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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila University of the City of Manila Intramuros, Manila

CURRICULUM AND DEVELOPMENT A Written Report in Clinical Teaching

Submitted By: Ape, Joan Olivia Briones, Jade Chua, Jamie Raella Esteves, Christian Lee, Jan Mae Morecho, Nerri Salac, Ma. Desiree Tiglao, Caren Provil BSN III-1

Submitted To: Prof. Lorena Manansala, RN, RM, MAN

Definition and Discussions of curriculum and instructions

Curriculum Came from Latin word meaning runway A course to which one runs to each a goal. It is a fixed program of courses. It is planned experiences (Curricula and cocurricula) offered to be learned under the guidance of school. It is a body of prescribed educative experiences under school supervision. It consists of all activities which are provided inside or outside school to the student in rode to achieve predetermined goal.

Curriculum Development Systematic planning of what is taught and learned in schools as reflected in courses of study and school programs. An educational program that includes: o Program of studies o Program of activities o Program of guidance

Syllabus Includes a list of topics and subtopics related to a subject

Course Education imparted in a series of lessons or class meetings


Objectives expected result before the completion of work. TYPES: General Specific NEEDS: Children Society National Philosophical Cultural Religious Trend and Issues in country

Contents contains values, culture, social needs, festivals, history, and

present needs. It is prepared according to objectives.

Teaching Methods When teaching method is changed, there will also be a

change in contents. It is planned according to contents. TYPES: Lecture Book Reading Discussion Experiment Demonstration Project Problem Solving Inductive Deductive Playing

Evaluation Process by which we want to know to what extent the

objectives have been achieved. This is to what extent teaching method was successful and either content was related to the objective or not. It is a continuous process of collecting information about all the elements and outcomes of the curriculum at an understanding of the extent to ehich thay have been achieved and subsequently take decisions to improve their efficacy. TYPES OF CURRICULUM

Recommended It is presented by the experts Ideal Presented and recommended by expert ideal curriculums; also called as Recommended curriculum Entitlement Selected by society and according to the needs and interest of the people of society. Intended Curriculum prepared by institution for the fulfillment of a course and syllabus Supported which is supported and supervised by human and material resource and it is thought by the availability of resources Implemented Also called as Real Curriculum; it is implemented in the classroom in real situation Achieved prepared by implemented curriculum and by opinion of teacher concerned in this, curriculum teacher gives his point of view that which option in curriculum can be removed or added.

The Bases of Curriculum

The term curriculum is used in a number of different ways by parents, educators, and businesses. Some see curriculum as the "academic stuff that is done to children in school." Others view it as teacher directions and student activities that can be purchased from any number of curriculum publishers.Webster's concisely defines curriculum as, "A course of study offered by a school". Curriculum is also often referred to as learning content, activities, and structures as experienced by students. When planning for curriculum improvement, two categories of bases should be understood, those that are institutional in nature and those that affect people directly. The institutional bases for curriculum planning include planning domains, the context or characteristics of the school situation, the impact of current trends and issues, and the use of strategic planning. Those bases of curriculum planning that affect people directly include student and teacher needs, local curriculum problems to be addressed, competencies of the planners, and pressures from inside and outside the school (Doll, 1996 p362-378). All of these bases affect the curriculum planning process in various ways and to differing degrees. They can also vary with each situation over time.

