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Product Development Stages

Idea generation Assessment of firms ability to carry out Customer Requirements Scope of design for Functional Specification manufacturability and value Product Specifications engineering teams Design, Review Test Market Introduction to Market Evaluation
Scope of product development team

Product Strategy Options

Product differentiation Low cost (value ,quality perceptions) Rapid response (early to market)


Need Satisfying offering leading to CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Who is the CUSTOMER ? What are his NEEDS ? PRESENT NEEDS ? basic needs, performance needs exiting needs ? FUTURE NEEDS ?
Todays exiting needs will be TOMORROWS ..?

Basic Needs, Performance Needs, Exciting Needs

Unearth the latent


requirements(unspoken) to have competitive advantage over the competitor.


Assign customer relative importance rating.

Kanos Model of customer requirements

Humor in Product Development

As the customer wanted it. As Marketing interpreted it.

As Engineering designed it.

1984-1994 T/Maker Co.

1984-1994 T/Maker Co.

As Operations made it.

1984-1994 T/Maker Co.

1984-1994 T/Maker Co.



NEED and PRODUCT Marriage

A good FIT does not create conflict CUSTOMER VOICE TECHNICAL VOICE
This requires that the designer and provider hear the voice of the user. To hear the voice of the user go to GEMBA

Concurrent Engineering
Concept development 0 Concept evaluation Embodiment design I Specification and planning II Development Detail design III Test and evaluation Manufacturing IV Product release

Simplified Quality Functional Deployment Voice of Marketplace High level QFD Design for assembly Design for manufacturability Design for Variety/Mass Customisation User oriented Design Design for testability

Design for international Design for serviceability Design for green Design for X

From Cradle to Cradle


The customers judgment, not yours Both the product and the associated services Not absolute, but relative to competitors Does not include price Quality index = Percent of sales from superior products minus Percent of sales from inferior products

Quality Function Deployment

Quality, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. The following description defines quality Fulfils requirements Is on time Is within costs (affordable)

QUALITY ? Quality is what makes it possible for a customer to have a love affair with your product or service. Telling lies, decreasing price or adding features can create a temporary infatuation. It takes quality to sustain a love affair. Love is always fickle. Therefore it is necessary to remain close to the person whose loyalty you wish to retain. You must be ever on the alert to understand what pleases the customer, for only customers define what constitutes quality. The wooing of the customer is never done. Quality is observed. Reliability is experienced

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Evolution of quality Principles












PRODUCT and ORGANISATION - CONSUMER LOYALTY Product : Need-satisfying offering of an organization

Fulfill ten demandments to retain consumer loyalty 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Earn my trust Inspire me Make it easy Put me in charge. Guide me. 24/7 Get to know me. Exceed my expectations. Reward me. Stay with me.


A satisfied customer is your best advertisement

One satisfied customer in 10 years will bring you 100 more.

The time has come to put yourself in your customers shoes.

Wear the Moccasin

Change from Technology / Product driven culture to Market / Client driven culture

Ask the customer what he needs

In a company meeting, everybody is giving suggestions on how to make better dog food. On being asked by the chairman, a trainee suggests, Sir I am not a dog. Let us get a few dogs to the conference table, offer them different food formula specimens and make the one they like. Moral : Ask the customer what he needs.

Manufacturing becomes a Marketing tool

. Make what the Customer wants . Make the Quantity he wants . Deliver when he wants it Quality & Service are the Uppermost Considerations PRODUCERS MAKE FEATURES CUSTOMERS BUY BENEFITS PRODUCTS ARE THE VEHICLES TO DELIVER BENEFITS TO CUSTOMERS





Generation @ business


IBM ThinkPad laptops and NetVista desktops. No matter how unique your need, theres one that fits the bill.
Technology for technologys sake never did anyone any good. Bearing this in mind, we present a range of IBM ThinkPad Laptops and NetVista desktops designed to meet specific user needs. Whoever you are, whatever you do and whatever you are looking for - whether its affordability, manageability, security, portability, entrylevel or high-end, for your desk or for the road - there is a state-of-the art, reliable, personnel computer waiting for you. Backed by a three year warranty and IBMs award winning service and support. To find the computer that has your name written on it, call IBM today.

The cartoon above is meant to make us chuckle a little about the difficulties consumers can experience in communicating what they want. But when you take a closer look, it isnt so funny. How can a company expect to stay in business if no connection is made between what the customer wants and what the company provides?

A metric mix-up : (left side) What the engineer wanted a belt clip 12 centimeters high. [right side] What he gota belt clip 12 inches high.

QUALITY: The notion of inherent quality, of products and services that are deemed to be superior as opposed to inferior has been discussed and debated for centuries. Philosophers such as Aristotle, Rene Descartes and John Locke have provided different facets of the definition of quality. In the 1930s Dr. Walter A. Shewhart began developing his definition of quality through the use of statistics and what is now termed "Statistical Quality Control." During and after World War II the statistical variations on the meaning of quality continued in the United States and Japan with the work of W. E. Deming, Joseph Juran and Armand V. Feigenbaum. In Japan, the work of Kaoru Ishikawa, Shigeru Mizuno, Shoji Shiba, Yoji Akao and Genechi Taguchi provided additional perspectives and a much larger context in which quality is germane e.g., "Total Quality Management (TQM)" and "Loss to Society."

The Kano Model

In the late 1970s Dr. Noriaki Kano of Tokyo Rika University further refined the notion of quality derived partially from his study of Herzberg's "MotivatorHygiene Theory." Whereas many of the previous definitions of quality were linear and one dimensional in nature, i.e., good or bad, small versus large loss to society, Dr. Kano integrated quality along two dimensions. The two dimensions were: 1. The degree to which a product or service performs and 2. The degree to which the user is satisfied.

The juxtaposing of the quality parameters of performance and user satisfaction in a two axis plot created the ability to define quality in a more sophisticated and holistic manner. The correlation of quality on two axes led Dr. Kano to three unique definitions of quality, namely: Basic Quality, Performance Quality and Excitement Quality.


A . Simple model of quality B . Redefined model of quality satisfaction D . Excitement aspects of quality satisfaction

Customer satisfaction

Degree of achievement C . Basic aspects of quality

Degree Customer

of achievement Degree

satisfaction Customer of achievement



of achievement

The Three Types of Quality The Kano Model is very useful in providing a level of sophistication not available in a one dimensional model of quality. If the level of customer satisfaction is plotted on a vertical axis and the degree that the product or service has achieved a given performance attribute on the horizontal axis, different types of customer wants and needs can be shown to cause widely different responses. The model shows that the customer's responses can be classified into three types: Basic, Performance, and Excitement.

Basic Quality The dynamics of Basic Quality indicate that some customer requirements if not achieved cause high dissatisfaction and if they are achieved have only a limited effect on causing customer satisfaction. The reason for this is that the customer expects this quality type. For example, when going into a restaurant for a meal, the customer expects there to be a place setting. If there isn't one, the customer will be dissatisfied. If there is a place setting, no credit will be given because there is supposed to be one. On the other hand, having many place settings does not create any additional satisfaction.

Basic Quality In the Automotive world, the customer expects a vehicle to start easily provide a safe driving environment, be free of squeaks, rattles and wind noise. Satisfaction is not created if a vehicle does these things. The result if these "basic" needs are not met, however, is devastating to the reputation and business of the Original Equipment Manufacturer. Basic quality provides "down-side risk" with very little "up-side potential" for customer satisfaction. Customers will express violation of basic quality attributes by complaining. In industry basic quality is typically measured by customer complaints, warranty data, product recalls, number of lawsuits, things-gone-wrong (TGW) and other failure reports.

Excitement Quality The third quality type generates positive satisfaction at any level of execution. This is referred to as Excitement Quality. Excitement is generated because the customer received some feature or attribute that they did not expect, ask for or even think it was possible. If the restaurant, for example, provides a glass of champagne "on the house," the customer will be pleasantly surprised. Likewise, the customer of a vehicle may not expect a car to have a built-in global positioning system, a maintenance free battery, heated seats, etc., but will be pleased when they are discovered during the ownership experience.

Excitement Quality
Customers generally do not articulate excitement attributes in customer surveys, because they do not know that they want them. In order to generate customer excitement and brand loyalty, companies must leverage their creative resources to identify ideas and innovations that cause customer excitement. Excitement quality becomes the special reason why customers will make a specific company the default choice over the competition and return to buy again and again. Excitement attributes cause an exponential response. Small improvements in providing excitement items cause relatively large increases in satisfaction. Several small excitement features may accumulate and generate sheer delight on the part of customers. The Kano model is useful for providing a two-dimensional model of quality. In actual application, requirements do not always fall neatly into one of the three categories. Very high levels of performance relative to expectations can act like excitement attributes and provide real reasons to choose a particular product over its competitor. Likewise, an intended excitement feature executed badly will cause dissatisfaction.

