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1x3 Frequency Reuse Technology (V1.

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Documentation Center of Radio Planning and Design Section, Huawei Technologies

Document No.

Product version

Confidentiality level

Product name: M900/M1800

24 pages in total

1X3 Frequency Reuse Technology Guideline


(Public Use)

Drafted by: Reviewed by: Reviewed by: Approved by:

Topic Research Study Group

Date: Date: Date: Date:

2002-10-22 yyyy/mm/dd yyyy/mm/dd yyyy/mm/dd

Huawei Technologies All Rights Reserved

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Table of Contents
1 General..........................................................................................................................................................3 1.1 Application background...................................................................................................................4 1.2 Basic concepts..................................................................................................................................4 1.3 The advantages and disadvantages of 1*3.......................................................................................5 1.3.1 Advantages............................................................................................................................5 1.3.2 Disadvantages.........................................................................................................................5 2 1*3 tight reuse technology..........................................................................................................................6 2.1 Layout of sites .................................................................................................................................6 2.2 1*3 improve the capacity of network...............................................................................................7 2.3 1*3 tight reuse pattern......................................................................................................................8 2.3.1 The basic concepts of frequency hopping.............................................................................9 2.3.2 Continuous allocation mode..................................................................................................9 2.3.3 Interval allocation mode......................................................................................................10 2.3.4 The comparison of two allocation modes...........................................................................10 2.4 1*3 probability of ad-frequency collision .....................................................................................12 2.4.1 Distribution of ideal meshes...............................................................................................12 2.4.2 Irregular network.................................................................................................................13 2.5 1*3 reuse technique impact on network quality ...........................................................................15 2.5.1 Frequency hopping influence on speech quality................................................................15 2.5.2 Impact on 1*3 network performance caused by C/I...........................................................16 2.5.3 Impact on 1*3 caused by layout of sites.............................................................................16 2.5.4 Impact on 1*3 network performance caused by engineering parameters .........................17 2.5.5 Impact on 1*3 network capacity cause by handover..........................................................21 2.5.6 Impact on 1*3 network cause by load handover................................................................23 3 1*3 frequency-hopping data configuration...............................................................................................23

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1X3 Frequency Reuse Technology Guideline


Key words: Frequency planning, 1*3, 4*3, tight reuse, base transceiver station layout,
ideal mesh, capacity

Abstract: This document combines radio network layout and application experience of 1*3
reuse. It is a guideline to introduce the principles and measures of 1*3 tight reuse frequency planning. Name Author Reference List Code Released date Where and how to access Publisher

1 General
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Due to the shortage of frequency resource, in recent years equipment manufactories and operators have been focusing on improving the efficiency of frequency utilization in GSM system, and they try to improve network capability in limited frequency resource.

1.1 Application background


At the beginning of GSM network construction with small capacity, 4*3 reuse pattern or more loose frequency reuse technology are employed. With the increasing of network capacity, new tight reuse technologies appear, such as 3*3, MRP, 1*3, and 1*1. It is hard to decide when to use 1*3 tight reuse in actual network planning, because different operators have much different frequency resource. The maximal site configurations under different frequency bandwidth and reuse patterns are listed as follows: Table1 Frequency bandwidth --tight reuse technology--the maximal configuration Bandwidth 6 MHz 7 MHz 8 MHz 10MHz Notes: 1. Configurations listed above are theoretic values 2. Because the amount of carriers participated in frequency hopping is equal to frequencies used under the MRP reuse pattern, so for small configuration site, frequency hopping obtains small gains. Hereby, MRP is not suitable. 1*3 must adopt radio frequency hopping. The essence of tight reuse technology is bartering capability with quality. The tighter the frequency reuse is, the worse network quality will be. Therefore, it is better to adopt loose reuse frequency. BCCH carrier frequency must adopt 4*3 pattern in an actual frequency planning, BCCH needs at least 12 frequencies (because of the importance of BCCH, 14 frequencies are given to BCCH. So real maximal configuration is less than the value in the above table. For example, if 6MHz bandwidth adopts 1*3, theoretical maximal configuration can only reach S4/3/3). 1.2 Basic concepts In frequency planning, Frequency Reuse Factor is often used to scale frequency utilization efficiency or tightness degree of frequency reuse. Frequency Reuse Factor is defined as below: 4*3 S3/2/2 S3/3/2 S4/3/3 S4/4/4 MRP S4/4/4 S5/5/5 S6/6/6 1*3 S4/4/3 S5/4/4 S6/5/5 S8/8/8

