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2, JUNE 2008 1

Systems

Victor K. Y. Wu, Ye (Geoffrey) Li, Marilynn P. Wylie-Green, Tony Reid, and Peter S. S. Wang

Abstract: Cooperative relays can provide spatial diversity and im- each node by means of the redundancy of error-correct coding.

prove performance of wireless communications. In this paper, The authors in [5] and [6] have investigated cooperation for

we study subcarrier power allocation at the relays for orthogonal a single path of relays connected in series. The motivation for

frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based wireless systems. this network structure is that broader wireless coverage can be

For cooperative relay with amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode- achieved while still maintaining a low power constraint at the

and-forward (DF) algorithms, we investigate the impact of power transmitter. Analog relaying and digital relaying are considered

allocation to the mutual information between the source and des-

as two possible relay algorithms. These are equivalent to the AF

tination. From our simulation results on word-error-rate (WER)

performance, we find that the DF algorithm with power allocation

and DF algorithms, respectively. Each node has a certain trans-

provides better performance than that of AF algorithm in a single mit power limit. The outage probability is then minimized by

path relay network because the former is able to eliminate chan- allocating power among the relay network under these power

nel noise at each relay. For the multiple path relay network, how- constraints. This power allocation accounts for the channel con-

ever, the network structure is already resistant to noise and channel ditions in the network in order to achieve the optimal outage

distortion, and AF approach is a more attractive choice due to its probability. Simulations indicate that 2 dB of total power can

lower complexity. be saved for 5 relays by using optimal power allocation instead

of uniform power allocation. This is for the DF case. However,

Index Terms: Cooperative diversity, cooperative relay, power allo- at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values, the DF and the AF

cation. cases are almost the same.

The authors in [7] have investigated cooperation for multi-

ple paths of relays connected in parallel. In the conventional

I. INTRODUCTION scheme, all relays use AF scheme. This is called all-participate

Recently, relays are being exploited to improve performance AF (AP-AF). The authors also consider an algorithm where only

in wireless communications systems. The relays are a network one relay is selected in the transmission to maximize the mutual

of transceiver nodes between the transmitter and receiver that fa- information. This is called selection AF (S-AF). S-AF selects

cilitate the transfer of information. This type of scheme is known the relay which results in the maximum mutual information be-

as cooperation or cooperative communications in the literature tween transmitter and receiver. Simulations of outage probabil-

because the relay network is cooperating with the transmitter ity indicate that 5 dB of SNR can be saved for 3 relays by using

and receiver to improve performance. One application example S-AF instead of AP-AF. The authors in [8] derive symbol error

of such technologies is the MIT-initiated One Laptop per Child probabilities for multiple paths of relays.

(OLPC) project [1], which aims to provide affordable laptops In this paper, we continue to investigate the series and parallel

equipped with meshed networking functionality to children in cooperative relay networks using OFDM signals. We consider a

the developing world. Since cellular and Internet connectivity single path relay network and a multiple path relay network. Us-

is sparse and sporadic in these regions, such laptops can coop- ing the AF relay algorithm, we derive the input-output relations

erate to make the best use of available bandwidth. In this paper, and the mutual informations for both networks. Using a power

we restrict ourselves to a single path relay network and a mul- constraint at each relay, we consider two relay power allocation

tiple path relay network in the context of orthogonal frequency schemes: Constant gain allocation and equal power allocation.

division multiplexing (OFDM) systems with power allocation. Using the DF relay algorithm, we derive input-output relations

The authors in [2]–[4] have provided several physical layer for both networks. We also compare word-error-rates (WERs)

relay algorithms. These include amplify-and-forward (AF) and for the two networks using the AF and DF relay algorithms. The

decode-and-forward (DF). In AF, a node amplifies its received rest of this paper is organized as follows. We study power allo-

symbols, subject to a power constraint, before forwarding them cation for the single path relay network in [5], [6] and the multi-

to the next node. This algorithm is obviously with low com- ple path relay network in [7] in Sections II and III, respectively.

plexity. In DF, a node fully decodes the received symbols, Finally, Section IV concludes the paper and provides future re-

re-encodes them and then forwards them. In other words, this search directions.

scheme attempts to eliminate channel distortion and noise at

II. SINGLE PATH RELAY NETWORK

Manuscript received November 7, 2007.

