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Gama Neguma Inter Divisional Rural and Small Township Development Initiative
For the North and East Province)

Prepared By: Eng.A.J.A.H.Jowsi

Municipal Engineer

Executive Summary

1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.2 Objective of the Project
1.3 Project Location
1.4 Data collection
1.5 Maps Used


2.1. Location
2.2. Topography
2.3. Climatic Features


3.1. General aspects
3.2. Socio- Economic Background
3.3. Infrastructure


4.1. Population of the Study Area
4.2. Population Projection
4.3. Population to be benefitted
4.4. Special Consideration


5.1. Inundation Problem
5.2. Existing Drainage
5.3. Solid Waste Management
5.4. Environmental Health

6.0 Analysis and Computations

6.1 Design approach
6.2 Rainfall data
6.3 Design criteria for drainage
6.4 Rainfall intensity
6.5 Land use pattern in watersheds
6.6 Catchment areas
6.7 Estimation of peak storm water flow
6.8 Runoff coefficient
6.9 Return Period
6.10 Checking Adequacy of drainage system
6.11 Drain and culvert design
6.12 Filling levels and reservation for roads

7.0 Environmental impacts

8.0 Project Cost Estimates

9.0 Project Evaluation

10.0 Recommendations and conclusions


A.1- Design Calculation and Tables

A.2 –Drawings
A.3-Bill of Quantities
Executive Summery

Kalmunai Munical council was selected to get financial assistance from the
Ministry of Economic Development under the world bank funded project
NELSIP ( North East Service Improvement Project). Improvement of the storm
water drainage system has been identified as the most significant issue in
Kalmunai Municiapl Council during problem identification meetings with the
local residents .

This report is intended to provide information about the technical feasibility of

the selected Sub-Project Proposals to be implemented under the block grants in
2011 and 2012 .

The study is focused on adapting the existing drainage network capable of

handling monsoonal flood in the project area of concern. There was a master plan
prepared by the SriLanka Land Reclamation and Development Corporation
(SLLRDC) in 1999. This master plan has wider sections passing through premises
as it has larger catchment areas. During 2008-2009 United Nations Office for
Project Services (UNOPS) has implemented a drainage project worth of 130
Million. Under this project , existing drainage network was adapted by diverting
flows through bypassing pipes to existing outfalls or new outfalls . That
experience was incorporated in designing the drains under this project.
1.1 General
Kalmunai Municipality is a low lying coastal town located at the eastern coastal
belt in Ampara District. The area is a strip of land along the coast line having an
average of 1km width and 10km length, average ground elevation is +2.5m MSL.
The municipality area is locked with Indian Ocean along its east edge, lagoons
and swamps along the west edge. North and South boundaries are Periya
Neelavanai of Baticaloa District and Karaithivu Pradeshiya Sabha, respectively.
Kalmunai is a densely populated town and the most urbanized areas of the town
are lying on the sand dunes.

Kalmunai town is situated approximately 250 Km East of Colombo City that is

one of the highly tsunami effected town in the East of Sri Lanka.

Due to the conflict prevailed for almost three decades, various infrastructures
have been damaged. That has been seriously affected the economic activity in
this region. The mean house hold income per month in the Eastern Province is
estimated to be 60 percent of national average. This figure indicates rather
deteriorated economic situation of the region in comparison with other provinces
in Sri Lanka.

The residents living in this area have been suffered from inundation caused by
the storm water in rainy season.

1.2 Objective of the Project

The main objective of this project is to reduce the flooding risk in
Kalimunaikudy and Islamabad.

The study is focusing on followings:

• Evaluate the condition of existing drainage facilities within the study
area and recommend the future use.
• Propose a technically feasible, economically viable and socially
acceptable solution for drainage system for the study area with the
consideration of proper implementation methods for the most viable
The drainage design is targeted to two major aspects.
1. Remove the storm water as soon as possible to prevent flood
2. Bring down the ground water table to a reasonable level to prevent
over flow of house hold septic tanks.

The outcomes of this study will be the conceptual design after carrying
out a detailed investigation and shall provide the following information.
i. Existing and proposed drainage paths.
ii. Existing and proposed sea outfall details.
iii. Average drain sizes and shape.
iv. Tentative cost Estimation

1.3 Project Locations

The study is mainly focus on decreasing the risk of flood and volume of
stagnant water in three areas; part of Kalmunaikudi, Kalmunai town and
and Islamabath area. ( See Fig.1.1 Project Locations )
Year Name of the Roads Estimated
amont (Millons)
2011 1. Mosque Road ,Thaika Road Kalmunaikdy 6
2. Islamabad Mosque road and Ameer Road 3.7
,Kalmunai Town
2012 Sahibu Road (New Outfall ) and Mosque lane 7
Fig 1.1- Drainage Project Locations in 2011 and 2012 under NELSIP
1.4 Data Collection
Detail Survey was carried out for all individual three sites providing
layout of proposed area, existing drains and culverts, spot levels of the
area etc.

Plans available with the Survey Department, the newly surveyed plans
and recent Satellite Images have been examined along with the
Meteorological data collected from Department of Meteorology.