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K = N W /N TRx

K is Frequency Reuse Factor; NW is the number of available frequencies; NTRX is the maximal amount of carriers in a cell. When 15 frequencies are used for the carriers participating in frequency hopping and the number of FH carriers in the cell is 2, Frequency Reuse Factor K = 7.5. When the number of FH carriers is 3, K = 5.

Figure 1 The overlapped depth of coverage is different in cells Figure 1 The coverage overlap Because the different overlapped depth of A and B network, the number of As adjacent cells is less than Bs, so the interference of B is bigger than As. Conclusion: The more adjacent cells are, the bigger the probability of co-frequencies collision is, and the lower the utilization efficiency is. Therefore, the amount of adjacent cell should be decreased whichever frequency reuse technology is used.

1.3 The advantages and disadvantages of 1*3 1.3.1 Advantages


1. The 1*3 reuse pattern is tighter than 3*3 and MRP , so capability proportion that can be improved is higher than the latter. 2. The frequency planning is simple. Only BCCH frequency planning is necessary. During network optimazation and carrieres expansion, frequency planning neednt be made again. 3. The technology can improve planning efficiency greatly. 4. Radio frequency hopping is adopted, frequency hopping gain is higher than baseband frequency hopping(baseband frequency hopping cant be used for 1*3 reuse pattern).

1.3.2 Disadvantages
1. Broadband combiner is needed and cavity combiner with the property of frequencies

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selection cant be used on 1*3. 2. Broadband repeater is adopted, because 1*3 has much influence on frequency-selected repeater. 3. As the reuse distance decreases, interference of ad-frequency and co-frequency will increase rapidly. 4. Network needs delicate optimizing adjustment. Especially, The overlap of coverage should be restricted strictly. It is worthy to point out that most sites configuration can only be S2/2/2 and few of them can be S3/2/2 while we adopt general 4*3 tight reuse technology and 6MHz band is available. Otherwise the network performance will be out of control. When 1*3 close reuse technology is used, the maximal configuration is S4/3/3(but it is a theoretical value, the actual configuration is S3/3/3 generally). Moreover, the capacity is twice of 3*4 reuse technology, which can save the invests of operators greatly (the expense of tower, equipment room, power supply, transmission and other assistant equipment will be higher than the BTS equipment).

2 1*3 tight reuse technology


As some anti-interference technologies cant be employed on BCCH carrier, such as frequency hopping, power control and DTX. Therefore BCCH frequency can only use 4*3 reuse pattern.1*3 tight reuse technology is general used on no-BCCH carriers. How to make a 1*3 frequency planning is illustrated by an actual planning within 6MHz band.

2.1 Layout of sites


Sites layout is an important work in the prophase of network planning. Whichever frequency planning technology is used, reasonable distribution of the sites is always concerned, which is based on the requests of coverage, capacity, network quality and construction invests. In the premise of meeting coverage and capacity, the urban sites should be distributed in the ideal meshes in order to absorb the traffic as possible. However due to the constraint of landform and tenancy, the actual sites cant be put on ideal meshes and they are always distributed irregularly. Comparatively, 4*3, 3*3 and MRP have a more tolerance on irregular layout of sites, while for 1*3, layout of sites should be as regular as possible. Therefore, we should decide the technology of Frequency planning according to usable frequency

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resource, maximal site configuration which could meet the requisition of capability nowadays and in the future. What is ideal mesh? The relative position of ideal meshes must meet some mathematics relation, the relation of the equilateral triangle.

Figure 2 The allocation of ideal stations The experience proves that the quality of network and utilization efficiency of frequency will be best when the sites are based on ideal meshes. In other words, more users will be contained.