Criteria to Plan, Develop, and Implement Curricula Ronald Doll, writer of the book Curriculum Improvement: Decision Making and Process lists eleven principles of decision making and process as it relates to the evaluation of curricula and projects. These principles form the criteria of a quality curriculum development process that includes the stages of planning, development, and implementation. Curriculum decisions should be made: 1. 2. 3. 4. for valid educational reasons. on the basis of the best available evidence. in a context of broadly conceived aims of education within a context of previously made decisions and of needs for additional decision making so that balance and other important curriculum considerations may be safeguarded. 5. by achieving a resolution of forces originating in the nature and development of learners, the nature of learning processes, demands of the society at large, requirements of the local community, and the nature and structure of subject matter to be learned. 6. cooperatively by persons who are legitimately involved in the effects of the decisions. 7. taking into account new facts of human life such as the proliferation of knowledge and a need for a new sense of unity within our diversity. 8. taking into account the many differences among learners. 9. with a realistic view of certain organizational or engineering matters that can affect the quality of the decisions themselves. 10. with some forethought about ways in which they may be communicated and shared. 11. only with reference to subject matter and pupil experiences that cannot be offered as satisfactorily outside the school (Doll, 1996 ) Elements/Components of the Curriculum The nature of the elements and the manner in which they are organized may comprise which we call a curriculum design. Component 1: Curriculum Aims, Goals and Objectives Aims: Elementary, Secondary, and Tertiary Goals: School Vision and Mission Objectives: educational objectives Domains: 1. Cognitive knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation 2. Affective receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization 3. psychomotor perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response, adaptation, origination

Component 2: Curriculum Content or Subject Matter Information to be learned in school, another term for knowledge ( a compendium of facts, concepts, generalization, principles, theories. 1. Subject-centered view of curriculum: The Fund of human knowledge represents the repository of accumulated discoveries and inventions of man down the centuries, due to mans exploration of his world 2. Learner-centered view of curriculum: Relates knowledge to the individuals personal and social world and how he or she defines reality. Gerome Bruner: Knowledge is a model we construct to give meaning and structure to regularities in experience Criteria used in selection of subject matter for the curriculum: 1. self-sufficiency less teaching effort and educational resources, less learners effort but more results and effective learning outcomes most economical manner (Scheffler, 1970) 2. significance contribute to basic ideas to achieve overall aim of curriculum, develop learning skills 3. validity meaningful to the learner based on maturity, prior experience, educational and social value 4. utility usefulness of the content either for the present or the future 5. learnability within the range of the experience of the learners 6. feasibility can be learned within the tile allowed, resources available, expertise of the teacher, nature of learner Principles to follow in organizing the learning contents (Palma, 1992) 1. BALANCE . Content curriculum should be fairly distributed in depth and breath of the particular learning are or discipline. This will ensure that the level or area will not be overcrowded or less crowded. 2. ARTICULATION. Each level of subject matter should be smoothly connected to the next, glaring gaps or wasteful overlaps in the subject matter will be avoided. 3. SEQUENCE. This is the logical arrangement of the subject matter. It refers to the deepening and broadening of content as it is taken up in the higher levels. The horizontal connections are needed in subject areas that are similar so that learning will be elated to one another. This is INTEGRATION. Learning requires a continuing application of the new knowledge, skills, attitudes or

values so that these will be used in daily living. The constant repetition, review and reinforcement of learning is what is referred to as CONTINUITY. Component 3 Curriculum Experience Instructional strategies and methods will link to curriculum experiences, the core and heart of the curriculum. The instructional strategies and methods will put into action the goals and use of the content in order to produce an outcome. Teaching strategies convert the written curriculum to instruction. Among these are timetested methods, inquiry approaches, constructivist and other emerging strategies that complement new theories in teaching and learning. Educational activities like field trips, conducting experiments, interacting with computer programs and other experiential learning will also form par of the repertoire of teaching. Whatever methods the teacher utilizes to implement the curriculum, there will be some guide for the selection and use, Here are some of them: 1. teaching methods are means to achieve the end 2. there is no single best teaching method 3. teaching methods should stimulate the learners desire to develop the cognitive, affective, psychomotor, social and spiritual domain of the individual 4. in the choice of teaching methods, learning styles of the students should be considered 5. every method should lead to the development of the learning outcome in three domains 6. flexibility should be a consideration in the use of teaching methods Component 4 Curriculum Evaluation To be effective, all curricula must have an element of evaluation. Curriculum evaluation refer to the formal determination of the quality, effectiveness or value of the program, process, and product of the curriculum. Several methods of evaluation came up. The most widely used is Stufflebeam's CIPP Model. The process in CIPP model is continuous and very important to curriculum managers. CIPP Model Context (environment of curriculum), Input (ingredients of curriculum), Process (ways and means of implementing), Product accomplishment of goals)process is continuous. Regardless of the methods and materials evaluation will utilize, a suggested plan of action for the process of curriculum evaluation is introduced. These are the steps: 1. Focus on one particular component of the curriculum. Will it be subject area, the grade level, the course, or the degree program? Specify objectives of evaluation.