Wu and Li are with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Geor- In this section, we consider the single path relay network. We

gia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, email: vwu3@illinois.edu, first study the impact of power allocation to the mutual infor-

liye@ece.gatech.edu.

Green, Reid, and Wang are with the Nokia Siemens Networks, Dallas, Texas, mation for the AF and the DF relay networks, respectively, and

USA, email:{marilynn.green, tony.reid, peter.wang}@nsn.com. then present their WER performance from computer simulation.

1229-2370/08/$10.00

c 2008 KICS

2 JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS, VOL. 10, NO. 2, JUNE 2008

(0)

nk r1 nk

(m)

rm+1 Now, consider the variance of wk . Using (3) and (4), we have

(m−1)

nk

(1)

(0)

hk

(m) Receiver Rwk wk = E [wk wk∗ ]

(m−1) hk

r0 hk hk rm

m m

N0 B X Y (i) (i)

Transmitter = b p (6)

N j=0 i=j+1 k k

Fig. 1. Single path relay network.

∗

where E [·] is the expectation operator, (·) is the complex con-

(i) 2

(i)

A. Amplify-and-Forward jugate operator for a scalar, and bk = hk , for i = 0, · · ·, m.

Rwk wk is positive for a nonzero N0 . We define a normalized

Fig. 1 shows the single path relay network. In the figure, r0

version of the system in (5)

is the transmitter, rm+1 is the receiver, and r1 , · · ·, rm are m

relay nodes connected in series forming a single path link be- ỹk = h̃k xk + w̃k (7)

tween the transmitter and receiver. The relays perform AF re- p p

laying. We assume that OFDM with N subcarriers is used in the where ỹk = yk / Rwk wk , h̃k = hk / Rwk wk , and w̃k =

(0) (m)

p

system. hk , · · ·, hk are the complex subchannel gains at the wk / Rwk wk . The variances of w̃k and ỹk are

(0) (m)

kth subcarrier in the link, for k = 1, · · ·, N . nk , · · ·, nk are

E [w̃k w̃k∗ ] = 1 (8)

the corresponding noises, which are assumed to be mutually in-

dependent and circular symmetric complex Gaussians all with and

zero mean and variance N0 B/N , where N0 is the power spec- !

m

tral density of the underlying continuous time noise process and 1 Y (i) (i)

(0) E [ỹk ỹk∗ ] = b k pk + 1, (9)

B is the OFDM bandwidth of the system. Let pk = Ptot /N be Rwk wk i=0

the transmit power on q the kth subcarrier, where Ptot is the net

(l)

transmitter power and pk be the amplifying gain used in the respectively. The cross terms do not appear in (9) because h̃k ,

AF algorithm at the lth relay,q

for l = 1, · · ·, m. The kth receive w̃k , and xk are mutually independent. Note that the normalized

(l)

system has unit variance noise.

symbol at rl is amplified by pk before it is forwarded to the

(0)

next node. Let xk be the kth transmit symbol with zero mean A.1 Mutual Information

and unit variance, yk be the kth receive symbol at the receiver, To derive the mutual information, note that the differential en-

(l) (l) tropy of a circular symmetric complex Gaussian vector, v, with

and xk be the kth receive symbol at the lth relay. Note that xk

is also the kth transmit symbol at the lth relay. covariance matrix, K, is h (v) = log2 det (πeK) [9]. When the

Using Fig. 1, the input-output relation at the lth relay is circular symmetric complex Gaussian is a scalar, v, the differ-

ential entropy is h (v) = log2 πeσv2 , where σv2 is the variance

l−1 q ! l−1 l−1 q of v. Let Ik be the mutual information between the transmitter

(l) (i) (i) (0) (i) (i) (j)

Y X Y

xk = hk pk xk + hk pk nk . and receiver on the kth subcarrier

i=0 j=0 i=j+1

(1) Ik = h (ỹk ) − h (w̃k )

" m

! #

1 Y (i) (i)

The input-output relation at the receiver is = log2 b p +1 . (10)

Rwk wk i=0 k k

m q ! m m q

Y (i) (i) (0)

X Y (i) (i) (j) The total mutual information between the transmitter and re-

yk = hk pk xk + hk pk nk .

ceiver, I, is the sum of all Ik divided by N . That is, after sub-

i=0 j=0 i=j+1

stituting (6) into (10), we have

(2)

(0) Qm (i) (i)

