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2003 Copyright 2003 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers ISBN 1 880653 -60 5 (Set); ISSN 1098 6189 (Set)

Masahiko Nakamura

Kyushu University, Kasuga, Japan

Takayuki Ohmachi

Toyota Motor Corporation, Toyota-shi, Aichi, Japan

Takashi Shima

Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University Kasuga, Japan

ABSTRACT The paper is concerned with a dynamic position control for a floating structure. The controller was designed using a neural network, and several model experiments under beam sea conditions were carried out to verify its ability. The unit controlled the position of the structure precisely with good energy efficiency. The calculated results were in good agreement with experimental results. KEY WORDS: Dynamic positioning system, neural network, model experiments NOMENCLATURE : Output of neuron aj bj : Bias of neuron model ~ ~ e : Error ( Yc - Y ) F(nj) : Transfer function of neuron model : Thrust of thruster Fth : Forces in y-direction to control position Fy nj p1 ~ pn t ~ v Wji, IWji, LWji ~ Y ~ Yc t ~ Y ~ v : Input to transfer function of neuron model : Input to neuron : Time : Translational velocity in y- direction (sway) of center of rotation of platform : Weighs of neuron model : Displacement in Y- direction (sway) of center of rotation of platform : Input command of displacement in Y- direction : Time interval ~ ~ ~ ~ : Variation of Y { Y (t + t) = Y (t + t) - Y (t) } ~ { v (t + t) = v (t + t) - v (t) } ~ ~ ~ : Variation of v

resist the wave frequency motion because of the strength of the linear exciting force. The amplitude of this motion is so small, that it need not be controlled. Our aim is to design a controller that can maintain a given position using thrusters and which would not respond to the wave frequency motion. We have been designing model based linear controllers such as LQI and H controllers (Nakamura, et al. 1995 and 1997 and Hyakudome, et al. 1999) to fulfill this need. These units worked well near an equilibrium point (they were designed at this point), but they did not allow the platform to rotate in response to a large magnitude command because of a nonlinearity of the dynamics of the floating structure. A special technique such as gain scheduling (Nakamura, et al. 2000) was needed to solve the problem. The controller in this paper was designed using a neural network (Fujii, et al. 1990, Ura 1989, Ura, et al. 1992 and Ishii, et al. 1995) in view of its remarkable advantages in being able to handle nonlinear system and having learning capability for a new environment and new loading condition of the floating structure. Several experiments in a beam sea condition (The study is still in an early stage and a simple experimental condition is desirable.) were carried out to verify the ability of the neural network controller using a 1/100-scale semi-submersible platform model (see Fig.1). The unit controlled the position of the structure precisely with good energy efficiency and the experimental results showed good agreement with those of the numerical simulation. 2. MODEL AND EXPERIMENTAL METHOD The experimental setup is shown in Fig.2. A 1/100 scale semisubmersible platform model was used (length of the lower hull:1m, maximum breadth:0.64m, displacement:38kg) (see Fig.1). The model has two thrusters on a diagonal line. Four or more thrusters are usually employed with a full-scale platform, but two were used in the model because of the limitation of experimental equipment. One thruster of the model therefore represents two thrusters of the full-scale platform. Maximum thrust of one model thruster is 0.2kg (2 x 0.26% of the displacement). Model experiments were conducted in irregular waves (beam sea condition, significant wave height; 0.04m, average period; 1.0sec) and current (0.08m/sec) as external load conditions. Displacement in the Ydirection (see Fig.3) was controlled by the controller, because the study

1. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this research is to create a controller that can control the position of a floating structure against external forces such as ocean current and waves. A dynamic positioning system using thrusters is generally employed for this, however, it is difficult for thrusters to

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is still in an early stage and a simple experimental condition is desirable. The motions (surge, sway and yaw) of the semi-submersible platform model were measured using a non-contact optical motion analyzer, roll and pitch were measured with a clinometer (see Fig.3). Sampling frequency for control was 100Hz and all data were logged at 10Hz. The motion analyzer is attached to a towing carriage that moves to generate the forward velocity, which simulates the current.

3. OUTLINE OF NEURAL NETWORK A neural network handles the information processing of the human brain on a computer. A three layers network was used in the study shown in Fig.4:, the first layer is called the input layer, the second layer is the hidden layer and the third is the output layer. The signal flows from input layer to output layer; circles in the figure indicate neurons. One neuron of the hidden layer receives the output signal from all neurons of the input layer and outputs the signal to all neurons of the output layer.