Social survey was carried out in the project area to collect information
including flood level of the area, flooding segments, frequency of flooding,
reasons for flooding and other opinion related to flooding were collected
from following sources.
 Interviews with community members experiencing floods and
drainage related problems.
 Group discussions with community leaders, MC officials and other
representatives from UDA Office, RDA, Agrarian Development
Department, Irrigation Departments, Samurdhi Centers etc.,

1.5 Maps Used

The following maps were used for this study from various sources given
Type of Map Scale Source
1. Topo Sheet 1:50,000 Survey Dept.
2. ArcView GIS - KMC
3. Survey Profile Vertical 1:100 Survey by KMC
Horizontal 1:1,000
4. Survey LS/Cross Sections 1:50 Survey by KMC
2.1 Location
Kalmunai is situated in the coastal area of Ampara district of Eastern
Province along Baticallo – Ampara (A4) road. It is at nearly 250 km East of
Colombo city and lies between 81°-28’ to 81°-52’ E longitude and 7°-05’ to
7°-30’ N latitude.

Figure 2.1:-Location Map of Study Area


The study area is a flat terrain along the costal of 2.5 m elevation from the Mean
Sea Level in average, on a permeable sandy soil surrounded by the India Sea and
swamps on the west. It has approximately 67 square kilometers of land area and
it is stretching near 10 kilometer along the coast.

The town is in the Indian Ocean and the lagoon drainage basin. About 90% of the
town area is drained by these two basins, and the distance between these two
drainage areas is about 700m. There is no stream to interconnect these two, as
shown in Figure 2.2.

Because of the characteristics of flat low lying terrain where the town is located,
an elevation with only +2.5m MSL on an average, the discharge of storm water is
considerably difficult. Further more, as it is surrounded by lagoons and swamps,
and also due to comparatively higher ground elevation at the beach, the situation
is more critical. According to a questionnaire survey carried out by a JAICA
study team in September 2005 and it was revealed that the inundation depth
exceeds 1m in some locations and flood water remains for 10 – 15 days during
heavy rainy season.

Figure 2.2:- KALMUNAI Town- Topo Map

2.2 Climatic Features
There are two major rainy seasons in a year in Sri Lanka, normally
Southwest Monsoon in May to September and Northeast Monsoon in
December to February. Due to the topological feature of Ampara and
Baticallo area, it is dry during Southwest Monsoon period having an
average rainfall less than 250 mm. the Northeast Monsoon brings more
rainfall about 500-1000 mm. The average annual rainfall during 1961-2005
is about 1000-2000 mm.

The average temperature is about 28.70°C, and during dry period in April
to August temperature is 30.4°C. The temperature variation in this area
from year to year is less than 10%. The Table 2.1 shows the monthly
average rainfall and monthly average temperature in Ampara district.

Table 2.1:- The monthly average rainfall and temperature in Ampara district.

Month Rain fall (mm) Temperature (0C)

January 200 – 400 25.0 – 27.5
February 100 – 200 22.5 – 25.0
March 50 – 200 25.0 – 27.5
April 50 – 100 25.0 – 27.5
May 25 – 100 27.5
June 25 - 50 27.5
July 25 – 100 27.5
August 25 – 100 27.5
September 25 – 100 27.5
October 100 – 200 25.0 – 27.5
November 300 – 400 25.0 – 27.5
December 200 – 400 25.0 – 27.5
3.1 General Aspects
Kalmunai is situated in the coastal area of Ampara district of Eastern
province with the total area of 23 km2, adjoining Batticaloa and
Sammanthurai electorates. The district has developed along the Gal Oya
Scheme, Nation’s first irrigation scheme after independence, and known at
present as a rice-producing district.

According to the 1981 census, population of Kalmunai Municipal Council

is about 78,000 and 2001 census population is 94,500. In the past ten years,
population in Kalmunai Municipal Council is increased by 16,500.

Estimates suggest the Muslim population currently stands at some 75 per

cent, the Tamil population around 24 per cent, with the remaining one per
cent comprising Sinhalese and others. For the most part ethnic
communities tend to be segregated and internally homogeneous, with
urban clusters predominantly comprising a series of Tamil and Muslim
communities, often abutting. Building density in Muslim communities
tends to be higher, and household numbers tend to be larger, resulting in
higher population density.

3.2 Socio- Economic Background

The main source of income is derived from employment, business, and
agricultural activities. The agriculture particularly paddy cultivation is
predominant in most of these areas, besides fishery as secondary activity.

The area is characterized ethnically to be the Muslims and Tamil society

forming their own different culture and it is reported that the society of
the area will never intermingle each other. This fact must be taken into

account for the future water and sanitation and other development
Economy of the area is assumed to predominantly rely on agriculture. As
previously, stated 60 percent of the total population is estimated to be
engaged in agriculture, 20 percent in business, 10 percent in fishery 10
percent in various types of occupations. Only a handful number of people
earn their living from business and office work.

3.3 Infrastructures
The neatest railway station is Baticalloa which is 38 km away from
Kalmunai town. A major trunk road namely Baticallo – Ampara road A4
traverses the coastal segment of the project area.

Electricity is available for full day operation supplying to Municipal and

limited number of rural areas from the national grit. Electricity is available
for coastal towns including the project area.

Pipe borne water supply is available for most of the areas such as
Sainthamaruthu, Kalmunai and Natpitimunai cities in Kalmunai
Municipal Council whereas Maruthamunai is getting pipe borne water
supply from the second phase of the ECTAD Water Supply Scheme. The
balance gets water from well and browser supply.