2.2 1*3 improve the capacity of network


1*3 tight reuse technology can improve the capacity greatly. Using general frequency reuse technology, the maximal configuration is S3/2/2 when bandwidth is 6MHz. Nevertheless, using 1*3 tight reuse technology the maximal configuration is S4/3/3 with the same bandwidth. The relation of configuration and capacity is listed below:(6MHz bandwidth, GOS=2%, 0.02 Earl /user) Table 2 The capacity increasing Reuse pattern 4*3 1*3 Configuration S2/2/2 S3/3/3 S4/3/3 Cell 1 capacity (Erl) 8.20 14.03 21.00 Cell 2 capacity (Erl) 8.20 14.03 14.03
7

Cell 3 capacity (Erl) 8.20 14.03 14.03

Site capacity (Erl) 24.60 42.09 49.06

The amount of subscribers 1230 2104 2453

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Notes:The capacity is theoretical values, in actual planning 70~80 percents of theoretical capacity above is available.

Capacity increasement-compare with S222 Diagram3: The capability increase


120. 00% 100. 00% 80. 00% 60. 00% 40. 00% 20. 00% 0. 00%

Figure 3 The capacity increasement


S333 S433

Figure 3 The capacity increasing The capability will increase 99 percents after using 1*3 tight reuse technology under the condition the quality of network could be accepted.

2.3 1*3 tight reuse pattern


When using 1x3 frequency reuse pattern, three cells of every site will constitute a cluster. Reuse pattern of frequency will work in every cluster. In other words, the same cell of different sites will use the same frequency set. It will be shown in the figure below.

Figure 4 1*3 tight reuse pattern While adopting 1*3 tight reuse technology, we must use Radio Frequency Hopping. There are two kinds of allocation mode of MA: continuous allocation mode and interval allocation mode. Principles of frequency hopping are expressed as follows:
MAI = fMAIO, FN, MA, HSN, N = fFNHSNN fMA, MAIO

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where MAI is mobile allocation index; N is the amount of frequency in MA; FN is frame number. When FN, HSN, N of the three cells in the same site are all the same, MAI is only related to MA and MAIO. It shows that ad-frequencies collision intra-site can be controlled by planning MA and MAIO carefully. It also shows that ad-frequencies collision inter-site will be controlled when the amount of the frequencies in MA of the three cells is the same. NOTICE: It is different from the FH descriptions in GSM Protocol that the cells of intra-site share the same HSN. The reason is to avoid inter-cell ad-frequencies collision in the site. It is determined by BTS equipment that FN of different cells in the same site is the same. When the number of sites with frequency hopping is more than 63, those sites that are far apart between them can reuse HSN.

2.3.1 The basic concepts of frequency hopping


MA: Mobile Allocation, (in other words, the set of frequency hopping) is referred to the hopping frequencies in a cell. MA of max 64 frequencies is supported in HUAWEI BSC. HSN: Hopping Sequence Number, value range: 0~63. When HSN=0, it is circular frequency hopping; when HSN=1~63, it is pseudo-random frequency hopping. MAIO: Mobile Allocation Index Offset, value range is 0~(N-1), N is the number of carriers participating in frequency hopping. FN: Frame Number, range: 0~(51*26*2048-1). It is decided by BTS.

2.3.2 Continuous allocation mode


The MA and MAIO planning under continuous allocation mode are listed below: Table 3 Continuous allocation mode CELL 1 CELL 2 CELL 3 MA0 96 101 106 MA1 97 102 107 MA2 98 103 108 MA3 99 104 109 MA4 100 105 110 MAIO 0, 2 0, 2 0, 2

In continuous allocation mode, the maximal configuration is S3/3/3 (BCCH carrier without frequency hopping + 2 TCH carriers with frequency hopping). For bigger site configuration, the ad-frequencies collision in a cell is unavoidable.

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2.3.3 Interval allocation mode


Under interval allocation mode, planning of MA and MAIO is listed below: Table 4 Frequency hopping aggregation in interval allocation CELL 1 CELL 2 CELL 3 MA0 96 97 98 MA1 99 100 101 MA2 102 103 104 MA3 105 106 107 MA4 108 109 110 MAIO 0, 2, 4 1, 3 0, 2

In interval allocation, the maximal site configuration is S4/3/3, .For bigger site configuration, the ad-frequencies collision in a cell is unavoidable.