Neuron

Thruster

Input Layer

Fig.1 Model

p1 p2

Towing carriage

. . . . p

p3

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nj

F(nj)

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pn

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Fig.5 Neuron Model Fig.5 shows how the one neuron (j-neuron) works (McCulloch and Pitts 1943). The individual element inputs p1 ~ pn (from the neurons of the input layer) are multiplied by weight Wji and the weighted values are fed to the summing junction. The neuron has a bias bj, which is added to the weighted inputs. This sum is the argument of the transfer function F(nj).

Camera for optical motion analyzer

n j = w ji p i + b j

i =1

(1)

a j = F (n j )

(2)

In this study, sigmoid transfer function was used in the hidden layer and linear transfer function was used in the output layer to realize a nonlinear input-output characteristic.

AD/DA converter

Amplifier of thruster

Personal Computer

F (n j ) =

(4)

Target 3

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F (n j ) = n j

y

Thruster 2

Neural networks are commonly adjusted or trained (learned), so that a particular input leads to a specific target output. Such a situation is shown in Fig.6. The network is adjusted until the network output matches the target. In other words, the values of weights and biases of the neurons are adjusted, so that the error becomes minimum.

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Typically many such input/target pairs are used to train a network. This process is called backpropagation (The Math Works, Inc 1998 and Rumelhart, et al. 1986). In this study, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (one method of backpropagation) was used (The Math Works, Inc 1998 and Hagan and Menhaj 1994) and the neural networks were designed using the Neural Network Toolbox on Matlab (The Math Works, Inc 1998).

Target Input Output - + Error

Backpropagation

Neural Network

Fig.6 Backpropagation

4. DESIGN OF CONTROLLER Fig.7 shows the outline of the design of the controller. The diagram has three main parts; Model Network, Controller Network and Linear reference Model. ~ & The errors e, e , e built by the position sensors output Y and position command Yc are input to the controller network, and the network outputs the forces in the Y-direction to control the position. In the model network, the dynamics of the floating structure is described. The states (position and velocity of the structure) and control force at time = t are input to the network, and the network outputs their next states, t sec later and variations of these states. The linear reference model outputs the target signal. We wanted to control the system so that its output follows the output of the linear reference model. We selected the 2nd order linear system (n = 0.5, = 1.0) as having the desired behavior. The error can be backpropagated through the model network to the controller network. The weights and biases of the model network are not changed during backpropagation. Thus the controller network must learn how to control the position of the structure so that it behaves like the linear reference model.

function in the hidden layer is a sigmoid function and that in the output layer is a linear function. The experiments were carried out under beam sea conditions, so the ~ ~ inputs to the model network are position Y , velocity and control force in y-direction Fy. The target signals are their next states, t sec later and variations of these states. Target signals were created using a mathematical model of the floating structure (see Fig.9), and backpropagation was carried out to adjust the values of weights and biases of the network. The target signals can be obtained from the experiments using full-scale structures. In designing a controller for an underwater vehicle, target signals from experiments are sometimes used (Fujii, et al. 1990). But in the design of a dynamic positioning system, using a mathematical model is reasonable because creating target signals from experimental data is very difficult. In neural network control, it is possible to adjust the model and controller network during operation, which is a great advantage (Ishii, et al. 1995). We will attempt to do this in the final stage of this research. The mathematical model was shown in detail by Nakamura et al. (1997). In Fig.9, the thruster dynamics is required to operate the model thrusters as if they have the same characteristics as a full size thruster (The time constant of a full size thruster is very large). The filter is needed to remove the thruster response in a wave frequency region and to economize on the energy needed to control the position. The input/target pairs are created taking into consideration the thruster dynamics and the filter characteristic. Equations 5 and 6 show input Fyt. The time series of the input signals are shown in Fig.9. Eight different types of time series were used to learn the motion state.

0 Fy i (t ) = ai a i 0 Fy i + 4 (t ) = ai a i

t =0 0 t 10 10 t 35 t =0 0 t 10 10 t 35

(5)

(6)

( i = 1~4, a1=0.05, a2=0.10, a3=0.15, a4=0.20 ) The following input/target pairs were used to learn the resting state.

