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Technical English for the Building Engineering Students

2nd year, 2nd semester



Task 1 Match the words on the left to their definitions on the right. Pincers surfaces smooth Pliers metal Planer Plane Saw Hacksaw Jigsaw Chainsaw Hammer cutting wood Mallet Chisel a tool that is used to hold or turn things, especially nuts a tool with a circular end that fits over a nut to make it tighter or looser

a tool with a flat bottom with a sharp blade in it used for making wooden a cutting tool with small teeth on its blade used especially for cutting a metal tool with a sharp edge used to cut wood or stone a tool with a heavy metal part used for hitting nails into wood a metal tool with a rough surface used to smooth other surfaces a tool made of two crossed pieces of metal used for holding things tightly a metal tool that fits over a nut a tool made of two crossed pieces of metal used for holding things tightly a tool that has a flat blade with a row of V shaped metal pieces used for

File or to bend or cut wire Screwdriver Adjustable spanner/ Monkey wrench Ring spanner/ box end wrench Spanner/ wrench teeth and driven by a motor

a small tool made of two crossed pieces of metal used to hold small things tool for cutting out shapes in thin pieces of wood a wooden hammer with a large end an electric tool for making wooden surfaces smooth a tool used for cutting wood consisting of a circular chain fitted with

Task 2. Decide on the utility of the following tools? A brace can: a.

b. c. A screwdriver can: a. b.

c. A clamp can: a.

b. c. A milling cutter can: a. b. c. A reamer can: a. b. c. A spirit level can: a. b.

c. A belt sander can: a. b. c. A saw can: a.

b. c. A wood router can: a. b. c.

Abbreviations are common in technical English. Underneath, you have a list of building engineering English abbreviations. Do you recognize them? A/C .. CO..

CFM .. (CC and Rs) GWB. . DWV .. GF C I, or G F I H V A C NEC .. O C.. PRV.. PVC or CPVC STC .. T& G..

A/C air conditioner /air conditioning. CO- "Certificate of Occupancy". This certificate is issued by the local municipality and is required before anyone can occupy and live within the home. It is issued only after the local municipality has made all inspections and all monies and fees have been paid. CFM (cubic feet per minute)- A rating that expresses the amount of air a blower or fan can move. The volume of air (measured in cubic feet) that can pass through an opening in one minute. Conditions, Convenants, and Restrictions (CC and Rs) - The standards that define how a property may be used and the protections the developer makes for the benefit of all owners in a subdivision. Drywall (or Gypsum Wallboard (GWB), Sheet rock or Plasterboard)- Wall board or gypsum- A manufactured panel made out of gypsum plaster and encased in a thin cardboard. Usually 1/2" thick and 4' x 8' or 4' x 12' in size. The panels are nailed or screwed onto the framing and the joints are taped and covered with a 'joint compound'. 'Green board' type drywall has a greater resistance to moisture than regular (white) plasterboard and is used in bathrooms and other "wet areas".

DWV (drain-waste-vent)- The section of a plumbing system that carries water and sewer gases out of a

home. GF C I, or G F I- Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter- an ultra sensitive plug designed to shut off all electric current. Used in bathrooms, kitchens, exterior waterproof outlets, garage outlets, and "wet areas". Has a small reset button on the plug.

H V A C- An abbreviation for Heat, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning NEC (National Electrical Code)- A set of rules governing safe wiring methods. Local codeswhich are backed by lawmay differ from the NEC in some ways. O C- On Center- The measurement of spacing for studs, rafters, and joists in a building from the center of one member to the center of the next.

Pressure Relief Valve (PRV)- A device mounted on a hot water heater or boiler which is designed to release any high steam pressure in the tank to prevent tank explosions. PVC or CPVC - Poly Vinyl Chloride-A type of white or light gray plastic pipe sometimes used for water

supply lines and waste pipe. STC (Sound Transmission Class)- The measure of sound stopping of ordinary noise. T & G, tongue and groove- A joint made by a tongue (a rib on one edge of a board) that fits into a corresponding groove in the edge of another board to make a tight flush joint. Typically, the subfloor plywood is T & G.