There are two hospitals in Kalmunai. Ashroff Memorial hospital is located

at Sainthamaruthu, and Kalmunai Base hospital is located in the North of
Kalmunai. Both hospitals which are the main hospitals in this area tottaly
have 230 beds. National Medical Statistical data indicate that diarrhoea
and gastro-enteritis diseases are common.


4.1 Population of the Study Area

The population of Kalmunai Municipal Council is presented in Table 4.1
below extracted from 2001 census report. This illustrates the population
based on male and female and ages below 18 and over 18.

Table 4.1:- Population of Kalmunai Municipal Council

Sex Age
DS Division and Total No.
Under 18 Yrs
Sector of persons Male Female
18 Yrs & Over
Kalmunai -Muslim
70,439 34,231 36,208 27,041 43,398
& Kalmunai –Tamil
Sainthamaruthu 24,018 11,936 12,082 9,716 14,302
Total (KMC) 94,457 46,167 48,290 36,757 57,700
Source: - Census of Population and Housing, 2001

4.2 Population Projection

The population of Kalmunai Municipal Council is estimated for the year
2005 is 102,000 as shown below. Future population of the township is
estimated to be 114,000 in the year 2010 and 150,000 in 2020 and 176,000 in
2030 according to the estimation of Municipal Development Authority’s
(UDA’s) Eastern Province Physical Plan.

Table 4.2:- Population Projection Kalmunai Municipal Council

DS Division and Population

Sector 2001 2005 2010 2020 2030
Kalmunai –Muslim
70,439 76,000 85,000 112,000 131,000
Kalmunai –Tamil
Sainthamaruthu 24,018 26,000 29,000 38,000 45,000
Total (KMC) 94,457 102,000 114,000 150,000 176,000
Increase from 2005 - - 12,000 48,000 74,000
Annual Increase Rate - 2.1 2.2 2.7 1.6
Source: - Census of Population and Housing, Population Estimates (Eastern
Province Physical Plan)

According to the collected data in the Kalmunai Municipal Council area,
population in the year 2001 is 94,457. Population forecast for the year of
2030 is 1765,000.

4.3 Population to be benefited

The project will cover the following Grama Niladhari Division (GND) and
the population of each division is given below. The total population of
beneficiaries will be about 12835 in year 2012.
No. GND Division Population
1. Islamabath 1061
2. Kalmunaikudi 4 1125
3. Kalmunaikudi 5 1675
4. Kalmunaikudi 6 1210
5. Kalmunaikudi 7 1592
6. Kalmunaikudi 8 1193
7. Kalmunaikudi 9 2276
8. Kalmunaikudi 10 994
9. Kalmunaikudi 11 1259
Total 12835

4.4 Special Consideration

Most part ethnic communities tend to be segregated and internally
homogeneous, with urban clusters predominantly comprising a series of
Tamil and Muslim communities, often abutting. Building density in
Muslim communities tends to be higher, and household numbers tend to
be larger, resulting in higher population density. This can be clearly seen
on Figure 4.1 shown below.

Figure 4.1 Arc View Map of the Project Area

5.1. Inundation Problem
Certain areas of Kalmunai town including roads and residential,
commercial areas are subjected to flooding during heavy rains due to
following reasons:
Flat terrain, low-lying area, proximity to the sea and high water
Inadequate drainage network or absence of drains.
Rapid developments makes increment in built up area resulting
higher runoff.
Unauthorized fillings and urbanization depleting the flood
retention areas.
Closure of drains due to building operations.
Poor maintenances of existing drainage channels.
Solid waste disposal in to drainage system.
Problems prevailing in existing drainage outfall system.
Municipal Council of Kalmunai has been suffered from inundation
problem, particularly during not only in the rainy but also in dry season
because of the above reasons. The depth of inundation frequently exceed
more than 1.0 meter, and brings about social-economic problems al well as
environmental pollution.

In order to solve this inundation problem or flood hazards and to lower

the shallow ground water table, the storm water should be discharged
efficiently by providing adequate size of drain, culverts, retention ponds

5.2. Existing Drainage
There is no pipe borne drainage in the project area like in the other
Municipal areas whereas few roads have road side gutters and the storm
water mixed with grey water discharged in to canals and finally to the sea.

Household’s wastewater from kitchen and bathrooms, and wastewater

from commercial and government institutions in the town are drains
through the town, which leads to some common discharge points. The
greywater (domestic wastewater from baths, showers, washbasin, kitchen
etc. other than blackwater) is discharged into the ground around their
buildings and most of the times to road a side drain especially in town
area that is a common practice in many Municipal areas of South East

Roadside gutters in the municipality area are frequently clogging and this
requires frequent cleaning activities by the relevant authorities. The local
authority maintains the drains and arrangements are to be made to clean
them in most of the places.

Outsides the town area households use their wastewater on home

gardens. Most householders see this as a valuable resource during the
long dry spell. Storm water flows along natural drainage paths to the
major river and to the sea.

The followings recommendations are proposed to minimize the flooding in

the above certain areas.
- Improvements of drains and culverts.
- Proper maintenance of the drain channels.
- Water retention ponds to be kept.
- People awareness programs.

5.3. Solid Waste Management
Based on the unit waste rate of 0.4 kg/person/day and population data,
the present municipal waste generation from household in Kalmunai
Municipality is estimated at approximately 40 tons/day.