2. Collect or gather the information. Information is made up of data needed regarding the object of evaluation. 3. Organize the information. This step will require coding, organizing, storing and retrieving data for interpretation. 4. Analyze information. An appropriate way of analyzing will be utilized. 5. Report the information. The report of evaluation should be reported to specific audiences. It can be done formally in conferences with stakeholders, or informally through round table discussion and conversations. 6. Recycle the information for continuous feedback, modifications and adjustments to be made. (Activity: "Is Philippine education really deteriorating?" This is a big question raised by many sectors of our society. Reflect and research (gather enough data/proof in your particular school/district/division) on this issue. Choose a particular level and a specific subject area as a point o reference).

Major Foundations of Curriculum Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum: Philosophy provides educators, teachers and curriculum makers with framework for planning, implementing and evaluating curriculum in school.I helps in answering what schools are for, what subjects are important, how students should learn and what materials and methods should be used. In decision-making, philosophy provides the starting point and will be used for the succeeding decision-making. The following four educational philosophies relate to curriculum: 1. Perennialism. The focus in the curriculum is classical subjects, literary analysis and considers curriculum as constant. 2. Essentialism. The essential skills of the 3 R's and essential subjects of English, Science, History, Math and Foreign Language is the focus of the curriculum. 3. Progressivism. The curriculum is focused on students' interest, human problems and affairs. The subjects are interdisciplinary, integrative and interactive.

4. Reconstructionism. The focus of the curriculum is on present and future trends and issues of national and international interests. Source: Curriculum Development by Purita Bilbao, et. al. LoreMar Pub., 2008)

The objectives of a curriculum plan or a teaching plan

Curriculum developers must always be concerned about what should be included in the curriculum and how to present and arrange what is selected. In other words, they must first deal with content or subject matter and then learning experiences. These tasks are preceded by formulating behavioral objectives, which act as a road map for the curriculum development and implementation process. Regardless of the curriculum approach or development model used, curriculum leaders cannot ignore these three components. Committees charged with curriculum planning have options in selection of content and experiencesto be determined in part by the philosophical and psychological views of the committee members, the school, and the school district. Unquestionably, there is much content and a variety of learning experiences to include. Committee members must decide not only what content and learning experiences to include, but also, and more importantly, the relationship of objectives and content as well as the relationship of objectives to learning experiences.

Relationship of Objectives and Content Objectives are usually stated in terms of expected outcomes. (For example, a high school science teacher might develop a chronological list of topics to be covered in a high

school biological science course: functions of human organisms, use of plant and animal resources, evolution and development, and the like (Williams, 2011). This type of list shows what the science teacher intends to teach but not what the expected outcomes of instruction will be. ) Content outline is useful for the teacher in planning and guiding instruction, but it is insufficient for the statement of behavioral objectives. To be useful in teaching, behavioral objectives must be linked to content.The real contribution of stating objectives for learning is to think of how each objective can be achieved by students through the content or subject matter they learn. Ralph Tyler (1949) in his now classic text, Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction, has devised a two-dimensional chart for specifying varied types of objectives according to the subject-matter content and the behavioral aspects of the objectives

