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N.T.P.

C SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT


SUBMITTED BY: NEHA SINGH O4313503609 MAE IGIT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thank N.T.PC. BADARPUR for providing me a golden opportunity to work with them. The support and the environment provided to me during my project was more than what anyone would have expected.

I am very grateful to Mr. MAN MOHAN SINGH(DY. MANAGER) who granted me the opportunity of working as a summer trainee at mechanical Division.

I would also like to thanks Mrs RACHNA BHAL (H.R.) , Mr. G.D SHARMA(TRAINING COORDINATOR) and my instructors of B.M.D.,P.A.M., T.M.D. and divisions without them I would not be able to perform such a delightful job.

And at last I would like to thanks all the people involve in the training who helped me in accomplishing it in such a wonderful way.

PREFACE
NTPC is one of the most important industry for producing the electricity. Every 3rd ball in india is glown by NTPC. There are various divisions in NTPC for various branches like mechanical division, electrical division etc. The main objective of preparing this report has been to present the operations of BMD, PAM, TMD of mechanical division in a logical, innovative and lucide manner. The basic theory presented in this report has been evolved out of simple and readily understood principles. A sincere effort has been made to maintain physical concepts in various operations. An effort has been made to give a balanced presentation of this report with the help of figures, different types of data and related suitable theories as well as concepts. Eventually, again I would like to thank BTPS.

NEHA SINGH BE 3RD YEAR Email:neha.singh100190@gmail.com

CONTENTS
ABOUT N.T.P.C (NATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATION) INTRODUCTION VISION, MISSION AND CORE VALUES CAPACITY TRANSFORMATION OF ENERGY BASIC POWER PLANT CYCLE

ABOUT BMD (BOILER MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT)

BOILER DESCRIPTION FEED WATER & CONDENSATE CYCLE FURNACE & THEIR TYPE BASICS OF FAN & DRAFT SYSTEM PULVERISER(COAL IN TO PULVERISED COALOUT ) BOILER AUXILIARIES AND MOUNTINGS ABOUT PAM

(PLANT AUXILIARY MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT) THEORY OF CIRCULATION OF WATER ASH HANDLING PLANT CSP HOUSE WATER TREATMENT PLANT

ABOUT TMD (TURBINE MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT)

STEAM TURBINE THEORY STEAM CYCLE TURBINE CLASSIFICATION TURBINE CYCLE DESCRIPTION OF MAIN TURBINE TURBINE AUXILLIARIES AN THEIR ARRANGEMENT ABOUT CHP

(COAL HANDLING PLANT) INTRODUCTION TO CHP COAL CYCLE COAL HANDLING SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION TO NTPC

BRIEFING N.T.P.C NTPC, India's largest power company, was set up in 1975 to accelerate power development in India. It is emerging as anIntegrated Power Major, with a significant presence in the entire value chain of power generation business. NTPC ranked 341st in the 2010, Forbes Global 2000 ranking of the Worlds biggest companies. With a current generating capacity of 34,854 MW, NTPC has embarked on plans to become a 75,000 MW company by 2017. VISION To be the worlds largest and best power producer, powering Indias growth. MISSION Develop and provide reliable power, related products and services at competitive prices, integrating multiple energy sources with innovative and eco-friendly technologies and contribute to society.

Core Values BCOMIT Business Ethics Customer Focus Organisational & Professional Pride Mutual Respect & Trust Innovation & Speed Total Quality for Excellence INSTALLED CAPACITY Be it the generating capacity or plant performance or operational efficiency, NTPCs Installed Capacity and performance depicts the companys outstanding performance across a number of parametres. NO. OF PLANTS NTPC Owned Coal Gas/Liquid Fuel Total Owned By JVs Coal & Gas Total 15 7 22 6 28 CAPACITY (MW) 27,535 3,955 31,490 3,364 34,854

Regional Spread of Generating Facilities

REGION Northern Western Southern Eastern JVs Total

COAL 8,015 7,520 4,100 7,900 1,424 28,959

GAS 2,312 1,293 350 1,940 5,895

TOTAL 10,327 8,813 4,450 7,900 3,364 34,854

The total installed capacity of the company is 34,854 MW (including JVs) with 15 coal based and 7 gas based stations, located across the country. In addition under JVs, 5 stations are coal based & another station uses naptha/LNG as fuel. The company has set a target to have an installed power generating capacity of 1,28,000 MW by the year 2032. The capacity will have a diversified fuel mix comprising 56% coal, 16% Gas, 11% Nuclear and 17% Renewable Energy Sources(RES) including hydro. By 2032, non fossil fuel based generation capacity shall make up nearly 28% of NTPCs portfolio. NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. Although the company has 17.75% of the total national capacity, it contributes 27.40% of total power generation due to its focus on high efficiency.

How is Coal Converted to Electricity? TRANSFORMATION OF ENERGY

COAL
Chemical energy

BOILER
Thermal energy

STEAM TURBINE
Mechanical energy

DIFFERENT LOADS
Light energy or other required energy

GENERATOR
Electrical energy

CHP (COAL HANDALING DEPARTMENT)

(COAL CYCLE) From Jharia mines

Railway wagon

BTPS wagon trippler

Magnetic separator

Crusher house

Coal stock yard

RC bunker

RC feeder

Bowl mill

Furnace

Coal is first milled to a fine powder, which increases the surface area and allows it to burn more quickly. In these pulverised coal combustion (PCC) systems, the powdered coal is blown into the combustion chamber of a boiler where it is burnt at high temperature (see diagram below). The hot gases and heat energy produced converts water in tubes lining the boiler into steam.

The high pressure steam is passed into a turbine containing thousands of propeller-like blades. The steam pushes these blades causing the turbine shaft to rotate at high speed. A generator is mounted at one end of the turbine shaft and consists of carefully wound wire coils. Electricity is generated when these are rapidly rotated in a strong magnetic field. After passing through the turbine, the steam is condensed and returned to the boiler to be heated once again.

Basic Power Plant Cycle


The thermal (steam) power plant uses a dual (vapour + liquid) phase cycle. It is a closed cycle to enable the working fluid (water) to be used again and again. The cycle used is "Rankine Cycle" modified to include super heating of steam, regenerative feed water heating and reheating of steam.

The electricity generated is transformed into the higher voltages (up to 400,000 volts) used for economic, efficient transmission via power line grids. When it nears the point of consumption, such as our homes, the electricity is transformed down to the safer 100-250 voltage systems used in the domestic market.