The tractor-trailers of Kalmunai Municipal Council collects rubbish

dumped by the side of the road and carts it to a dumping site located in
the central part of the Municipality. The frequency of collection is
generally irregular from once a day to once a week depending on the area.
Currently the Municipality has seven tractors of which capacity is
approximately 2 tons.

Municipal Council of Kalmunai has not been carrying out recycling

activities up to date. There are some private recycling shops in Kalmunai
Municipality. They collected materials such as plastic, glass bottle and
metal such as scrap iron, brass and aluminum, and generally transport to
Colombo and exported to other countries such as India.

Since the dumping areas are far from residential areas, householders
throw their waste in to drains or on road side, they do not see pollution as
a problem. However it may create an environmental problem in the future
and therefore the local authority should take remedial action to prevent
this. Households outside the town area either waste if they have space or
burn it.

It is recommended to have a proper strategic plan to collect the solid

waste in time and dispose, which will prevent blocking of the drainages.

5.4. Environmental Health
The health risk arising from side drains containing greywater depend
upon the pathogen content of the drain and the possibility of either direct
contact between persons, particularly children, and the drain or
contamination of water supplies by ingress of polluted drain water,
particularly for shallow well supplies and leaking distribution on
networks where interrupted supplies are frequent.
An infectious is one that can be transmitted from one person to another
directly or indirectly. All infectious diseases are caused by pathogens.
These are living organism such as bacteria, viruses or parasitic worms. A
disease is transmitted by the passing of these organisms from one person’s
body to another. Excreta related diseases are caused by pathogens
transmitted in human excreta, normally in the faeces. Inadequate facilities
for excreta disposal reduce the benefits of even a safe water supply by
transmitting pathogens from infected to healthy people by various routes
involving excreta.

Water level varies with the seasons. During the wet season groundwater
levels are high, close to ground level. And most of the septic tank and
soak-away pits contaminate the ground water which leads to the potential
for pathogens to migrate through the ground from the soakage pit to the
drains. Pathogens are not removed during the passage of effluent through
this process. Moreover, those household without their own latrines share
their neighbors’ latrine or excrete in the open areas.

The followings recommendations are proposed to minimize the

contamination in the above certain areas.
 Proper latrine facilities to those who excrete in the open area,
 People awareness programs.

 Legal action to be imposed against the people or factory owners
who do not take proper action to dispose their affluent
according to the approved standard set by the CEA.

6.1 Design Approach
The data were collected by various methods and verified as far as possible
with the help of Kalmunai Municipal Council. According to the discussion
held with the officials from KMC, Agrarian Development Department, and
studying of the hydrological aspects of the area and an appropriate design
was adopted to avoid any hydrological problems arising from the project by
attending to the following tasks.

 Identified the topography that consists of flood plains and, wetlands.

 Familiarized with the climate and catchment characteristics inherent with
the change over from wet zone to dry zone.
 Analyzed the intensity, duration and frequency of rainfall.
 Ascertained the permeability of soil, slope of ground, land use pattern
with a view to drive a realistic discharge across the road trace.
 Obtained stream flow data and corresponding water levels.

6.2 Rainfall Data

Sri Lanka has a tropical monsoon climate. In the study area the mean annual
precipitation is around 1,650 mm. there are two main monsoon seasons called
Northeast monsoon and Southwest monsoon as given below.

Table 6.1 Annual Rainfall and Highest day Rainfall at Baticallo

Season Months
Second Inter- Monsoon October - November
Northeast Monsoon December - February
First Inter- Monsoon March – April
Southwest Monsoon May – September

Rainfall has not been gauged in Kalmunai, but in Baticalloa and Ampara.
Therefore, the data of Baticallo station have been considered for hydrological
analysis as it is the closet area with the same conditions. With regard to the

topography there are similarities and being coastal areas Kalmunai and
Baticallo are similar in elevation, tidal action, catchments characteristics etc.
Data was collected from the department of Metrology.

Average monthly rainfalls for 1996-2000 and 2001-2005 have been plotted
separately in Figure 6.1 below. There is no significant deviation in rainfall
pattern from 1996 to 2005.

700 Average 19961-2000 Average 2001-2005


Reinfall (mm/day)






Figure 6.1 Monthly Rainfall Pattern in Baticallo

It shows that the study area is getting much rain during the northeast
monsoon season starting from December to February.


Reinfall (mm/day)





0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Time (Days)

Figure 6.2 Daily Rainfall Pattern in Baticallo

The following Table and Graph shows annual rainfall, daily rainfall for the
last 10 years.

Table 6.2 Annual Rainfall and Highest day Rainfall at Baticallo

Year Annual Rainfall (mm/Y) Highest Daily Rainfall (mm/day)

1996 1,681 101.2
1997 1,631 123.4
1998 1,010 65.3
1999 1,990 134.7
2000 2,022 97.0
2001 1,636 110.8
2002 1,873 134.7
2003 1,853 102.9
2004 2,595 236.7
2005 1,223 75.6
1,752 (Average) 236.7 (maximum)



Rainfall (mm)




1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Annual Rainfall (mm/Y) Highest Daily Rainfall (mm/day)

Figure 6.3 Rainfall Data in Baticallo (1996-2005)

6.3 Design Criteria for Drainage
The flowchart below describes the criteria used for the drainage design in this

Identification of
Drainage Network Site Maps &
Survey Plans

Identification of
Catchment and

Return Rainfall
Period Data

Intensity Estimation
of peak
Land use pattern

Runoff coefficient

Checking the Design of Sizes & Invert

adequacy of the levels of new drains &
existing Drainage related structures
of Flow
Improvements to existing
drainage structures

6.4 Rainfall Intensity
Rainfall intensity (I) normally given in millimeter per hour is a function of
time of concentration (Tc), can be estimated using several methods.

