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TITLE : ATTENUATION OF β(BETA) PARTICLES IN ALUMINIUM OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this experiment is to study the absorption of β particles in order to determine the necessary parameters associated with β particles shields. THEORY: The process by which β particles lose energy in absorbers is similar to that of α (alpha) particles. The β particle is not as massive and hence, its specific ionization is not as great as for the α particles. In air, α particles travel only a few centimeters where β’s will generally travel many feet. The thickness and choice of material for shielding β radiation depends on the end-point β energy of the isotope and on the Bremsstrahlung radiation that is always present for a β source. In general, the shielding thickness that is necessary to stop β’s of a given end-point energy will decrease with increasing density of the shield. For example, 0.1 in. of Aluminum will stop 1.5 MeV β radiation. For lead, 0.024 in. will do the same job. The Bremsstrahlung production in the shielding must also be considered. This production rate increases with the atomic number of the absorber. So, for the reason, Aluminum or even glass might be the best and cheapest effective shield in the case of the pure β emitting isotope. APPARATUS AND MATERIALS: 1. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ORTEC 903 End-Window Geiger Tube 2. ORTEC 906 GM Pulse Inverter ORTEC 456 High Voltage Power Supply ORTEC 775 Counter ORTEC 719 Timer ORTEC 401A/402A Bin and Power Supply


Aluminum absorbers BNC cables 1

3. 4. The source is removed to obtain a background count for 1000 seconds. The electronics is set up as shown in Figure 1.multiplier at 1K and time base to 0. The 775 Counter is set at minimum threshold. 5. Experiment is repeated for the other thickness of absorber and times as listed in Table 1.10. DATA AND ANALYSIS A) Data 2 . 7.1 seconds]. 8. The 204 Ti source is placed about 10cm from the window of the Gieger tube. The first aluminum absorber (129 mg/cm2) is placed in position between the source and the GM tube and count for 400 seconds. without an absorber. The 719 Timer is adjusted for 400 seconds [set the preset to 4. The voltage of the Gieger tube is set at its operating value. The absorber is sure that can be inserted between the source and the detector without disturbing the geometry. 2. press the start button and record the count in Table 1. 6. Tweezer PROCEDURE: 1.

60 4.75 1.00 9.1200 Table 2: Approximate Range of Electrons of Various Energies in Aluminum Energy (MeV) 0.020 0.2000 (222-150)/400 = 0.3875 (277-150)/400 = 0.030 0.20 0.1650 (532-375)/1000 = 0.00 3 .1420 (495-375)/1000 = 0.080 Range (mg/cm2) 0.3150 (259-150)/400 = 0.050 0.2725 (230-150)/400 = 0.040 0.010 0.3175 (276-150)/400 = 0.6725 (305-150)/400 = 0.1570 (517-375)/1000 = 0.1800 (540-375)/1000 = 0.Table 1: β Absorption in Aluminum HV Power Supply = 850V Background count for 1000seconds = 375 counts Background count for 400 seconds= 150 counts No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Thickness (mg/cm2) 0 129 161 206 258 328 419 516 590 645 849 Time (seconds) 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 1000 1000 1000 1000 Counts 3619 305 277 276 259 230 222 540 532 517 495 Counting Rate Minus Background (cps) (3619-150)/400 = 8.40 2.

This is because existing of background counts in surrounding area. which contributes to the counting rate even though it does not emit from the β source.300 0. The background counts are some of the radiation present in surrounding. we should subtract the background count before any analysis.0. 4 . for example radiation from computer in laboratory.200 0.00 160.00 Graph counting rate versus absorber thickness DISCUSSION 1.400 0.100 0. Therefore it will affect our true experiment reading.00 40. The activity does not decrease until to zero as the absorber thickness increasing.00 80. As a result.00 500.500 1.000 B) Analysis 12.00 120.

For the Table 1. If the energy of β particles is higher than the energy range in Table 2. The beta particle is an energetic electron given off by the nucleus of unstable isotopes to restore an energy balance. 3. 4. Beta rays are much lighter energy particles. They leave the nucleus at a speed of 270. 5. This energy called as endpoint energy. A typical beta-particle will leaves a nucleus with an energy equivalent to being accelerated through 1 million volts. for instance. They can be stopped. The shielding thickness that is necessary to stop β of a given end-point energy will decrease with increasing density of the shield. 5 . time taken for determine the radiation counts is 1000 seconds as taking long time can obtain more accuracy counting rate. then the counts rate will be decrease. The low energy betas are rapidly attenuated. This is because some of the radiation was absorbed by the Aluminium. with the average energy being about 1/3 the maximum. The thickness of material for shielding β depends on the end-point beta energy of the isotope. It will have so much kinetic energy that the mass of this energy will be twice the rest mass of the electron. It was show clearly that when we compare the counts for thickness of Aluminium(absorber) 129mg/cm2 and no absorber. This means that it will be travelling at close to the speed of light. Therefore an Aluminium absorber can prevent many of the β radiation for penetrating. When the thickness of absorber is 516 mg/cm2. but still have some of the β radiation passing through the absorber due to its higher energy. Beta particles come in a continuous spectrum of energies. therefore the β particles can penetrate the Aluminium absorber at certain thickness.2. 6.000 kilometers per second. the value of counts for no Aluminium is 3619 counts for 400 seconds while the value for 129mg/cm2 is 305 counts for 400 seconds. we can observe that when the thickness of the absorber increases. by an Aluminium sheet a few millimeters thick or by 3 meters of air.