BOILER MAINTAINANCE DEPARTMENT

Steam Generator or Boiler


The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft (15 m) on a side and 130 ft (40 m) tall. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches (60 mm) in diameter. Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns, forming a large fireball at the center. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 F (370 C) and 3,200 psi (22.1MPa). It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace. The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace. Here the steam is superheated to 1,000 F (540 C) to prepare it for the turbine. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity, pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. The generator includes the economizer, the steam drum, the chemical dosing equipment, and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and the super heater coils. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft (FD) fan, air preheater (APH), boiler furnace, induced draft (ID) fan, fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator or bag house) and the flue gas stack.

Schematic diagram of a coal-fired power plant steam generator For units over about 210 MW capacity, redundancy of key components is provided by installing duplicates of the FD fan, APH, fly ash collectors and ID fan with isolating dampers. On some units of about 60 MW, two boilers per unit may instead be provided.

Arrangement of Main Boiler(200/210 MW)


The illustration given in the figure shows a symbolic arrangement of various accessories of a 200/210 MW boiler. These accessories include:

Economizer Boiler Drum Down Comers Water walls Water wall platen(used for low pressure boilers) Primary super heater Platen super heater Final super heater Reheater Burner ignitors

A brief note on some of the components shown in figure have been listed in the following paragraphs.

FURNACE
INTRODUCTION: Furnace is primary part of boiler where the chemical energy of fuel is converted to thermal energy by combustion. Furnace is designed for efficient and complete combustion. Major factors that assist for efficient combustion are amount of fuel inside the furnace and turbulence, which causes rapid mixing between fuel and air. In modern boilers, water-cooled furnaces are used. TYPES OF FURNACE P.F. FIRED DRY BOTTOM FURNACE: The tall rectangular radiant type furnace has now become a feature of modern dry bottom P.F. boiler. Indorsed height not only facilitates adequate natural circulation but also aids reduction of furnace exit gas temperature and hence less soot deposit in superheaters and reheaters.

SLAG TYPE FURNACE: Furnace of this type normally has two parts. Primary furnace is used for very high rate of combustion. Provision is to make molten slag and crush the granular form for easy disposal. As the ash has to flow from the primary furnace, coal having low melting temperature can only be used. To obtain high temperature inside the primary surface that will facilitate the easy flow of ash, very small but highly rated design is needed for primary furnace hence maintenance is needed. OIL FIRED BOILER FURNACE: Normally about 65% of furnace volume is enough for an oil-fired boiler as compared to the corresponding P.F. fired boiler. Oil-fired furnace is generally closed at the bottom, as there is no need to remove slag as in case of P.F. fired boiler. The bottom part will have small amount of slope to prevent film boiler building in the bottom tubes. If boiler has to design for both P.F. as well as oil, the furnace has to be designed for coal, as otherwise higher heat loading with P.F. will cause slogging and high furnace exit gas temperature.

Some significant concept relating to Boiler accessories are:

BOILER DRUM
The function of steam is to separate water from the steam generated in the furnace walls and to reduce the dissolved solid contents of the steam tobelow the priscribed limit of 1 ppm. The drum is located on the upper front of the boiler.

ECONOMIZER
The function of an economizer in a steam generating unit is to absorb heat from the flue gases and add as a sensible heat to the feed-water before the water enters the evaporation circuit of the boiler. Earlier economizer were introduced mainly to recover the heat available in flue gases that leaves the boiler and provision of this addition heating surface increases the efficiency of steam generators. In the modern boilers used for power generation feed-water heaters were used to increase the efficiency of turbine unit and feed-water temperature.

SUPERHEATER
There are three stages of superheater beside the side walls and extended side walls. The first stage consists of horizontal superheater of Convection mixed flow type with upper and lower banks located above economizer assembly in the rear pass. The upper bank terminates into hanger tubes which are connected to outlet header of the first stage superheater. The second stage superheater of pandent platen which, is, of radiant parallel flow type. The third stage superheater pendant space is of convection parallel flow. The outlet temperature and pressure of the steam coming out from superheater is 540C and 147kg/cm respectively for H.P. units.

Fig. A water tube boiler with a super heater

REHEATER
The function of reheater is to reheat the steam coming out of high pressure turbine to the temperature of 540C. The reheater is composed of two sections. The front pendent section and rear pendent section. The rear pendent section is located above the furnace arc and the rear water wall and front pendent section is located between the rear water hanger tubes and the superheater platen section.

BURNERS
There are total 24 pulverised coal burner for corner fired C.E. type boilers and 12 oil burner provided each in between two pulverized fuel burner. The pulverised coal burners are arranged in such a way that six mill supply the coal to the burners at four corners, of the furnace. All the nozzels of the burners are inter linked and can be

tilted as single unit for +30 to -30. The oil burners are feed with heavy fuel oil boiler load reaches to about 25%.

IGNITORS
There are 12 side eddy plate oil H.E.A ignitor per boiler. The atomizing air for ignitors are taken from plant air compressor at 7 kg/cm(gauge).The burners are located at three elevations. Each elevation has four oil burners and ignitors. These elevations are normally known as AB elevations, CD elevation and EE elevations. Ignitors are fired for lightning the mainoil gun. There are two ignitor air fan supplyfor combustion of ignitor oil. Mainly two types of ignitors are: -Eddy plate ignitor -High energy arc type ignitor

AIR PREHEATER
Air preheater absorbs waste heat from the flue gases and transfers this heat to incoming cold air, by means of continuously rotating heat transfer element of specially formed metal plates. Thousands of these high efficiency elements are spaced and compactly arranged within 12 sections. Sloped compartments of a radially divided cylindrical shell called the rotor. The housing surrounding the rotor is provided with duct connecting both the ends and is adequately scaled by radial and circumferential scaling. Air Preheater consists of: Connecting plates Housing Rotor Heating surface elements Bearings Sector plates and Sealing arrangement

FANS

Basics of Fans The air we need for combustion in the furnace and the flue gas that we must evacuate would not possible without using fans. A fan is capable of imparting energy to the air/gas in the form of a boost in pressure. We overcome the losses through the system by means of this pressure boost. The boost is dependent on density for a given fan at a given speed. The higher the temperature, the lower is the boost. Fan performance (Max. capability) is represented as volume vs. pressure boost. The basic information needed to select a fan is: Air or Gas flow (Kg/hr). Density (function of temperature and pressure). System, resistance (losses).

Classification of Fans In boiler practice, we meet the following types of fans. Axial fans Centrifugal (Radial) fans Axial Fans In this type the movement of air or gas is parallel to its exit of rotation. These fans are better suited to low resistance applications. The axial flow fan uses the screw like action of a multiplied rotating shaft, or propeller, to move air or gas in a straight through path.