Time of concentration is directly depending on length of main stream in the

catchment area and the average slope of the catchment. The empirical
measurable catchment physiographic characteristics are as follows.

Tc = L + 15
V x 60
Tc - Time of concentration in minutes.
L - Length of maximum stream length in meters
V - Average velocity in meters per seconds
15 - Time for over land flow (till it connects to a proper path)

The magnitude of Average Velocity can be adopted from the table given
below in Table – 6.2 for the appropriate catchment slope.

Table– 6.3 Average Velocity for stream slope

Average Gradient of the Average Velocity /
Stream in Percentage (m/Sec)

0 to < 1 0.45
1 to < 2 0.60
2 to < 4 0.90
4 to < 6 1.20
≥6 1.50

Source: Design of Irrigation Head works for small catchments- A.J.P. Ponrajah.

The relationship between Time of Concentration (Tc) and rainfall intensity (I)
is given in Table – 6.2, and also schematically presented in Fig. 6.2. For an
appropriate recurrence period to be project Rainfall Intensity (I) could be
found using this relationship.

The Intensity Duration Frequency Curve for Baticallo, developed by
Department of irrigation, is used in this hydrological analysis.

Table 6.4 Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency Curve for Baticallo

Rainfall Intensity (mm/hr)
Time (hrs) Return Period in Years
2 5 10 25 50
0.25 92 110 121 135 146
0.50 70 84 94 106 115
1 50 60 67 76 83
2 30 39 46 54 60
6 13 18 21 25 28
Source: Rainfall Intensity Studies for Sri Lanka- G.T.Dharmasena and S.M. Premasiri

2 5 10 25 50
Rainfall Intensity (mm/hr)







0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Reinfall Duration (min)

Figure 6.4:- Rainfall intensity-Duration Curve (Baticallo)

6.5 Land-use Pattern in Watersheds

The general land-use pattern of watershed is urban, with business and
contiguous residential premises. The major land-use in watersheds is
identified from maps and site investigation. After confirmation on the main
watershed, sub basins, drainage network and outlets, the following
parameters were selected for the use of run off calculations.

 watershed are
 length of the longest drainage
 slope of the different segment of longest river
 land-use pattern
 extent of the localized flood detention areas

6.6 Catchment Areas

From the Contour maps and the topographical elements such as main roads,
natural streams, ponds etc., the catchment boundary of the project area was
identified and hence areas of the catchments were determined. These
catchments were divided into sub-catchments to design internal elements
such as drains, culverts, retention ponds etc. Figure 6.3 shows the main
catchments of the project areas.

6.7 Estimation of Peak Storm Water Flow

Estimation of peak flow is vital for the design of the drainage system. The
peak flow estimates would enable to identify the environmental concern such
as overflows and inundation depth in more scientific manner.

The peak flow estimates are made either by analyzing the available flow
records, extrapolating representative flow records or applying rainfall-run off

The flow estimation for the watersheds draining into the canal system, need
to be based on rainfall-runoff relationship. Such relationship either
incorporates empirical parameters or use parameters that are based on
watershed characteristics. The accuracy of the estimates depends on the
accuracy of the parameters and hence a verification process is often carried
out using measured data. In the presents of measured value, flow can be
made using reliable watershed models and with observed data of recent past.

This work is an application of commonly used peak flow hydrological models
on each watershed concern. The values obtained with each model were
compared and judgment were made giving due considerations to the model
structure, model parameters and the reliability of these inputs and observed
flood records during the last one year.

With the availability of data, the estimation of expected peak storm water
flows were ascertained using rational formula, which is widely used in
engineering practice for small catchments.

Rational Formula
Rational formula is stated as a reliable method to estimate peak flow in small
watersheds. However, due to the importance of these watersheds, being
located in the main city and adjacent to the city it was decided that only the
very small watersheds would be modeled using rational formula.

Rational formula Q = CIA/360

Q - Flow in cubic meters per second
C - Run off co efficient expressing the fraction of the rainfall that is
considered as effective direct runoff.
I - Rainfall intensity in mm/hr for a duration corresponding to the time
of concentration for the catchments area and having a recurrence
period appropriate to the project.
A Catchments area in hectares.

6.8 Run off coefficient

Run-off coefficient (C) expressed as factor of imperviousness or coefficient of
discharge depending on catchment characteristics which is widely used to
estimate the stream flow rates. For large catchment areas, compound run-off

coefficients have been calculated based on terrain and soil features. Table 6.3
shows the typical values of Run-Off coefficient for various types of ground