Relationship of Objectives to Learning Experiences In his classic text on curriculum, Tyler defined the term learning experiences as follows: The term learning experience is not the same as the content with which a course neither deals nor the activities performed by the teacher. The term learning experience refers to the interaction between the learner and the external conditions in the environment to which he/she can react. Learning takes place through the active behavior of the student. (p. 63) Tyler argues that the teachers problem is to select learning experiences that will foster active involvement in the learning process in order to accomplish the expected learning outcomes. Tyler outlined five general principles in selecting learning experiences: 1. The learning experience must give students the opportunity to practice the desired

behavior. If the objective is to develop problem-solving skills, the students should have ample opportunity to solve problems. 2. The learning experience must give the students satisfaction. Students need satisfying experiences to develop and maintain interest in learning; unsatisfying experiences hinder their learning. 3. The learning experience must fit the students needs and abilities. This infers that the teacher must begin where the student is ability-wise and that prior knowledge is the starting point for new knowledge. 4. Multiple learning experiences can achieve the same objective. There are many ways of learning the same thing. A wide range of experiences is more effective for learning than a limited range. 5. The learning experience should accomplish several learning outcomes. While students are acquiring knowledge of one subject or concept, they are able to integrate that knowledge in several related fields and satisfy more than one objective (Tyler, 1949). Returning to the objectives of the biological science course, I will now illustrate several learning experiences that will help the high school science teacher achieve the first behavioral objective. Objective Number 1: After studying the functions of human organisms, students will be able to understand the important facts and principles of nutrition. Learning Experiences: 1. Students study nutrition by classifying foods into four basic food groups. 2. Students discuss the properties and nutritional values inherent in each grouping. 3. Students view a film on nutrition. 4. Students read research reports on the relation between nutrition and health.

5. Students write an essay relating the effects of poor nutrition and the incidence of various common diseases. 6. Students chart relationships between principles of nutrition and good health. 7. Students evaluate the many causes of health problems in America (Kaschman, 2011; Lieberman, 2011; Ovens, 2011).

Concepts from learning theories used in curriculum planning

CURRICULUM refers to the content and processes by which learners gain knowledge and understanding, develop skills, and alter attitudes, appreciation, and values under the auspices of a given school or program. COMPONENTS OF A CURRICULUM A defined philosophy or mission statement An organizing framework Anticipated outcomes, competencies, and/or objectives to be achieved Selected content with specific sequencing of the content Educational activities and experiences to facilitate learning Means of evaluation *In curriculum planning, members may choose a single or combinations with specific nursing theory/model or/and learning theories on which to build the framework of the curriculum. LEARNING THEORIES - Describe the processes used to bring about changes in the ways individuals understand information and changes the ways they perform a task or skill. A. BEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORIES - Focuses on what is directly observable in learners. A view that assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli. Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) A form of associative learning where there is a demonstration of how stimulus-response bonds (which some consider as the basic building blocks of learning) are formed.

It involves the association an unconditioned and a conditioned stimulus in such a way that the conditioned stimulus elicits the unconditioned response. Concepts: Conditioning The initiation of an involuntary reaction due to continuous use of a stimulus. Controlled Stimulus Stimulus initially inadequate to evoke response in question but will do so if paired with the unconditioned stimulus. Uncontrolled Stimulus Stimulus adequate at the onset of training to produce the response in question. Controlled Response Learned response to a controlled stimulus. Uncontrolled Response Response to an uncontrolled stimulus. Stimulus Generalization Happens once a conditioned response to a stimulus of a certain kind is established, then the response will also occur to stimuli which are similar to the original stimulus. No learning occurs unless there is a generalization No two stimuli or stimulus situations are exactly alike. They must be treated as if they were exactly alike in order to elicit the same response. Discrimination Eliciting different responses to two different stimuli Extinction Stimulus that are no longer reinforced tend to disappear from the learners repertoire of behavior Spontaneous Recovery The return of a conditioned response, following experimental extinction, after periods of reinforcement. Once a conditioned response is established, it never completely disappears from the behavioral repertoire of the learner. Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner) Another form of associative learning where there is a process of operating on the environment. Together with the concepts in classical conditioning the learner encounters another kind of stimulus, which is the

