America by policing the economic affairs of indebted nations The outcome of the government's case against the Northern Securities company in 1904 was that: A. Theodore Roosevelt gave up the attempt to bust the trusts. B. this railroad monopoly was ordered to be dissolved C. the Sherman Antitrust Act was declared unconstitutional D. the Sherman Antitrust Act was ruled inapplicable in this case The expression "square deal," as used by Theodore Roosevelt, meant that the federal government would: A. combat racial injustice B. provide jobs for everyone C. be favorable to labor unions D. treat all special interests impartially With respect to government-controlled public lands, Roosevelt generally favored A. absolute preservation in their natural state B. leasing for unrestricted private exploitation C. conservation with carefully managed development D. outright sale to private developers who could use the land in any way they wished The New Nationalism of Theodore Roosevelt called for A. strengthening the regulatory powers of the federal government B. returning to the laissez-faire principles of the nineteenth century. C. investing the states with the largest responsibility for controlling the trusts and regulating industry. D. a vigorous program of trust busting to restore free competition and thus obviate the need for government regulation. When Panamanian rebels started a revolt against the government of Colombia in 1903, the United States: A. remained strictly neutral B. intervened on the side of Colombia C. intervened on the side of the rebels D. called for a meeting of the Pan-American Union. In the early years of the twentieth century, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) became significant as A. a radical labor union with ties to Communism B. a craft guild committed to quality workmanship C. a political action committee of organized labor D. an organization whose main purpose was to promote safety in the workplace William Howard Taft's policy of encouraging private American investments in underdeveloped regions of the world was given what label by some of his critics A. Dollar Diplomacy B. Missionary Diplomacy C. the White Man's Burden D. the Good Neighbor policy During the election of 1912, the Progressive party was known by the nickname A. Bull Moose B. Half-Breeds C. Mugwumps. D. Teddy Bear. The New Freedom of Woodrow Wilson called for A. reducingthe regulatory powers of the federal government B. returning to the laissez-faire principles of the late nineteenth century C. investing the states with the largest responsibility for controlling the trusts and regulating industry D. establish and enforce strict rules of competition to make it impossible for bigbusiness to abuse its power The effect of the Progressive party's entrance into the presidential election of 1912 was to: A. make no difference whatsoever in the outcome. B. split the Republican vote and allow the Democrat to win C. split the Democratic vote and allow the Republican to win D. prevent any of the three parties from gaining a majority in the electoral college. The Underwood-Simmons Tariff, one of the first major pieces of legislation passed in Wilson's administration, was significant in that: A. it was passed over the president's veto B. it caused a major split in the Democratic party C. it substantially lowered the tariff and enacted an income tax

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D. although touted as a reform measure, through log-rolling, it actually raised the average rates. An important feature of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 was that it A. made the recurrence of a major depression impossible. B. provided for a more elastic currency in the form of Federal Reserve notes C. required all banks in the nation to become members of the Federal Reserve system. D. established a central bank where individuals could safely deposit their savings.