Customer Requirements Over Time It has also been observed that the customer's requirements change over time. Sources of excitement when they were first introduced tend to become expected as the market becomes familiar and saturated with them. In time, excitement quality will become a performance item and with the passage of time, quite possibly a basic requirement. Automatic transmissions which initially provided excitement because they made cars much easier to drive are classified today as a basic quality item. Customers for a time made comparisons because some designs performed better than others, but in today's vehicles, customers demand that automatic transmissions perform flawlessly. Customers talk about them only if there is a problem. Figure 3 shows the dynamic of time.

Customer Requirements Over Time

Figure 3.

E . Kano model of quality

(Beyond Satisfaction)


Degree of (One Dimensional)





BASIC (Taken for Granted)

Development of the Kano model of quality

Why : To understand the importance of functions or features to a customer

Economic Value and number of features

The KANO Model This is used to understand the importance of functions or features to a customer. Paired questions describe level of performance for a function, which is a demanded quality. Using this tool consumer needs can be categorised in to basic needs, performance needs, and excitement needs. Basic needs: Fundamental needs not expressed by the consumer during survey. They are taken for granted. Their presence does little to promote major satisfaction. Their absence will lead to dissatisfaction.

Basic Needs:

. Car to start in cold condition . Phone to have dial tone always . Toaster to work with different types/sizes of bread. . Software to permit printing on every printer.

In value-engineering terms these basic issues are the products functions. Product Cup to carry-out coffee Basic Functions Hold liquid Fit hand Restrict heat transfer Provide communication linkage Provide volume.

Phone service

Performance needs:
Performance needs provide an increase in satisfaction as performance improves. Generally expressed by the consumers Mileage in a car- better the happier Quicker the service the better Effort to drive Lesser the better Durability more the better

Excitement needs
Excitement needs cause immediate happiness. Further increase in performance causes more delight. Needs of this types are not verbalized, possibly because we are seldom asked to express our dreams. Creation of some excitement features in design would differentiate your product from the competitions.

Kano Summary There is no doubt that to be competitive, products or services must flawlessly execute all three quality types. Meeting customer's basic quality needs provides the foundation for elimination of dissatisfaction and complaints. Exceeding customer's performance expectations creates a competitive advantage and innovations differentiate the product and the organization creating an excited customer.

UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMER NEEDS Types of Customer Needs 1. DIRECT NEEDS: Needs that, when asked about the product, customers have no trouble declaring as something they are concerned about. 2. LATENT NEEDS: NEEDS THAT TYPICALLY ARE NOT DIRECTLY EXPRESSED BY THE CUSTOMER WITHOUT PROBING. Latent needs are better characterised as customer needs, not of the product, but of the system within which the product operates.

UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMER NEEDS 3. Constant Needs: These needs are intrinsic to the task of the product and always will be. 4. Variable Needs: These needs are not necessarily constant; if a foreseeable technological change can happen, these needs go away example: digital photography eliminates a customer need of long film storage life. These needs are more difficult to understand through discussions with the customer, since the customer may not understand them yet. 5. General Needs: These needs apply to every person in the customer population. 6. Niche Needs: These needs apply only to a smaller market segment within the entire buying population. Example: Not every vehicle needs to supply cool, air-conditioned air to the passenger cabin.

UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMER NEEDS CUSTOMER NEED MODELS: A simple list of needs , as distilled from the interviews from the customers The list can be augmented with importance weightings, determined through questionnaires with importance of each need determined independently of others as statistical distribution and an average weight.

UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMER NEEDS CUSTOMER NEED MODELS: A list of needs, each need complete with a range of possible target values, any value of which a design team might aim to meet. This representation may be considered a vector space, where the positions of all members in the market population can be represented within the vector space as a probability distribution. Every person in the market has an ideal set of target values on the list of needs, and every person is different. This probability space might be examined for large regions of high probability (cluster analysis), which , if the product is targeted in the centre of such clusters, the development effort is offered some assurance of larger success. One might also consider where any competitive offerings are positioned in such a space and respond accordingly through game playing models.


As a product improves, the needs change categories. Excitement needs become performance needs. Performance needs become basic needs. A drastic improvement in performance can create excitement again.
Instant photography (Polaroid) was an excitement when launched. Fax was exciting once! Devoting resources for improving basic needs to make a customer happy is impractical. Zero defects for basic needs do not mean a satisfied customer. Product must perform what is desired in a way that is exciting to the customer. Todays

exciting features are tomorrows expected features.

Understanding customer needs and wishes:


- Go to their environment and actually observe the customers using the


- Japanese call this form of market research Going to the Gemba



Allocation of Resources





Go to the spot

See the actual problem


Take the realistic action based on facts


Let us go to Gemba Demanded quality for transportation: Good fuel economy Good road stability Good ride Carries heavy load Sporty style Low cost Uses multi grade fuel

Well connected paved roads, gasoline stations, good traffic management system.


Let us go to Gemba Demanded quality for transportation: Good fuel economy Good road stability Good ride Carries heavy load Sporty style Low cost Uses multi grade fuel

No paved roads, no gasoline stations, heavy rains, no bridges


Going to Gemba

The DESIGN process must start with a trip to Gemba the actual place that is the users place if it has to achieve customer satisfaction. Trip to Gemba enables the designer to understand the frustrations and aspirations of the users and this is a valid input to differentiate and to achieve user satisfaction. It is very essential that the customers voice is heard through the entire process of design and delivery.

Going to Gemba

Trip to Gemba enables to Understand the customers definition of Quality essential to design products for the users. Product has features User receives benefits
Understand from the users the benefits which have value to them

DESIGN starts with understanding of the quality (satisfying, exciting) and value perceptions of the users.

Robust Design The Process

Five step Process Five step Process
Identify consumers / Identify consumers / Trade partner needs Trade partner needs Translate requirements Translate requirements in to Product in to Product Performance Specs Performance Specs Translate Performance Translate Performance Specs in to Specs in to Sub system Specs Sub system Specs Translate Sub System Translate Sub System Specs in to Specs in to Component Specs Component Specs Translate Component Translate Component Specs in to Specs in to Process Parameters Process Parameters

Rigorous Design right way Customer Focus right thing

State of Excellence starts with the customer. Designs are grounded on critical and quantified expectations. Focused on the right things.

The relationship of QFD, TRIZ, and Taguchi.

You need
Satisfied Customer High quality products Higher profits Larger market share Innovative products Anticipate future failures Protect intellectual capital Invent next generation






Beginning By the 1970s Japan had become the leading builder of supertanker cargo ships. In the late 1960s Mitsubishi Heavy Industries at the shipyards in Kobe Japan, sought the help of Japanese Government in developing logistics for building complex cargo ships. The Japanese Government contracted with several university, professors to create a system that would ensure that each step of the construction process would be linked to fulfilling a specific customer requirement. Thus Quality Function Deployment or QFD was born.

The Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Concept

A planning process Inputs: customers wants and needs Matrix format used for recording vital information Permits analysis and determination of priority issues Output: key action issue for improved customer satisfaction based on customer inputs

Planning is determining WHAT to make. Designing is deciding HOW to make it. Quality function is a function that forms quality Juran Planning is a Quality function. Design is a Quality function. Quality system is a logical arrangement or sequence of quality functions.


The Quality Function Deployment can be defined as converting the consumers demands into quality characteristics and developing a design quality for the finished product by systematically deploying the relationship between the demands and the characteristics, starting with the quality of each functional component and extending their deployment to the quality of each part and process. The overall quality of the product will be formed through this network of relationships. Quality Function Deployment, broadly speaking, is a general term that means deployment of quality through deployment of quality functions. Terms: Demanded quality Quality characteristics Quality elements Design elements that can be measured to evaluate quality. Design characteristics are measurable individual aspects of quality elements.


A structured method in which customer requirements are translated into appropriate technical requirements for each stage of product development and production. Listening to the voice of the customer and hearing it at every stage of product development.


QFD is an objective method for ensuring quality from the earliest stages of product development. The aim is to create a product that will fully satisfy users by relating their requirements to design characteristics all the way downstream to production. Quality deployment consists of these elements: Conversion of user quality requirements into design characteristics. Determination of those characteristics more critical to product quality Conversion of product quality characteristics into supporting characteristics in and among subassemblies and parts.


Dr. Yogi Akao of Tamaquwa University and others in Japan made efforts (~1970) to improve the design process to ensure that when the new product is introduced, it is of high quality from the beginning. The process of improving design was called quality function deployment. QFD is necessary to implementing world-class customer- driven product design.


Detailed analysis can be extended to the design of the system parts, process and control mechanisms. QFD is a customer driven planning process QFD causes the company to focus on customer requirements. All activities are customer-driven. Aligns the entire organisation with the customers perspective Involves all to develop a coherent design process and permits to focus to do best.


Selection of key priority items to improve customers satisfaction.

