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Lecture 1: INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes like thoughts and emotions.

Psychology in the Past 1) Structuralism (introspection- study of mind and thoughts) 2) Functionalism (functions of thinking and behavior) 3) Gestalt Psychology (focus as a whole rather than an individual) 4) Psychoanalysis (unconscious thoughts take control of behavior) 5) Behaviorism (study of visible behavior) Modern Psychology 1) Neuroscience (biological functioning) 2) Psychodynamic (extension of psychoanalysis) 3) Behaviorism (observable behavior) 4) Cognitive (how people think and their understanding of the world) 5) Humanistic (individuals naturally strive to develop and control their behavior and lives) Key issues and controversies Nature VS Nurture Conscious VS Unconscious Observable behavior VS Mental processes Free will VS Determination Individual VS Universal

Lecture 2: RESEARCH METHODS Steps in scientific method 1. Identify questions of interest 2. Formulate an explanation 3. Research on points that support and do no support the explanation 4. Communicate the findings Descriptive research Naturalistic observation (see-no-touch, natural behavior) Survey research (series of questions) Case study (in-depth investigation) Archival research (using existing data, create hypothesis) Correlation Research (r/s between 2 variables) Experimental research Pros: ONLY way to determine CAUSES and EFFECTS Cons: Costly, requires careful control and may not turn out as expected Ethical issues Protect participants from physical and psychological harm Uphold the right of participants to privacy regarding their behavior Participation must be voluntary Ensure consent is informed

Lecture 3: MEMORY Memory refers to. Sensory memory - momentary storage Short-term memory 15-25 seconds Long-term memory permanent, difficult to retrieve(implicit or explicit) EXPLICIT (declarative) For factual info Intentional/Conscious Eg. general knowledge, facts (semantic), events and occasion (episodic) IMPLICIT (procedural) For skills and behavior Not consciously aware of Eg. How to cycle, how to swim, how to read

Why we forget? Memory is loss through DECAY, LACK OF CUES and INTERFERENCE. Decay: if memory is not being used Insufficient cues: Not enough cues to retrieve memory Interference: Proactive- recent memory is lost due to the information getting interfered by similar, old memory/ Retroactive information works backwards and have to interfere with recent memory to retrieve old memory Recall Retrieval cue: stimulus to recall info more easily (eg. Sounds, pictures, words) Recognition: stimulus is presented and asked to identify Levels-of-Processing theory: the degree of analysis of new information Hypothesis: the more information is being analyzed; the more easily we can recall it. (Better understand first rather than reading it off and memorizing)

Lecture 6: INTELLIGENCE Intelligence is the capacity (ability) to understand the world, think rationally and use resources effectively when faced with challenges. Theories 1. Fluid Intelligence (info is being absorbed at a fast speed, especially in children) 2. Crystallized Intelligence (based on experience to be applied on problem solving situations) 3. Garners Multiple Intelligence (multi-talented) 4. Info-processing approached (critical thinking/IQ-use of stored memory) PRACTICAL Observing others behavior Motivation to succeed Learn general norm and principles and apply appropriately EMOTIONAL Empathy for others (putting yourself in their shoes) Self-motivation Understand others emotion and respond appropriately

Assessing Intelligence 1) IQ test 2) Mental age 3) Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale (Verbal/Perfomance) Variations Mental retardation (IQ 70 and below) Intellectually gifted (IQ 130 and above)


Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Additional needs: Cognitive: to know, understand and explore Aesthetic: to appreciate order and beauty Transcendence: to help others achieve their full potential Fulfilled Needs Achievement (esteem): Sense of satisfaction by striving for and attaining a level of excellence (high achievement- challenging, low achievement- avoid failure) Affiliation (love and belongingness): Establishing and maintaining relationship with other people (high affiliation- spend more time with friends, less alone time) Power (esteem, physiological): Seek impact, control and influence to others to be a powerful individual

Lecture 7: EMOTION 3 Elements of emotion 1) Physiological arousal 2) Cognitive interpretation 3) Emotional experience Physiological theories

1) Common sense theory (Stimulus > Response > Arousal (Action)) 2) James Theory (Stimulus > Arousal > Response (emotion)) 3) Canon Bard Theory (Stimulus > Brain > Arousal and Response) Cognitive theories 1) Schachter theory (Stimulus > Cognitive and Arousal > Response) 2) Facial feedback (Facial expression > Cognitive > Response) 3) Lazarus theory (Stimulus > Cognitive > Arousal and Response)

Lecture 8&9: LIFE SPAN DEVELOPMENT Life-span development refers to the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life.