Centrifugal Fan This fan moves gas or air perpendicular to the axis of rotation. There are advantages when the air must be moved in a system where the frictional resistance is relatively high. The blade wheel whirls air centrifugally between each pair of blades and forces it out peripherally at high velocity and high static pressure. More air is sucked in at the eye of the impeller. As the air leaves the revolving blade tips, part of its velocity is converted into additional static pressure by scroll shaped housing.

There are three types of blades. Backward curved blades. Forward curved blades. Radial blades. Draft System Before a detailed study of industrial fans it is in the fitness of things to understand the various draft systems maintained by those fans.

The terms draft denotes the difference between the atmospheric pressure and the pressure existing in the furnace. Depending upon the draft used, we have Natural Draft Induced Draft Forced Draft Balanced Draft System

Natural Draft

In natural draft units the pressure differentials are obtained have constructing tall chimneys so that vacuum is' created in the furnace Due to small pressure difference, air is admitted into the furnace. Induced Draft

In this system the air is admitted to natural pressure difference and the flue gases are taken out by means of induced Draft fans and the furnace is maintained under vacuum.

Forced Draft

A set of forced draft fans are made use of for supplying air to the furnace and so the furnace is pressurized. The flue gases are taken out due to the pressure difference between the furnace and the atmosphere. Balance Draft Here a set of Induced and Forced Draft Fans are utilized in maintaining a vacuuming the furnace. Normally all the power stations utilize this draft system. I.D. Fan The induced Draft Fans are generally of Axial -Impulse Type. Impeller nominal diameter is of the order of 2500 mm. The fan consists of the following sub-assemblies Suction Chamber Inlet Vane Control Impeller Outlet Guide Vane Assembly Industrial Fans

The outlet guides are fixed in between the case of the diffuser and the casing. These guide vanes serve to direct the flow axially and to stabilize the draft-flow caused in the impeller. These outlet blades are removable type from outside. During operation of the fan itself these blades can be replaced one by one. Periodically the outlet blades can be removed one at a time to find out the extent of wear on the blade. If excessive wear is noticed the blade can be replaced by a new blade. F.D Fan The fan, normally of the same type as ID Fan, consists of the following components: * Silencer * Inlet bend * Fan housing * Impeller with blades and setting mechanism * Guide wheel casing with guide vanes and diffuser.

The centrifugal and setting forces of the blades are taken up by the blade bearings. The blade shafts are placed in combined radial and axial antifriction bearings which are sealed off to the outside. The angle of-incidence of the blades may be adjusted during operation. The characteristic pressure volume curves of the fan may be changed in a large range without essentially modifying the efficiency. The fan can then be easily adapted to changing operating conditions. The rotor is accommodated in cylindrical roller bearings and an inclined ball bearing at the drive side adsorbs the axial thrust. Lubrication and cooling these bearings is assured by a combined oil level and circulating lubrication system. Primary Air Fan P.A. ran if flange mounted design, single stage suction, NDFV type, backward curved bladed radial fan operating on the principle of energy transformation due to centrifugal forces. Some amount of the velocity energy is converted to pressure energy in the spiral casing. The fan is driven at a constant speed and the flow is controlled by varying the angle of the inlet vane control. The Special feature of the fan is that is provided with inlet guide vane control with a positive and precise link mechanism.

PULVERIZER
A pulverizer is a mechanical device for the grinding of many different types of materials. For example, they are used to pulverize coal for combustion in the steam-generating furnaces of fossil fuel power plants.

Fig. PULVERIZER

TYPES OF PULVERIZERS
Ball and Tube Mills A ball mill is a pulverizer that consists of a horizontal rotating cylinder, up to three diameters in length, containing a charge of tumbling or cascading steel balls, pebbles, or rods. A tube mill is a revolving cylinder of up to five diameters in length used for fine pulverization of ore, rock, and other such materials; the material, mixed with water, is fed into the chamber from one end, and passes out the other end as slime. Ring and Ball Mill

This type of mill consists of two rings separated by a series of large balls. The lower ring rotates, while the upper ring presses down on the balls via a set of spring and adjuster assemblies. The material to be pulverized is introduced into the center or side of the pulverizer (depending on the design) and is ground as the lower ring rotates causing the balls to orbit between the upper and lower rings. The pulverized material is carried out of the mill by the flow of air moving through it. The size of the pulverized particles released from the grinding section of the mill is determined by a classifer separator. MPS Mill Similar to the Ring and Ball Mill, this mill uses large "tires" to crush the coal. These are usually found in utility plants. Bowl Mill Similar to the MPS mill, it also uses tires to crush coal. There are two types, a deep bowl mill, and a shallow bowl mill. Advantage of pulverized coal Efficient utilization of cheap and low grade coal Flexibility to meet fluctuating load Elevation of bending loser

BOILER FITTING AND MOUNTINGS


A safety valve is a valve mechanism for the automatic release of a gas from a boiler, pressure vessel, or other system when the pressure or temperature exceeds preset limits. It is part of a bigger set named Pressure Safety Valves (PSV) or Pressure Relief Valves (PRV). The other parts of the set are named relief valves, safety relief valves, pilot-operated safety relief valves, low pressure safety valves, vacuum pressure safety valves. Safety valve

Function and design

Fig. Boiler safety valve Boiler stop valves A steam boiler must be fitted with a stop valve (also known as a crown valve) which isolates the steam boiler and its pressure from the process or plant. It is generally an angle pattern globe valve of the screw-down variety

Fig: Boiler stop valve The stop valve is not designed as a throttling valve, and should be fully open or closed. It should always be opened slowly to prevent any sudden rise in downstream pressure and associated waterhammer, and to help restrict the fall in boiler pressure and any possible associated priming. Feed water check valves The feed water check valve is installed in the boiler feedwater line between the feed pump and boiler. A boiler feed stop valve is fitted at the boiler shell. The check valve includes a spring equivalent to the head of water in the elevated feed tank when there is no pressure in the boiler. This prevents the boiler being flooded by the static head from the boiler feed tank.

Fig. Boiler check valve Pressure gauge All boilers must be fitted with at least one pressure indicator.The usual type is a simple pressur gauge constructed to BS 1780 Part 2 - Class One. The dial should be at least 150 mm in diameter and of the Bourdon tube type, it should be marked to indicate the normal working pressure and the maximum permissible working pressure / design pressure. Pressure gauges are connected to the steam space of the boiler and usually have a ring type siphon tube which fills with condensed steam and protects the dial mechanism from high temperatures. Pressure gauges may be fitted to other pressure containers such as blowdown vessels, and will usually have smaller dials as shown in Figure

Fig: Typical pressure gauge with ring siphon Gauge glasses and fittings All steam boilers are fitted with at least one water level indicator, but those with a rating of 100 kW or more should be fitted with two indicators. The indicators are usually referred to as gauge glasses complying with BS 3463.