Customer delight

Benefits of QFD
QFD ensures that you fulfill your customers definition of quality. Focuses on planning and problem prevention. Places development efforts at the front of a program rather than at the end. Lower costs, greater productivity No traditional trade offs Quantity, time and cost are not conflicting with each other Product and process designs are optimized. Maximizes performance while reducing variation and waste. QFD helps teams systematically reach customers on oWhat to do oThe best way to do it oThe best order in which to accomplish it. oThe staffing and resources required

Benefits of QFD QFD is a pointed way of listening to customers to learn exactly what they want and then using a logical system to determine how best to fulfill those needs with available resources. QFD is a team builder. It ensures that every one works together to give customer exactly what they want. QFD takes broad product specifications or specific problems and through a series of matrices, breaks them in to specific action assignments. These assignments set the minimum level of effort that must be made to satisfy the customer. In short QFD translates customer requirements into appropriate technical requirements. QFD breaks down functional barriers and replaces emotion with logic QFD is an excellent meeting format for problem solving.

Benefits of QFD

Shorter development time Fewer engineering changes Reduced introduction costs Satisfaction of consumer needs and desires Improved product manufacturability Commonality of language Development of a ready reference for the future.

It is claimed that QFD reduces the number of forced design changes both pre-and post-product launch

American company Launch day

No. of changes

Japanese company INDIA - ????

14-17 Months

1-3 Months

20-24 Months




? 3 Months



Time/Cost to correct


General motors 60 months Honda motors 32 months from design stage to finished new car model Quality Function Deployment Integrating customer requirements to product design

Yoji Akao (1990)

Yoji Akao defined QFD as "a method for developing a design quality aimed at satisfying the consumer and then translating the consumer's demands into design targets and major quality assurance points to be used throughout the production phase".

Comprehensive Quality Deployment

le gy t du e t lo n nt ch en no me ity yme t/s m ch y al os loy Te eplo qu eplo C ep d d d sk /r i t y lit n bi me ia y el R eplo d al ci pe nt r s me e th y O eplo d

Quality Function Deployment


develop develop support support analyze analyze design design deliver deliver

Task Deployment (for Quality)

In the words of Prof. Yoji Akao

Quality Function Deployment

Identify customer wants Identify how the good/service will satisfy customer wants Relate customer wants to product hows Identify relationships between the firms hows Develop importance ratings Evaluate competing products

QFD House of Quality


Product Planning Assembly/Part deployment
Trade offs Part. char. Comp. Anal. Tech. char Part. char.

Process Planning

Process/Quality Control

Trade offs Tech. char Cust. needs Relationships

Processes Processes Process & Quality control


Relationships Proc. Param.

Target values

Target values

Define & prioritize customer needs. Analyze competitive opportunities. Plan a product to respond to needs and opportunities. Establish critical characteristic target values.

Identify critical parts & assemblies. Flow down critical product characteristics. Translate into critical part/assy characteristics & target values

Determine critical processes & process flow Develop production equipment requirements Establish critical process parameters

Determine critical parts and process characteristics Establish process control methods and parameters. Establish inspection & test methods & parameters

The House of Quality

Trade offs (negative correlations between measures) Measures (how the wants will be met)

(from the customers and the company)

Relationships (the degree to which measures affect wants)



Target values (numerical expressions of the measures)

Strategic Actions to Meet Customer and Company Wants

Inter relationship between Technical descriptors

Technical descriptors (voice of the company)

Customer requirements (voice of the customer)

Prioritized customer Requirements Importance Competitive analysis Market potential

Some relationship Strong relationship Weak relationship No relationship

Prioritized Technical descriptors

Relationship between Requirements and descriptors

Correlation Matrix Hows Hows Objective Objective

Importance Ratings

Target Goals Target Goals Customer Competitive Assessment

Whats Whats

Relationship Relationship Matrix Matrix

Technical competitive Technical competitive Assessment Assessment (How Muches) (How Muches)

Probability factors Probability factors Absolute Score Absolute Score Relative Score Relative Score

What is the mission or objective of the QFD project? What are the steps for the QFD process?
- Determine market segment and demographics - Determine the chief competitors - Hold several focus groups to develop ideas about customer concerns - Conduct customer interviews to determine wants and needs - Review voice verbatim - Distribute verbatim to team members - Consolidate voices - Develop questionnaires to determine customer importance and competitive evaluation for company and chief competitors - Examine data and develop affinity diagram - Generate preplanning (customer matrix) chart; sort out any attributes, styling, and lower level issues - Hold team meeting to review and discuss customer information matrix - Develop technical requirements - Determine required tests and initiate test requests

Determine who is responsible for each of the steps and who will assist the process. Set target dates for completion of each steps. Establish timetables for meetings and champion reviews

Quality Function Development Steps

1. 2. Identity criterion to select customer segments. Rank their importance. Identity customer segments, their characteristics and establish criteria for prioritising the segments. 3. Prioritise customer segments (AHP-Analytic Hierarchy Process) 4. Go to Gemba understand your customers voice. 5. Collect the voice of the customer. 6. Expand the verbatim response, determine the demanded quality and group them. 7. Get customer evaluation of demanded quality and prioritise their importance. 8. Classify demanded qualities in to basic needs, performance needs, excitement needs. 9. Obtain customer importance of demanded qualities and competition evaluation. 10. Prioritise demanded qualities

QFD Steps
11. Transform demanded quality into performance measure. 12. Establish relationship between demanded qualities and performance measures. 13. Establish weighted importance of performance measures. 14. Establish measurement criteria for performance measures. 15. Measure the performance including competitive products. 16. Validate methods of measuring performance. 17. Select target values for performance measures. 18. Identity conflict between performance measures and resolve these conflicts. 19. Rank the performance targets based on importance. 20. Evaluate difficulty to attain target value and asses current manufacturing capability. 21. Select projects targets.

Strong positive Positive Strong negative Negative

Empty weight Opening steps Closing force

Project objectives Improvement rate

Wear of lock

Target value

Technical parameters Safety lock Volume

Angle of opening


QFD applied to design of an Attach case 2 Product evaluation


Easy to carry Easy to open Easy to fill contents Adjustable capacity Easy to close Durable Stable when standing Privately accessible

54 60 30 27 36

6 180 20 270 9 9

4 5 5 4 4 4 4 3


o 99
9 108 135 9 45


4 4 1 3 5 3 2
1616 100 Strong relationship(=9)

1.7 6.8 2.5 10 1 1 1 1 1 5 3 2 33.7 1.3 3.9

36 135

15 27 54 138 9 150 9 57 4 27


18 333 21 # 6 4 2

6 305 19 # 5 6 8 150 9 99 6

153 231 9 14 #

Measurement unit Our product Competitive product Target value

Cm3 Type Kg 394 416 394 X Y X 2.4 2.2 2.4

DegType rees N K L K 80 85 80

0.45 5000 0.32 3500 0.45 5500

7 9

Medium relationship(=3) Weak relationship(=1) Our product Competitive product

Weight %
6 20 30 3 12 15 9 6 100



An overview of the QFD process

The level of importance that customers attach to their wants and needs Any complaints (letters, phone calls) from the customers

Importance rating

Complaints QFD starts with the customer!

The voice of the customer

Customer Competitive evaluation

What the customers Said their wants and needs

How customers rate Your companys product or service against those of your competitors

The basic ingredients of the QFD matrix; the customer information portion of the matrix.

Obtaining the voice of the customer CUSTOMER SEGMENTS

Stakeholders include any one who can influence the decision to use or buy the product and any one who is impacted by the use of the product. What customer segments have been used? What criteria have been used to rank customer segments? How to rank criteria for evaluation? How to rank customer segments? How to prioritize customer segments? And importance of their needs?

Obtaining the voice of the customer

Determine the target market. Determine the demographics Determine the geographical distribution. Use a nonaffiliated survey organization. Survey people external to the organization. Survey with or without samples of the current product.

Determining which people to survey

Obtaining the voice of the customer

An organization can obtain the voice of the customer in a number of ways once the issues of segments, demographics, and methods have been decided. The most common approaches are:

Focus groups Interviews - Telephone - One-on-one Mail questionnaires Product clinics Murmurs, observations Root wants


Existing user? Future user? Past user?

Candidates to be chosen on what may influence the design.


What are the products uses? What else might be used for now and in future? What.?


Where do you see the product being used ? Where else now and in future? Whereenvironment?


When it is being used? When may be used now and in future? Duration? Frequency?


Why is the product selected? Why might it be selected? Why not?


How do you see the product being used? How else might the product be used? Ergonomics? Consumers use creativily?

Organization need to interview and observe only 15 to 20 customers in depth Benefits will be only marginal if more than 20 are observed.




No. of new needs

10 No. of customers visited


FISHBOWL PRINCIPLE Conceptual stage A: Exploration and formulation of a new concept

Conceptual skill begins with an exploration process Professor Shiba calls FISHBOWL PRINCIPLE. It has three parts as shown in figure.


Analyze what I saw

Swim with User

Fish Bowl Method

First, one needs to jump into the fishbowl- for instance, go visit users of your product or service in their own work and use environment. Second, one swims with the fish experiences their environment. Third, one jumps up tries to see the user environment in a broader context and analyzes what was going on in the fishbowl and what the essence of the fish was. One uses these three skills to create a new hypothesis. The fishbowl principle is in contrast to standing out side the fishbowl looking in and measuring how well what is going on in the fishbowl matches a preconceived hypothesis.

Comparison of the percentages of customer needs that are revealed for focus groups and interviews as a function of the number of sessions. Note that a focus group lasts two hours, while an interview lasts one hour.