Table – 6.5 Typical Values for Runoff Coefficient – C for Urban Areas
Description of Area Runoff Coefficient [C]
Downtown Areas 0.70 – 0.95
Neighbourhood 0.50 – 0.70
Single Family Areas 0.30 – 0.50
Multiunits, Detached 0.40 – 0.60
Multiunits, Attached 0.60 - 0.75
Residential (Suburban) 0.25 – 0.40
Apartment Dwelling 0.50 – 0.40
Light Areas 0.50 – 0.80
Heavy Areas 0.60 – 0.90
Parks, Cemeteries 0.25 – 0.35
Play Grounds 0.25 – 0.35
Railroad Yard Areas 0.30 – 0.40
Unimproved Areas 0.20 – 0.40
Asphalt 0.70 – 0.95
Concrete 0.80 – 0.95
Brick 0.70 – 0.85
Drives and Walks 0.75 – 0.85
Roofs 0.75 – 0.95
Lawns; sandy Soil
Flat, 2% 0.05 – 0.10
Average, 2 – 7% 0.10 – 0.15
Steep, 7% 0.15 – 0.20
Lawns; Heavy Soil
Flat2% 0.13 – 0.17
Average2 – 7% 0.18 – 0.22
Steep, 7% 0.25 – 0.35

6.9 Return Period

The planning scale or the recurrence interval (Return period) for the design,
depends on the degree of importance of importance of the drainage. In a river
basin, a balance of planning scale should be maintained between upper and
lower reaches as well as between main streams and tributaries in a view of

consistency in planning scale for the entire basin. When a planning scale is
applied for a main stream in lower reaches, an equivalent or lower planning
scale is given for that main stream in its upper reaches. Planning scales for
tributaries are lower than that for min stream.

Drainage Return Period

A Importance stretches in large scale rivers 100 - 200 years
B Middle scale rivers 50 - 100 years
C Small scale rivers/ Streams/ Tributaries 10 - 50 years
D Urban Drainage 5 - 10 years or less

When area is very congested the design return period is restricted to 2 years.
In this study 5 years return period is adapted for the design of urban drainage

Computation of Retention Period

Most of the cases the governing factor for the determination of retention area
depend on the downstream boundary conditions such as culverts, drains
those can not be improved or flood level in the mainstream. Considering
these factors maximum discharge passes through the down stream structures
has been calculated. Hence the minimum volume that has to be kept as
retention is calculated. By having the longitudinal sections of the ground and
considering other factors as land value, existing ground features etc., the
retention ponds are kept in appropriate places.

6.10 Checking the Adequacy of Drainage System

Survey work of existing drainage scheme has been carried out along the
canals including flood prone areas with the view to determine the adequacy
of existing drainage scheme. Mathematical modeling has been carried out to
check the existing situation and improvements has been proposed by
considering the future scenarios.

6.11 Drain and Culvert Design
The proposed drainage scheme has been arrived at after ascertaining the
catchment areas and the discharges resulting from such catchment areas. The
objective is to remove surface water and ground water to some extent from
developed residential areas, paved roads and their immediate surrounding
areas. This is achieved by providing a system of drains and culverts all
connected together in one network and ultimately discharging into a main
stream and then to the sea outfalls and to the lagoon drainage.

The size and type of the drain and the culverts are then chosen for the design
discharge by considering headwater and tail water elevations and allowable
outlet velocity.

Velocity of Flow
The velocity of that has been adapted is such that is neither erosion nor
siltation. Minimum velocity of 0.6 m/s and maximum velocity of 3m/s has
been adapted for proposed lined drains and culverts.

Manning’s formula is widely used to compute the canal cross sections and the
openings of culverts where the flow is approximated to be normal flow under
gravity. Flow discharge is calculated using the Manning’s formula as given
below for the appropriate return period.

Q = (1/n).A.R 2/3 S ½
Where Q - flow in cubic meters per second.
n - Manning’s roughness coefficient (see Table 04)
A - Cross Sectional area of Flow
R - Hydraulic gradient of drain
S - Slope of the canal bed.

The following factors have been considered in the hydraulic design of drain
channels and their stability.
 Design frequency
 Channel gradient, which effects both the channel size and velocity
 Channel shape and alignment
 Flow discharge and velocity of flow
 Free board (average 20% of water depth)
 Local soil condition

Table 6.6 given below shows the values of roughness coefficient ‘n’ used for
the design of drains and culverts.
Table– 6.6 Values of Roughness Coefficient “n”
Minimum Normal Maximum
Type of Channel Description
Lined or Built – up Channels
1. Metal
a. Smooth steel surface
i. Unpainted 0.011 0.012 0.014
ii. Painted 0.012 0.013 0.017
b. Corrugated 0.021 0.025 0.030
2. Nonmetal
a. Cement
i. Neat, surface 0.010 0.011 0.013
ii. Mortar 0.011 0.013 0.015
b. Wood
i. Planed, untreated 0.010 0.012 0.014
ii. Planed, creosoted 0.011 0.012 0.015
iii. Unplanned 0.011 0.013 0.015
iv. Plank with battens 0.012 0.015 0.018
v. Lined with roofing paper 0.010 0.014 0.017
c. Concrete
i. Trowel finish 0.011 0.013 0.015
ii. Float finish 0.013 0.015 0.016
iii. Finished, with gravel on bottom 0.015 0.017 0.020
iv. Unfinished 0.014 0.017 0.020
v. Gunite, good section 0.016 0.019 0.023
vi. Gunite, wavey section 0.018 0.022 0.025
vii. On good excavated rock 0.017 0.020
viii. On irregular excavated rock 0.022 0.027
d. Concrete bottom float finished with
sides of
i. Dressed stone in mortar 0.015 0.017 0.020
ii. Random stone in mortar 0.017 0.020 0.024
iii. Cement rubble masonry, 0.016 0.020 0.024
plastered 0.020 0.025 0.030
iv. Cement rubble masonry 0.020 0.030 0.035
v. Dry rubble or riprap
e. Gravel bottom with sides of 0.017 0.020 0.025