Denote 1 XN b k i=1 b k p k

I= log2 1 + SNR P Q

m m N m m (i) (i)

b p

q q k=1 j=0 i=j+1 k k

(i) (i) (j) (i) (i)

Y Y

hk = hk pk , γk = hk pk , (3) (11)

i=0 i=j+1

where SNR = Ptot /N0 B.

and

m A.2 Relay Power Allocation

(l) (l)

X

wk = γk nk . (4) We assume that the net transmit power at the transmitter and

l=0 at each each relay is Ptot , that is,

Then, (2) can be written as N

( q 2 )

(l) (l)

X

E pk xk = Ptot . (12)

yk = hk xk + wk . (5) k=1

WU et al.: POWER ALLOCATION FOR ODFM-BASED COOPERATIVE DIVERSITY RELAY SYSTEMS 3

0

At the transmitter, we assume a uniform power distribution, that 10

(0)

is, pk = Ptot /N . To derive the power constraint at each relay,

substitute (1) into (12) to arrive at

!

N (l) l−1 l−1 Yl−1

X pk (0) Y (i) (i) 1 X (i) (i)

bk b k pk + bk pk = 1.

N SNR

WER

k=1 i=1 j=0 i=j+1 −1

10

(13)

Note that (13) is defined recursively. The power constraint for Hard, AF, CT

(l) (1) (l−1) (1)

pk depends on pk , · · ·, pk . pk is the base case in the re- Hard, AF, EQ

Hard, DF

cursion, which follows from (13), when l = 1. Soft, AF, CT

(l) Soft, AF, EQ

One power allocation at the lth relay is to set pk constant Soft, DF

−2

(l) 10

for all subcarriers. This results in moving pk in (13) out of the 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24

summation because it is no longer a function of k SNR (dB)

(l) (l) (a)

pk,ct = pct = 0

10

N SNR

! . (14)

N l−1 l−1 Y

l−1

SNRb(0) (i) (i) (i) (i)

X Y X

k bk pct + bk pct

k=1 i=1 j=0 i=j+1

WER

−1

scheme as defined in [2], where a receive symbol is multiplied 10

this means that every subcarrier is multiplied by the same gain,

(l) Hard, AF, CT

pct . Note that this power allocation does not require each relay Hard, AF, EQ

to have any channel state information (CSI). That is, we do not Hard, DF

Soft, AF, CT

actually need to use (14). We can use (12) directly to solve for Soft, AF, EQ

(l) Soft, DF

pct . −2

10

(l) 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24

A second power allocation is to choose pk such that every

SNR (dB)

subcarrier transmits the same power at the lth relay. That is,

q (l) (l) 2 (b)

(12) becomes E p x = Ptot /N , for k = 1, · · ·, N .

k,eq k

This is equivalent to setting every summand on the left hand side Fig. 2. WERs in a single path relay network with TU channels using AF

and DF for N = 128: (a) m = 2 and (b) m = 4.

of (13) to 1/N . We then have

pk,eq = l−1

! l−1 Y

l−1

. (15) zero mean and unit variance. Let yk be the kth receive

(0) (i) (i) (i) (i) (l)

symbol at the receiver and yk be the kth receive symbol at the

Y X

SNRbk bk pk,eq + bk pk,eq

i=1 j=0 i=j+1 lth relay. Using Fig. 1, the input-ouput relation at the lth relay is

r

We call this equal power allocation (EQ). Note that this power (l) (l−1) Ptot (l−1) (l−1)

allocation does require each relay to have the CSI of its upstream y k = hk x + nk . (17)

N k

channels.

The input-output relation at the receiver is

B. Decode-and-Forward r

(m+1) (m) Ptot (m) (m)

In DF, each relay fully recovers the information bits (with yk = hk x + nk . (18)

N k

possible errors) after receiving an OFDM symbol. It then con-

verts the information bits back into an OFDM symbol and then

transmits it. The transmitter and all the relays transmit with the C. Simulations

same uniform power distribution. That is,

We simulate WERs versus SNR for both the AF and DF cases.