HIGH INTERAC -TION Visit to Customer Management Team

Phone call

Visit to customer users

Open - Ended enquiry

Visit to home

Process Observation
Tru Fu e kn tur e p owle rod dge uc ts for

Participant Observation






Understand the customers needs, dreams, wishes and expectations. Once you have identified the customer walk in his moccasins. Requires front-loading of resources for Going to the Gemba. Talking to the customer and recording what they say. Document data whom you are interviewing or observing and also record any information about the customer that would impact product design or how the customer would use the product
Information about Person No Name Age Sex Height Income Location Education Voice of customer

Voice of the Customer Table

INFO ABOUT PERSON 53 years Consultant 1.9 m. tall 12345A VOICE OF CUSTOMER I can move it
Works on my walls I = inferred E = explicit


WHO WHAT WHERE WHEN WHY InstruWork Historic E ctor E shop E bldg255 For 5 days record Moved Limited E trainee lecture Several times Work Easy to I tall E clean walls Space I short For all To see

Stays up long time

sticks to coated walls many moves possible Stay on wall 48 hrs.

Reposition able 4 times No change in properties

Product : Easel Pad


Data characteristics Sex Age 1 male 21

Scene WHO WHERE WHEN WHY WHAT HOW Keep fire in a strong wind Enjoying a smoke at the golf links

Original data

Demanded items

Demanded quality

Keep fire in a strong wind

Going onb a hike in the mountain







4 5

male male

21 21

Electronic ignition Last long

The flame is steady in the cold At the bus stop in the rain Ignitable in the rain The flame is steady in the rain Sure to ignite Sure to ignite The flame is steady The flame is steady At a pary Vivid colors A wide choice of colors Pretty design Pretty color coordination Pretty design Carrying in a small bag Small size Portable in hand Portable in a pocket Having a drink listening a jazz Refined Chidc color coordination Simple color coordination Having a drink in thought Good ignition sound Pleasant ignition sound Good sound when closing Pleasant sound when the cover closing the cover Ignitable with one action Ignitable with one hand Ignitable with a light touch Dropping by mistake Durability Undamaged when dropped Shock resistent Last long Dropping on the snow Troubleproof Undamaged when dropped in the water Throwing away when fuel runs out Disposable Disposable in to the dustbin

Sure to ignite on the mountain The flame is steady on the mountains Keeps fire in the rain

Ignitable in a strong wind The flame is steady in a strong wind Ignitable in the cold

Conversion from original data to Requirements

No Data Maping Sex Age Male 25 Original Data Keep ploughing in heavy rains Look good and strong Cheaper to operate Scene of actual use. Who, What, Where when and why? Driving tractor in a heavy rains for long hours Driving tractor to local town with family Driving back home after repair and purchase of spares. Demanded Item Demanded Quality/Customer requirements Steady engine power in wet weather / cold weather A wide choice of colours Colour gloss better than competitor. Comp. Operation cost.

Engine power strong . Vibrant colour. .Sturdy look.







Easy to operate

. Economical in long run .Competitive spare part pricing. Operating tractor .Ease of starrting .Starting with light tough. during bussy session. Ease of climbing .Minimal stree on body. Ease of seating .Supporting seat.

Clothespin verbatims
Grips the Laundry tightly so it doesnt fall or blow off the line Doesnt stain or leave dirt marks on laundry They last a long time at least two years Can use to hang skirts, scarves etc. on hangers Can write on them for use in class room or to note what papers they are clipping together Can use to close flour, pretzel, potato chip bags, etc. They dont get all tangled up in the bag

Coffee verbatims
Cup should be insulated cool so it doesnt burn my hand Lid should have a drink opening, one that is easy to remove and doesnt leave sharp edges Should have both decaf and regular coffee Should be hard to spill or tip over Shouldnt be flimsy so it squeezes in my hand and spills the coffee or pops the lid or collapses The lid aught to fit tight not come off easily
Typical verbatims from survey


Customer; Address; Telephone Willing to do follow up? Question / Prompt Bill Esposito 100 Memorial drive Cambridge, MA 02139 617-864-1274 Yes Question / Prompt I need to drive screws fast, faster than by hand Typical uses I sometimes do duct work; use sheet metal screws A lot of electrical; switch covers, Outlets, fans, kitchen appliances. I like the pistol grip; it feels the best Likes current tool I like the magnetized tip. I dont like it when the tip slips off the screw. Dislikes current tool I would like top be able to lock it so I can Use it with a dead battery. Some times I strip tough screws. An attachment to allow me to reach down skinny holes. Suggested improvements A point so I can scrape paint off of screws Would be nice it could punch a pilot hole. Interviewer(s); Date; Currently uses; Type of user; Jonathan and Lisa 19th December 1999 Craftsman model A3 Building maintenance Question / Prompt The SD drives screws faster than by hand The SD drive sheet metal screws in to Metal duct work The SD can be used for screws on Electrical devices The SD is comfortable for grip The SD tip remains the screw before it is driven The SD tip remains aligned with the Screw head without slipping The user can apply torque manually to the SD to drive a screw (!) The SD does not strip screw heads. The SD can access screws at the end of Deep, narrow holes. The SD allows the user to work with Screws that have been painted over. The SD can be used to create a pilot hole. (!)

Converting customer verbatim to re-worded data Customer Verbatim Want more than two snap roll buttons Need a neutral control on the transmitter Re- worded data Easy to Maneuver. Can handle difficult things Movement is stable . Can do complicated maneuvers Means and remarks Increase Snap Roll buttons

Add a neutral control to the transmitter


Customer statement

Need Statement - Right

Need Statement - Wrongs

What not how

Why dont you put protective shields around the battery contacts I drop my screwdriver all the time It doesnt matter if its raining; I still need to work outside on Saturdays. Id like to charge my battery from my cigarette lighter. I hate it when I dont know How much juice is left in the Batteries of my Cordless tools

The screw driver battery is protected from the accidental shorting The screwdriver operates normally after repeated dropping. The screwdriver operates normally in the rain. The screwdriver battery can be charged from an Automobile cigarette lighter. The screwdriver provides an indication of the energy Level of the battery.

The screwdriver battery contacts are covered by a plastic sliding door.


The screwdriver is rugged

Positive not negative

The screwdriver is not disabled by the rain An automobile cigarette Lighter adapter can charge The screwdriver battery The screwdriver should Provide an indication of The energy level Of the battery.

An attribute of the product

Avoid must and should

Examples illustrating the guidelines for writing need statements.

Customer voice into Design Team voice (PRODUCT PLANNING)

AIM: Establishing Composite importance for the customers demanded quality. Establishing the priorities of design requirements. Establishing the meaningful design targets.

QFD House of Quality - Camera

Customer voice into Design Team voice (PRODUCT PLANNING) WHATs TO HOWs
HOW: Make visible the subjective demanded qualities voiced by the customer. Translate these into engineering terms for the performance measures (language of the organizationused for evaluating alternatives used - by the design team).

Expand the verbatim response

Integrate the context of application with the customers verbatim response and generate expanded list of information about customer. This ensures that nothing is missing.

Sorting Customer data:

The expanded list will have the different types of statement containing recommended solutions, subjective performance statements, failure modes, specifications, functional requirements and price. Each of these types of data must be sorted and treated in separate analysis.

Function: What a product does or what task is performed? State function using active verb and noun (object) Flash light energizes a bulb, focuses light Demanded quality: Subjective description of performance and functions. It has an adverb and verb- quickly, smoothly etc. Performance measure: A technical measurement evaluating the performance of some demanded quality. It states how or what to measure. Illuminates things lumens at 30 meters. Failure mode: A type of defect. Reliability: The amount of time that passes before a particular failure occurs. Specification:A required numeric value for the products performance.


Target: A desired numeric value for a performance measure. Solution: A specific design, technology, methodology, manufacturing process or material to be used. Different industry, products may require additional definitions. Create a glossary and retain for reference.


STEPS List all the selected demanded qualities at the same level of abstraction. (Level selection controls analysis effort. 100 demanded qualities will require a matrix of 100 x 100 dealing with 10000 relationship). Group and select 20 to 30 demanded qualities which provide useful insight. Break the matrix if you have more demanded qualities.












How to construct a Quality Element Deployment chart

Extract and list the quality elements for each demanded quality Write each quality on a card. Using these as approximately third level details, group them into similar categories. Use a KJ like method (Jiro Kawakita) to group into first and second levels and assign descriptive headings. Rearrange from the first level to the second and third level of detail, adding items when necessary. Assign classification numbers and organize into a chart. Use the lower row (third level of detail) as your quality characteristics. Make sure they are measurable quality characteristics.



