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# Proceedings of RAGtime 6/7: Workshops on black holes and neutron stars, Opava, 1618/1820 September, 2004/2005

223
S. Hledk and Z. Stuchlk, editors, Silesian University in Opava, Czech Republic, 2005, pp. 223230
Friedman models with the superstring dark
energy
Zdenk Stuchlk and Martin Kolo
Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy &Science, Silesian University in Opava,
Bezruovo nm. 13, CZ-746 01 Opava, Czech Republic
ABSTRACT
The Friedman models of the Universe with the superstring dark energy are construc-
ted. According to the spacetime foamapproach the stringy dark energy appears to be
inversely proportional to the cosmic scale factor. Evolution of the Friedman models
is discussed under this assumption and compared with the standard models.
1 INTRODUCTION
The evolution of the cosmic scale factor a in dependence on the cosmic time t is given by the
Friedman equations of the standard cosmology (Misner et al., 1973)
3
a
2
+k
a
2
= 8 , (1)
2
a
a
2

a
2
+k
a
2
= 8p , (2)
where d/dt . It is assumed that the energy density and pressure p of the perfect uid
representing the matter content of the Universe full the special simple kind of barotropic
equation of state
p = w . (3)
Combining (1) and (2), we obtain the dynamic Friedman equation
a
a
=
4
3
( +3p) (4)
implying that the gravitational the force is given by + 3p, and the pressure contributes
substantially the force. It follows from(4) that for +3p < 0 the expansionof the Universe
must be accelerated.
Recent observations (Riess et al., 2004; Spergel et al., 2003) show that expansion of the
Universe at the present era is accelerated. FromFriedman equation (4) it follows that there
must be some special formof matter (energy) with w < 1/3 in the equation of state. This
is called dark energy. The observations imply that the dark energy forms about 70% of the
total mass of the Universe. It is curious that a formof energy, about which we knowso few,
forms nearly all the content of the Universe.
224 Z. Stuchlk and M. Kolo
2 DARKENERGYFROMSUPERSTRINGTHEORY
In Ellis et al. (2000)
1
superstring theory has been applied in the framework of the spacetime
foam approach to quantization of gravity and one of the most interesting results of this ap-
proach is that energy of vacuumis varying with the cosmological time like 1/t
2
. Therefore,
in the stringy spacetime foam approach the vacuum energy behaviour resembles elasticity
of spacetime and the dark energy looks like the cosmological constant that changes with
the cosmological time and the scale factor of the expanding Universe according to the law
(t ) =
(0)
t
2

1
a(t )
. (5)
Therefore, it is interesting to consider a specic form of dark energy with density changing
with scale factor according to the law

DE(stringy)

1
a(t )
. (6)
We shall treat the cosmological models under assumptionof the presence of the stringy dark
energy and standard general relativistic equations of evolution of the Universe.
3 EVOLUTIONOF THEFRIEDMANMODELS WITHTHESTRINGYDARK
ENERGY
We assume the Universe containing the dust ( p
d
= 0) with energy density
d
> 0 and dark
energy with
DE
> 0. The Friedman Eqs (1) and (2) then take the form
3
a
2
+k
a
2
= 8
d
+8
DE
, (7)
2
a
a
2

a
2
+k
a
2
=
16
3

DE
. (8)
Further, we assume the Big Bang beginning of the Universe witha(t ) continuously growing
with the cosmic time. The scale factor is tuned by the conditions a(0) = 0 and a(T
0
) = 1,
where t
0
denotes the age of the Universe.
The solutions of the Friedman equations can be appropriately characterized by introdu-
cing an effective potential depending on the scale factor a(t ). Writing the Friedman Eq. (7)
in the form
a
2
=
8
3