reinforcing stimulus (reinforcer). This special stimulus has the effect of increasing the behavior occurring just before the reinforcer. Described as the behavior is followed by a consequence, and the nature of the consequence modifies the organism's tendency to repeat the behavior in the future. A behavior followed by a reinforcing stimulus results in an increased probability of that behavior occurring in the future. Learning process whereby a desirable behavior is made more likely to occur in the future or to occur more frequently because it is reinforced or strengthened. B.F. Skinner defined learning as a change in probability of response. Concepts: Operant Set of behaviors that constitute an individual doing something. Reinforcement The notion that learning takes place because of the consequences of a behavior. Any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows. Kinds of Reinforcement o Positive Reinforcement - favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior. In situations that reflect positive reinforcement, a response or behavior is strengthened by the addition of something, such as praise or a direct reward. o Negative Reinforcement - involve the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant. *in both of these cases of reinforcement, the behavior increases. Punishment An action that suppresses or reduces the probability of the response it follows. The presentation of an adverse event or outcome. Kinds of Punishment o Positive Punishment - punishment by application, involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows. o Negative Punishment - punishment by removal occurs when a favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs.

*in both of these cases of reinforcement, the behavior increases. Independent Variables Variables that can be manipulated by the experimenter Types of Reinforcement o Primary reinforcement instinctive behaviors lead to satisfaction of basic survival needs such as food, water, sex, shelter. No learning takes place because the behaviors emerge spontaneously. o Secondary reinforcement the reinforcer is not reinforcing by itself, but becomes reinforcing when paired with a primary reinforcer, such as pairing a sound or a light with food. o Generalized reinforcement stimuli become reinforcing through repeated pairing with primary or secondary reinforcers. Many are culturally reinforced. Schedules of Reinforcement giving reinforcement on different schedules has different results for training. o Continuous reinforcement reinforcement is given every time the animal gives the desired response. o Intermittent reinforcement reinforcement is given only part of the times the animal gives the desired response. o Ratio reinforcement a pre-determined proportion of responses will be reinforced. o Fixed ratio reinforcement reinforcement is given on a regular ratio, such as every fifth time the desired behavior is produced. o Variable (random) fixed reinforcement reinforcement is given for a predetermined proportion of responses, but randomly instead of on a fixed schedule. o Interval reinforcement reinforcement is given after a predetermined period of time. o Fixed interval reinforcement reinforcement is given on a regular schedule. o Variable interval reinforcement reinforcement is given after random amounts of time have passed. Dependent Variables (measures of learning) Variables that cannot be manipulated by the experimenter

Acquisition Rate How rapidly an animal can be trained to a new operant behavior as a function of reinforcement. Rate of Response Measure of learning that is very sensitive to different schedules of reinforcement. Extinction Rate The rate at which an operant response disappears following the withdrawal of reinforcement. Behaviorism (John B. Watson) Coined the term behaviorism Further extended Pavlovs work and applied it to human beings. Concepts: Behaviorism assumes that behavior is observable and can be correlated with other observable events. Thus, there are events that precede and follow behavior. Its goal is to explain relationships between antecedent conditions (stimuli), behavior (responses), and consequences (reward, punishment, or neutral effect). Aspects of Behaviorism o Opposes mentalistic concepts o Uses contiguity to explain learning o Considers emotion to be just another example of classical conditioning o Rejects the notion of individual differences o Thought complex behaviors came about through combinations of identifiable reflexes o Believes that all human differences were the result of learning o Believes that practice strengthens learning Connectivism (E.L. Thorndike) Perceived that learners are empty organisms who respond to stimuli in a random manner. Rejected the notion that man is simply another animal that can reason. He believed intelligence should be defined solely in terms of greater or lesser ability to form connections. Concepts: Law of Effect