Onsite bachelors,engineering courses Onsite bachelors,business courses Onsite masters, engineering courses Onsite masters, business courses Offer specialized marketing courses Offer classes in system engineering Offer courses in QFD Offer courses in design for mfg,assy Want a course in value engineering Want design of experiments workshop Need a course in project management Would like to see a speed reading course Need some computer courses Courses required for advancement Need a course on meeting the business plan

Good scope of material

Good course offering

Training is Well managed

Classes are Well managed It is team/workShop oriented Has good instruction Has good room conditions

There is good support for The training

Good, active Management support


Text is complete And easy to use Good training materials Have proper Training equipment I am able to see all the visuals

Text is a good reference Work books contains all visuals used Book pages are numbered for reference Workbook sections are divided All necessary materials are furnished No loose materials handouts Texts contain examples of applications


Totals in each of primary,secondary, and tertiary groups

The 15 third-level voices for good course offerings have been divided in to third -, fourth-, and fifth- level items as shown Third level Fourth level Advanced degree Bachelors degree Marketing QFD Engineering Specializes courses Computer Speed reading Fifth level Masters, engineering Masters, business administration B.S., engineering Bachelors, business System engineering Design for assembly.mfg. Project management Design of experiments Value engineering Word Perfect Microsoft Word Excel CAD

College level courses

Third level

Fourth level

Fifth level

Specific company courses

Meeting the business plan Courses for advancement


Totals in each of the third, fourth, and fifth levels

Using the affinity diagram process to resort the voice at the third level in to additional levels.

First level
Good scope material

Second level
Good course offering

Third level
College level courses Specialized courses Company courses

fourth level

Fifth level

Classes are well arranged It is team/work shop oriented Training is well managed Has good instruction Has good room conditions

Managing class time Food drink practices Managing records Team orientation Courses are pragmatic Good quality instructors

Condition of room Condition of equipment Room layout

There is good support of the training

Good, active management support

Management is involved Management authorizes time

First level Fifth level

Second level
Text is complete and easy to use Have proper training equipment
I am able to see all the visuals

Third level
Text is good reference Text is complete

fourth level

Good training materials

Good room lighting Good reading, visibility Visuals support text Meet instructor equipment needs Meet student equipment needs




Totals in each group first through fifth levels

Affinity diagram for onsite education and training showing effect of developing a separate affinity diagram for the third-level voices.

Affinity Diagram
What is it? An Affinity Diagram is a collection of ideas organized into vertical columns. Each column has a header card placed at the top that captures the theme of the column of ideas. Why use it? To identify the element for success of a project These elements are described by the header cards To involve all team members in the process of describing actions to be taken To create expansive thinking on an issue To create order out of chaos To begin a proactive planning effort

What are all the activities needed to achieve our customer service goal? Develop Employees Allocate Equipment Allocate Time Construct Space Develop Feedback Approaches

Train Employees In new method Hire Sufficient staff

Purchase new technology

Make time for Planning sessions

Contact contractors

Monitor performance

Buy work Station equipment Locate Unused components

Prioritize efforts

Determine work areas needed Establish Budget for New work areas

Develop Suggestion system Compare performance to Customer requirements

Evaluate skills

Schedule meetings

Develop Performance evaluation Develop Career paths

Decide Key events

Affinity Diagrams:
Customers voices develop in a random manner. It is essential to group them to enable further handling. Affinity diagram provides structure for handling verbatim data by creating natural clusters or groups. The groupings increase understanding in the same way a bar chart can change hundreds of numbers from data into information. Affinity tree assures that same level of abstraction is used in questionnaires and later analysis. It also helps to verify completeness. Use one card per voice. Use team action. Develop natural groupings. Group the groups. Title the groups using customer words. Group names must also be demanded qualities but of a higher level of abstraction. Group name should have a minimum of two words with one of them describing a level of performance.

Affinity Diagrams:
Single item groups may not be the demanded qualities or they may be of a unique nature requiring special treatment during the design. Once the group title is decided find out if any elements are missing. If this is the name of the group, what elements should be included but are missing? Tree diagram can also be used to help generate a more comprehensive list using the group heading. Next test for missing groups by asking the questions when considering all aspects of the product are there any aspects not represented by the group headings? Dont Use One Word Titles Lasts a long time Looks good Easy to use Many varieties Durability Appearance Aesthetics Convenient Options


Generate appropriate Technical voices to represent the customer voice. At least one performance measure ( Technical Voice ) must be identified for each demand quality A cause and effect diagram can be made for the demanded quality. DQ is the effect and performance measure ( TV ) is the cause. Identifying performance measures often leads directly to product improvements.

If you can not measure something then you do not understand it.
- Lord Kelvin.

Extracting quality elements

Easy to carry around Small enough to carry Around easily Light enough to carry Feels stable when held Stable when set down weight, dimensions, shape, portability dimensions, shape, portability weight, shape, portability weight,center of gravity, angle of inclination shape, center of gravity, stability

Even beginners can Operate easily Can be operated easily Even though small in size

location of buttons, sensitivity to touch weight, shape, effort needed to move stick, stick sensitivity to touch, strength needed to hold lever in position, location of buttons, location of knobs, effort needed to operate knobs, knob sensitivity

Customer Voice

Design Team Voice

Quickly Time to complete Quietly Frequency range Use of customers words to drive performance measurements increase chances of innovation. IF YOU ALWAYS DO WHAT YOU DID BEFORE YOU WILL ALWAYS GET WHAT YOU GOT BEFORE.

The House of Quality

1. Record Customers Voices(Demanded Quality) (CV) 2.Obtain Customer Importance Rating (RIR) 3 Obtain Customers Competitive Assessment 4 Transform Demanded Quality (CV) into Performance Measure (Technical Voice, TV )
Trade offs (negative correlations between measures) Performance Measure/Technical Voice Measures (how the wants will be met)

(from the customers and the company)

R I R Relationships (the degree to which measures affect wants)



Target values (numerical expressions of the measures)

Strategic Actions to Meet Customer and Company Wants

Quality Function Deployment Generic example Voice entry Form QFD matrix Actual customers verbatim Specific example Grip things tightly Grip the laundry tightly so It does,t fall or blow off the Line. Can close bags. Can hold papers. Can hang skirts On hangers. Dont mar, Stain items Dont stain or leave dirt Marks on the laundry. Note : Grip force should Also consider temperature effects Stain absorption/transfer ratio Technical requirements #1 Technical requirements #2 Note: Requirement #1 involves

Gripping force

Using a fishbone diagram for recording voice translations.

Translating customer requirements into technical requirements in non product applications:

The Customers requirements
Service Service is quick Service is not expensive Repairs are done right Instructions clear, easy to understand Rooms are clean Deliveries on time as promised Baggage is not lost

Examples of Translations into Technical Requirements

Time to respond Time to service Cost to service Repairs / service effectiveness Readability of instructions Time to follow instructions Cleanliness standards Variance from schedule Percent on time Pieces lost per million

The Customers requirements

Business Improve product quality Improve product service Reduce waste

Examples of Translations into Technical Requirements

Reduce Product variation Reduce product faults Customer voice/response rate Improve service time Decrease service returns Determine areas of cost/waste Employee involvement effort

Translating customer requirements into technical requirements in non product applications

The Customers requirements

Clothespin Grips things tightly Easy to push/clamp on/off Dont mar/stain items Resist weather damage Last along time Dont break/come apart Dont tangle Can write on for record

Examples of translations into Technical requirements

Gripping force Force to load Force to unload Stain absorption/transfer ratio Ultraviolet exposure hours Environmental test hours Cycle life hours Break force Time to grasp and apply Surface friction Absorption rate Square inches of surface

Coffee cup
Cup stays cool Coffee stays hot Wont spill/tip Resists squeeze Doesnt leak Temperature at hand Fluid temperature loss over time Tip force at top Fluid loss - vertical impact Fluid loss - horizontal impact Indent/force relation Force/set relation Porosity

Translating customer requirements into Technical requirements

7 Rules for conversion of customer voice into customers requirements

1 Avoid statements in a negative form --- Handles do not rust/rust proof handle 2 Avoid two-valued concepts water does not accumulate in upper tray/ water drains quickly from tray 3 Avoid abstract words paint is durable/paint is saltwater proof 4 Avoid statements of solutions door has quick release handle/handle could be opened with one finger alone 5 Avoid the auxiliary verbs, should or must the inner light should open with door opening/ inner light opens along with door 6 Avoid premature detail door handle to accommodate hand profile and contours/door handle provide holding space 7 Avoid intangible concepts door is comfortable to reach/door handle placed to suit average height of user

Develop a QFD Matrix: The technical information portion

Customers voices No. Tertiary Technical requirements Measuring units DIR REL

1 2

Grip things tightly Easy to push / clamp on/off

Gripping force Force to load Force to unload

Pound Pound Pound

Custom requirements translation worksheet.