~ ~ Fy 9 = 0, Y (t ) = 0.00[m], v (t ) = 0 ~ ~ Y (t + t ) = 0.00, v (t + t ) = 0, ~ ~ Y (t + t ) = 0, v (t + t ) = 0 0 t 50 ~ ~ Fy i + 9 = 0, Y (t ) = ai [m], v (t ) = 0 ~ ~ Y (t + t ) = ai , v (t + t ) = 0, ~ ~ Y (t + t ) = 0, v (t + t ) = 0 0 t 50 ~ ~ Fy i +13 = 0, Y (t ) = ai [m], v (t ) = 0 ~ ~ Y (t + t ) = ai , v (t + t ) = 0, ~ ~ Y (t + t ) = 0, v (t + t ) = 0 0 t 50

~ Yc ~ Y ~ v

Target

(7)

e . e e

Controller Network

Model Network

Fy

~ ~ e = Yc - Y

~~ Y, v, ~ ~ Y, v

+

Error

(8)

Backpropagation

Fig.7 Outline of design of controller 4.1 CONSTRUCTION OF MODEL NETWORK Fig.8 shows the model network of the floating structure. The hidden layer and the output layer have 4 neurons, respectively. The transfer

(9)

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Model Network

Input Layer Hidden Layer Output Layer

Target ~ ~ Y, v ~ ~ Y, v

~ Y ~ v

IW11

LW21

- +

Error

Linear

Fy

b1

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b2

Layer1

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Fig.8 Model Network

Input

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Filter

1st Order System

Thruster Dynamics

1st Order System

Output

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~

~ v (t + t)

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0.2 0 -0.1 -0.2 30 t (sec)

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Input Data

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0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4

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Fig.9 Preparing input and target signals for training model network

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In the training of the model network, the initial values of weights and biases were determind according to the Nguyen-Widrow algorithm (The Math Works, Inc 1998). The network was trained for 50 epochs. The mean square network error did not change after 20 epochs and the value was about10-7. Verification of the model network is shown in Fig.10; it was tested by simulating its response to an input differing from inputs used in the training. The network was simulated in an open loop fashion. This means that at each time step the network computes its estimate of the floating structures next state. This estimate then becomes the input to the network for the next time step. The network never receives feedback from the mathematical model. The open loop network response is compared to the output of the mathematical model. The results are very accurate, which means that the model network describes the dynamics of the floating structure very well.

~ (m/s) v

~ Y (m)

~ Y (m)

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~ (m/sec) v

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~ Y (m)

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e = Yc - Y

e e

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~ Y, ~ v ~ ~ Y, v

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(2nd Order Linear System)

+ ~ Y

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Yc (m)

+ -

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Y

~ ~ v

~ v (t +

t)

~ v (t +

+ t)

t)

1.0 0.2 ~ 0.8 Y 0.1 0.4 0 0 ~ -0.4 -0.1 v -0.8 -0.2 -1.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 t (sec) t (sec) 1.0 0.2 0.8 e e 0.1 0.4 0 0 -0.4 -0.1 e -0.8 -0.2 -1.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 t (sec) t (sec)

e e

Yc (m)

Fig.12 Preparing input and target signals for training controller network

207

Y (m), v (m/s)

Y (m), v (m/s)

4.2 DESIGN OF CONTROLLER NETWORK The total network is shown in Fig.11. The controller network is connected to the model network. In the controller network, the hidden layer has 6 neurons and the output layer has 1. The transfer functions are the sigmoid function and the linear function, respectively. The target signals were created from the linear reference model. An error can be backpropagated through the model network to the controller network. The input/target pairs are created following the manner shown in Fig.12. Nine different type step commands shown in Eq.10 ~ Eq.12 were used.