2.3.4 The comparison of two allocation modes


For those two frequency allocation modes, BCCH carriers of all cells must take 4*3 reuse pattern. It is proved that BCCH frequencies should be more than 14. TCH carriers with 1*3 tight reuse must adopt radio frequency hopping. If the site configuration is less than S3/3/3, both of the two allocation modes could avoid ad-frequency collision in the same site. Comparison of two allocation modes: 1. MAIO is different between interval allocation and continuous allocation. 2. MA is different between interval allocation and continuous allocation. 3. Whether interval or continuous allocation mode is adopted, the ad-frequency collision could be avoided among the three cells in the same site by reasonable planning. The difference is: 1) Probability of co-frequency collision in cells with the same number in adjacent BTS is same. There is still ad-frequency collision in continuous allocation mode, but there is no ad-frequency collision in interval allocation mode. 2) In interval allocation, ad-frequency collision will happen among different cells of adjacent BTS. In continuous allocation, ad-frequency collision will happen among frequencies which locate on two ends of hopping frequencies set (for example, in this example, 100 in Cell 1,101 and 105 in Cell 2,106 in Cell 3), but collision wont happen in other frequency 4. Some testing of existing network proves: in 1*3 tight reuse pattern, continuous allocation mode is better than interval allocation mode (idle BURST testing). But the final conclusion needs more testing. Till now interval and continuous allocation modes both work normally

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online. 5. When bandwidth is 6MHz, the maximal BTS configuration that continuous allocation mode supports is S3/3/3(theoretical value) and that supported by interval allocation mode is S4/3/3.

96,97,98,99,100

Continuous al location

96,99 ,102,105,108

Interval allocation

96,97,98,99,100 106,107,108,109,110 101,102,103 ,104,105 98,101,104 ,107,110

96,99,102,105 ,108 97,100,103,106,109

96,97,98,99,100 106,107,108,109,110

101,102,103 ,104,105

96,99,102, 105,108 98,101,104,107,110

97, 100,103,106,109

96,97,98,99,100 106,107,108,109,110 101,102,103 ,104,105 98,101,104,107,110

96,99,102,105,108 97,100,103,106,109

106,107,108,109,110

101,102,103 ,104,105

98,101,104 ,107,110

97,100,103,106,109

Figure 5 1*3 Instance of two allocation mode Notice: In the above allocation, BCCH frequency 111 should be used as less as possible. Especially, it cant use in the third cell (the cell contained 110 in MA). When continuous and interval allocation mode are used in one actual network (idle BURST send testing), there is no difference in coverage. On the other hand, continuous allocation mode is better than interval allocation mode in receiving quality and their difference is listed below: 50

40 30 20 10 0
ua l_ ua l_ ua l_ ua l_ LE ua ua ua ID Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q ua

cont i nuous al l ocat i on % i nt erval al l ocat i on %

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l_ 1

l_ 4

l_ 5

l_ 7

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Figure 6 1*3 quality difference of two allocation mode Figure 6 The receiving quality of two allocation modes

2.4 1*3 probability of ad-frequency collision


After using 1*3 tight reuse technology, the probability of co-frequency and ad-frequency collisions will be increased greatly. The collision probability and impact on network performance are related to the amount of adjacent cells.

2.4.1 Distribution of ideal meshes


The most perfect assumption: engineering parameters of sites are completely consistent. Propagation environment is identical too. Sites locate on ideal meshes. Load ratio of each cell is less than 40 percent. The number of the carriers participating in FH in a cell is 1 or 2, and the number of the frequencies participating in FH is 5. Cell Load Ratio is defined below: Cell Load Ratio = The number of carries participating in FH/ The number of frequencies participating in FH

Figure 7 1*3 tight reuse technology In this figure, there are no co-frequency collisions in cell A-3, but there are ad-frequency collision in A-3 with B-1, D-1, D-2 and C-2. In the figure, the number of ad-frequency collision cells is listed below: Table 5 The number of cells which there are ad-frequency collisions with A-2 Interference area Interference cells number X 2 X1 2 X2 1 X3 2 X4 1