OBJECTIVES 1.EASE OF OPERATION BY INVALID Ease of propulsion Maneuverability Ease of control Steering, accelerating, braking stability Chair to ascent/decent ramps steps, gutters Ease of entering/ leaving chair comfort Range of operation


Forces/torques exerted (N; N.m) Turning circle (m) Forces/torques exerted (N; N.m) Response time (sec) Slop of ramp; size of steps; gutters (deg.) Forces exerted; time taken subjective rating; number/size of bedsores (N; sec.:-) Distance traveled without attention required to power source (km)

2.RELIABILITY AND MAINTANENCE Operation Clearing and repair Meantime to breakdown (days) Meantime to clean and repair (min) 3.durable construction Long life, no parts easily broken due to maneuverings Forecast life of chair and components (years)



4. WEIGHT Chair to be light to assist portability and propulsion weight

5. SIZE Passage of chair through doorways transport of chair in automobiles and public transport Width, overall dimension, weight (mm; kg)

6. SAFTY Emergency braking Protection of invalid in crash overturn Braking distance, slope (m; deg.) Forecast injuries (# per annum)


Ease of production Low cost

Number and complexity of components (#; - ) Manufacturing cost ($)

Customer requirement

Technical requirements A

Competitive requirement B 0.23 4.2 130 6.8 10.2 42 5 260 11.2 C 0.36 3.9 148 4.6 7.8 68 24 240 6.6

Units In. per Ib. Deg/min. Degrees Ounces Grade level seconds Seconds Seconds hours

Resists squeeze Coffee stays hot Cup stays cool Easy to operate Easy to follow instructions Time to connect to representative Quick service

Indent/force relationship Temp. loss over time Temp. at hand Operating effort Readability level Time to accomplish Connect time Transaction time Task completion time

0.17 4.9 150 8.6 11.6 50 5 180 6.5

Table of test results from technical competitive assessment of typical technical requirements.

Correlation Matrix Hows Hows Objective Objective

Importance Ratings

Target Goals Target Goals Customer Competitive Assessment

Whats Whats

Relationship Relationship Matrix Matrix

Technical competitive Technical competitive Assessment Assessment (How Muches) (How Muches)

Probability factors Probability factors Absolute Score Absolute Score Relative Score Relative Score


After the voice have been determined and consolidated, a customers level of importance and their competitive evaluation is to be done.

Mail questionnaires -Customers using companys products -Users of competitive products To rate the level of importance for a group of voice. To rate how well the product is performing for each of the voice

Use survey organizations experienced in customer opinion surveys. Knowledge of sample size, questionnaires language length of questionnaire are valuable.


Customer importance levels and competitive evaluations: -Mail Questionnaires - Importance ratings - Competitive evaluations Several competitions One major competitor No existing product

Additional customer information.

Questionnaire Sample: Two question will be asked of you. The answer in column 1 indicates how important each item is in influencing your purchase decision. The answer in column 2 asks you to evaluate each manufacturer on each item, after you have tried each one. Please answer columns 1 and 2 at the same time. Your questionnaire begins on page 2. Question 1 : The item listed here may influence your purchasing decisions for a radio controlled product. In column 1 , Please rank how much influence these item have on your purchase decision. Please circle the appropriate level. Question 2: Whose radio control do you currently own. Please fill in the name of the manufacturer. Company X . Name of manufacturer ( Company Y . Name of manufacturer ( Company Z . Name of manufacturer ( ) ) )

In column 2, please evaluate each manufacturers product after using it. Please circle the appropriate level.
Item to judge the product

No influence at all

Very strong influence

Minor Influence

Some Influence

(example) easy to hold

1 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5


Strong Influence

Very bad Bad Fair Good Very good

The House of Quality

1. Record Customers Voices(Demanded Quality) (CV) 2.Obtain Customer Importance Rating (RIR) 3 Obtain Customers Competitive Assessment 4 Transform Demanded Quality (CV) into Performance Measure (Technical Voice, TV )
Trade offs (negative correlations between measures) Performance Measure/Technical Voice

(how the wants will be met)

(from the customers and the company)


Relationships (the degree to which measures affect wants)

Target values



5.Establish relationships between the customer voice and technical voice.

(numerical expressions of the measures)

Strategic Actions to Meet Customer and Company Wants

Product planning matrix


1. Which demanded quality is to be selected depends on what the organization is interested in learning and how much direction is needed. Selection Criteria More important once Kano Model -excitement and performance related needs

DESIGN TEAM VOICE Relationship Matrix ( Demanded Quality Performance Measure ) Establish relationships between the customer voice and technical voice.

The predictive relationship between performance measures and demanded qualities into objective design language. For each row and column intersection ask If I know the value for performance measure X, how well will it predict the customers satisfaction with the products ability to satisfy Demanded quality Y. Four option are offered A strong relationship with a value of 9 A medium relationship with value of 3 A weak relationship with value of 1 No relationship with a value of 0

Coding these data with a five point/nine point scale for quick visual understanding enhances reporting and discussion. This allows potting of all performance measures with a single vertical axis. Use a 5/9 for outstanding performance and a 1 for poor performance.

Interrelationship matrix Strong Weak 9 3

Medium 5

Important demanded qualities must have a performance measure with at least a medium relationship. Designing to critical 20% will satisfy 80% of the customers desires (Pareto Principle). When in doubt investigate and establish relationship. A blank row means the demanded quality will not influence the design. A blank column indicates waste measuring some thing that does not address customer needs. Include statutory or corporate requirements.

1. Empty rows.
Demanded quality items with no relating Quality Characteristics means there is no way to DQ and define new QC.

2. Empty Columns.
Quality characteristics that do Demanded Quality. Unnecessary matrix cumbersome. Check to be QC, they relate to the product or the usage environment or the user. not relate QC make sure these service and to the are not

3. Rows with no strong relationships.

Demanded Quality is difficult to achieve without at least one strongly related Quality Characteristics. Use expert help to extract strongly related QC.

4. Rows that repeat identical relationships.

Demanded Quality relationships are repeating, indicating a problem with the QD hierarchy. Examine DQ Classification Hierarchy (Tree) to assure that levels of detail are arranged properly. A common problem is 4th level details being mixed in with third level. This can cause serious problems later on if this repetition causes some QC to be weighted too heavily.

5. Clusters of relationships
Possible hierarchy problems in either Demanded Quality Classification Hierarchy (Tree), Quality Characteristic classification Hierarchy (Tree) or both. Review and correct. Possible that quality characteristics are inappropriate.

6. Row with too many relationships.

Demanded Quality item may actually be a cost, reliability or safety item.Remove from House of Quality for deployment in reliability Deployment, Cost Deployment or Safety Deployment. Demanded Quality item may be 1st or 2nd level mixed in with lower levels. Review hierarchy in QC Classification Hierarchy (Tree).

7. Column with too many relationships

Quality Characteristics may actually be a cost, reliability or safety item. Remove from House of Quality for deployment in reliability Deployment, Cost Deployment or Safety Deployment. Quality Characteristic may be 1st or Second level mixed in with lower levels. Review hierarchy in QC classification Hierarchy (Tree)

8. Diagonal line across matrix with few other relationships

Demanded Quality item may in fact be Quality Characteristics worded differently or implementation methods. DQ should represent voice of the customer not engineer.

9. Too many week relationships

Clear Quality characteristics need to be developed. Quality Characteristics should relate strongly to at least one demanded quality item.

For every technical requirement, there is a direction that is most favorable for customers one that will maximize satisfaction. Symbols can be used to denote this direction of improvement; Bigger Longer Heavier Faster More Smaller Shorter Lighter Slower Less

is better

is better

o o o

Meeting a definite target is best for customer satisfaction A target is the best objective. If there is any difficulty in meeting the target, it should be on the low side of target. A target is the best objective. If there is any difficulty in meeting the target, it should be on the high side of target. Use of symbols to indicate the direction of improvement for customers.

Validating Strength Relationship:

The methods for measuring the performance should be validated before going further Any cell which has a strong relationship between performance measure and demanded quality should have agreement between the customers evaluation of the competing products and your measurement of the competing products. The desired direction for better performance when represented by a symbol clarifies for comparing products.

o o o

Meeting a definite target is best for customer satisfaction A target is the best object If there is any difficulty in meeting the target it should be on the low side of the target. A target is the best objective. If there is any difficulty in meeting the target, it should be on the high side of the target.

Temperature at hand Cup stays cool

Cup doesnt turn My hand, Can handle Cup while driving without It getting too hot to handle

Note: Check temperature at point of closest hand contact

Tip force at top Wont spill or tip Fluid loss vertical impact Fluid loss horizontal impact Cup doesnt tip over Easily or slosh coffee On road-over typical City roads. Note: Test for Fluid loss impact has programmed vibrations and impacts based on typical city roads.

Use of a fishbone diagram for recording direction of improvement.

Product planning matrix

CORELATIONSHIP MATRIX Identify the interrelationship amongst the different Technical Parameters considering the direction of improvement desired. Graphically indicate as strong positive , positive ,strong negative and negative on the roof of the matrix. The co relationship matrix indicate the favorable conditions and unfavorable conflicts between various technical parameters which need to be resolved during design.

Co-relationship of matrices
Strong positive Positive Strong Negative Negative

Product Planning Tables

Product Planning Table sets the targets for the design requirements and prioritizes the development efforts taking the customer importance rating. Performance measures are to be used to evaluate the performance of your organizations current design against the competition. For this actual specific tests are to be conducted and performance measured.

TARGET to be based on the Relative importance(customer rating ) of each Demanded Quality, Improvement to be achieved for each DQ, Importance of the DQ in selling the product and the relationship of the Technical Parameter to the DQ and other business issues Assign a weightage to each Demanded Quality. Calculate the weightage of each Technical Parameter using the DQ weightage and the strength of the relationship of DQ and TP ( Technical Voice ).

