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PHY369: THERMODYNAMICS AND STAT MECHANICS (F11) Solutions to Homework Set #1, Due 09/02/11 Schroeder: 1.3, 1.4, 1.10, 1.16, 1.18

Problem 1 (Schroeder 1.3): 10 Points

Determine the Kelvin temperature for each of the following:

 (a) Human body temperature; (b) The boiling point of water (at the standard pressure of 1 atm); (c) The coldest day you can remember; (d) The boiling point of liquid Nitrogen (−196 o C); (e) The melting point of Lead (327 o C);

Problem Motivation:

The purpose of this problem is to help you develop an intuition for the Kelvin temperature scale. The Kelvin temperature scale is important since it is a commonly used absolute temperature scale. An ab- solute temperature scale is one in which absolute zero corresponds to zero degrees on the temperature scale.

Important Equations:

1.

Celcius to Kelvin conversion:

K = 273.15 + o C

2.

K

Fahrenheit to Kelvin conversion:

= 273.15 + 5 9 ( o F 32)

K =

9 5 ( o F + 459.67)

Part (a) Solution: 2 Points

The normal core body temperature of a human is given as 37.0 o C or 98.6 o F. Method 1:

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(1) T body ( K) = 273.15 + T body ( o C)

T body ( K) = 273.15 + 37.0

T body ( K) = 310.15 K

Method 2:

(2) T body ( K) = 9 [T body ( o F) + 459.67]

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T body ( K) = 9 [98.6 + 459.67]

T body ( K) = 310.15 K

Part (b) Solution: 2 Points

The boiling point of water at the standard pressure of 1 atm is given as 100 o C or 212 o F. Method 1:

(1) T boil ( K) = 273.15 + T boil ( o C)

T boil ( K) = 273.15 + 100.0

T boil ( K) = 373.15 K

Method 2:

(2) T boil ( K) = 9 [T boil ( o F) + 459.67]

T boil ( K) = 5 9 [212 + 459.67]

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T boil ( K) = 373.15 K

Part (c) Solution: 2 Points

In Minnesota one can experience 40 o C or 40 o F during a typical winter. Method 1:

(1) T weather ( K) = 273.15 + T weather ( o C)

T weather ( K) = 273.15 40

T weather ( K) = 233.15 K

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Method 2:

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(2) T weather ( K) = 9 [T weather ( o F) + 459.67]

T weather ( K) =

9 5 [40 + 459.67]

T weather ( K) = 233.15 K

Part (d) Solution: 2 Points

The boiling point of liquid Nitrogen is given as 196 o C. (1) T boil ( K) = 273.15 + T boil ( o C)

T boil ( K) = 273.15 196

T boil ( K) = 77.15 K

Part (e) Solution: 2 Points

The melting point of Lead is given as 327 o C. (1) T melt ( K) = 273.15 + T melt ( o C)

T melt ( K) = 273.15 + 327

T melt ( K) = 600.15 K

Problem 2 (Schroeder 1.4): 10 Points Does it ever make sense to say that one object is ”twice as hot” as another? Does it matter whether one is referring to Celsius or Kelvin temperatures? Explain.

Problem Motivation:

The purpose of this problem is to help you develop an intuition for the meaning of the term temper- ature. Note the question refers to the degree to which an object is hot, which is in general diﬀerent from the degree to which an object will feel hot to our touch. See the quote on the bottom of page 48 for an illuminating example.

Part (a) Solution: 7 Points

Stating that one object is twice as hot as another object implies that the temperature of one object is twice that of the other object. In terms of the deﬁnition on page 3 this means that one object has twice as strong of tendency to spontaneously give up energy to its surroundings.

It does make sense to say one object is twice as hot as another

Part (b) Solution: 3 Points

In order for the relationship to hold that tendency to spontaneously give up energy doubles as the numerical value of measured temperature doubles, we need to measure temperature from absolute zero.

It does matter whether temperature is measured in Celcius or Kelvin

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Problem 3 (Schroeder 1.10): 10 Points

Estimate the number of air molecules in an averaged size room.

Problem Motivation:

The purpose of this problem is to help you develop an intuition for large numbers. Later in the

course our statements about the connection between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics will

rely heavily on this intuition. Page 66 contains a discussion on the Thermodynamic Limit.

Important Equations:

1. Ideal Gas Law: (1.5)

P V = NkT

Solution: 10 Points

(1)

P room V room = N room kT room P room V room

kT room

N room =

We can assume:

{P room 1 atm = 1.013 × 10 5 Pa, T room 300 K, V room 33 m 3 }

N room =

(1.013 × 10 5 Pa) (33 m 3 )

(1.381 × 10 23 J/K) (300 K)

N room = 1.1 × 10 27 1827N A

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Problem 4 (Schroeder 1.16): 10 Points

The exponential atmosphere.

(a) Consider a horizontal slab of air whose thickness (height) is dz. If this slab is at rest, the pressure

holding it up from below must balance both the pressure from above and the weight of the slab. Use

this fact to ﬁnd an expression for dP/dz, the variation of pressure with altitude, in terms of the density

of air.

(b) Use the ideal gas law to write the density of air in terms of pressure, temperature, and the average

mass m of the air molecules. (The information needed to calculate m is given in Problem 1.14.) Show,

then, that the pressure obeys the diﬀerential equation dP

= mg kT

dz

P,

call the barometric equation.

(c) Assuming that the temperature of the atmosphere is independent of height (not a great assumption

but not terrible either), solve the barometric equation to obtain the pressure as a function of height:

P (z) = P (0) exp [mgz/kT ].