(0) (l) Ptot At the transmitter (and at the transmitter structure of a relay

pk = pk = (16) using DF), each information word contains 83 bits. We use a

N

rate 1/3 convolutional encoder with generator sequences [111],

for k = 1, · · ·, N and for l = 1, · · ·, m. [111], and [110] to encode the information word into a 255-bit

(0)

Let xk be the kth transmit symbol from the transmitter and codeword. A zero bit is padded at the end to make 256 bits. The

(l)

xk be the kth transmit symbol from the lth relay, all with with bits are then interleaved and modulated onto N = 128 QPSK

4 JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS, VOL. 10, NO. 2, JUNE 2008

(0 |1)

subcarriers to form one OFDM symbol. At the receiver (and at nk

(1| m+1) (1|m+1)

the receiver structure of a relay using DF), the codeword is re- r1 hk nk

(0 |1)

covered (with possible errors) using a matched filter and dein- hk

terleaving. A Viterbi decoder is used to decode the codeword.

r0 rm+1

Both hard decisions and soft decisions are used.

We consider the m = 2 and 4 relays cases. We assume that hk

(0|m)

Transmitter Receiver

all distances between any two adjacent transceiver nodes are the rm

hk

(m| m+1) (m|m+1)

nk

(0| m)

same. Therefore, all path loss effects are normalized to 0 dB. nk

Shadowing is assumed to be log-normally distributed. That is,

the received power gain due to shadowing in dB is a zero-mean Fig. 3. Multiple path relay network.

Gaussian with variance of 8 dB, which is typical for cellular land

mobile applications [10]. We model frequency selective fading Using Fig. 3, the input-output relation for the lth path is

as Typical Urban (TU) channels [10]. We use an OFDM band- q q

width of 800 kHz divided into N = 128 equal blocks. Maintain- (l) (0|l) (l|m+1)

y k = hk hk pk

(0) (l)

pk xk +

ing OFDM orthogonality, this translates into an OFDM sym-

bol period of Ts = 160 µs. The simulation results are shown

q

(l|m+1) (l) (0|l) (l|m+1)

in Fig. 2. hk p k nk + nk . (19)

As shown in the plots, there are significant error rate perfor- Denote

mance gains when using DF instead of AF. The gains are even h iT

(1) (m)

larger when we increase the distance between the transmitter yk = yk ··· yk , (20)

and receiver (and thus, add more relays). The AF error rates

suffer because more channel distortion and noise enter the sys-

(0|1) (1|m+1)

q

(0)

q

(1)

tem. The DF error rates suffer only slightly because noise and hk hk pk pk

channel distortion are eliminated at each relay. This results in hk = ..

, (21)

. q

the large performance gains for m = 4. In terms of power al- q

(0|m) (m|m+1) (0) (m)

location when using AF, CT is the preferable choice since EQ hk hk pk pk

requires CSI and only results in small performance gains over

CT. As expected, soft decisions give better performance than q

(1|m+1) (1)

hard decisions in Viterbi decoding.

hk pk 0

Γk =

..

,

.

q Im×m

(m|m+1) (m)

III. MULTIPLE PATH RELAY NETWORK 0 hk pk

In this section, we consider a multiple path relay network, (22)

following the same structure as Section II.

(0|1)

nk

A. Amplify-and-Forward

..

.

(0|m)

Fig. 3 shows the multiple path relay network. In the figure, nk

nk = (1|m+1) , (23)

r0 is the transmitter, rm+1 is the receiver, and r1 , · · ·, rm are m nk

relay nodes connected in parallel forming a multiple path link

..

between the transmitter and receiver. The relays perform AF re- .

(m|m+1)

laying. We assume that OFDM with N subcarriers is used in nk

(0|1) (0|m) (1|m+1) (m|m+1)

the system. hk , · · ·, hk , hk , · · ·, hk are the and

complex subchannel gains at the kth subcarrier in the link, for

(0|1) (0|m) (1|m+1) (m|m+1) wk = Γk nk . (24)

k = 1, · · ·, N . nk , · · ·, nk , nk , · · ·, nk are

the corresponding noises, which are assumed to be mutually in- Then, (19), for all l = 1, · · ·, m, can be written as

dependent, zero-mean, circular symmetric complex Gaussians

all with variance N0 B/N , where N0 is the power spectral den- yk = hk xk + wk . (25)

sity of the underlying continuous time noise process and B is

(0) The large boldface zeros in (22) represent zero values in the off

the OFDM bandwidth of the system. Let pk = Ptot /N be the diagonal entries in the left m × m submatrix of Γk .

transmitter power on the q kth subcarrier, where Ptot is the net Now, consider the covariance of wk . Using (21) to (24), we

(l)

transmitter power and pk be the amplifying gain used in the have

AF algorithm at the lth relay,q

for l = 1, · · ·, m. The kth receive (1|m+1) (1)

bk pk + 1 0

(l)

symbol at rl is amplified by pk before it is forwarded to the N0 B ..