States that the responses which occur just prior to a satisfying state of affairs are more likely to be repeated, and responses just prior to an annoying state of affairs are more likely not to be repeated. Multiple Response In any given situation, the organism will respond in a variety of ways if the first response does not immediately lead to a more satisfying state of affairs. Problem solving is through trial and error. Set or Attitude There are predisposition's to behave or react in a particular way. These are unique for species or groups of related species, and may be culturally determined in humans. Prepotency of Elements Thorndike observed that a learner could filter out irrelevant aspects of a situation and respond only to significant (proponent) elements in a problem situation. Response by Analogy In a new context, responses from related or similar contexts may be transferred to the new context. This is sometimes referred to as the theory of identical elements. Associative shifting It is possible to shift any response from one stimulus to another. Law of Readiness A series of responses can be chained together to satisfy some goal which will result in annoyance if blocked. Law of Exercise Connections become strengthened with practice, and weaken when practice is discontinued. Intelligence is a function of the number of connections made.

Drive Reduction Theory (Clark L. Hull) Based on Thorndikes work, but included reinforcement as a major characteristic of learning. Concepts: Drive Reduction Theory

postulated that behavior occurs in response to "drives" such as hunger, thirst, sexual interest, feeling cold, etc. When the goal of the drive is attained (food, water, mating, warmth) the drive is reduced, at least temporarily. This reduction of drive serves as a reinforcer for learning. Thus learning involves a dynamic interplay between survival drives and their attainment. The bonding of the drive with the goal of the drive was a type of reinforcement, and his theory was a reinforcement theory of learning.

Formation of educational goals

Educators compose goals and objectives to clearly outline where they are headed in their teaching practice. These closely related planning tools help teachers focus on the purpose behind their instruction. Goals traditionally cover a longer span of time, and can be composed to encompass a semester or full year of teaching. Objectives, on the other hand, provide a guiding focus for a single lesson or unit. When used in conjunction with one another, these two tools can both help educators produce useful academic plans and ensure the education is focused and purpose-driven.

1. Decide on an overall goal that you want your students to accomplish. Your goal covers a larger period of time than your objectives, and should therefore be set first. 2. Compose your goal in standard SMART goal style. SMART is an acronym that stands for specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time sensitive. Your stated goal should be all of these things. Provide detail to make your goal specific. Include a quantifiable desired outcome to make your goal measurable. Be realistic to ensure that your goal is attainable. Connect your goal to your subject area to ensure that it is relevant. And set a time frame for completion to ensure that the goal is time sensitive. 3. Create a list of steps that you will need to take toward achieving that goal. A long term goal can not be achieved overnight. Break the goal down into a list of steps to make the task of accomplishing it more manageable. 4. Turn each of these listed steps into an objective. Teaching objectives traditionally cover one lesson. This lesson covers only a day of class, or may extend into multiple class sessions.

5. Use the "Students will be able to..." form to compose your objectives. All objectives should, like SMART goals, be measurable. To ensure that your objective is measurable, start the goal with "Students will be able to...," and continue from there. Ask yourself what you want students to be able to do at the conclusion of your lesson. 6. Record your goals and objectives in an easily accessible place. If you use a standard lesson plan book when preparing for class, write your goal in the front of this book so that you can revisit it throughout the year. Integrate your objective into your daily lesson plan by adding it at the beginning of the plan and using it as a statement of purpose for the lesson.

Selection of learning experiences

The learning experiences are the means towards achieving the goals and

objectives of the curriculum.

Learning experiences is the instructional component of the curriculum providing

for the interaction between teacher, student and the content.

Learning experiences, designed for the purpose of achieving the goals and objectives of the curriculum plan can be divided into: teaching methods adopted, and, learning activities.