a
+
8
3
a k , (9)
where and are constant during the expansion of the Universe and introducing the
constants X = 8/3 and Y = 8/3, Eq. (9) can be given in the form corresponding to
the motion in an effective potential
_
da
dt
_
2
=
X
a
+Ya k = E
2
V
2
(a) . (10)
1
For another version of this approach see, e.g., Lopez and Nanopulos (1995).
? t s "
Friedman models with the superstring dark energy 225
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
0 2 4 6 8 10
E
2
a(t)
XY = 0,00
XY = 0,10
XY = 0,25
XY = 0,50
Figure 1. The effective potential determining evolution of the scale factor in the Universe with the
stringy dark energy.
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
a
(
t
)
H
0
(t - t
0
)
k = 0
k = -1
k = +1, XY>1/4
k = +1, XY<1/4
Figure 2. Evolution of the scale factor a(t ) of the Universe with the stringy dark energy, given for
different values of the curvature term.
? t s "
226 Z. Stuchlk and M. Kolo
The equation describes motion with energy E
2
= k in the effective potential
V
2
(a) =
X
a
Ya . (11)
The motion determined by the potential V
2
(a) is possible if E
2
> V
2
(a). The motion is
limited by the turning points given by
_
da
dt
_
2
= 0 , (12)
i.e., by E = V(a). The behaviour of the effective potential is given in Fig. 1 for some typical
values of the evolution constants. Now, it is possible to determine the behaviour of the scale
factor for a given parameter k and initial values of
d
,
DE
.
The openUniverse (k = 1) andthe at Universe (k = 0) will be always expanding. The
closed Universe (k = +1) will be expanding forever if XY > 1/4. In the closed Universe
with XY < 1/4 the expansion is converted into contraction at the turning point.
The solutions of Eq. (9) are given in Fig. 2. The explicit formof the solution can be given
in two ways.
3.1 Direct integration
Equation (9) gives the scale factor evolution in the implicit formt = t (a). The differential
equation of the rst order (9) is separable and the solution can be determined in terms of
elliptic integrals. We obtain the equation
t (a) =
_
_
a
Ya
2
ka + X
da , (13)
that can be expressed in the form
t (a) =
_ _
a
(a A)(a B)
da , (14)
where
A =
k +

k
2
4XY
2Y
and B =
k

k
2
4XY
2Y
, (15)
are the roots of the polynomial of Eq. (13). For k = 0 both roots are imaginary and
A = B. In the case of k = 1 the roots are real for XY < 1/4, while they are complex for
XY > 1/4.
2
The scale factor can then be given in an implicit formby the relation
t (a) = 2

## B (E[, k] F[, k]) , (16)

2
The special case of XY = 1/4 is not considered here.
? t s "
Friedman models with the superstring dark energy 227
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
t
(
a
)
a
k = 0
k = -1
k = +1, XY>1/4
k = +1, XY<1/4
Figure 3. The cosmic time given as a function of the scale factor. Now, the expansion of the models is
synchronized at the Big Bang, instead of the present time t
0
, as is done in Fig. 2.
where
= i argsinh
_
_

a
A
_
and k =
A
B
. (17)
The functions F[, k] and E[, k] are the elliptic integrals of the rst and the second kind
dened in the standard way by
F[, k] =
_

0
d
_
1 k
2
sin
2

, (18)
E[, k] =
_

0
_
1 k
2
sin
2
d . (19)
The dependence of the scale factor on the cosmic time a = a(t ) is implicitly given by
Eq. (16) for the given values of the curvature parameter k, the function a(t ) is determined
numerically and illustrated in Fig. 3.
3.2 Aparametric integration
The scale factor and the cosmic time can be given in the parametric form
a = a() , (20)
t = t () , (21)
? t s "
228 Z. Stuchlk and M. Kolo
where is an appropriately chosen parameter; it is so called development angle. If the
parameterization given by
dt =

a d , (22)
is chosen,
3
the integral in Eq. (14) is transformed into the form
(a) =
_
_
1
(a A)(a B)
da , (23)
whichleads toelementary functions, not elliptic integrals. Inthe case of k = 0, the evolution
of the scale factor in terms of the newparameter is determined by
a() =
_
X
Y
sinh
_