Because it have been assumed that engineering parameters and propagation environment are all the same, the receiving levels of A-3 and adjacent cells are same at the receiving points. Because the interference at X, X1 and X3 is maximal, only calculating the probability at X is enough (The frequencies number in MA is 5):

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1. When there is one carrier participating in FH in A-3, D-1, and D-2, the maximal probability of ad-frequency collision is:

P=

1 5

1 5

1 5

1 5

2 25

= 8%

2. When there are 2 carriers participating in FH in A-3, D-1, and D-2, the maximal probability of ad-frequency collision is :

P=

2 5

2 5

2 5

2 5

8 25

= 32%

3. When there are 2 carriers participating in FH in A-3, D-1, and D-2, the maximal probability of ad-frequency collision is :

P=

3 5

3 5

3 5

3 5

18 25

= 72%

Notes: when three carriers participate in FH and the frequency number in MA is 5, continuous allocation mode can't avoid ad-frequency collision intra-cell. But interval allocation mode can avoid ad-frequency collision intra-cell. When the site configuration is lower than S4/3/3, interval allocation mode can avoid ad-frequency collision between adjacent cells of the site. When the configuration is higher than S4/3/3, interval allocation cant avoid ad-frequency collision between adjacent cells of a site. The calculation proves that when MA is fixed, probability of ad-frequency collision has direct ratio with square of carriers participating in FH. In other words, ad-frequency interference will increase rapidly with increasing of network capability. It needs to be pointed out that the calculation above is done when network runs under full load. Actually the network load is lower than the full. One connection in A-3 cell will cause ad-frequency interference to connections, which locate on the same timeslots in D-1 and D2, and there is no ad-frequency interference to the other timeslots. Therefore, ad-frequency collision of actual network is related to the number of connections.

2.4.2 Irregular network


The analysis listed above is based on ideal regular network, but the adjacent-cells of one service cell are very complicated because of the difference of network structure and propagation environment. When overlap of coverage cant be controlled well, the adjacent cells with ad-frequency and co-frequency collision will appear. Assumption: 1) One cell has j adjacent cells in some interfered area and the receiving signal strength of different adjacent cells is same.

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2) The cell has j-2 adjacent-cells of other BTS, including k adjacent cells have the same number with the current cell. 3) The number of frequencies participating in FH is N. 1. When there is one carrier participating in FH, The probability of co-frequency collision:

P = (1 n

1 n)

k = k/n 2

The probability of ad-frequency collision:

P = (1 n

1 n)

(j 2 k) = (j 2 k)/n 2

2. When there are two carriers participating in FH, The probability of co-frequency collision:

P = 4k/n 2
The probability of ad-frequency collision:

P = 4(j 2 k)/n 2
3, when there are m carriers taking part in frequency hopping The probability of co-frequency collision:

P = m 2 k/n 2
The probability of ad-frequency collision:

P = m 2 (j 2 k)/n 2
The probability of collision is related to connections in network. The key points to garanntee network performance: 1. The layout of the sites locations should be distributed along the regular meshe, and antennas height should be almost same during the planning and design period. 2. In optimizing period the coverage should be controlled right to aviod the co-frequnecy adjacent cells with the same number. According to calculation listed above, C/Ia should be 0 in X area, but the actual C/I is much lower than this value because of the coverage overlap, the fast fading and handover threshold. Therefore, the key works during optimization are to reduce the depth of overlap coverage and improve the handover sensitivity.