Fig. Gauge glass and fittings

A gauge glass shows the current level of water in the boiler, regardless of the boiler's operating conditions. Gauge glasses should be installed so that their lowest reading will show the water level at 50 mm above the point where overheating will occur. They should also be fitted with a protector around them, but this should not hinder visibility of the water level. Gauge glasses are prone to damage from a number of sources, such as corrosion from the chemicals in boiler water, and erosion during blow down, particularly at the steam end. Any sign of corrosion or erosion indicates that a new glass is required. When testing the gauge glass steam connection, the water cock should be closed. When testing the gauge glass water connections, the steam cock pipe should be closed. Gauge glass guards The gauge glass guard should be kept clean. When the guard is being cleaned in place, or removed for cleaning, the gauge should be temporarily shut-off. Make sure there is a satisfactory water level before shutting off the gauge and take care not to touch or knock the gauge glass. After cleaning, and when the guard has been replaced, the gauge should be tested and the cocks set in the correct position.

COAL BUNKER
These are in process storage silos used for storing crushed coal from the coal handling system. Generally, these are made up of welded steel plates.' Normally, there are six such bunkers supplying coal of the corresponding mills. These are located on top of the mills so as to aid in gravity feeding of coal. Each mill is provided with a drag link chain/ rotary/ gravimetric feeder to transport raw coal from the bunker to the inlet chute, leading to mill at a desired rate.

COAL FEEDER

MILLS

There are six mill (25% capacity each), for every 200 .MW unit, located adjacent to the furnace at '0' M level. These mills pulverize coal to the desired fineness to be fed to the furnace for combustion.

PLANT AUXILIARY MAINTENANCE

WATER CIRCULATION SYSTEM


Theory of Circulation Water must flow through the heat absorption surface of the boiler in order that it be evaporated into steam. In drum type units (natural and controlled circulation), the water is circulated from the drum through the generating circuits and then back to the drum where the steam is separated and directed to the super heater. The water leaves the drum through the down corners at a temperature slightly below the saturation temperature. The flow through the furnace wall is at saturation temperature. Heat absorbed in water wall is latent heat of vaporization creating a mixture of steam and water. The ratio of the weight of the water to the weight of the steam in the mixture leaving the heat absorption surface is called circulation ratio. Types of Boiler Circulating System i. Natural circulation system ii. Controlled circulation system iii.Combined circulation system

i.

Natural Circulation System

Water delivered to steam generator from feed water is at a temperature well below the saturation value corresponding to that pressure. Entering first the economizer, it is heated to about 30-40C below saturation temperature. From economizer the water enters the drum and thus joins the circulation system. Water entering the drum flows through the down corner and enters ring heater at the bottom. In the water walls, a part of the water is converted to steam and the mixture flows back to the drum. In the drum, the steam is separated, and sent to superheater for superheating and then sent to the highpressure turbine. Remaining water mixes with the incoming water from the economizer and the cycle is repeated.

As the pressure increases, the difference in density between water and steam reduces. Thus the hydrostatic head available will not be able to overcome the frictional resistance for a flow corresponding to the minimum requirement of cooling of water wall tubes. Therefore

natural circulation is limited to the boiler with drum operating pressure around 175 kg/ cm2.

ii.

Controlled Circulation System

Beyond 80 kg/ cm2 of pressure, circulation is to be assisted with mechanical pumps to overcome the frictional losses. To regulate the flow through various tubes, orifices plates are used. This system is applicable in the high sub-critical regions (200 kg/ cm2).

ASH HANDLING PLANT


The widely used ash handling systems are: i. ii. iii. iv. Mechanical Handling System Hydraulic System Pneumatic System Steam Jet System

Ash Handling System at Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi The Hydraulic Ash handling system is used at the Badarpur Thermal Power Station. Hydraulic Ash Handling System The hydraulic system carried the ash with the flow of water with high velocity through a channel and finally dumps into a sump. The hydraulic system is divided into a low velocity and high velocity system. In the low velocity system the ash from the boilers falls into a stream of water flowing into the sump. The ash is carried along with the water and they are separated at the sump. In the high velocity system a jet of water is sprayed to quench the hot ash. Two other jets force the ash into a trough in which they are washed away by the water into the sump, where they are separated. The molten slag

formed in the pulverized fuel system can also be quenched and washed by using the high velocity system. The advantages of this system are that its clean, large ash handling capacity, considerable distance can be traversed, absence of working parts in contact with ash. Fly Ash Collection Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators

FLY ASH SYSTEM or bag filers. Generally, the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars. Bottom Ash Collection and Disposal At the bottom of every boiler, a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash from the bottom of the furnace. This

hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site.

1. WATER TREATMENT PLANT As the types of boiler are not alike their working pressure and operating conditions vary and so do the types and methods of water treatment. Water treatment plants used in thermal power plants used in thermal power plants are designed to process the raw water to water with a very low content of dissolved solids known as demineralized water. No doubt, this plant has to be engineered very

carefully keeping in view the type of raw water to the thermal plant, its treatment costs and overall economics.

A water treatment plant The type of demineralization process chosen for a power station depends on three main factors: i. ii. iii. The quality of the raw water. The degree of de-ionization i.e. treated water quality. Selectivity of resins.

Water treatment process is generally made up of two sections:

Pretreatment section.

Demineralization section Pretreatment Section Pretreatment plant removes the suspended solids such as clay, silt, organic and inorganic matter, plants and other microscopic organism. The turbidity may be taken as two types of suspended solid in water;

firstly, the separable solids and secondly the non-separable solids (colloids). The coarse components, such as sand, silt, etc: can be removed from the water by simple sedimentation. Finer particles, however, will not settle in any reasonable time and must be flocculated to produce the large particles, which are settle able. Long term ability to remain suspended in water is basically a function of both size and specific gravity. Demineralization This filter water is now used for demineralizing purpose and is fed to cation exchanger bed, but enroute being first dechlorinated, which is either done by passing through activated carbon filter or injecting along the flow of water, an equivalent amount of sodium sulphite through some stroke pumps. The residual chlorine, which is maintained in clarification plant to remove organic matter from raw water, is now detrimental to action resin and must be eliminated before its entry to this bed.