Types of teaching methods: the inquiry method, the discovery approach, the lecture method, small groupdiscussion, role-playing, fieldwork and so forth. Learning activities are opportunities for students to question, clarify, create and apply knowledge. Examples are answering questions, solving problems, journal writing, viewing videos, and doing experiments, playing games and so forth.
Content is what we teach; learning experience is an activity which the learner

engages in which results in changes in his behaviour. In the selection of learning experiences, educators should not separate content and experiences. In reality, both content and learning experiences do not exist in isolation. For example, a student cannot just engage in learning or studying without experiencing some

activity and some content. Likewise, teachers cannot deal with content without being engaged in some experience or some activity.
Cumulation: Even though experiences provided may be different, they should all

lead to the attainment of the same goal; subsequent experiences should build on earlier ones
Multiple Learning: a single learning experience may bring about multiple

outcomes. Such learning experiences are important because of their multiple benefits.

General Principles in Selecting Learning Experiences

For a given objective to be attained, a learner must have experiences that give
an opportunity to practice the kind of behaviour implied by the objective.

Learning experiences must be such that the learner gets satisfaction from
carrying on the kind of behaviour implied by the objectives.

Learning experiences must begin where the learner is, that is starting from the
known and progressing to the unknown. This means starting from the simple and advancing to the complex.

There may be many experiences that can be used to attain the same educational
objective. This means planning a number of different learning experiences that will achieve that same objective.

The same learning experience will usually bring about several learning
outcomes. Factors in Selecting Learning Experiences: Validity - this refers to the relevance of the stated learning experience to the stated goals of the curriculum

Relevance to life- learning experience must be related to the learners real life situations in and out of school Variety - learning experiences must cater to the needs of different types of learners by providing different types of experiences Suitability - learning experiences must be suitable to the learners present state of learning and characteristics Feasibility - the experiences suggested can be carried out given the time, available facilities and expertise of teachers. Factors in Selecting Content: Validity - Means two things, is the content related to the objectives, and is the content true or authentic? Significance - Is the content significant or will lead it to the more mastery or more understanding of the course or subject? Utility - Here the question is whether the content selected is useful i.e. will lead to the acquisition of skills and knowledge that are considered useful by society? Interest - Is the content interesting to the learner? Or can the content be made interesting to learners? Learnability - Is the content selected such that learners can learn and understand given their present level?

Effective and efficient organization of learning & experiences

efficient -works in a well-organized way, without wasting time or energy. Consider the following examples: She was efficient in everything she did and was frequently commended for exemplary service to the organization. He hasnt made very efficient use of his time.

effective If something is effective, it works well and produces the results that were intended. Consider the following examples: 'These tablets really are effective. My headaches much better now.' 'The only effective way to avoid hay fever at this time of the year, if you are a sufferer, is to stay indoors.'

"curriculum" :generally understood as the courses or programs of study offered by an educational institution. The concept of "curriculum" is best understood, however, from the Latin root of the word which is "currere", or "to run" as in to run a race course. To use an analogy, curriculum means the course (or path) that students have to run to finish the "race" -- or put another way, all the activities which students need do if they are to finish a program of study and achieve the intended learning goals. Curriculum is more than just a body of knowledge, a list of subjects to be studied, or a syllabus -- it is all the planned experiences which learners may be exposed to in order to achieve the learning goals.