Match the following words on the left to their equivalents on the right: 1. Aerator providing access to the attic. a. An opening that is placed in the drywalled ceiling of a home

2. Aggregate wall. 3. Air space coverings. 4. Amortization 5. Anchor bolts

b. Bolts to secure a wooden sill plate to concrete , or masonry floor or c. The area between insulation facing and interior of exterior wall d. Corrugated metal or concrete barrier walls installed around a e. A molding, attached to one of a pair of swinging double doors, f. A payment plan by which a loan is reduced through monthly g. In houses, screened openings provided to ventilate an attic

basement window to hold back the earth against which the other door strikes. 6. Apron payments of principal and interest. 7. Area wells

space. 8. Astragal water and air for a smooth flow.


h. The round screened screw-on tip of a sink spout. It mixes

9. Attic access concrete 10. Attic Ventilators 1. ______ 2. ______ 3. ______ 4. ______

i. A mixture of sand and stone and a major component of j. A trim board that is installed beneath a window sill 5. ______ 6. ______ 7. ______ 8. ______ 9. ______ 10. ______

Aerator- The round screened screw-on tip of a sink spout. It mixes water and air for a smooth flow. Aggregate- A mixture of sand and stone and a major component of concrete. Air space - The area between insulation facing and interior of exterior wall coverings. Amortization - A payment plan by which a loan is reduced through monthly payments of principal and interest. Anchor bolts- Bolts to secure a wooden sill plate to concrete , or masonry floor or wall. Apron- A trim board that is installed beneath a window sill Area wells- Corrugated metal or concrete barrier walls installed around a basement window to hold back the earth Astragal- A molding, attached to one of a pair of swinging double doors, against which the other door strikes. Attic access- An opening that is placed in the drywalled ceiling of a home providing access to the attic.

Attic Ventilators- In houses, screened openings provided to ventilate an attic space.

Read the text fast so that you understand what tool it is about. Re-read the text carefully paying attention to the underlined words and try to guess their meaning.

A Brace or Brace and bit is a hand tool used to drill holes, usually in wood. Pressure is applied to the top and the tool is rotated with a U-shaped grip. The U-shaped part is a kind of crankshaft. The front part of the brace consists of a chuck spindle with v-shaped brackets or clamps inside. Turning the spindle of the chuck in a clockwise direction tightens the drill bit in the chuck and turning in a counterclockwise direction loosens the bit for removal. In most braces, immediately behind the chuck is a three position gear release which allows ratcheting of the handle when in tight spots. Turning the gear release from the center position allows ratcheting the brace in the direction needed. Turning the gear release fully clockwise lets it remove wood in a clockwise direction with the ratchet action going counter-clockwise. Placing the gear release fully counter-clockwise then allows turning the brace and bit in a counter-clockwise direction, usually to remove the drill bit from the hole. The center position of the gear release prohibits the ratcheting effect. The U-shaped crank has a wooden spindle on it and, along with the top spindle, is allowed to freely turn under the hands without producing wear and tear on the hands (thus, no blisters). In the space underneath try and draw a brace. Compare it then to that of your mate.


Fill in the gaps 1 10 by choosing one of the words in the caption: uncoupled bits groove device shaft clockwise locked ratchet head pawl

A screwdriver, invented by Leonardo da Vinci, is a (1) specifically designed to insert and tighten, or to loosen and remove, screws. The screwdriver comprises a (2) or tip which engages with a screw, a mechanism to apply torque by rotating the tip, and some way to position and support the screwdriver. A typical hand screwdriver comprises an approximately cylindrical handle of a size and shape to be held by a human hand, and an axial (3) fixed to the handle, the tip of which is shaped to fit a particular type of screw. The handle and shaft allow the screwdriver to be positioned and supported and, when rotated, to apply torque. Screwdrivers are made in a variety of shapes, and the tip can be rotated manually or by an electric or other motor. A screw has a head with a contour such that an appropriate screwdriver tip can be engaged in it in such a way that the application of sufficient torque to the screwdriver will cause the screw to rotate.

Screwdrivers come in a large variety of sizes to match those of screws, from tiny jeweler's screwdrivers up. It is important to use a screwdriver that is the right size and type for the screw used, or it is likely that the screw will be damaged in the process of tightening it. When tightening a screw with force, it is important to press the head hard into the screw, again to avoid damaging the screw. Some manual screwdrivers have a (4) action whereby the screwdriver blade is locked to the handle for (5) rotation, but (6) for counterclockwise rotation when set for tightening screws; and vice versa for loosening. Many screwdriver designs have a handle with detachable head (the part of the screwdriver which engages with the screw), called (7) , allowing a set of one handle and several heads to be used for a variety of screw sizes and types. This kind of design has allowed the development of electrically powered screwdrivers, which, as the name suggests, use an electric motor to rotate the bit. Some drills can also be fitted with screwdriver heads. Manual screw drivers with a spiral ratchet mechanism to turn pressure (linear motion) into rotational motion also exist, and predate electric screwdrivers. The user pushes the handle toward the workpiece, causing a (8) in a spiral (9) to rotate the shank and the removable bit. The ratchet can be set to rotate left or right with each push, or can be (10) so that the tool can be used like a conventional screwdriver. Read the text fast so that you understand what tool it is about. In the space underneath try and draw a clamp. Compare it then to that of your mate.