i. Formed concrete 0.020 0.023 0.026
ii. Random stone in mortar 0.023 0.033 0.036
iii. Dry rubble riprap
f. Brick 0.011 0.013 0.015
i. Glazed 0.012 0.015 0.018
ii. In cement mortar
g. Masonry 0.017 0.025 0.030
i. Cemented rubble 0.023 0.032 0.035
ii. Dry rubble 0.013 0.015 0.017
h. Dressed ashlars
i. Asphalt 0.013 0.013
i. Smooth 0.016 0.016
ii. Rough 0.030 0.500
j. Vegetal lining 0.012 0.015 0.018
k. Concrete pipes and box culverts

6.12 Filling levels and Reservation for roads

Filling levels of the project areas are based on the flood levels considered,
water logging problem, sewerage, structural requirements and to have
minimum depth in the canal sections. The adjoining permanent properties
and filled land in the vicinity also considered before proposing the fill level of
the area.

Prior to commencement of proposed work, it is necessary to ensure that

sufficient reservation is available along the canal to construct maintenance
road for a required width. The municipal council is expected to give high
priority for this task, for the removal of obstructions and debris along the
canal, and to maintain well.

7.0 Environmental impacts
The proposed project will
 Minimize damages to houses, business establishments, public offices,
infrastructure facilities etc., due to ineffective storm water drainage
system which prevails in the project area.
 Reduce cost of maintenance and repair of roads and public
 Improve the water quality of the existing canals.
 Reduce health hazards caused by stagnant storm water, specially water
borne diseases like diarrhea, Diesentry and also reduce breeding of
mosquitoes thereby reducing the spread of vector diseases such as
Malaria, Dengue etc.,
 Increase land values due to reduction in water logging and inundation.

8.0 Project Cost Estimates
The following shows the project cost estimated for improvements of flood
protection and drainage improvements

No Description Amount (Rs)

Construction of Drain along Mosque Road ,
Thaika Road and Thaika –Mosque Roads
1. 6,000,000.00
Connection. To be implemented in the 2011
Construrction of Drain along Sahibu Road ,
Laying of Precast Concrete pipes , Construction
of sea outfall , Construction of drain at Mosque
2. 7,000,000.00
lane , Mosque road - Mosque lane connection.
To be implemented in the 2012 Project

Construrction of Drain along Islamabad

Mosque Road and Ameer Road , To be
3. implemented in the 2011 Project 3,700,000.00

Total 16,700,000.00

9.0 Project Evaluation
9.1 Benefit
The benefits by implementation of the project are expected in terms of savings
on preventing inundation damages, savings on social welfare and health
expenditure, savings on income losses, savings on maintenance of roads,
increased land values.

No social economic survey was carried out this time, considering the
preliminary stage of the study. Therefore, some of the benefits were
calculated from previous studies in the past in the same area, which were
focused on the similar issues (flooding & Drainages)

1. Saving on Preventing Damages

2. Saving on Social Welfare & Health
3. Saving on Road Maintenance
4. Saving on Income losses
5. Benefit due to Land Price Increase
6. Prevention of damages by inundation
7. Prevention of communal problem
8. Saving on compensation payment due to flooding

10.0 Recommendations and Conclusions
By implementing this drainage proposal in this project area, the people living
in the vicinity will be greatly benefited. Economic feasibility of the project can
be considered to be positive taking into account both tangible and intangible
benefits. Economic benefits of the project are

 Preventing flood damages to houses, business premises, roads, canals,

gardens and cultivation.
 Saving on social welfare expenditure on flood victims.
 Saving on health expenditure relief.
 Prevent income losses of the people.
 Increase in land value.
 Reduction in adhoc development.
 Prevention of communal problem
 Saving on compensation payment due to flooding

In addition to that many intangible benefits are expected as follows:

 Promotion of economic development
 Improvement of people’s living conditions
 Reduction of inconvenience in people life.
 Improvement of the hygienic environment
 Improvement of the water environment
 Contribution to poverty reduction.

Based on above consideration, it is concluded that the proposed storm water

drainage improvement project is economically and technically viable. Hence it can
be recommended as environmental improvement project.

Annexure -1 . Design Calculation and Tables

Schematic Layout of the Catchments

A. Catchment -6
Haniffa Road

Thaika Road
QTh1 Q2
Mosque Road QM
QMo1Q3 Q1
Moaque lane
QMl1 Q4
Madarasa Road

QMa1 QMa2
Cassim Road


B.Catchment -5

P.P Road
Sahibu Road QS
Haniffa Road


Specimen Calculation

Longest stream path

Catchments Area


Considered Discharging Point

Consider Mosque Road Drain leading to outfall ( QM)
Length of longest stream path, L = 800m

Area of the catchment, A = 25.4 Hec.