~ Yc 1 (t ) = 0 [m] 0 t 50

the scaled up figures. Good performance of the controller was thus confirmed. Moreover, calculated results had good agreement with the experimental results. 6. CONCLUSIONS A neural network controller for a dynamic positioning system was designed, the performance verified in model experiments under beam sea conditions, and the following conclusions drawn: 1. The controller could change position without offset even under a disturbance by waves and current. 2. It could reduce the fluctuation of the thrusters thrust in the wave frequency range and economize on the energy needed to control a given position. 3. Calculated results were in good agreement with experimental results. We plan to continue this study and to control not only the Y-directional position but also the X-directional position and heading angle of the floating structure in oblique incident waves and current. In the final stage of this study, we want to design a neural network in which the model and controller network are automatically adjusted according to change in environmental conditions during operation. REFERENCES Fujii,T., Ura,T. and Kuroda,Y.(1990). Development of SelfOrganizing Neural-Net-Controller System and Its Application to Underwater Vehicles, J of the Soc. of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol.174, pp275-281 (in Japanese). Hagan,M.T. and Menhaj,M.(1994). Training feedforward networks with the Marquardt algorithm, IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, Vol.5, No.6, pp989-993. Hyakudome,T., Nakamura,M., Kajiwara,H. and Koterayama,W.(1999). Experimental Study on Dynamic Positioning Control for Semisubmersible Platform, Proc. of the 9th Int Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Vol.1, pp76-82. Ishii,K., Ura,T. and Fujii,T.(1995). Identification of Motion of Underwater robot with Neural network (2nd report: Improvement of Learning Process and Application to Controller Adaptation), J of the Soc. of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol.177, pp429-435(in Japanese). McCulloch, W.S. and Pitts, W.(1943). A Logical Calculus of The Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity, Bull. Math. Biophysics, 5, pp115-133. The Math Works, Inc.(1998). Neural Network Toolbox for Use with Matlab, The Math Works

(10)

0 ~ Yc i +1 (t ) = bi 0 0 ~ Yc i + 5 (t ) = bi 0

t =0 0 t 20 20 t 50 t =0 0 t 20 20 t 50 (12) (11)

( i = 1~4, b1=0.05, b2=0.10, b3=0.15, b4=0.20 ) In the backpropagation of the network, the values of the biases were fixed at 0. The network was trained for 50 epochs. The mean square network error was almost unchanged after 15 epochs and the value was about10-7. 4.3 DIGITAL IMPLEMENTATION The concept of the digital implementation is shown in Fig.13. The filter and thruster dynamics are connected to the controller network. The implementation was carried out by using Simulink and Real-Time Workshop on MATLAB (The Math Works, Inc 1999) (The compiler language is C++ ), and the sampling frequency was 100Hz. The controller was designed taking into consideration of the characteristic of the filter and thruster dynamics, because a low pass filter has a large time lag and has a great effect on control.

PC

Controller Network A/D converter Filter Thruster Dynamics D/A converter Thruster amplifier Motion sensor

The Math Works, Inc. (1999), Real-Time workshop for Use with Simulink, The Math Works

Nakamura,M., Kajiwara,H. and Koterayama,W.(1995). Model Experiments on Thruster Assisted Mooring System, Proc. of the 5th Int. Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Vol.2, pp249254. Nakamura,M., Kajiwara,H., Koterayama,W. and Hyakudome,T.(1997). Control System Design and Model Experiments on Thruster Assisted Mooring System, Proc. of the 7th Int. Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Vol.3, pp641-648. Nakamura,M., Kajiwara,H., Hyakudome,T., Koterayama,W. and Mochizuki,M.(2000). Model Experiments on Dynamic Positioning System using Gain Scheduled Controller, Proc. of the 10th Int. Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Vol.1, pp233-240. Rumelhart,D.E., Hinton,G.E. and Williams,R.J.(1986). Learning Internal Representations by Error Propagation, Parallel Distributed Processing Vol.1, The MIT Press, pp318-362. Ura,T.(1989). Free Swimming vehicle PTEROA for Deep Sea Survey, Proc. of ROV98, pp263-268.

Fig.13 Digital implementation 5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Fig.14 shows the time series of step responses of the sway direction under the conditions of irregular waves and current. The average period of the irregular waves is 1.0 sec and the significant wave height is 0.04m. Current Vc was added to the irregular waves by moving the The step command is towing carriage at speed Vc. ~ ~ Yc = 0 m 0.15 m 0m 0.15 m 0m . Position Y of the floating structure is controlled stably in response to commands without being offset under a disturbance of waves and current, and the thrusters do not fluctuate in the wave frequency (high-frequency) range as shown in

208

Ura,T. and Suto,T.(1992). Generation of Controller of an Underwater robot for Constant depth Cruising by Self-Training, J of the Soc. of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol.171, pp581-586(in Japanese).

Ura,T. and Ishii,K.(1992). Memorization of Learning Data region During Generation of Neural network and Knowledge Acquisition, J. of the Soc. of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol.171, pp587-593(in Japanese).

1.0

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H1/3 = 0.040 m T01 = 1.0 sec

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175 180 185

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~ Y (m)

Fth (kg)

175

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Fig.14 Motions of platform and thrust of thrusters under irregular waves and current

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