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2.5 1*3 reuse technique impact on network quality 2.5.1 Frequency hopping influence on speech quality
According to subject evaluation of speech quality, FH has much impact on Rx Qual of MS. Testing result and subject evaluation is listed below: Table 6 Rx Qual difference between FH and without FH 0 A A 1 A A 2 B A Rx_Qual 3 4 B C B B 5 D C 6 D D 7 E E

Subject evaluation

Without FH FH

Table 7 Subject evaluation grade Subject evaluation grade A B C D E Evaluation criterion Very clear, no noise clear, a little noise Understood, noise Understood after repeating Cant be understood

Testing result proves: Receiving quality and subject speech quality in FH is different from that in without FH. When FH is not used, Rx_Qual is 0 or 1, subject speech quality is A; Rx_Qual is below 3, subject speech quality is clear. When FH is used, Rx_Qual is 0,1 and 2, subject speech quality is A; Rx_Qual is below 4, subject speech quality is clear; Rx_Qual is above 6, there are no difference between FH and without FH. Subject evaluation and quality grade between FH and without FH is showed below:
8 7 6 Rx_Qual 5 4 3 2 1 0 3 4 5 6 subject evaluation Figure 8 The difference of Subject evaluation and quality grade 0 1 2 A A B B C C Rx_Q ual no FH Rx_Q ual FH D E

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Figure 8 Subject evaluation and Rx_Qulity 2.5.2 Impact on 1*3 network performance caused by C/I
The drive test data of idle BURST sending (at this time interference cell send out data continuously without power control) is analyzed in detail.

The relation of C/I and receiving quality grade from the driver testing data is shown as follows:

Table 8 C/I and Rx_Qual


Rx_Qual C/I (dB) 7 1 6 2 5 3 4 10

When C/I of 1*3 network is greater than 10dB, the subject speech quality can reach B (clear, a little noise). When C/ I is between 3~10dB, subject speech quality is C (understood, noise). When C/I is less than 3dB, network performance will deteriorate rapidly. Testing data proves that interference source in which quality grade is lower than 3 is caused by ad-frequency collision between different-numbered cells of adjacent sites.

2.5.3 Impact on 1*3 caused by layout of sites


When 1*3 tight reuse is employed in an actual network, the test result shows the conclusion that the network performance of regular sites distribution is better than that of irregular sites distribution.

100. 00 90. 00 80. 00 70. 00 60. 00 50. 00 40. 00 30. 00 20. 00 10. 00 0. 00
d G e0 ra d G e1 ra d G e2 ra d e G ra 3 d G e4 ra d G e5 ra d G e6 ra d e 7 G ra
16

regul ar cel l i rregul ar cel l

R ecei vi ng Q ual i t y

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Figure 9 The comparison of receiving quality ratio between regular cells and irregular cells The data above is originated from an actual running network, and the conclusion can be made that the distribution of the sites is very important for 1*3 network.

2.5.4 Impact on 1*3 network performance caused by engineering parameters


Engineering parameters include site location, layout, antenna height, azimuth angle, downtilt and so on. Once site location and layout are decided and put in practice, they are difficult to change. Therefore site should locate on the ideal meshes as possible. And the azimuth angle and downtilt of antennas should be selected properly. When antenna is too high, the height should be decreased to avoid interference. The traffic statistic indexes will be compared between the 4*3 network, 1*3 network without engineering parameters optimization and 1*3 network with engineering parameters optimization. The comparison is listed as follows: Table 9 The comparison of traffic statistics indexes SDCCH call 4*3 1*3 without optimization 1*3 with optimization drop rate 0.25% 0.3% 0.22% SDCCH congestion rate 0% 0.3% 0.01% TCH call drop rate 0.92% 0.79% 0.66% TCH congestion rate 1.22% 1.19% 1.13% Traffic (Erl) 166.79 172.93 178.87 Handover success rate 93.02% 92.33% 93.45%

According to data above, after 4*3 reuse network is changed to 1*3 and before optimization, SDCCH congestion rate deteriorate greatly, handover success rate drop, SDCCH call drop rate and TCH congestion rate change little and traffic increase a little. After optimization 1*3 network, each index is improved. Compared with index before optimization, five key indexes (SDCCH congestion rate, SCCH call drop rate, TCH call drop rate, TCH congestion rate and handover success rate) have exceeded or reached indexes before optimization.

