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High Lift CFD Simulations with an SST-Based Predictive Laminar to Turbulent Transition Model
High Lift CFD Simulations with an
SST-Based Predictive Laminar to
Turbulent Transition Model
Robin Steed ANSYS Canada Ltd. Waterloo, Ontario Canada
Robin Steed
ANSYS Canada Ltd.
Waterloo, Ontario
Canada

Outline

Outline • About ANSYS • ANSYS CFX Software and Solver Method • SST g - R
Outline • About ANSYS • ANSYS CFX Software and Solver Method • SST g - R
Outline • About ANSYS • ANSYS CFX Software and Solver Method • SST g - R

About ANSYS

ANSYS CFX Software and Solver Method

SST g-R q Transition Turbulence Model

Model, Grids and Operating Conditions

Results from SST g-R q Transition Turbulence Model

Comparison to Fully Turbulent SST results

Conclusions and Recommendations

ANSYS, Inc.

ANSYS, Inc. • Broad range of advanced simulation software – Structural Mechanics – Fluid Dynamics –
ANSYS, Inc. • Broad range of advanced simulation software – Structural Mechanics – Fluid Dynamics –
ANSYS, Inc. • Broad range of advanced simulation software – Structural Mechanics – Fluid Dynamics –

Broad range of advanced

simulation software

Structural Mechanics

Fluid Dynamics

Electromagnetics

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CFX Solver
CFX Solver

ANSYS CFX Software

General purpose CFD

solver

Single solution method for all flow regimes

Discretization

Fully implicit

Element Vertex Finite Volume Method

Bounded 2 nd order upwind advection

Solution Method

Psuedo-transient relaxation

Coupled Mass and Momentum (u,v,w,p)

Linear equations solved using

Algebraic Multigrid

– Linear equations solved using Algebraic Multigrid © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 ANSYS,
– Linear equations solved using Algebraic Multigrid © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 ANSYS,
New Approach to Transition Modeling
New Approach to Transition
Modeling

What is Transition?

Turbulent boundary layer Laminar boundary layer Transition region
Turbulent
boundary layer
Laminar
boundary layer
Transition
region

Transition Mechanisms

Natural Transition

Bypass Transition

Separation Induced Transition

• Bypass Transition • Separation Induced Transition Effect of Transition • Increase in wall shear stress.
• Bypass Transition • Separation Induced Transition Effect of Transition • Increase in wall shear stress.

Effect of Transition

Increase in wall shear stress.

Influence on separation behaviour. Separation induced transition on suction side determines reattachment point (controls stall, lift and drag)

Dramatic increase in wall heat transfer

Change in flow topology.

Transition Mechanisms

Wave leading to instability
Wave leading to
instability

Natural Transition

Result of flow instability magnified in boundary layer (Tollmien- Schlichting instability)

Occurs under low freestream turbulence ( < 1%)

Typical Examples:

Wind Turbine blades

Fans of jet engines

Helicopter blades

Any aerodynamic body moving in still air

External disturbance leading to instability
External disturbance
leading to instability

Bypass Transition

Occurs if flow outside the laminar boundary layer has a high level of turbulence (> 1%).

Typical Examples:

Compressor or Turbine blade,

where upstream blades have

generated large disturbances traveling with the freestream.

generated large disturbances traveling with the freestream. Strong Inflexional Instability Produces Turbulence in the
Strong Inflexional Instability Produces Turbulence in the Boundary Layer
Strong Inflexional Instability
Produces Turbulence in the
Boundary Layer

Separation Induced

Transition

Takes place after a laminar separation of the boundary layer.

Leads to a very rapid growth of disturbances and to transition.

Can occur in any device with a

pressure gradients in the laminar

region. If flow is computed fully turbulent, the separation is missed entirely.

Typical Examples:

fans, wind turbines, helicopter

blades, axial turbomachinery

Transition Model Requirements

Transition Model Requirements • Compatible with modern CFD code: – Unknown application – Complex geometries –

Compatible with modern CFD code:

Unknown application

Complex geometries

Unknown grid topology

Unstructured meshes (no search directions)

Parallel codes domain decomposition

Requirements:

Absolutely no search algorithms

Absolutely no integration along lines

Local formulation

Different transition mechanisms

Robust

No excessive grid resolution

Fully Turbulent Laminar Flow Transitional
Fully Turbulent
Laminar Flow
Transitional
SST g - R q Transition Turbulence Model Formulation • SST + two additional transport

SST g-R q Transition Turbulence Model Formulation

SST + two additional transport equations

Vorticity Re number profiles Pg1  0 Re θt = 260
Vorticity Re number profiles
Pg1  0
Re θt = 260

Intermittency (g)

 y 2  u Re  v   y v F onset ~max(
y
2
u
Re
v
y
v
F onset
~max( 2.193Re Re
q t
Reqt  f (Tu,qt )

Fraction of turbulent vs laminar flow

Transition onset controlled by relation between vorticity Reynolds number and Re θt

Transition Onset Reynolds number (R θ )

1,0)

Used to pass information about free stream conditions

into boundary layer (e.g. impinging wakes)

New Empirical Correlation

Similar to Abu-Ghannam and Shaw, improvements for Natural transition

Modification for Separation Induced Transition

Forces rapid transition once laminar sep. occurs

Locally Intermittency can be larger than one

Config1 @ 13 [deg] Transition Turbulence Intensity
Config1 @ 13 [deg]
Transition
Turbulence Intensity
Reqt  f (Tu,)
Reqt  f (Tu,)
Validating Transition The NASA Trap Wing Model
Validating Transition
The NASA Trap Wing Model

HiLiPW-1 Trap Wing Model

HiLiPW-1 Trap Wing Model • Ideal test case for industrial application of transition model • Low

Ideal test case for industrial application of transition model

Low Reynolds number

1e6 transition will be a factor

Complex 3D wing

Opportunity for multiple, interacting transition mechanisms

Changes in flow topology can lead to large scale effect

Difficult problem

Known difficulty capturing stall

Could transition help?