Rwk wk =

N

.

next node. Let xk be the kth transmit symbol with zero mean (m|m+1) (m)

(l)

and unit variance and yk be the kth receive symbol from the lth 0 bk pk + 1

path at the receiver. (26)

WU et al.: POWER ALLOCATION FOR ODFM-BASED COOPERATIVE DIVERSITY RELAY SYSTEMS 5

(i|j) (i|j) 2 q

where bk = hk , for i = 0, · · ·, m, for j = 1, · · ·, m + 1, multiply its entire OFDM receive symbol by a constant, pct ,

(l)

and i 6= j. Since the diagonal entries of Rwk wk are never zero, such that the total transmit power is Ptot , similar to constant

−1 −1 −1 −1

Rwk wk

and Rwk2wk are well defined, where Rwk2wk Rwk2wk = gain allocation in Section II-A.

1 1

−1

Rw . Also, if we define Rwk wk as Rw Equal power allocation (EQ) in this case is

k wk Rwk wk = Rwk wk ,

2 2

k wk

−1 1 1

−1

then Rwk2wk Rw 2

k wk = Rwk wk Rwk wk = I. We define a normal-

2 2

(l) SNR

pk,eq = (0|l)

. (34)

ized version of the system in (25) SNRbk +1

ỹk = h̃k xk + w̃k (27) Note that this power allocation does require each relay to have

the CSI of its upstream channel.

−1 −1

where ỹk = Rwk2wk yk , h̃k = Rwk2wk hk , and w̃k =

−1

Rwk2wk wk . The covariance matrices of w̃k and ỹk are B. Decode-and-Forward

In DF, each relay fully recovers the information bits (with

E w̃k w̃kH = I

(28)

possible errors) after receiving an OFDM symbol. It then con-

and verts the information bits back into an OFDM symbol and then

transmits it. The transmitter and all the relays transmit with the

E ỹk ỹkH = h̃k h̃H

k + I, (29) same uniform power distribution. That is,

respectively. The cross terms do not appear in (29) because h̃k , pk = pk = (35)

w̃k and xk are mutually independent. Note that the normalized N

system has identity covariance noise. for k = 1, · · ·, N and for l = 1, · · ·, m.

(0)

Let xk be the kth transmit symbol from the transmitter and

A.1 Mutual Information (l)

xk be the kth transmit symbol from the lth relay, all with with

(m+1)

Let Ik be the mutual information between the transmitter and zero mean and unit variance. Let yk be the kth receive sym-

receiver on the kth subcarrier (l)

bol at the receiver and yk be the kth receive symbol at the lth

relay. Using Fig. 3, the input-ouput relation at the lth relay is

Ik = h (ỹk ) − h (w̃k )

r

−1

= log2 1 + hH Ptot (0)

k Rwk wk hk . (30) (l)

y k = hk

(0|l)

x + nk .

(0|l)

(36)

N k

The total mutual information between the transmitter and re-

ceiver, I, is the sum of all Ik divided by N . That is, after sub- The input-output relation at the receiver is

stituting (21) and (26) into (30), we have m r !

(m+1)

X (i|m+1) Ptot (i) (i|m+1)

yk = hk x + nk . (37)

N k

N

" m (0|i) (i|m+1) (i)

!#

1 X X bk bk pk i=1

I= log2 1 + SNR (i|m+1) (i)

. (31)

N b p +1

k=1 i=1 k k Note that in this situation, there are m (modified in gen-

(0)

eral) copies of the original kth transmit symbol xk , namely,

(1) (m)

A.2 Relay Power Allocation xk , · · ·, xk . Therefore, the receiver has to assume (incor-

rectly in general) that all m relays perform perfect recovery of

We assume that the net transmit power at the transmitter and (l) (0)

the information bits so that xk = xk . That is, the receiver as-

at each each relay is Ptot , as in (12). At the transmitter, we sumes the kth receive symbol is

(0)

assume a uniform power distribution, that is, pk = Ptot /N . !