HOQ measurements Demanded quality hierarchy (rows)


1. Which demanded quality is to be selected depends on what the organization is interested in learning and how much direction is needed. Selection Criteria 1. More important once Kano Model -excitement and performance related needs

2. 3.

Prepare the Quality Planning Table (Customer Information Table) for the selected demanded quality. This contains customers importance for each demanded quality and the subjective evaluation of product performance for competitors. Directions for improvement and product aspects to be used for promoting sales are to be determined. Select the target performance for each demanded quality. Consider organizations performance in relation to competitors and customers demanded quality importance, companys strategic plan and competitors development plans.

Strong positive Positive Strong negative Negative

Empty weight Opening steps Closing force

Project objectives Improvement rate

Wear of lock

Target value

Technical parameters Safety lock Volume

Angle of opening


QFD applied to design of an Attach case 2 Product evaluation


Easy to carry Easy to open Easy to fill contents Adjustable capacity Easy to close Durable Stable when standing Privately accessible

54 60 30 27 36

6 180 20 270 9 9

4 5 5 4 4 4 4 3


o 99
9 108 135 9 45


4 4 1 3 5 3 2
1616 100 Strong relationship(=9)

1.7 6.8 2.5 10 1 1 1 1 1 5 3 2 33.7 1.3 3.9

36 135

15 27 54 138 9 150 9 57 4 27


18 333 21 # 6 4 2

6 305 19 # 5 6 8 150 9 99 6

153 231 9 14 #

Measurement unit Our product Competitive product Target value

Cm3 Type Kg 394 416 394 X Y X 2.4 2.2 2.4

DegType rees N K L K 80 85 80

0.45 5000 0.32 3500 0.45 5500

7 9

Medium relationship(=3) Weak relationship(=1) Our product Competitive product

Weight %
6 20 30 3 12 15 9 6 100



Strong positive Positive Strong negative Negative

Project objectives Plan Opening steps Weight

Our company

Empty weight

Closing force

Wear of lock

Ta rget value o

Technical parameters Safety lock Volume


Solas point

Easy to carry Easy to open Easy to fill contents Adjustable capacity Easy to close Durable Stable when standing Privately accessible

Customer importance

Competitive analysis

45 57 35 18 27

5 171 19 315 6 6

5 57 105 6 81 27 162

2 4 4 1 3 5 3 2
246 15 # 1657 100

4 3 2 4 3 4 4 3

4 5 5 4 4 4 4 3

1 1.7 1.2 2.5 1.5 1 1.3 1 1.5 1 1 -

2.00 8.16 15.00 1.00 3.90 7.50 3.00 2.00


18 21 45 119 7.2 129 7.8



162 7


18 7

21 15 50 3 348 21 # 6 4 2 5 345

111 6.5 135 8.2 N


5 42.56 100

20.8 10.5 # 5 6 8

Measurement unit Our product Competitive product Target value


Type Kg X Y X 2.4 2.2 2.4

DegType rees K L K 80 85 80

Strong relationship(=9)

394 416 394

0.45 5000 0.32 3500 0.45 5500

7 9

Medium relationship(=3) Weak relationship(=1) Our product Competitive product

Weight %
5 19 35 2 9


QFD applied to design of an Attach case 2 Product evaluation

Improvement Ratio

Angle of opening


Directions for improvement and product aspects to be used for promoting sales are to be determined.

5. Find the ratio of improvement for each demanded quality (row) Ratio of improvement = Target Current judgment (customers ) Target

Current Judgement

5/3 = 1 .67

Assign Sales Points to each of the Demanded quality. (Improving every aspect of a product is not an efficient way to increase market share ) Sales Points greater than 1.0 are seen as an opportunity for management to influence the design. 1.5 - Will distinguish the product from competition. This Demanded Quality will be a part of sales campaign to promote the product. 1.2 - Nice to have but not critical. Yoji Akao suggests a maximum of 3 sales points greater than 1 to emphasize the unique impact of those Demanded Qualities



3 X 1.67 X 1.5 = 7.5

Demanded Quality Composite Importance Weightage

Row Weight

Row Weight = RIR X Ratio of Improvement X Sales Point


RIR - Relative Importance Rating assigned by Customer


PERFORMANCE MEASURES - COLUMN WEIGHT It is a technical measurement evaluating the performance of demanded quality of a product. It is also a measure of the performance of a function. All information relating to customers demanded quality are in the language of the customer. These are to be changed to engineers language to enable the measurement of performance to evaluate alternative designs and to predict the satisfaction of the customer.

Technical characteristics hierarchy(columns)

HOQ measurements

Calculate customers weighted satisfaction by multiplying importance & customer judgment for and add column total for companys product and competition.

7. 8. 9.

Warranty or Complaints or any other items can be added (Column F) to meet the particular projects needs better. Calculate customers weighted satisfaction by multiplying importance & customer judgment for and add column total for companys product and competition. Calculate percent composite importance from DQ Composite Importance. The completion of Customer Information Table ( Quality Planning Table)provides information on customers demanded quality, competitive comparison, desired targets.

Selecting target values

Identify design conflict and the performance measures. These conflicts would force trade offs between competing target values. The following question will help in synthesizing. 1. How important is a performance measure? 2. How does the organization compare to the competition? 3. How does the performance measure relate to the corporate image? 4. What are the organizations technical abilities ? 5. What resources are available ? 6. What do you think the competition is developing?
After the targets are selected identify the priority of the projects. Identify performance measure conflicts: Model upgrade projects start with an existing design. Performance measure in existing designs often conflict with each other (shown in the peak of the house of quality). If there is a negative or strongly negative impact between performance measures the design must be compromised unless the negative impact is designed out.

Classical TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving ) was built up on the observation that only 40 principles were used to resolve many of the contradictions solved in the world patents.
Use of TRIZ offers an exciting approach to systematic inn ovation. Some conflicts can not be resolved because they are issues of Physics. More power in smaller size are in conflict. The following question help to clarify relationships among design measures:

If performance measure X is improved, will it help or hinder performance measure Z ?

QFD Out Put

The output from the analysis of the House of Quality is the selection of the few critical new and important performance measures.

Ranking relative importance to customers of the attributes. Mapping customer perceptions of a companys own product performance against competitors. Mapping actual measurements of a companys own product performance against competitors. Setting targets for companys own products. Listing a measure of difficulty and /or cost of achieving targets. Mapping the interrelations between product design features and functions (in the apex, above the matrix).

QFD Matrix There is no recipe for developing a QFD Matrix.Completed QFD Matrix represents a product planning history. Essential requirements for matrix are Customers wants and needs Technical requirements Relationships Target values For product Planning Matrix targets can not be established without competitive technical assessment data. Regulatory requirements, management voices, assessment of technical difficulty, field experience data and assessment of organizational difficulty are optional. These represent valuable input.

Prioritize segments and select appropriate subset of all customer segments. Gather the demanded qualities for all the selected customer segments.

Options: Make one product to satisfy all customers. Make one product with several options or adjustments or develop a product line.

QFD in design process.

The analysis to determine the priority items for improved customer satisfaction should be conducted using the customer portion of the matrix. The analysis of customers level of importance, their cogitative evaluation, any customer complaint, will assist development of goals for improved customer satisfaction of sales point and improvement ratios. After the priority items of customer concern are determined, the complete QFD matrix is to be used to determine which of the technical requirement should be worked on to respond to the priority items. Basis for development is to be decided considering customer requirements and organizational requirements.

QFD Steps
1. Identify the customers: who are they? 2. Determine the customers requirements, what do they want?

Kano Model
Collection methods for customers requirements: Specify the information needed Determine the type of data-collection method to be used. Determine the content of individual questions Design the questionnaire Order the questions (prioritize context) Take Data Reduce the data 3. The types of customers requirements( performance,exciting ? ) 4. Determine the relative importance of the requirements, who versus what? 5. Identify and evaluate the competition, How satisfied is the customer now?

QFD Steps
6. Generate engineering questions: How will the customers be met? 7. Relate customers requirements to engineering specifications: How measure what? 8. Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the hows dependent on each other? 9. Set engineering targets: How much is good enough?

Mission statement : Screwdriver project

Product description Key business Goats
A hand held power- assisted device for installing threaded fasteners Product introduction in fourth quarter of 2002 50% gross margin 10% share of cordless screwdriver market by 2004 Do-it-yourself consumer Casual consumer Light-duty professional Hand-held Power assisted Nickel-metal-hydride rechargeable battery technology User Retailer Sales force Service center Production Legal department

Primary Market Secondary Markets Assumptions


Customer selection Matrix for the cordless screwdriver project.

Lead users Users Retailer or Sales Outlet Service Center

Homeowner (occasional use) Handy person (frequent use) Professional (heavy-duty use

5 2

10 3


The SD provides plenty of power to dri screws. The SD is easy to set up and use.

