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Elements of Drama :

Theme: The theme of a drama refers to the central idea of the play. It can either be clearly stated through dialog or action or can be inferred after watching the entire performance. Plot: The order of events occurring in a play is referred to as the plot of the drama. It is the basic storyline that is narrated through a play. The entertainment one derives from a play depends largely on the sequence of events that occur in the story. The logical connection between the events and the characters, which enact the story form an integral part of the plot of drama. Characters: The characters that form a part of the story are interwoven with the plot of the drama. Each character in a play has a personality of its own and has a distinct set of principles and beliefs. Actors who play various roles in a drama have the very important responsibility of bringing the characters to life. Dialog: The story of any play is taken forward by means of the dialog. The story is narrated to the audiences through the dialog written by the playwright. The success of a drama depends hugely on the contents of the dialog and the quality of dialog delivery by the actors of the play.

The use of objects, gestures or persons to represent meaning beyond the literal. Every culture has developed an elaborate series of signals where objects are endowed with meaning. It is possible to signal complex ideas through commonly recognised symbols. To demonstrate and define symbols: Work in pairs. Select an object from a collection of symbols; develop a brief scene which relies on the symbolic strength of the object to convey meaning, e.g. rose, heart, flag, treasure chest, suitcase, lipstick on collar, walking stick, pipe, dove, teddy bear, cross, stethoscope, heart, skull, peace sign, ring, broken doll, sunset, infinity. Gestures: handshake, salute, turned back.

A conversation between characters in a literary work. shows what they are thinking and feeling as they react to other characters.

Soliloquy: A long speech delivered by a character who is alone onstage. reveals the private thoughts and emotions of the character. / A soliloquy is a type of monologue in which characters directly addresses an audience or speaks his thoughts aloud while alone or while the other actors keeps silent.

The atmosphere created. Mood concentrates the dramatic action and moves the audience in emotionally appropriate directions. To demonstrate and define mood: (a) Form small groups. Listen to an allocated piece of music. Select some scarves from the props box which reflect the mood, atmosphere or feelings created by the music. (b) Develop 3 freeze frame statues which capture this mood. Find a way to move from one freeze frame to the next, using the scarves to emphasise the mood. Punctuate the movement by occasionally calling out a word which reflects the mood that you are working on.

Asides: In a play, a comment made by a character, but is not heard by the other characters onstage. They are frequently used to provide information to the audience and to reveal the private thoughts of characters. Foil: A character who provides a strong contrast to another character. Emphasizes another characters distinctive traits or make a character look better by comparison.

Denotation; refers to the literal meaning of a word, the "dictionary definition. Connotation; on the other hand, refers to the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. The connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings. Exposition- The essential background information at the beginning of a literary work Rising action- the development of conflict and complications in a literary work Climax- the turning point in a literary work Falling action- results or effects of the climax of a literary work Resolution/denouement- end of a literary work when loose ends are tied up and questions are answered Alliteration repetition of the initial consonant sounds of words: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers

Allusion a reference to something well-known that exists outside the literary work Antagonist- character that is the source of conflict in a literary work. Aside a dramatic device in which a character makes a short speech intended for the audience but not heard by the other characters on stage Assonance repetition of vowel sounds followed by different consonant sounds: Annas apples, the pond is long gone Characterization- The manner in which an author develops characters and their personalities Conflict - struggle between two or more opposing forces (person vs. person; nature; society; self; fate/God) Dialogue - direct speech between characters in a literary work Diction - word choice to create a specific effect Figurative Language language that represents one thing in terms of something dissimilar (non-literal language). Includes simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, symbol) Flashback- the method of returning to an earlier point in time for the purpose of making the present clearer Foreshadowing- hint of what is to come in a literary work Genre type or category to which a literary work belongs Hyperbole extreme exaggeration to add meaning Imagery language that appeals to the five senses Irony - Dramatic when the reader or audience knows something a character does not Situational when there is a disparity between what is expected and what actually occurs Verbal when the speaker says one thing but means the opposite Her talents blossomed

Metaphor an implied comparison between dissimilar objects:

Motif- a recurring feature of a literary work that is related to the theme Onomatopoeia use of a word whose sound imitates its meaning: hiss Oxymoron phrase that consists of two words that are contradictory: living dead or Microsoft works Personification figure of speech in which non-human things are given human characteristics Plot- The sequence of events in a literary work

Point of view- the vantage point or perspective from which a literary work is told 1st person point of view- the narrator is a character in the story (use of I) 3rd person point of view- the narrator is outside of the story (use of he she they) Protagonist- the main character in a literary work Rhyme repetition of similar or identical sounds: look and crook Rhyme Scheme pattern of rhyme among lines of poetry [denoted using letters, as in ABAB CDCD EE] Setting- The time and place of a literary work Simile a direct comparison of dissimilar objects, usually using like or as: I wandered lonely as a cloud Soliloquy - a dramatic device in which a character is alone and speaks his or her thoughts aloud Speaker voice in a poem; the person or thing that is speaking Stanza group of lines forming a unit in a poem Stereotype- standardized, conventional ideas about characters, plots and settings Suspense technique that keeps the reader guessing what will happen next Symbol/symbolism one thing (object, person, place) used to represent something else Theme the underlying main idea of a literary work. Theme differs from the subject of a literary work in that it involves a statement or opinion about the subject. Tone the authors attitude toward the subject of a work. Word knowledge- means being aware of the words that you read. It also means being interested in words and their meanings and uses. When you develop word knowledge, you learn new ways to think about words. Allegory- a narrative that serves as an extended metaphor.

The main purpose of an allegory is to tell a story that has characters, a setting, as well as other types of symbols, that have both literal and figurative meanings. The difference between an allegory and a symbol is that an allegory is a complete narrative that conveys abstract ideas to get a point across, while a symbol is a representation of an idea or concept that can have a different meaning throughout a literary work
Tragic Hero -a great or virtuous character in a dramatic tragedy who is destined for downfall, suffering, or defeat. Monologue- An extended speech by one person. A soliloquy is a type of monologue in which characters directly addresses an audience or speaks his thoughts aloud while alone or while the other actors keeps silent. Stage direction- an instruction to an actor or director, written into the script of a play

Motivation- is a reason that explains why a character behaves in a certain way. Imagery- is descriptive or figurative language that creates word-pictures for the reader, and is created by details of the senses.