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4*3 1. 40 1. 20 1. 00 % 0. 80 0. 60 0. 40 0. 20 0. 00

1*3 w t hout O mzat i on i pti i

1*3 w t h O i mzat i on i pt i

SD C cal l drop CH

SD C congesti on CH

TC cal l drop H

TC congest i on H

Figure 10 The traffic statistics indexes contrast 200. 00 180. 00 160. 00 140. 00 120. 00 % 100. 00 80. 00 60. 00 40. 00 20. 00 0. 00 Traf f i c H andover success 4*3 1*3 Wt hout O i mzat i on i pt i 1*3 Wt h O mzati on i pti i

Figure 11 The traffic statistics indexes contrast

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Table 10 Other traffic statistics indexes contrast HO Traffic 4*3 1*3 before optimization 1*3 after optimization 166.79 172.93 178.87 Interf.B and 3 2.41 2.40 4.00 Interf. Band 4 0.15 0.28 0.40 Interf. Band 5 0.16 1.56 0.11 Requests of BQ 859 2433 1832 HO Requests 9985 12716 11895 Call set up 10362 11190 11935 Average HO times per connection 0.96 1.14 0.99

i nt erf . band3 4. 50 4. 00 3. 50 3. 00 2. 50 2. 00 1. 50 1. 00 0. 50 0. 00 4*3

i nt erf . band 4

i nt erf . band 5

1*3 bef ore opt i mzat i on i

1*3 af t er opt i mzat i on i

Figure 12 Other traffic statistics indexes contrast The number of idle channels falling into interference band 5 is much lower than that of before 1*3 optimization.
BQ handover s 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 Handover r equest s Cal l set up

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1*3 bef or e opt i m zat i on i

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Figure 13 Other traffic statistics indexes contrast

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Traf f i c 14000. 00 12000. 00 10000. 00 8000. 00 6000. 00 4000. 00 2000. 00 0. 00 4*3 1*3 bef ore opt i mzat i on i 1*3 af t er opt i m zat i on i Cal l set up

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Figure 14 Other traffic statistics indexes contrast Comparing 1*3 FH network before optimization with 4*3 no FH network, handover times increased by about 2700 times and total Bad Quality handovers increased by about 1600 times. Comparing 1*3 FH network after optimization with 4*3 no FH network, handover times increased by about 1900 times and Bad Quality handovers increased by about 1000 times. Compare increase of Call set up times with increase of traffic, the conclusion can be made that traffic increasing is natural. The increase of handover times makes little contribution on traffic increasing, and it will be explained in next section. The increasing proportion of total bad quality handovers is much higher than that of traffic. On one hand, it is due to the closer reuse frequency and the irregularity of real experimental network causes interference in some area; on the other hand, interference handover threshold (50) in 4*3 reuse is equal to 1*3 tight reuse threshold. The subject speech quality of frequency hopping whose Rx_Qual is equal to 5 is as good as that of no frequency hopping network whose Rx_Qual is equal to 4(explained in 2.5.1 impact on network quality caused by frequency hopping). The difference of subject voice-quality standard is the main cause of the increase of bad quality handovers.

2.5.5 Impact on 1*3 network capacity cause by handover


When MS handover from a cell to another cell in the same BSC, TCH channel of the old cell won't be released after the target cell TCH channel is activated, until BSC receives HO Complete message from the new cell. During Channel Activation and RF Chan Release Ack, TCHs of the old and new cell are occupied by the same connection. In this period, traffic statistics will repeat to count TCH seizure time. The contribution on traffic caused by handover will be analyzed. In order to prove whether handover will increase traffic, The test of synchronous and

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asynchronous handover have been made on GSM1800 network that havent been in use commercially. Signaling time from the new cell's CHANNEL ACTIVATION (caused by handover) to the old cell's RF CHAN RELEASE ACK is gotten by testing. Synchronous handover counts 20 times and asynchronous handover counts 11 times. The result is listed below: Table 11 The time of two channels are occupied by one connection during HO (1800M) Average time(ms) Synchronous handover Asynchronous handover times are 18. Table 12 The time of two channels are occupied by one connection during HO (900M) Handover time Testing of traffic statistics is done in laboratory. Statistic period is 15 minutes and MS handover between cell A to cell B. During testing period, there are no other subscribers using the two cells and another MS seizures cell C all the time as the terminated. Testing results are listed below: Table 13 Lab tests Cell A Cell B Add up Cell C Statistic time(min) 15 15 15 15 Handover times 9 9 18 0 Statistic traffic(Erl) 0.1400 0.1125 0.2525 0.2500 Average time(ms) 745 Shortest time (ms) 584 Longest time(ms) 1675 348 408 Shortest time(ms) 339 398 Longest time(ms) 420 450