To derive the power constraint at each relay and thus, possible m r m

(m+1)

X (i|m+1) Ptot (0)

X (i|m+1)

power allocations, we use a derivation similar to the one in Sec- yk = hk xk + nk . (38)

i=1

N i=1

tion II-A to arrive at

N (l) This allows the receiver to use a filter that is matched to

X pk (0|l) 1 m

bk + = 1. (32) (i|m+1)

X

N SNR hk .

k=1 i=1

CT in this case is

C. Simulations

(l) (l) N SNR

pk,ct = pct = N

. (33) We simulate WERs versus SNR for both the AF and DF cases.

We use exactly the same configuration in Section II-C. The sim-

(0)

X

SNRbk +1

ulation results are shown in Fig. 4.

k=1

The performance gains resulting from using DF instead of

Again, this power allocation does not require each relay to have AF diminish as we add more paths between the transmitter and

any channel state information (CSI). The lth relay only has to receiver (and thus, add more relays). This is because for m = 4

6 JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS, VOL. 10, NO. 2, JUNE 2008

0

10 rithms, such as hybrid schemes. For example, depending on the

channel conditions, a relay can AF, DF, or even just discard sub-

carrier symbols. This in turn leads to more possibilities for relay

power allocation. In this paper, we only investigate the single

path relay network and the multiple path relay network. Other

general relay networks need to be considered in the context of

WER

−1

10

OFDM as well. This will lend more insight into developing a

general theoretical framework for OFDM in cooperative relay

networks.

Hard, AF, CT

Hard, AF, EQ

Hard, DF

Soft, AF, CT

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0

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[6] ——–, “Optimal power allocation for relayed transmissions over rayleigh-

fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 3, pp. 1999–2004,

WER

−1 Nov. 2004.

10

[7] Y. Zhao, R. Adve, and T. J. Lim, “Improving amplify-and-forward relay

networks: Optimal power allocation versus selection,” in Proc. IEEE ISIT

2006, July 2006, pp. 1234–1238.

Hard, AF,

hard, AF, CT

CT [8] A. Ribeiro, X. Cai, and G. B. Giannakis, “Symbol error probabilities

hard,

Hard, AF,

AF, EQ

EQ for general cooperative links,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 4,

hard,

Hard, DF

DF pp. 1264–1273, May 2005.

soft,

Soft, AF,

AF, CT

CT

[9] I. E. Telatar, “Capacity of multi-antenna gaussian channels,” Eur. Trans.

soft,

Soft, AF,

AF, EQ

soft,

Soft, DF

Telecom., vol. 10, pp. 585–596, Nov. 1999.

−2

10 [10] G. L. Stüber, Principles of Mobile Communications, 2nd ed. Norwell, MA:

0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.

SNR (dB)

(b)

Victor K. Y. Wu received his B.A.Sc. in 2005, from

Fig. 4. WERs in a multiple path relay network with TU channels using the Division of Engineering Science at the University

AF and DF for N = 128: (a) m = 2 and (b) m = 4. of Toronto, Toronto and his M.S. in 2006, from the

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta. He is cur-

relays and thus, for 4 paths, the system is already resistant to rently pursuing a Ph.D. from the Department of Elec-

trical and Computer Engineering at the University of

noise and channel distortion. Therefore, DF cannot provide any Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His research interests

more significant improvement over AF. In such a situation, AF are wireless networks and RFID systems.

might be a more attractive choice due to its lower complexity. In

terms of power allocation when using AF, CT is the preferable

choice because it gives better performance than EQ and does not

require CSI. As expected, soft decisions give better performance Ye (Geoffrey) Li received his B.S.E. and M.S.E. de-

than hard decisions in Viterbi decoding. grees in 1983 and 1986, respectively, from the De-

partment of Wireless Engineering, Nanjing Institute

of Technology, Nanjing, China, and his Ph.D. degree

in 1994 from the Department of Electrical Engineer-

IV. CONLCUSIONS ing, Auburn University, Alabama. He was a teaching

assistant and then a lecturer with Southeast Univer-

In this paper, we exploit cooperative relays by studying two sity, Nanjing, China from 1986 to 1991, a research and

subcarrier power allocation schemes as well as the system mu- teaching assistant with Auburn University, Alabama

from 1991 to 1994, and a post-doctoral research asso-

tual information in OFDM-based wireless networks. WER sim- ciate with the University of Maryland at College Park,