Say, Catchment slope, S = 0.04 <1

From Table 01, Average Velocity, V = 1.5 ft/sec

= 0.457 m/s
Time of Concentration, Tc = L + 15
V x 60
= 800/ (0.457x60) +15
= 44 minutes
Consider 25 Years Return Period as the drain serves larger area
For 25 Year Return Period, From Table 02 or Figure 05,

Rainfall Intensity, I = 95 mm/Hr

From Table 03,

Run-Off Coefficient, C = 0.35

Rational Formula,

Discharge at Considered point, Q M = CIA/360

= 0.35 x 95x25.4
= 2.346 m3/Sec

Section Design

Consider section with 1.2 m Width , Average Depth =1 m , Slope of Drain (From the LS) = (2.096-.763)/(783-290) =.0027
From Table 5.4 n= 0.013
Apply Manning eqn, Q = (1/n).A.R 2/3 S ½
A= 1.2*.1= 1.2 m2 , Wetted Perimeter = 1.2 +2*1 =3.2 m R= 1.2/3.2 =0.375

So the Flow Capacity of the Drain Q= 2.494 m3/s > 2.346 m3/s .. Design Satisfies

Velocity = Q/A= 2.494/1.2 = 2.08 m/s

Frude No= = 2.08/ = 0.664 <1 ( Flow is sub-critical )

Critical Depth = = = 0.86m

Critical Slope Sc= = 0.01537



Longest Return
Flow ID ( Refer the Extent of path of Time of Period Rainfall Runoff Desing Discharge
Catchment Road Scematic layout ) catchment (ha) Drain (m) Drain Slope Concentration(Min) (Year) Intensity Coefficient (m3/sec)
Cassim Qc1 2.1 360 0.002 28 5 85 0.35 0.173541667
Qc2 1.2 185 0.002 22 5 86 0.35 0.100333333
Qc3 1 165 0.002 21 5 86 0.35 0.083611111

Madarsa QMa1 2.1 400 0.002 30 5 84 0.35 0.1715

QMa2 1.2 185 0.002 22 5 86 0.35 0.100333333
QMa3 1 165 0.002 21 5 86 0.35 0.083611111

Mosque lane QMl1 4.3 580 0.003 36 5 78 0.35 0.326083333

QMl2 1 135 0.003 20 5 86 0.35 0.083611111
Q3 8.5 610 0.003 37 10 83 0.35 0.685902778
Q1 13.9 700 0.003 41 10 81 0.35 1.094625
Mosque QMo1 4.1 590 0.003 37 5 77 0.35 0.306930556

QMo2 1 100 0.003 19 5 86 0.35 0.083611111
QM 25.4 800 0.003 44 25 95 0.35 2.345972222
Thaika QTh1 3.7 500 0.004 33 5 80 0.35 0.287777778
QTh2 0.9 110 0.004 19 5 86 0.35 0.07525
Q2 6.4 500 0.004 33 5 80 0.35 0.497777778
Haniffa QH1 0.9 110 0.004 19 5 86 0.35 0.07525
QH2 0.9 110 0.004 19 5 86 0.35 0.07525

P.P QP1 3.6 390 0.003 29 5 83 0.35 0.2905

QP2 2.1 200 0.003 22 5 86 0.35 0.175583333
QP3 1.5 120 0.003 19 5 86 0.35 0.125416667

Sahibu QS1 4 535 0.002 35 5 78 0.35 0.303333333

QS2 1.5 145 0.002 20 5 86 0.35 0.125416667

QS 15.2 560 0.002 35 10 81 0.35 1.197
Haniffa QH 3 475 0.005 32 5 80 0.35 0.233333333

Catchment-1 Islamabad road 1.6 420 0.005 30 5 84 0.35 0.130666667


TABLE- 2 Design of Drain Section

Mannin wetted Hydrauli
Design g Flow c Flow
Discharge slope of coeffice area(m2 perme Radius Capacity Velocity Frude Critical Critical
Catchment Road (m3/sec) drain nt 'n' Depth(m)
Width (m)) ter (m) (m) (m3/s) (m/s) No Depth Slope
Thaika Road 0.28778 0.0038 0.013 0.6 0.4 0.24 1.6 0.15 0.32297 1.346 0.555 0.2199 0.04612
Mosque Road 0.30693 0.003 0.013 0.7 0.4 0.28 1.8 0.1556 0.34122 1.219 0.465 0.2281 0.04675

Thaika -Mosque
Connection 0.49778 0.002 0.013 0.8 0.75 0.6 2.35 0.2553 0.8307 1.385 0.494 0.4128 0.01065
Mosque lane 0.6859 0.003 0.013 0.75 0.65 0.4875 2.15 0.2267 0.76375 1.567 0.578 0.3903 0.01537
Mosque Road-

Mosque lane
connection 1.09463 0.003 0.013 0.8 0.9 0.72 2.5 0.288 1.32295 1.837 0.656 0.563 0.00731
Main Drain of
outfall 2.34597 0.0027 0.013 1 1.2 1.2 3.2 0.375 2.49425 2.079 0.664 0.8592 0.00396

Sahib- Hainffa
Road connection 0.23333 0.003 0.013 0.7 0.35 0.245 1.75 0.14 0.27831 1.136 0.433 0.1992 0.06378
Sahib Road Out
fall- Rectangular 1.197 0.003 0.013 0.8 0.9 0.72 2.5 0.288 1.32295 1.837 0.656 0.563 0.00731
Sahib Road Out
fall-Pipe 1.197 0.004 0.012 0.9 0.6031 2.248 0.2682 1.32209 2.192

Islamabad road 0.13067 0.004 0.013 0.6 0.35 0.21 1.55 0.1355 0.2695 1.283 0.529 0.1949 0.06327


Annex-2 Drawings
Master Layout