A demineralization tank A DM plant generally consists of cation, anion and mixed bed exchangers. The final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which is the chemical composition of pure water. The DM water, being very pure, becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. However, some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. For this purpose, a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water, such as PVC. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. Sometimes, a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with atmospheric air. DM water make-up is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i.e., the vacuum side). This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated, with the dissolved gases being removed by the ejector of the condenser itself.

1. DRAUGHT SYSTEM There are four types of draught system: i. Natural Draught

ii. Induced Draught iii.Forced Draught iv.Balanced Draught Natural Draught System In natural draft units the pressure differentials are obtained have constructing tail chimneys so that vacuum is created in the furnace. Due to small pressure difference, air is admitted into the furnace.

A natural draught system

Induced Draft System In this system, the air is admitted to natural pressure difference and the flue gases are taken out by means of Induced Draught (I.D.) fans and the furnace is maintained under vacuum.

An induced draught system

Forced Draught System A set of forced draught (F.D.) fans is made use of for supplying air to the furnace and so the furnace is pressurized. The flue gases are taken out due to the pressure difference between the furnace and the atmosphere.

A forced draught system

Balanced Draught System Here a set of Induced and Forced Draft Fans are utilized in maintaining a vacuum in the furnace. Normally all the power stations utilize this draft system.

COMPRESSOR HOUSE
Instrument air is required for operating various dampers, burner tilting, devices, diaphragm valves, etc: in the 210 MW units. Station air meets the general requirement of the power station such as light oil atomizing air, for cleaning filters and for various maintenance works. The control air compressors and station air compressors have been housed separately with separate receivers and supply headers and their tapping.

A compressor house Instrument Air System

Control air compressors have been installed for supplying moisture free dry air required for instrument used. The output from the compressors is fed to air receivers via return valves. From the receiver air passed through the dryers to the main instrument airline, which runs along with the boiler house and turbine house of 210 MW units. Adequate numbers of tapping have been provided all over the area. Air-Drying Unit Air contains moisture which tends to condense, and causes trouble in operation of various devices by compressed air. Therefore drying of air is accepted widely in case of instrument air. Air drying unit consists of dual absorption towers with embedded heaters for reactivation. The absorption towers are adequately filled with specially selected silica gel and activated alumina while one tower is drying the air.

An air drying unit Service Air Compressor

The station air compressor is generally a slow speed horizontal double acting double stage type and is arranged for belt drive. The cylinder heads and barrel are enclosed in a jacket, whih extends around the valve also. The intercooler is provided between the low and high pressure cylinder which cools the air between tag and collects the moisture that condenses.

A service air compressor Air from L.P. cylinder enters at one end of the intercooler and goes to the opposite end wherefrom it is discharged to the high-pressure cylinder; cooling water flows through the nest of the tubes and cools the air. A safety valve is set at rated pressure. Two selector switches one with positions auto load/unload and another with positions auto start/stop, non-stop have been provided on the control panel of the compressor. In auto start-stop position, the compressor will start.

TURBINE MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT

STEAM TURBINE THEORY

Operating Principles A steam turbine's two main parts are the cylinder and the rotor.As the steam passes through the fixed blades or nozzles it expands and its velocity increases. The high-velocity jet of steam strikes the first set of moving blades. The kinetic energy of the steam changes into mechanical energy, causing the shaft to rotate. The steam then enters the next set of fixed blades and strikes the next row of moving blades. As the steam flows through the turbine, its pressure and temperature decreases, while its volume increases. The decrease in

pressure and temperature occurs as the steam transmits .energy to the shaft and performs work. After passing through the last turbine stage, the steam exhausts into the condenser or process steam system.

The kinetic energy of the steam changes into mechanical erringly through the impact (impulse) or reaction of the steam against the blades. STEAM CYCLE The thermal (steam) power plant uses a dual (vapour + liquid) phase cycle. It is a closed cycle to enable the working fluid (water) to be used again and again. The cycle used is "Rankine Cycle" modified to include super heating of steam, regenerative feed water heating and reheating of steam.

On large turbines, it becomes economic to increase the cycle efficiency by using reheat, which is a way of partially overcoming temperature limitations. By returning partially expanded steam to a reheat, the average temperature at which heat is added is increased and by expanding this reheated steam to the remaining stages of the turbine, the exhaust wetness is considerably less than it would otherwise be conversely, if the maximum tolerable wetness is allowed, the initial pressure of the steam can be appreciably increased. TURBINE CLASSIFICATION: 1. Impulse turbine: In impulse turbine steam expands in fixed nozzles. The high velocity steam from nozzles does work on moving blades, which causes the shaft to rotate. The essential features of impulse turbine are that all pressure drops occur at nozzles and not on blades. 2. Reaction turbine:

In this type of turbine pressure is reduced at both fixed and moving blades. Both fixed and moving blades act like nozzles. Work done by the impulse effect of steam due to reverse the direction of high velocity steam. The expansion of steam takes place on moving blades.

A 95 MW Generator at BTPS, New Delhi COMPOUNDING: Several problems occur if energy of steam is converted in single step and so compounding is done. Following are the type of compounded turbine: i. Velocity Compounded Turbine: Like simple turbine it has only one set of nozzles and entire steam pressure drop takes place there. The kinetic energy of steam fully on the nozzles is utilized in moving blades. The

role of fixed blades is to change the direction of steam jet and too guide it. ii. Pressure Compounded Turbine: This is basically a number of single impulse turbines in series or on the same shaft. The exhaust of first turbine enters the nozzles of next turbine. The total pressure drop of steam does not tae on first nozzle ring but divided equally on all of them. iii. Pressure Velocity Compounded Turbine: It is just the combination of the two compounding and has the advantages of allowing bigger pressure drops in each stage and so fewer stages are necessary. Here for given pressure drop the turbine will be shorter length but diameter will be increased. MAIN TURBINE: The 210MW turbine is a cylinder tandem compounded type machine comprising of H.P. and I.P and L.P cylinders. The H.P. turbine comprises of 12 stages the I.P turbine has 11 stages and the L.P has four stages of double flow. The H.P and I.P. turbine rotor are rigidly compounded and the I.P. and L.P rotor by lens type semi flexible coupling. All the 3 rotors are aligned on five bearings of which the bearing number is combined with thrust bearing. The main superheated steam branches off into two streams from the boiler and passes through the emergency stop valve and control valve before entering the governing wheel chamber of the H.P. Turbine.