Show also that the density obeys a similiar equation.

(d) Estimate the pressure, in atmospheres, at the following locations: Ogden, Utah (4700 ft or 1430 m

above sea level); Leadville, Colorado (10,150 ft , 3090 m); Mt. Whitney, California (14,500 ft , 4420

m); Mt. Everest, Nepal/Tibet (29,000 ft, 8840 m). (Assume that the pressure at sea level is 1 atm.)

Problem Motivation:

The purpose of this problem is to help you develop an intuition for the ideal gas law by manipulating

it to derive a simplifed model of atmospheric pressure and then using that expression to calculate

pressure at various locations.

Important Equations:

1. Hydrostatic Pressure: The negative sign indicates we are discussing the pressure exerted by the

environment onto the air slab

dP = ρgdz

2. Ideal Gas Law: (1.5)

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P V = NkT

3. Mass Density:

ρ = m

V

= m

ρ

V

4. Integrals:

dx = x dx

= ln(x)

x

 5. Number of Moles: (1.4) N = N A n

Part (a) Solution: 2 Points

(1) dP = ρgdz dP dz = −ρg

To derive this we balance the pressures,

P upward = P downward + P weight

P upward = P downward +

A 1 (ρAzg)

dP = P downward P upward = ρdz

dP

dz

= ρg

Why is it that dP = P downward P upward ? Because for our sign convention we have,

P(z) = P upward , P (z + dz) = P downward .

Part (b) Solution: 2 Points

(2) P V slab = N slab kT

Now we use equation (3) to rewrite volume,

P m slab

= N slab kT

ρ

Note that m (average air molecule) = m air =

m slab

N slab ,

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P

m air

= kT

ρ

m air

P

ρ =

kT Substituting in our express for ρ air from part (a) yields,

dP

dz

m air g

kT

=

P

Part (c) Solution: 4 Points

 Assume T dP = T (z) m air g • = − P dz P(z) kT dP = − m air g z dz → P (0 P kT z=0 m air g → ln(P ) − ln (P (0)) = − m air g z → P (z) = exp − kT kT z + ln(P (0)) P (z) = exp − m air g z exp [ln(P (0))] → kT P (z) = P (0) exp − m air g kT z →

Now we will rewrite the equation in terms of density in order to solve for it as a function of height z. dP

Recall that P = kT

m air g

kT

=

P

m air g

kT

=

dz

=

kT

air ρ from part (b),

m

m air g

air ρ

kT

kT

m

ρ

m air g

kT

z

z=0

dz

m

dz =

air

dz

ρ

ρ(z)

ρ(0)

ln(ρ) ln(ρ(0)) =

ρ(z) = exp

ρ(z) = exp

m kT z z + ln(ρ(0))

z exp [ln(ρ(0))]

air

m air g

kT

m air g

kT

ρ(z) = ρ(0) exp

m air g

kT

z

Part (d) Solution: 2 Points

In order to get numbers out of the equation we need values for P (0), m air , and T . Here P (0) corre-

sponds to sea level, thus P (0) = 1 atm. We will assume T 300 K. To obtain m air we must calculate

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the average mass using problem 1.4.

m air = m components /n

m air =

(ratio) (mass per mole)

air components

m air = (0.78) (28 g/mol) + (0.21) (32 g/mol) + (0.01) (40 g/mol)

m air = 28.96 g/mol = 0.029 kg/mol

In order to get average mass per molecule rather than average mass per mole we use (5), 1 particle =

(1 mol) N A ,

m air = % N2 m N2 + % O2 m O2 + % Ar m Ar

m air =

1

N A (0.029 kg)

Therefore the pressure at each location is,

P(z Ogden = 1430 m) = P (0) exp

m air g

kT

z

P(z Ogden = 1430 m) = (1 atm) exp

(0.029 kg) 9.81 m/s

J/K) (300 K) (1430 m)

2

(6.02 × 10 23 ) (1.381 × 10 23

P(z Ogden = 1430 m) 0.85 atm

P(z Leadville = 3090 m) = P (0) exp

m air g

kT

z

P(z Leadville = 3090 m) = (1 atm) exp

(0.029 kg) 9.81 m/s

J/K) (300 K) (3090 m)

2

(6.02 × 10 23 ) (1.381 × 10 23

P(z Leadville = 3090 m) 0.70 atm

P(z Whitney = 4420 m) = P (0) exp

m air g

kT

z

P(z Whitney = 4420 m) = (1 atm) exp

(0.029 kg) 9.81 m/s

J/K) (300 K) (4420 m)

2

(6.02 × 10 23 ) (1.381 × 10 23

P(z Whitney = 4420 m) 0.60 atm

P(z Everest = 8840 m) = P (0) exp

m air g

kT

z

P(z Everest = 8840 m) = (1 atm) exp

(0.029 kg) 9.81 m/s

J/K) (300 K) (8840 m)

2

(6.02 × 10 23 ) (1.381 × 10 23

P(z Everest = 8840 m) 0.36 atm

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Problem 5 (Schroeder 1.18): 10 Points

Calculate the rms speed of a nitrogen molecule at room temperature.

Problem Motivation:

The purpose of this problem is to help you develop an intuition for the physical scale of thermal energy.

Important Equations:

1. RMS velocity as a function of temperature: (1.21)

v rms = 3kT

m

Solution: 10 Points

We have previously found that m N2 = (0.028/N A ) kg. Assume T room 300 K.

(1) v rms = 3kT

m

v rms = 3 (1.381 × 10 23 J/K) (300 K) (6.02 × 10 23 ) (0.028 kg)

v rms = 517 m/s

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