NATURE Heredity (inherited) Eg. Genes

NURTURE Environment influences Eg. Family, friends, society

Prenatal Development- conception of birth How does nature affect the baby/fetus? Physical attributes (blue eyes, fair skinned etc) Personal characteristics Cognitive abilities (IQ, info-processing) Personality traits (hot-headed etc) Psychological disorder (Schizophrenic) How does nurture affect the fetus? Mothers nutrition/diet Mothers illnesses (HIV) Mothers alcohol/caffeine/nicotine intake


Stage Sensori-motor (Birth-2 yrs) Characterised by Differentiates self from objects Recognises self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: e.g. pulls a string to set mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise Achieves object permanence: realises that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense (pace Bishop Berkeley) Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colour Can think logically about objects and events Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9) Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size. Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systemtically Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems

Pre-operational (2-7 years)

Concrete operational (7-11 years)

Formal operational (11 years and up)






Lecture 10- PERSONALITY Personality is the pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality in a person. Motivated by inner forces and conflicts that one has little control over. FREUDS PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY

Personality approach Trait Three factor The Big Five Learning Skinners theory Social cognitive Biological and Evolutionary Humanistic Carl Rogers theory

PROS Clear, straightforward comparison of 2 parties Scientific study Objective (unbiased) Effective in treatment disorders

CONS Different conclusions Oversimplified

Highlights uniqueness Guides to psychotherapy development

Must interact with environment to determine personality Unconditioned Positive Regard does not always mean positive personality

TRAIT APPROACHES: seeks to identify basic traits to describe personality Three-factor theory 1) Extraversion degree of sociability 2) Neuroticism degree of stability 3) Psychoticism degree of reality distortion The BIG five 1) Openness to experience 2) Conscientiousness 3) Extraversion (fun-loving etc) 4) Agreeableness 5) Neuroticism (calm, insecure, paranoid) LEARNING APPROACHES: sum of learned responses that form personality Skinners behaviorist Collection of learned behavior (patterns of reinforcement) Can be altered through controlling and modifying patterns of reinforcement Social Cognitive Influence of a persons thinking, expectations, observation of others Self-efficacy- how capable we are in doing things Self-esteem how we feel about ourselves

BIOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY Personality is inherited (nature) Eg. Temperament

HUMANISTIC APPROACH: focus on innate goodness and desire to achieve Carl Rogers Theory Focuses on the fundamental need of self-actualization Unconditional positive regard Feelings of acceptance and gaining respect How do we assess personality? 1) Self-report (questionnaire) 2) Projective method (describe a given stimulus) 3) Behavioral Assessment (natural observation)

Lecture 14- PSYCHOTHERAPY Psychotherapy defines a professional person- therapist who uses psychological procedures in helping a patient overcome psychological disorders that hinders their daily work/life. Behavioral Approach 1) Aversive- pairing undesired behavior with unpleasant stimulus 2) Systematic Desensitization- pairing anxiety and relaxation 3) Token System- reward for desired behavior 4) Contingency Contracting- written agreement, positive consequences if achieved 5) Observational Learning- role model of other people

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Abnormality Deviation from average Deviation from ideal Inability of function efficiently Personal discomfort Legal concept- sane/insane Abnormal behavior 1) Causes to experience distress 2) Prevents from functioning effectively PERSPECTIVES Medical- main cause is physiological (Eg. medical problems) Psychoanalytic childhood conflicts Behavioral- learned behavior problem Cognitive distorted thoughts and beliefs Humanistic- responsible for own behavior Socio-culture- shaped by environment (good/bad) ANXIETY DISORDER 1) Phobic

2) Panic 3) Generalized Anxiety(long term) 4) Obsessive-Compulsive MOOD DISORDERS 1) Mania 2) Depression SCHIZOPHRENIA

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Social Cognition : how people makes sense of others and themselves 1) Halo effect: infer personality traits 2) Asssumed-similarity bias 3) Self-serving bias 4) Fundamental attribution error Cognitive Dissonance A person holds two contradicting thought and attitudes