A clamp is a fastening device to hold or secure objects tightly together to prevent movement or separation through the application of inward pressure. In the United Kingdom and Australia, the term cramp is often used instead when the tool is for temporary use for positioning components during construction and woodworking.

Match the following words to their definitions Gullet Front Teeth Heel Heel Toe Fleam Back The end closest to the handle heel The end farthest from the handle toe. The side with the teeth (the "bottom edge") front.. Opposite the front ("top edge") back Small sharp points along the cutting side of the saw teeth..

Valley between the points of the teeth gullet The angle of the faces of the teeth relative to a line perpendicular to the face of the saw fleam The angle of the front face of the tooth relative to a line perpendicular to the length of the saw. Teeth designed to cut with the grain (ripping) are generally steeper than teeth designed to cut across the grain (crosscutting) rake. Fleam = lanteta Rake = rascheta Grain fibra, nervure Match the following words to their definitions Types of saw Plywood saw Floorboard saw Japanese saw Veneer saw, Rip saw Two-man saw Hand saw Keyhole saw Crosscut saw

Crosscut saw - for making cuts perpendicular to the grain Rip saw - for cutting along the grain Hand saw saws operated by hand as opposed to power saws Floorboard saw - with curved blade Japanese saw - hand saws that cut on the pull stroke with straight handles Keyhole saw - with narrow pointed blade

Two-man saw - for cutting large logs or trees Plywood saw - fine-toothed blade to reduce tearing of plywood Veneer saw - two edged saw with fine teeth used to cut veneer Fill in the gaps 1 10 by choosing one of the words in the caption: Tooth powered spindle broad-based face blade planes staircase electric plunge

A router is a woodworking tool used to rout out (hollow out) an area in the (1) face of a piece of wood. It was a tool particularly used by pattern makers and (2) staircase makers and consisted of a (3) broad-based wooden hand plane with a narrow (4) blade projecting well beyond its base plate gaining it the nickname Old Woman's (5) tooth . Since about 1960, it has been replaced by the modern (6) spindle router, which was designed for the same work, although the first (7) electric hand routers appeared in the years just after World War I. Further refinement produced the (8) plunge router, invented by Elu in Germany in the late 1940s. This is even better adapted for many types of work. Today, traditional hand- (9) powered routers are often called router planes. Modern routers are often used in place of traditional moulding (10) planes or spindle moulder machines for edge decoration (moulding) of timber.

CHIMNEYS Fill in the gaps 1 10 by choosing one of the words in the caption:

Tubes scrape off

to draw


tile venting





Romans used (1) tubes inside the walls to (2) draw smoke out of bakeries but real chimneys appeared only in northern Europe in the 13th century. Industrial chimneys became common in the late 18th century. Chimneys have traditionally been built of (3) brick.. , both in small and large buildings. Early chimneys were of a simple brick construction. Later chimneys were constructed by placing the bricks around (4) tile liners. To control downdrafts (5) venting caps (often called chimney pots) with a variety of designs are sometimes placed on the top of chimneys. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the methods use to extract (6) lead from its (7) ore.. produced large amounts of highly toxic fumes. In the north of England, long near-horizontal chimneys were built, often more than 3 km (2 miles) long, which typically terminated in a short vertical chimney in a remote location where the (8) fumes would cause less (9) harm . Lead and silver deposits formed on the inside of these long chimneys, and periodically workers would be sent along the chimneys to (10) scrape off these valuable deposits. Ore = minereu

