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Definition Is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two or more others Syllogism of a certain form (In antiquity, there were two rival theories of the syllogism: Aristotelian syllogistic and Stoic syllogistic) Is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over Etymology time Tautology (Logic) A formula which is true in every possible logic Tautology (Rhetoric) An unnecessary or unessential repetition of meaning -- using different and dissimilar words Analogical reasoning is a method of processing information that compares the similarities between new Analogical Reasoning and understood concepts, then uses those similarities to gain understanding of the new concept. name of a person or thing, whether real or fictitious, after which a particular place, tribe, era, discovery, or Eponymy other item is named or thought to be name Reify Make (something abstract) more concrete or real



Wikipedia Wikipedia Wikipedia Wikipedia It is a form of inductive Wisegeedk reasoning Wikipedia Google used in philosophy (epistemology) to distinguish two types of knowledge, justifications or arguments. used in philosophy (epistemology) to distinguish two types of knowledge, justifications or arguments.

A priori A priori knowledge or justification is independent of experience (for example 'All bachelors are unmarried') Wikipedia

A posteriori a posteriori knowledge or justification is dependent on experience or empirical evidence (for example 'Some bachelors are very happy') the belief that reality exists independently of observers, whether in philosophy itself or in the applied arts and sciences. In this broad sense it is frequently contrasted with Idealism. Relativism is not a single doctrine but a family of views whose common theme is that some central aspect of experience, thought, evaluation, or even reality is somehow relative to something else. Critical Realism highlights a mind dependent aspect of the world, which reaches to understand (and comes to understanding of) the mind independent world is a generalization stating that certain properties possessed by a group (e.g. people, things, ideas) are universal, and not dependent on context. For example, the statement 'all human beings are mortal' is essentialist. commonly refers to the philosophical viewpoint that the natural universe and its natural laws and forces (as opposed to supernatural ones) operate in the universe, and that nothing exists beyond the natural universe or, if it does, it does not affect the natural universe that we know. Written or spoken communication Evolution assertion, hypothesis or theory is the logical possibility that it can be contradicted by an observation or the outcome of a physical experiment. That something is "falsifiable" does not mean it is false; rather, that if it is false, then some observation or experiment will produce a reproducible result that is in conflict with it scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them. indirect form of imperial dominance in which the hegemon (leader state) rules sub-ordinate states by the implied means of power rather than direct military force Wikipedia

Realist Relativist Critical Realism Essentialism De-essentialization Naturalism De-naturalization Discourse Evolutionary theory Falsification Geomorophology Hegemony

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Term Hermeneutic Idiographic Knowledge Marxism Nomothetic Over-determination

Definition study of the theory and practice of interpretation. the effort to understand the meaning of contingent, unique, and often subjective phenomena. familiarity with someone or something, which can include information, facts, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience or education. economic and sociopolitical worldview and method of socioeconomic inquiry that centers upon a materialist interpretation of history, a dialectical view of social change, and an analysis and critique of the development of capitalism. the effort to derive laws that explain objective phenomena in general. This is the theory of multiple causation, where various factors reinforce a position or action a much more complex notion than simple determinism. An example of over-determinism is when emotional states like anger are over-determined by past anger, at other objects and events, being brought in to a present situation. philosophical doctrine which regards everything that happens as determined by what preceded it. used in science to describe distinct concepts branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, biosphere and geosphere, view of scientific methods and a philosophical approach, theory, or system based on the view that, in the social as well as natural sciences, sensory experiences and their logical and mathematical treatment are together the exclusive source of all worthwhile information. philosophical movement evolved in reaction to modernism, the tendency in contemporary culture to accept only objective truth. concept widely used in social sciences such as sociology, anthropology, and archaeology, referring broadly to anything people do.[1] It overlaps with the Weberian notion of social action and the Marxist concept of praxis. Proceeding in steps; continuing steadily by increments: coordinated set of projects undertaking related research, often at national or even international level, with government funding.

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Determinism Paradigms Physiography Positivism Postmodernism Practice Progressive change Research programmes Signifier

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form which the sign takes Signified concept it represents Referent Situated knowledge Social construction

Social theory

Spatial science

what the sign 'stands for' knowledge specific to a particular situation sociological theories of knowledge that consider how social phenomena or objects of consciousness develop in social contexts wikipedia theoretical frameworks which are used to study and interpret social phenomena within a particular school of thought. An essential tool used by social scientists, theories relate to historical debates over the most valid and reliable methodologies (e.g. positivism and antipositivism), as well as the primacy of either structure or agency. wikipedia academic discipline incorporating fields such as surveying, geographic information systems, hydrography and cartography wikipedia

Term Systems theory Teleology Transcendental realism Under-determination uniformitarianism Abstraction Myth of objectivity Reflexivity Validity Objectivity Subjectivity Possibilism Nature Collateral concepts Ontology Epistemology

Definition interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research. any philosophical account which holds that final causes exist in nature, meaning that design and purpose analogous to that found in human actions are inherent also in the rest of nature. concept stemming from the philosophy of Immanuel Kant that implies individuals have a perfect understanding of the limitations of their own minds. situations where the evidence available is insufficient to identify which belief we should hold about that evidence philosophy of naturalism, the uniformitarianism assumption is that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now, have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe. process by which higher concepts are derived from the usage and classification of literal ("real" or "concrete") concepts, first principles, or other methods. circular relationships between cause and effect. an argument is valid if and only if its conclusion is a entailed by its premises, a formula is valid if and only if it is true under every interpretation, and an argument form (or schema) is valid if and only if every argument of that logical form is valid. A proposition is generally considered to be objectively true when its truth conditions are met and are "mind-independent"that is, not met by the judgment of a conscious entity or subject. refers to the subject and his or her perspective, feelings, beliefs, and desires. in cultural geography is the theory that the environment sets certain constraints or limitations, but culture is otherwise determined by social conditions. refers to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. It ranges in scale from the subatomic to the cosmic. Concepts that involve some or all of the meanings and referents of the idea of nature the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence or reality as such, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge.

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