Y
_
. (24)
Equation (22) then determines the function t () in the form
t () = 2

i
4

XY E
_

Y
2
, 2
_
, (25)
where, of course, the elliptic integral of the second kind appears.
4 COMPARISONWITHTHESTANDARDMODELS
We shall compare there types of the Friedman cosmological models.
(a) The model containing the dusty matter only.
(b) The model with addition of the repulsive cosmological constant

= const > 0.
(c) The model with addition of the stringy dark energy characterized by
DE
1/a(t ).
Equation (1) can be expressed in the form
1 =
DE
+
d
+
k
, (26)
where

i
=
i
/
crit
;
crit
= 3H/8G . (27)
There exists anextremal point inthe evolutionof the scale factor just when H = a/a = 0.
Using this condition we arrive in the case of three models considered here to the relations
(a)
k(0)
a +
d(0)
= 0 , (28)
(b)
DE(0)
a
3
+
k(0)
a +
d(0)
= 0 , (29)
(c)
DE(0)
a
2
+
k(0)
a +
d(0)
= 0 . (30)
3
We canalsoconsider parameterizations givenby the relations dt = (aA)
1/2
d anddt = [a/(aA)]
1/2
d.
? t s "
Friedman models with the superstring dark energy 229
Therefore, the turning point in the evolution of a(t ) exist, if there is a positive root of
Eqs (28)(30). When considering
d(0)
> 0 and
DE(0)
> 0, we can conclude that for the
curvature factors of k = 1 a k = 0 the scale factor a(t ) grows forever. For k = +1 the
behaviour of a(t ) is more complicated. In the case (a), the closed Universe always collapse,
however in the cases (b) and (c), it is possible even for k = +1 that there exist models
expanding forever.
Finally, we determine the age of the Universe as given by the three models considered
above. For the dusty model and the the dusty model with the repulsive cosmological
constant, we can use the standard results (Misner et al., 1973). In the case of the dusty
model with the stringy dark energy, the age is given by the formula
t
0
=
1
H
0
_
1
0
a da
_

DE(0)
a
3
+
k(0)
a
2
+
d(0)
a
_
1/2
. (31)
Taking into account recently given values of the cosmic parameters
4
the age of the Universe
according to the considered models is given by
(a) t
0
= 11.3 10
9
years , (32)
(b) t
0
= 13.5 10
9
years , (33)
(c) t
0
= 12.7 10
9
years . (34)
The age of the model with stringy dark energy (c) is between the age of the model with the
repulsive cosmological constant (b) and the age of the standard dusty model (a).
5 CONCLUSIONS
The Friedman dusty model of the Universe with the stringy dark (vacuum) energy is dis-
cussed and compared with the standard model, and the model with the repulsive cosmolo-
gical constant. The special dependence of the stringy vacuum energy density on the scale
factor of the Universe causes an interesting and strong shift of the stringy model properties
in comparison with both the other models, as the role of the dark energy grows with the
redshift factor. Thenthe age of the stringy models is betweenthe ages of the standard model
and the > 0 model. Further, the beginning of the dominance of the stringy dark energy
shifts to higher redshift in comparison with the repulsive cosmological constant. It follows
from the Fig. 4 that this happens for the redshift factor higher about twice in comparison
with the case of the repulsive cosmological constant. For the stringy model the scale factor
dependence on the cosmic time is between those of the standard model and the model with
the cosmological constant.
4

DE(0)
= 0.7,
d(0)
= 0.3, k = 0, H
0
= 1/14 10
9
years = 1/42 10
16
s.
? t s "
230 Z. Stuchlk and M. Kolo
1e-04
0.01
1
100
10000
1e+06
1e+08
1 10 100 1000

X

/

c
(
0
)
z+1
dust
vakuum - cosm. constant
- superstring
Figure 4. Evolution of the energy content of the Universe in terms of the redshift z = 1/a(t ) 1. The
evolution is given for the dust, radiation, vacuumenergy and stringy dark energy.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The present work was supported by Czech grants MSM 4781305903, GAR 202/03/1147
and by the Committee for Collaboration of Czech Republic with CERN. One of the authors
(Z. S.) would like to acknowledge the perfect hospitality at the CERNs Theory Division
where part of the work was realized.
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? t s "