2. 6 . The normal background radiation level must contribute to the mutation of the gene pool. 6. the damage may be passed to new generations. 4. Stand away from the radiation source and never handle source with any part of body. 7. because this unsystematically radiation will affect our reading even had substrate the background counts. Keep the exposure time as short as possible so that body not exposed to the radiation for a long time. in a result can affect our experiment result. and there may be many before the beta energy is dissipated.7. Wear a film badge to detect amount of radiation exposed. 5. Most mutations are undesirable with a very few leading to "improvements". laptop and computer. β particles capable of penetrating much deeper into living matter. We should fully master the skill to control the functioning of Gieger Mueller because if not mastering well it can give the different counts value generally. Make sure no bring other device that contribute radiation like handphone. Keep the source in its container when no using it to prevent radiation leakage out to surrounding. If the damage occurs within the generative cells of the ovaries or testes. PRECAUTION STEPS There have some of the error occur when conducting experiment. Each encounter with a living cell. 1. Wear a mask and goggle so that the radiation does not penetrate our eyes. Any increase in the background level of radiation should be considered harmful. is likely to dam age some of the chemical links between the living molecules of the cell or cause some permanent genetic change in the cell nucleus. 3.

8. R β .1420 (495-375)/1000 = 0. we refer to the definition of range. according to Kaplan.2725 (230-150)/400 = 0.2000 (222-150)/400 = 0.1650 (532-375)/1000 = 0.6725 (305-150)/400 = 0. Make a plot on semi-log graph paper of the corrected counting rate as function of absorber thickness.1570 (517-375)/1000 = 0. obtain the maximum range of β in Aluminium. Table 2 lists the approximate range of electron of various energies in Aluminium.3875 (277-150)/400 = 0. the point 7 . Answer: To calculate the range of beta rays in aluminum for this particular energy.3175 (276-150)/400 = 0. Wear coat lined with lead to protect the body from the radiation.1200 2. Answer: HV Power Supply = 850V Background count for 1000seconds = 375 counts Background count for 400 seconds= 150 counts No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Thickness (mg/cm2) 0 129 161 206 258 328 419 516 590 645 849 Time (seconds) 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 1000 1000 1000 1000 Counts 3619 305 277 276 259 230 222 540 532 517 495 Counting Rate Minus Background (cps) (3619-150)/400 = 8. From the graph above. 3. which is.3150 (259-150)/400 = 0.1800 (540-375)/1000 = 0. Subtract the background counting rate (cps) form each of the measured counting rates and record the corrected values in the column 5 of the Table 1. TASK 1.

From the curve obtained. REFERENCE http://sciencedemonstrations. Therefore. CONCLUSION From the experiment.724 e − keyword=k16940&pageid=icb. or activity.698 mg/cm 2 Thus the range for beta rays in aluminum is approximately 42.3043 = 0.200MeV. A(x) is the activity observed through a thickness x.harvard.html 8 . Thus.where the absorption curve deviates from the exponential form and meets the background. we estimated the calculated value to ≈ 40.0200 Solving the above equation for x. we have 0.fas.724. x is the point where the curve meets the MeV.pagecontent270778& state=maximize&view=view. we can conclude that the range of beta rays in aluminum for this particular energy is approximately 42. we obtain the beta particles energy is ≈ 0.698 mg/cm 2 . is the absorption coefficient. we obtain X x ≈ 42.3043 and the value for A0 is about 0. and the absorption may be represented by the formula A(x) = A0eµx where Ao is the counting rate. and µ . the relative activity of the background radiation is about 0.00 mg/cm2.698 mg/cm 2 µ is equal to 0. without absorber.The endpoint energy we obtained is about 0. by equating the relative activity to the exponential equation.page102829&pageContentId=icb. Form table 2. To a good approximation.

S R.furryelephant. New York : McGraw Hill. Cork.http://www. The Atomic Nucleus.D Evans. Radioactivity and Nuclear James M. 1955 9 . New York. Inc. D. Van Nostrand Company.