The test of handover period is done in GSM900 network with large traffic, and handover

Only one subscriber occupied the channel in cell A or B during 15 minutes testing period, If no handover occurs, the traffic should be same between them. But the total traffic of Cell A and B is 0.2525Erl, and the traffic of cell C is 0.25Erl. The excessive 0.0025Erl traffic is due to handover, and the average crossed-time every handover is 0.5 seconds. Notice: because the shortest interval of traffic statistics is 480 ms, handover crossed-time calculated by traffic statistics has a certain error. Comparing network with large traffic and low traffic, handover crossed time increases greatly while traffic become high. It is assumed average handover crossed-time is 0.78s, and the increasing traffic is 2Erl every 10000 handover (0.75*10000/3600).

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1x3 Frequency Reuse Technology (V1.0)

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Comparing the handover increase of 1*3 network before optimization with that after optimization, suppositional added traffic is about 0.4Erl caused by 2000 handovers. So 12Erl traffic increasing is natural. Conclusion: Suppositional added traffic is about 2Erl when 10000 handovers are made. Impact on traffic caused by suppositional added traffic should be considered when handover times are extremely high. On the other hand, data above proves that handover speed is related to traffic (the more traffic, the longer handover time).

2.5.6 Impact on 1*3 network cause by load handover


Table 14 Traffic statistics indexes contrast between enable and disable load handover Load handover Enable Disable Date 16 th, 1 17 th, 1 18 th, 1 23 rd, 1 24 th, 1 25 th, 1 Traffic Erl 182.98 166.39 171.9 180.35 181.8 174.47 TCH call drop rate % 1.01 0.89 0.93 0.54 0.55 0.43 TCH Congestion rate % 0.8 0.44 0.45 0.4 0.28 0.49 Handover success rate % 95.59 96.29 96.13 96.09 / 96.71 Handover failure rate 567 412 427 467 / 385

Comparing traffic statistics indexes between enabling and disabling load handover, TCH congestion rate is not high, but it hasnt been lowered greatly after enabling load handover and call drop rate increases distinctly. Conclusion: Load handover cant be employed in 1*3 network. For example the bandwidth of load handover is 25dB and the connections meet the load HO conditions, they will handover to second best cell and seize FH channels with serious interference, and call drop rate will increase distinctly. In order to ensure that MS camp in cells with strongest signal, cell selection and reselection parameters should be consistent with each other in 1*3 network.

3 1*3 frequency-hopping data configuration


1*3 configuration data related to frequency hopping is same with other frequency hopping. Table is shown as bellows:

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1x3 Frequency Reuse Technology (V1.0)

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Table 15 1*3 data configuration related to frequency hopping Menu name Table name Parameter FH index No. Radio Channel Configuration Table MAIO Local office FH index No. Frequency Hopping Data Table TSC ARFCN 1~ ARFCN N ARFCN 1~ Carrier Site Configuration Table Cell Configuration Cell Data Table Cell Allocation Table FH mode ARFCN 1~ ARFCN N ARFCN N Static TRX Power class HSN 0~1023 0~N-1 Value 0~1023 Annotation Index to frequency- hopping data table. And the value of the FH TRX carriers in a cell should be same. Mobile Allocation Index Offset. In this case, the same MAIO is recommended for all channels of a TRX and different MAIO for different TRX in the same cell. Correspond to item in Radio channel configuration table Hopping Sequence Number. HSN in different cells of the same site is the same Training Serial Code, Same with BCC. Frequencies in MA participating in FH BCCH frequency and frequencies in MA participating in FH Power class "0" shows that power is in its maximum. Each class is 2dB less than its former class. FH mode should be RF FH for 1*3 frequency reuse pattern BCCH frequency and frequencies in MA participating in FH

1~63

0~7 Available frequency Available frequency 0~10, unit:2dB Radio frequency hopping Available frequency

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