After expanding in the 12 stages in the H.P. turbine then steam is returned in the boiler for reheating. The reheated steam from boiler enters I.P. turbine via the interceptor valves and control valves and after expanding enters the L.P stage via 2 numbers of cross over pipes. In the L.P. stage the steam expands in axially opposed direction to counteract the thrust and enters the condenser placed directly below the L.P. turbine. The cooling water flowing through the condenser tubes condenses the steam and the condensate the collected in the hot well of the condenser. The condensate collected the pumped by means of 3x50% duty condensate pumps through L.P heaters to deaerator from where the boiler feed pump delivers the water to the boiler through H.P. heaters thus forming a closed cycle. STEAM TURBINE A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and converts it into useful mechanical work. From a mechanical point of view, the turbine is ideal, because the propelling force is applied directly to the rotating element of the machine and has not as in the reciprocating engine to be transmitted through a system of connecting links, which are necessary to transform a reciprocating motion into rotary motion. Hence since the steam turbine possesses for its moving parts rotating elements only if the manufacture is good and the machine is correctly designed, it ought to be free from out of balance forces.

If the load on a turbine is kept constant the torque developed at the coupling is also constant. A generator at a steady load offers a constant torque. Therefore, a turbine is suitable for driving a generator, particularly as they are both high-speed machines. A further advantage of the turbine is the absence of internal lubrication. This means that the exhaust steam is not contaminated with oil vapour and can be condensed and fed back to the boilers without passing through the filters. It also means that turbine is considerable saving in lubricating oil when compared with a reciprocating steam engine of equal power. A final advantage of the steam turbine and a very important one is the fact that a turbine can develop many time the power compared to a reciprocating engine whether steam or oil. MAIN TURBINE The 210 MW turbine is a tandem compounded type machine comprising of H.P. and I.P. cylinders. The H.P. turbines comprise of 12 stages, I.P. turbine has 11 stages and the L.P. turbine has 4 stages of double flow. The H.P. and I.P. turbine rotors are rigidly compounded and the L.P. motor by the lens type semi flexible coupling. All the three rotors are aligned on five bearings of which the bearing no. 2 is combined with the thrust bearing The main superheated steam branches off into two streams from the boiler and passes through the emergency stop valve and control valve before entering the governing wheel chamber of the H.P. turbine.

After expanding in the 12 stages in the H.P. turbine the steam is returned in boiler for reheating. The reheated steam for the boiler enters the I.P> turbine via the interceptor valves and control valves and after expanding enters the L.P. turbine stage via 2 nos. of cross-over pipes. In the L.P. stage the steam expands in axially opposite direction to counteract the trust and enters the condensers placed below the L.P. turbine. The cooling water flowing throughout the condenser tubes condenses the steam and the condensate collected in the hot well of the condenser. The condensate collected is pumped by means of 3*50% duty condensate pumps through L.P. heaters to deaerator from where the boiler feed pump delivers the water to boiler through H.P. heaters thus forming a close cycle.

The Main Turbine TURBINE CYCLE Fresh steam from the boiler is supplied to the turbine through the emergency stop valve. From the stop valves steam is supplied to control valves situated in H.P. cylinders on the front bearing end. After expansion through 12 stages at the H.P. cylinder, steam flows back to the boiler for reheating steam and reheated steam from the boiler cover to the intermediate pressure turbine through two interceptor valves and four control valves mounted on I.P. turbine. After flowing through I.P. turbine steam enters the middle part of the L.P. turbine through cross-over pipes. In L.P. turbine the exhaust

steam condenses in the surface condensers welded directly to the exhaust part of L.P. turbine.

The Turbine Cycle The selection of extraction points and cold reheat pressure has been done with a view to achieve a high efficiency. These are two extractors from H.P. turbine, four from I.P. turbine and one from L.P. turbine. Steam at 1.10 and 1.03 g/sq. cm. Abs is supplied for the gland sealing. Steam for this purpose is obtained from deaerator through a collection where pressure of steam is regulated. From the condenser, condensate is pumped with the help of 3*50% capacity condensate pumps to deaerator through the low-pressure regenerative equipments.

Feed water is pumped from deaerator to the boiler through the H.P. heaters by means of 3*50% capacity feed pumps connected before the H.P. heaters. TURBINE COMPONENTS Casing. Rotor. Blades. Sealing system. Stop & control valves. Couplings and bearings. Barring gear. TURBINE CASINGS HP Turbine Casings: Outer casing: a barrel-type without axial or radial flange.

Barrel-type casing suitable for quick startup and loading.

The inner casing- cylindrically, axially split. The inner casing is attached in the horizontal and vertical planes in the barrel casing so that it can freely expand radially in all the directions and axially from a fixed point (HP- inlet side). IP Turbine Casing: The casing of the IP turbine is split horizontally and is of double-shell construction.

Both are axially split and a double flow inner casing is supported in the outer casing and carries the guide blades. Provides opposed double flow in the two blade sections and compensates axial thrust. Steam after reheating enters the inner casing from Top & Bottom. LP Turbine Casing: The LP turbine casing consists of a double flow unit and has a triple shell welded casing. The shells are axially split and of rigid welded construction.

The inner shell taking the first rows of guide blades is attached kinematically in the middle shell.

Independent of the outer shell, the middle shell, is supported at four points on longitudinal beams. Steam admitted to the LP turbine from the IP turbine flows into the inner casing from both sides. ROTORS HP Rotor:

The HP rotor is machined from a single Cr-Mo-V steel forging with integral discs.

In all the moving wheels, balancing holes are machined to reduce the pressure difference across them, which results in reduction of axial thrust.

First stage has integral shrouds while other rows have shroudings, riveted to the blades are periphery.

IP Rotor: The IP rotor has seven discs integrally forged with rotor while last four discs are shrunk fit. The shaft is made of high creep resisting Cr-Mo-V steel forging while the shrunk fit discs are machined from high strength nickel steel forgings. Except the last two wheels, all other wheels have shrouding riveted at the tip of the blades. To adjust the frequency of thee moving blades, lashing wires have been provided in some stages. LP Rotor: The LP rotor consists of shrunk fit discs in a shaft. The shaft is a forging of Cr-Mo-V steel while the discs are of high strength nickel steel forgings. Blades are secured to the respective discs by riveted fork root fastening. In all the stages lashing wires are provided to adjust the frequency of blades. In the last two rows, satellite strips are provided at the leading edges of the blades to protect them against wet-steam erosion.

BLADES Most costly element of the turbine. Blades fixed in stationary part are called guide blades/ nozzles and those fitted in moving part are called rotating/working blades. Blades have three main parts: Aerofoil: working part. Root. Shrouds.

Shroud are used to prevent steam leakage and guide steam to next set of moving blades.

VACUUM SYSTEM This comprises of:


Condenser: 2 for 200 MW unit at the exhaust of LP turbine. Ejectors: One starting and two main ejectors connected to the condenser locared near the turbine. C.W. Pumps: Normally two per unit of 50% capacity.