ulations indicate that the DF relay algorithm provides better per- Maryland from 1994 to 1996. He was with AT&T Labs—Research at Red Bank,

formance than that of AF in a single path relay network because New Jersey as a senior and then a principal technical staff member from 1996

to 2000. Since 2000, he has been with the School of Electrical and Computer

the former is able to eliminate channel noise at each relay. For Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology as an associate and then a full

the multiple path relay network, however, the network structure professor. He is also holding a visiting chair professor position at the University

is already resistant to noise and channel distortion, and AF is of Electronic Science and Technology of China since March 2006. His general

research interests include statistical signal processing and telecommunications,

more attractive due to its lower complexity. with emphasis on OFDM and MIMO techniques, cross-layer optimization, and

Future research includes investigating additional relay algo- signal processing issues in cognitive radios. In these areas, he has published over

WU et al.: POWER ALLOCATION FOR ODFM-BASED COOPERATIVE DIVERSITY RELAY SYSTEMS 7

100 papers in refereed journals or conferences and filed about 20 patents. He Anthony Reid received his B.S.E.E. (Cum Laude)

also has two books, entitled, Blind Equalization and Identification (co-authored from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, M.S.E.E. from

with Z. Ding, published by Mercel Dekker, Inc. in 2000) and OFDM for Wire- Stanford University and Ph.D. from Southern Methodist

less Communications (co-authored with G. Stüber, published by Springer in University (SMU). He has over 3 decades of indus-

2006). He is active in professional societies. He once served or is currently try experience in the telecommunications and military

serving as an editor, a member of editorial board, and a guest editor for 6 techni- defense arenas. He has worked in the telecomm indus-

cal journals. He organized and chaired many international conferences, includ- try at Bell Labs, Nortel Networks and Nokia Research

ing technical program vice-chair of the IEEE 2003 International Conference on Center (NRC) and in the defense industry at Sandia

Communications. He has been awarded an IEEE fellow for his contributions to Laboratories, TI, and Raytheon Company. Most re-

signal processing for wireless communications in 2005. cently he is an Engineering Fellow at Raytheon work-

ing in the areas of algorithms and systems for Space

and Airborne Systems. As a Principal Scientist at NRC his work covered design,

research and standardization of physical layer for wireless mobile systems (e.g.,

WiMAX, WLAN, 4G, and GSM/EDGE). He is senior member of IEEE. He has

over 20 publications and 25 granted/pending patents. His research interests are

Marilynn P. Wylie-Green received the B.S. and in mobile wireless communications and also applied optimal estimation theory

M.S.E. degrees in electrical engineering from Tem-

and statistical signal processing.

ple University in 1989 and 1991, respectively and the

M.S.E.E. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering

from the University of Pennsylvania in 1993 and 1995,

respectively. In 1995, she worked at the Wireless In-

formation Laboratory (WINLAB) of Rutgers Univer-

sity on the research topic of mobile location estima- Peter S. S. Wang received his M.S.E. and Ph.D. de-

tion. In 1997, she joined the Nokia Research Center grees in 1986 and 1991, respectively, from the Depart-

where she became involved with various aspects of ad- ment of Electrical Engineering Department at the Uni-

vanced physical layer design for several wireless sys- versity of Texas at Arlington, Texas. He was a visiting

tems, including GSM, W-CDMA, UWB, and WiMAX. In 2007, she transitioned assistant professor with University of Texas at Arling-

into the Research and Technology arm of Nokia Siemens Networks. She is the ton from 1991 to 1994. He was a staff engineer with

author of approximately 45 international publications and 26 granted/pending Motorola Research Lab. in Texas from 1994 to 1998.

patents. She is a senior member of the IEEE. He was a senior research scientist at Nokia Research

She is a member of several national honor societies including Eta Kappa Center in Texas from 1998 to 2006. Since 2006, he has

Nu National Engineering Honor Society, Golden Key National Honor Society, been work with Nokia Siemens Networks in Texas.

Alpha Lambda Delta National Honor Society, and she is a former recipient of His work covers wireless mobile location services, RF

the National Science Foundation Fellowship for graduate study. Her current re- channel modeling, and wireless communication systems. His research interests

search interests include statistical signal processing, optimized transceiver de- are mobile wireless communications and diffractive optics.

sign and cross-layer optimization.

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