Retention o Major factor in efficiency in learning o Meant the persistence of leaning, that is, the extent to which material originally learned is preserved so that it may subsequently be recalled and recognized o 1st requisite: thorough learning o Ways of measuring retention

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Recall method: reproducing what was learned, e.g.: recitation, essay exams Recognition method: selecting from a list what was learned previously; e.g.: multiple choice Savings/Relearning method: more sensitive: Savings score: percentage referred to the original learning; difference between the amount of effort in terms of time, number of trials, number of errors in the original learning and for the relearning Forgetting: normal; failure for learning to persist Retroactive inhibition: interference from subsequent experiences or later learning Proactive inhibition: interference from prior learning to later inputs The greater the similarity between 2 types of material, the easier to forget Related past knowledge to new ones and reiterate their meaning and differences The initial stage of forgetting is more rapid than the rate at later stages. Forgetting takes place immediately after learning and then becomes slower as time passes. Ebbinghaus (degree of retention experiment in educational psychology) vice versa to Radosavljevich

Factors affecting efficiency in learning: o Overlearning: o improves retention, counters forgetting o Amount retained is proportional to the amount of overlearning o Review: o Repetition and critical examination, helps to attain more complete understanding of relationships and a better organization of materials previously learned, can give new insights and useful generalizations o The first review should come immediately after the initial learning, probably in a form of summary (summary every end of a class) o Putting previous lessons into actual us o Recitation: o Recall/restate (by self testing or self recitation) to himself/herself or to others what was learned to induce recall of the material o Length and distribution of practice o Distributed practice or spacing of repetitions produces more effective results than concentrated or massed practice: distributed longer period of study is better than studying in the same amount of time in one seating o Periods of practice should consist of parts of hours followed by intervals of rest o Practice period arrangements must consider the: age, level of maturation, abilities, and interests of the learners o Whole and part learning

Whole method: securing an idea in its entirety, together with its chief divisions and subdivisions then developing it as a whole. This method is better for meaningful materials, short and easy materials and for those mentally superior learners: IQ: 140 or better. Aid in developing meaning, in outlining, organizing, establishing associations o Parts method: division of material into sections or parts, each studied separately until mastered, then the various parts are combined as a whole o Nature of material to be learned o Learning depends upon comprehension and understanding o Meaningfulness of material is the key to efficient and effective learning o Lapse of time (summer vacation) o Greatest amount of knowledge at the close of the school year sustained the greatest losses over the vacation o Other factors: praise and reproof, reward and punishment, knowledge of results

Physiological Factors that influence efficiency in learning: o sensory defects and general physical conditions o Fatigue- temporary decrease in mental functions due to continuous and prolonged exercise, its effects are: loss of interest, prevalence of distraction, slackening of mental process, lessening of the power of the will, reduction of general efficiency

Effective study o STUDY: Apply ones mental capacities purposefully to the acquisition, understanding, and organization of knowledge; phase of formal learning by means of which the individual seeks to gain new facts, establish new habits, new attitudes and perfect new skills in an efficient and economical way o Psychological laws and principles in the process of effective study: governing attention, interest, will, habit and affective states o FACTORS: o Purposefulness o Assimilation and application of facts, information, ideas, and knowledge acquired o Organization of knowledge and distinguishing major features from minor points o Development of soundness(reliability/accuracy) of judgment and thoroughness of reasoning o Provisions for opportunities for the exercise of initiative, self-activity, self0reliance, and self-control on the part of the pupils

o Teachers: must direct students to encourage and help students to study effectively, aid them in having faith and confidence in themselves, and provide a strong motive, definite time to study. It is more important for teachers to direct their students to have persistence in studying than making them use the right methods of studying

Formulas for study: SQ3R: Robinson o Survey (major ideas presented).Question(the major ideas).Read.Recite(test your self).Review Triple S Technique: Farquhar, Krumboltz, Wrenn o Scan(Familiarize).Search(find and keep meaning thru questioning, testing your self etc.).Summarize P-I-R: Garrison and Gray o Preview(what is to be studied). Identification(what is important). Review(important aspects) References: http:// Nursing Theories: Conceptual & Philosophical Foundations. Ingrid Kollak Perspective on Nursing Theory: Pamela Reed, Nursing Theories: An Overview. Wills M. Evelyn, Melanie McEwen Nursing theorist and their work. Ann Marriner-Tomey, Martha Raile Alligood Nursing Theories: The Base for Professional Practice: Julia George