CONDENSER There are two condensers entered to the two exhausters of the L.P. turbine. These are surface-type condensers with two pass arrangement. Cooling water pumped into each condenser by a vertical C.W. pump through the inlet pipe.

Water enters the inlet chamber of the front water box, passes horizontally through brass tubes to the water tubes to the water box at the other end, takes a turn, passes through the upper cluster of tubes and reaches the outlet chamber in the front water box. From these, cooling water leaves the condenser through the outlet pipe and discharge into the discharge duct. Steam exhausted from the LP turbine washes the outside of the condenser tubes, losing its latent heat to the cooling water and is connected with water in the steam side of the condenser. This condensate collects in the hot well, welded to the bottom of the condensers.

A typical water cooled condensor

EJECTORS There are two 100% capacity ejectors of the steam eject type. The purpose of the ejector is to evacuate air and other non-condensating gases from the condensers and thus maintain the vacuum in the condensers. The ejector has three compartments. Steam is supplied generally at a pressure of 4.5 to 5 kg /cm2 to the three nozzles in the three compartments. Steam expands in the nozzle thus giving a highvelocity eject which creates a low-pressure zone in the throat of the eject. Since the nozzle box of the ejector is connected to the air pipe from the condenser, the air and pressure zone. The working steam which has expanded in volume comes into contact with the cluster of tube bundles through which condensate is flowing and gets condensed thus after aiding the formation of vacuum. The non-condensing gases of air are further sucked with the next stage of the ejector by the second nozzle. The process repeats itself in the third stage also and finally the steam-air mixture is exhausted into the atmosphere through the outlet. CONDENSATE SYSTEM This contains the following
i.

Condensate Pumps: 3 per unit of 50% capacity each located near condenser hot well. LP Heater: Normally 4 in number with no.1 located at the upper part of the condenser and nos. 2,3 & 4 around 4m level. Deaerator; one per unit located around 181 M level in CD bay.

ii.

iii.

Condensate Pumps The function of these pumps is to pump out the condensate to the desecrator through ejectors, gland steam cooler and LP heaters. These pumps have four stages and since the suction is at a negative pressure, special arrangements have been made for providing sealing. The pump is generally rated for 160 m3/ hr at a pressure of 13.2 kg/ cm2 . L.P. Heaters Turbine has been provided with non-controlled extractions, which are utilized for heating the condensate, from turbine bleed steam. There are 410 W pressure heaters in which the last four extractions are used. L.P. Heater-1 has two parts LPH-1A and LPH-1B located in the upper parts of the condenser A and condenser B, respectively. These are of horizontal type with shell and tube construction. L.P.H. 2,3 and 4 are of similar construction and they are mounted in a row of 5m level. They are of vertical construction with brass tubes the ends of which are expanded into tube plate. The condensate flows in the U tubes in four passes and extraction steam washes the outside of the tubes. Condensate passes through these four L.P. heaters in succession. These heaters are equipped with necessary safety valves in the steam space level indicator for visual level indication of heating steam condensate pressure vacuum gauges for measurement of steam pressure, etc.

Deaerator The presence of certain gases, principally oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia, dissolved in water is generally considered harmful because of their corrosive attack on metals, particularly at elevated temperatures. One of the most important factors in the prevention of internal corrosion in modern boilers and associated plant therefore, is that the boiler feed water should be free as far as possible from all dissolved gases especially oxygen. This is achieved by embodying into the boiler feed system a deaerating unit, whose function is to remove the dissolved gases from the feed water by mechanical means. Particularly the unit must reduce the oxygen content of the feed water to a lower value as far as possible, depending upon the individual circumstances. Residual oxygen content in condensate at the outlet of deaerating plant usually specified are 0.005/ litre or less.

A Deaerator PRINCIPAL OF DEAERATION It is based on following two laws. Henrys Law Solubility The Deaerator comprises of two chambers:

Deaerating column

Feed storage tank Deaerating column is a spray cum tray type cylindrical vessel of horizontal construction with dished ends welded to it. The tray stack is designed to ensure maximum contact time as well as optimum scrubbing of condensate to achieve efficient deaeration. The deaeration column is mounted on the feed storage tank, which in turn is supported on rollers at the two ends and a fixed support at the

centre. The feed storage tank is fabricated from boiler quality steel plates. Manholes are provided on deaerating column as well as on feed storage tank for inspection and maintenance. The condensate is admitted at the top of the deaerating column flows downwards through the spray valves and trays. The trays are designed to expose to the maximum water surfaces for efficient scrubbing to affect the liberation of the associated gases steam enters from the underneath of the trays and flows in counter direction of condensate. While flowing upwards through the trays, scrubbing and heating is done. Thus the liberated gases move upwards alongwith the steam. Steam gets condensed above the trays and in turn heats the condensate. Liberated gases escapes to atmosphere from the orifice opening meant for it. This opening is provided with a number of dlflectors to minimize the loss of steam. FEED WATER SYSTEM The main equipments coming under this system are:

Boiler feed Pump: Three per unit of 50% capacity each located in the 0 meter level in the T bay. High Pressure Heaters: Normally three in number and are situated in the TG bay. Drip Pumps: generally two in number of 100% capacity each situated beneath the LP heaters. Turbine Lubricating Oil System: This consists of the Main Oil Pump (MOP), Starting Oil Pump (SOP), AC standby oil

pumps and emergency DC Oil Pump and Jacking Oil Pump (JOP). (one each per unit) Boiler Feed Pump This pump is horizontal and of barrel design driven by an Electric Motor through a hydraulic coupling. All the bearings of pump and motor are forced lubricated by a suitable oil lubricating system with adequate protection to trip the pump if the lubrication oil pressure falls below a preset value. The high pressure boiler feed pump is a very expensive machine which calls for a very careful operation and skilled maintenance. Operating staff must be able to find out the causes of defect at the very beginning, which can be easily removed without endangering the operator of the power plant and also without the expensive dismantling of the high pressure feed pump. Function The water with the given operating temperature should flow continuously to the pump under a certain minimum pressure. It passes through the suction branch into the intake spiral and from there; it is directed to the first impeller. After leaving the impeller it passes through the distributing passages of the diffuser and thereby gets a certain pressure rise and at the same time it flows over to the guide vanes to the inlet of the next impeller. This will repeat from one stage to the other till it passes through the last impeller and the end diffuser. Thus the feed water reaching into the discharge space develops the necessary operating pressure.