* *

* * * * *

The SD is easy to turn on. The SD prevents inadvertent switching off. This user can set the maximum torque of the SD The SD provides ready access to bits or accessories. The SD can be attached to the user for temporary storage.
The SD power is convenient.

The SD maintain power for several hours of heavy use. The SD can drive screws in to hard wood The SD drives sheet metal screws into metal duct work

* ** * *! **

The SD drives screw faster than by hand

The SD makes it easy to start a screw.

The SD retains the screw before it is driven. The SD can be used to create a pilot hole
The SD works with a variety of screws.

* *** **!

The SD is easy to recharge. The SD can be used while recharging. The SD recharges quickly. The SD batteries are ready to use when new. The user can apply torque manually to the SD to drive a screw.
The SD lasts a long time .

The SD can turn Philips, torx, socket and hex head screws.
The SD can Access most screws.

The SD can be maneuvered in tight area.


The SD can can access screws at the end of deep narrow holes.
The SD turns screws that are in poor condition.

* *

The SD tips survives heavy use. The SD can be hammered. The SD can be dropped from a ladder with out damage.

The SD can be used to remove grease and dirt from screws. The SD allows the user to work with painted screws.

The SD feels good in the users hand.

The SD is easy to store.

*** *** * !

The SD is comfortable when the user pushes on it. The SD is comfortable when the user resists twisting. The SD is balanced in the users hand. The SD is equally easy to use in right or left hands. The SD weight is f\just right. The SD is Warm to touch in cold weather. The SD remains comfortable when left in the sun
The SD is easy to control while turning screws.

* **

The SD fits in a tool box easily. The SD can be charged while in storage. The SD resists corrosion when left out side or in damp places.


The SD maintains its charge after long period of storage The SD maintains its charge when wet.
The SD prevent damage to the work.

The SD prevents damage to the screw head. The SD prevents scratching of finished surfaces. The SD have a pleasant sound when it use. The SD looks like a professional quality tool.. The SD is safe The SD can be used on electrical devices.

*** *** **! * ** * *

The user can easily push on the SD. The user can easily resists the SD twisting. The SD can be locked on The SD speed can be controlled by the user while turning a screw. The SD remains aligned with the screw head without slipping. The user can easily seen where the screw is. The SD does not strip screw heads. The SD is easily reversible. ***

The SD does not cut the users hand.


The final sep in the method is to reflect on the results and the process. While the process of identifying customer needs can be usefully structured, it is not an exact science. The team must challenge its results to verify that they are consistent with the knowledge and intuition the team has developed through many hours of interaction with customers. Some questions to ask include: or Have we interacted with all of the important types of customers in our target market? Are we able to see beyond needs related only to existing products in order to capture the latent needs of our target customers? Are there areas of inquiry we should pursue in follow-up interviews surveys? Which of the customers we spoke to would be good participants in our on going development efforts What do we know that we didnt know when we started? Are we surprised by any of the needs? Did we involve everyone within our own organization who needs to deeply understand customer needs? How might we improve the process in future efforts?

Identifying customer needs is an integral part of the concept development phase of the product development process. The resulting customer needs are used to guide the team in establishing product specifications, generating product concepts, and selecting a product concept for further development. The process of identifying customer needs includes five steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Gather raw data from customers. Interpret the raw data in terms of customers needs. Organize the needs into a hierarchy of primary and secondary needs. Establish the relative importance of the needs. Reflect on the results and the process.

Creating a high quality information channel from customers to the product developers ensure that those who directly control the details of the product, including the product designers, fully understand the needs of the customer. Lead users are a good source of customer needs because they stand to benefit substantially from new product innovations. Furthermore, they are frequently able to articulate their needs more clearly than typical customers.

Customer needs should be expressed in terms of what the product has to do , not in terms of how the product might be implemented. Adherence to this principle leaves the development team with maximum flexibility to generate and select product concepts. The key benefits of the methods are : ensuring that the product is focused on customer needs and that no critical customer need is forgotten; developing a clear understanding among members of the development team of the needs of the customers in the target market; developing a fact base to be used in generating concepts, selecting a product concept, and establishing product specifications; and creating an archival record of the needs phase of the development process.

Product features and function


QFD Cascade

Component characteristics Product features and function

Process characteristics Component characteristics

Production operations Process characteristics

QFD Cascade
Product features and function

Linked matrices connect the customer with production



Component characteristics Product features and function

Process characteristics Component characteristics

Production operations Process characteristics

The four QFD charts provide a link between customer attributes and production

Business W A N T S

Measure (How)

Cascading QFD

Target values

W A N T S Manufacturing W A N T S Product Development W A N T S

Typical business planning process Conceptual diagram

1. Improve product quality/reliability Vision Vision Objectives Objectives Strategies Measures Reviews A. B. C. Action plans Measures Reviews Action plans Measures Reviews D. E. F. 3. Improve/refine 7-stage process

2. Improve customer service


4. Increase onsite education


5. XXX

6. XXX

Leader in customer satisfaction Strengthen employee development Continual improvement product Process driven XXX XXX

Deployment To groups

Column priority Relationship symbols Strong Moderate Weak

Using the QFD process in business planning (partial matrix shown)

7. XXX

Typical business planning process Conceptual diagram

Vision Vision 5. Create 7-stage council Objectives Objectives Strategies Measures Reviews

Strategies Importance level

1. Reduce faults/1000 3. Add exciting quality 2. Increase MTBF

6. Develop on-site curriculum by mid year

4. Increase service response

A. Improve product quality/reliability B. Improve customer service C. Improve/refine 7 stage process

Deployment to groups

Action plans Measures Reviews

Action plans Measures Reviews

D. Increase onsite education E. XXX F. XXX

Column priority
No. of features/yr

Relationship symbols
10%-top 5 prod

Moderate Weak

by mid year


24hrs-top 5 prd

Using the QFD process in business planning (partial matrix shown)


7. XXX

Action plans Importance level

3. Quality product/process c.c .s

2. Identity critical characteristics

Examining strategies to determine it there are any significant negative co-relationships

1. Voice of customer planning

4. Variability reduction

5. XXX


A. Reduce faults/1000 B. Increase MTBF C. Add exciting quality D. Increase service response E. XXX F. XXX

Targets measures
0.5/1000 10%-top 5 prod No. of features/yr 24hrs-top 5 prd XXX XXX

Targets measures
All c.c. 25 products

QFD next project

Moderate Weak

Top 25 products


7 standard dev.all c.c.

Co-relationship symbols: X Negative: action to improve one will negatively Affect the other

Relationship symbols


Using the QFD process in business planning (partial matrix shown)


7. XXX

QFD deployment to Manufacturing development Typical manufacturing Planning

Critical part requirements are identified. The process steps that will affect variation of the critical part requirements are identified. Tools such as FTA, Pugh Analysis and designed experiments may be used in conjunction with the matrices. In manufacturing area, an overall planning document is an effective starting point. This lists the key concern from a design and process view point and allows for a risk assessment, and specifies what is needed for key areas such as maintenance, quality assurance, work instruction and training. The end result is that the information in the manufacturing areas stems from the knowledge of the customer. If job instructions are followed, the resulting product should satisfy the customers wants and needs.


Critical part requirements are identified The process steps that will affect variation of the critical part requirements are identified. The process variables that will influence part variation, such as time, speed, amount, and temperature, are determined. The operating windows for these process variable are then established. These are the windows within which the process must be operated to ensure that variation is under control. The last step is one of developing the manufacturing plan that define and describe the implementation of the necessary process controls to ensure operation within these windows.

Over view of quality deployment 1

Demanded quality deployment

Quality characteristics characteristics

Characteristics value comparison Our companies current position Our competitors

Demanded quality deployment

Characteristics value comparison Own company characteristics Other company

Comparison of construction of A device to construction of devices made by us and Our competitors


Quality target

Certification of Selling features


Target cost for each device

Target cost

Comparative study of construction of each newly developed device

Idea A Idea B Idea C Extraction of bottle neck Engineering (1) Electronic transmission Control (2) .

The following are typical tools that should be considered to assist analysis of key issues in the matrix
Product planning matrix

Designed experiments
Designed experiments Design for assembly and manufacturing Fault tree analysis Design failure modes and effects analysis Concept selection processes Designed experiments Machine capability studies Process capability SPC Design failure modes and effects analysis

Product planning matrix

Product planning matrix

Manufacturing planning document Quality assurance planning

Maintenance instructions Operator instructions When What How

Manufacturing planning

QFD Common pitfalls and errors

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Attempting to work with a very large matrix. Mixing the consumers needs with solutions or failure modes. Pause and respond to the voice of the customer instead of immediately jumping to the obvious technical solution. Rapid reactions discourage innovation because they encourage practitioners to rely on traditional methods. Mastering QFD requires tolerance of the learning curve. Organizational climate must be supportive and must have quality as the corner stone of decision making. Management must assume the critical role of leading the QFD initiative. Select a project that has a broad appeal as first project, or that is simple but not trivial. Too- large team is troublesome. 5 to 11 works best. Decision making is to be by consensus. Expertise rather than position within the organization must shape decision-making process.Consensus decision making loses some of its power when rank takes precedence over knowledge.

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