Validation

Good experimental data available

Sharing and feedback

Excellent venue for gaining feedback

from expert users

– Excellent venue for gaining feedback from expert users © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

Trap Wing Model

Trap Wing Model © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 3 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Trap Wing Model © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 3 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Trap Wing Model © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 3 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Trap Wing Model © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 3 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Trap Wing Model © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 3 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary

Model, Grids and Operating Conditions

Model, Grids and Operating Conditions • Workshop grid – Configuration 1 – Hex A-v1 • Operating

Workshop grid

Configuration 1

Hex A-v1

Operating Conditions

Mach = 0.2

Reynolds number = 4.3 million

based on mean aerodynamic chord

Reference Temperature = 288.89 K (530 R)

Y+ < 1

 

α

 

6

13

21

28

32

34

37

Extra-coarse

Coarse

Medium

 

Nodes

Elements

Extra-coarse

6,068,737

5,957,632

Coarse

20,356,741

20,107,008

Medium

48,104,801

47,661,056

Fine

161,853,985

160,856,064

Transition
Transition

SST g-R q Transition Results Lift Coefficient

SST g - R q Transition Results Lift Coefficient © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
SST g - R q Transition Results Lift Coefficient © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

SST g-R q Transition Results Drag Coefficient

SST g - R q Transition Results Drag Coefficient © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
SST g - R q Transition Results Drag Coefficient © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

SST g-R q Transition Results Moment Coefficient

SST g - R q Transition Results Moment Coefficient © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
SST g - R q Transition Results Moment Coefficient © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

SST g-R q Transition Results Skin Friction @ α=28°

SST g - R q Transition Results Skin Friction @ α =28° Separation Induced Transition Laminar
Separation Induced Transition Laminar Separation Bubbles
Separation Induced Transition
Laminar Separation Bubbles

Comparison to SST Fully Turbulent SST Lift Coefficient

Comparison to SST Fully Turbulent SST Lift Coefficient © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 1
Comparison to SST Fully Turbulent SST Lift Coefficient © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 1

Comparison to SST Fully Turbulent SST Drag Coefficient

Comparison to SST Fully Turbulent SST Drag Coefficient © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
Comparison to SST Fully Turbulent SST Drag Coefficient © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 2

Comparison to SST Fully Turbulent SST Moment Coefficient

Comparison to SST Fully Turbulent SST Moment Coefficient © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
Comparison to SST Fully Turbulent SST Moment Coefficient © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 2

Comparison to SST Fully Turbulent SST Laminar separation on slat

to SST Fully Turbulent SST Laminar separation on slat Normalized Turbulence Intensity 20% 18% 16% 14%

Normalized

Turbulence

Intensity

20%

18%

16%

14%

12%

10%

8%

6%

4%

2%

0%

Turbulence Intensity 20% 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%  = 0.17

= 0.17

a=34°

20% 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%  = 0.17 a =34°

Laminar

Separation

Bubble

Comparison to Fully Turbulent SST results

Comparison to Fully Turbulent SST results = 0.70 a=13° Fully Turbulent Transitional © 2010 ANSYS, Inc.
= 0.70 a=13° Fully Turbulent Transitional
= 0.70
a=13°
Fully Turbulent
Transitional

Comparison of Transitional, Fully Turbulent and Experimental values @ α=13°, 28°, 34°

Turbulent and Experimental values @ α =13°, 28°, 34° Separation © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights
Turbulent and Experimental values @ α =13°, 28°, 34° Separation © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights
Turbulent and Experimental values @ α =13°, 28°, 34° Separation © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights
Turbulent and Experimental values @ α =13°, 28°, 34° Separation © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights
Turbulent and Experimental values @ α =13°, 28°, 34° Separation © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights
Turbulent and Experimental values @ α =13°, 28°, 34° Separation © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights
Separation
Separation

Premature stall @ α=34°

Premature stall @ α =34° Fully Turbulent Transitional © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
Fully Turbulent
Fully Turbulent
Transitional
Transitional
Premature stall @ α =34° Fully Turbulent Transitional © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
Premature stall @ α =34° Fully Turbulent Transitional © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 2

SST g-R q Transition Results Lift Coefficient

SST g - R q Transition Results Lift Coefficient © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
SST g - R q Transition Results Lift Coefficient © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Conclusions

Conclusions and Recommendations • Conclusions – SST g - R q transition model agrees well with

SST g-R q transition model agrees well with experimental data at all grid levels and most α

Laminar separation leads to premature stall prediction at high α

Stall prediction improves with mesh refinement

Transition optimized grid may be required

Future work

Investigate the influence of grid refinement near transition zones

© © 2010 2010 ANSYS, ANSYS, Inc. Inc. All All rights rights reserved. reserved. Robin

©© 20102010 ANSYS,ANSYS, Inc.Inc. AllAll rightsrights reserved.reserved.

Inc. Inc. All All rights rights reserved. reserved. Robin Steed ANSYS Canada Ltd. Waterloo, Ontario Canada
Inc. Inc. All All rights rights reserved. reserved. Robin Steed ANSYS Canada Ltd. Waterloo, Ontario Canada
Inc. Inc. All All rights rights reserved. reserved. Robin Steed ANSYS Canada Ltd. Waterloo, Ontario Canada
Robin Steed ANSYS Canada Ltd. Waterloo, Ontario Canada
Robin Steed
ANSYS Canada Ltd.
Waterloo, Ontario
Canada

2828

ANSYS,ANSYS, Inc.Inc. ProprietaryProprietary