Booster Pump Each boiler feed pump is provided with a booster pump in its suction line which is driven by the main motor of the boiler feed pump. One of the major damages which may occur to a boiler feed pump is from cavitation or vapour bounding at the pump suction due to suction failure. Cavitation will occur when the suction pressure of the pump at the pump section is equal or very near to the vapor pressure of the liquid to be pumped at a particular feed water temperature. By the use of booster pump in the main pump suction line, always there will be positive suction pressure which will remove the possibility of cavitation. Therefore all the feed pumps are provided with a main shaft driven booster pump in its suction line for obtaining a definite positive suction pressure. Lubricating Pressure All the bearings of boiler feed pump, pump motor and hydraulic coupling are force lubricated. The feed pump consists of two radial sleeve bearings and one thrust bearing. The thrust bearing is located at the free end of the pump. High Pressure Heaters These are regenerative feed waters heaters operating at high pressure and located by the side of turbine. These are generally vertical type and turbine based steam pipes are connected to them.

HP heaters are connected in series on feed waterside and by such arrangement, the feed water, after feed pump enters the HP heaters. The steam is supplied to these heaters to form the bleed point of the turbine through motor operated valves. These heaters have a group bypass protection on the feed waterside. In the event of tube rupture in any of the HPH and the level of condensate rising to dangerous level, the group protection devices divert automatically the feed water directly to boiler, thus bypassing all the 3 H.P. heaters.

An HP heater Turbine Oil Lubricating System This consists of main oil pump, starting oil pump, emergency oil pump and each per unit.

COAL HANDLINING PLANT

COAL HANDLING DEPARTMENT

As coal is the prime fuel for thermal power plant, adequate emphasis should be given for its proper handling and storage. Also it is equally important to have a sustained flow of this fuel to maintain uninterrupted power generation. Coal is used as the fuel because of the following advantages. Advantages of coal as fuel: Abundantly available in India Low Cost Technology for power generation well developed. Easy to handle, transport, store and use.

COAL CYCLE

Coal Transport by M.G.R. Each of the NTPC Project requires transportation of large quantities of coal from the coal mines to power stations site of the order of 30,000 tonnes/ day for a typical 2,000 MW station. This enormous coal requirement is being met from open cast mines. Techno economic study conducted for coal transportation from mines to power station have revealed that Merry-Go-Round (MGR) rail transportation system is most economical and is also reliable. This

system calls for high speed load outstation at the mines which have the following advantages: High loading enables loading of trains quickly; thus achieving high turn-over of wagons and reduction rolling stock requirement, Top open railway wagons are loaded with maximum possible load consistently and accurately. Simple loading arrangement at a single point avoids the need for a big marshalling yard with cumbersome operational system. The high speed load outstation consists of one or two loading sites depending upon the coal requirement of the linked power station. The handling capacity of the loading site is such that it fills at least one big rake of wagon and in some cases, two rakes.

Coal transportation

COAL HANDLING SYSTEM In the coal handling system of NTPC, three coal paths are normally available for direct conveying of coal. These are: Path A: from track hopper to boiler bunker.

Path B: from track hopper to stockyard..

Path C: from stockyard to boiler bunkers.

The Coal Handling System The storage facilities at the stockyards have been provided only for crushed coal. The coal handling system is designed to provide 100% standby for all equipments and conveyors. The 200 mm coal as received at the track hopper is fed to the crusher house for crushing. Crusher of 50% capacity is provided and these are preferred to two crushers of 100% capacity because of increased

reliability and possible higher availability. A series of parallel conveyors are designed thereafter to carry crushed coal directly to the boiler bunkers or to divert it to the stockyard. To feed coal into bunkers, mobile trippers have been provided over bunkers on conveyors, coal mil & therefore the bunker conveyors of 200 MW units of the earlier projects are provided between boiler and turbo-generator building. However for better mill maintenance, accessibility, and to reduce coal dust nuisance; the turbine plant area, coal mills, bunker conveyors are now being placed between boiler and electrostatic precipitator.

Coal Handling Division of BTPS, New Delhi COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS i. Pulley They are made of mild steel. Rubber lagging is provided to decrease the friction factor in between the belt and pulley.

ii. Scrapper Conveyors are provided with scrappers at the discharge pulley in order to clean the carrying side of the belt built up material on idler rolls. Care should be taken to ensure that the scrapper is held against the belt with the pressure sufficient to remove material without causing damage to the belt due to excessive force exerted by the wiper.the following categories of scrapper are common in use: Steel blade scrapper Rubber/fabric blade scrapper Nylon brush scrapper Compressed air blast scrapper. i. Idlers These essentially consist of rolls made out of seamless steel tube enclosed fully at each end and fitted with stationary shaft, antifriction bearings and seals. They support the belt and enable it to travel freely without much frictional losses and also keep the belt properly trained.

Idler ii. Conveyor Belt The conveyor belt consists of layers or piles of fabric duck, impregnated with rubber and protected by a rubber cover on both sides and edges. The fabric duck supplies the strngth to withstand the tension created in carrying the load while the cover protects the fabric carcass. Heat resistant belting is always recommended for handling materials at a temperature over 66C.

Coal Storage Area of the Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi iii.Vibrating Screen The function of vibrating screen is to send the coal of having size less than 20 mm to the crusher. The screen is operated by four v-belts connected to motor. iv.Crusher The role of crusher is to crush the coal from 200 mm to 20 mm size of coal received from the vibrating screen. This is accomplished by means of granulators of ring type. There are about 37 crushing elevations; each elevation has 4 granulators-2 of plain type and 2 of tooth type, arranged alternately. The granulators are made of manganese steel because of their work hardening property. The coal enters the top of the crusher

and is crushed between rotating granulators and fluid case path. The crushed coal through a chute falls on belt feeder. Normally these crushers have a capacity round 600 tonnes/ hr.

A Crusher

v. Magnetic separators This is an electromagnet placed above the conveyor to attract magnetic materials. Over this magnet there is one conveyor to transfer these materials to chute provided for dumping at ground level. Because of this, continuous removal is possible. It can remove any ferrous impurity from 10 gms to 50 kg.

Wagon Tripler at Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi

vi.Vibrating Feeder It is used to feed the coal on the underground conveyor belt from where coal goes to bunker. Coal from the stockyard with the help of bulldozer is taken to the vibrating feeder via reclaim hopper and underground conveyor belts. A tripper is provided in the conveyor to stack the material at desired location on either side or along the conveyor with the help of chute or chute fitted with the tripper itself. The tripper is provided with wheels, which move on rails parallel to conveyor. These trippers are of three types mainly: Motorized tripper Bell-Propelled Manually operated Tripper. Winch driven tripper

Screening and Separation Unit of Coal Handling Division