Read the text below referring to chimneys construction and try to guess in the context of the text the meaning of the underlined words Construction Due to brick's limited ability to handle transverse loads, chimneys in houses were often built in a "stack", with a fireplace on each floor of the house sharing a single chimney, often with such a stack at the front and back of the house. Today's central heating systems have made chimney placement less critical, and the use of non-structural double-wall metal piping allows it to be bent around obstructions and through walls. In fact, modern high-efficiency furnaces do not require a chimney and can vent sideways through a wall. Industrial chimneys were typically external structures, as opposed to being built into the wall of a building. Most often they were located near a central boiler, and the gases carried to it with external ductwork. Today the use of single-pour concrete has almost entirely replaced brick in this role. They can be quite tall. The height is to ensure the pollutants are dispersed over a wider area to meet legislative or safety requirements. Stack = stiva, ridicatura Drawbacks A characteristic problem of chimneys is they develop deposits of creosote on the walls of the structure when used with wood as a fuel. Some types of wood, such as pine, generate more creosote than others. Deposits of this substance can interfere with the airflow and more importantly, they are flammable and can cause dangerous chimney fires if the deposits ignite in the chimney. Thus, it is recommendedand in some


countries even mandatorythat chimneys be inspected annually and cleaned on a regular basis to prevent these problems. The workers who perform this task professionally are called chimney sweeps. Fill in the gaps 1 10 by choosing one of the words in the caption : pressurized sealed Water pipes are tubes, frequently made of polyvinyl chloride or copper, that carry (1) pressurised.. fresh water to buildings (as part of a municipal water system), as well as through the building. An original Roman lead pipe with a folded (2) seam , at the Roman Baths in Bath, UK. For many centuries, (3) lead was the favored material for water pipes, due to its (4) malleability (this use was so common that the word (5) plumbing derives from the Latin word for lead). This was a source of lead related (6) health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were fully understood; among these were stillbirth and high rates of (7) infant mortality. Lead water pipes were still in common use in the early 20th century and remain in many households. Wooden pipes were used during the colonial era in Boston. The pipes were hollowed out (8) logs . These logs were (9) tapered at the end with a small hole in which the water would pass through. The multiple pipes were then (10) sealed together with hot animal fat.





logs tapered

plumbing infant mortality

Taper = a se termina intr-un varf ascutit Read the following fragment which presents the three means of pipe obtainance. As you read, pay attention to the words underlined and try to guess their meaning. There are three processes for metallic pipe manufacture. Seamless pipe is formed by drawing a solid billet over a piercing rod to create the hollow shell. Seamless pipe provides the most reliable pressure retaining characteristics, and is often more easily available than welded pipe. Welded pipe is formed by rolling plate and welding the seam. The weld flash is removed from the outside and inside surfaces and the weld zone is heat treated, so the seam is generally not visible. Welded pipe often has tighter dimensional tolerances than seamless, and can be cheaper if manufactured in the same quantities. Cast pipe is no longer very common, but still exists. Pipe is sometimes cast in a centrifuge. Plastic pipe is generally extruded. Vocabulary activity A pipe in the kitchen and flooded the floor. a. had cracked b. had exploded c. had burst d. had broken Workmen pipes under the floor. a. were placingb. were putting The pipe is again. a. blocked b. stuck c. obliterated d. filled

c. were lying

d. were laying

the copper pipe can be

a. welded

b. glued

c. linked

d. soldered

Task 16. Read carefully the next fragment and try to understand the structural elements of a plumbing drainage venting system. At the end of your reading you are asked to represent graphically what you understood from this fragment. A plumbing drainage venting system is the component of a drainage system that maintains neutral pressure in the pipework, allowing flow of water down drains and through waste pipes. Venting also removes foul or combustive air from the system, usually through vents located above a building's roof. The abbrieviation "DWV" (drain-waste-vent) refers to the piping of a building's complete drainage system. Venting is important to prevent pressure differentials (trapped pressure or suction) in the system, which could compromise water seals in the piping. A sewer pipe is normally at neutral air pressure (equal to the surrounding atmospheric pressure). That is, the pipe is not pressurized or producing suction. When a column of waste water flows through a pipe, it compresses air in the pipe, creating a positive pressure that must be released or push back on the waste stream. As the column of water passes, air must flow in behind the waste stream or negative pressure (suction) results. The extent of these pressure fluctuations is determined by the fluid volume of the waste discharge. Excessive negative air pressure can syphon water from trap seals at sanitary appliances (such as the p-trap under a sink). Generally, a toilet outlet has the smallest trap seal, making it most vulnerable to being emptied by induced siphonage. An empty trap can allow noxious sewer gasses to enter a home.

On the other hand, if the air pressure becomes suddenly higher than ambient, this positive transient could cause wastewater to spray into the room, with dire hygiene and health consequences. Tall buildings are particularly susceptible to this problem. CRANES Types of cranes Dragging crane = macara cu cleste Magnet crane = macara cu electromagnet Rotary crane = macara pivotanta Rotary-tower crane = macara turn rotitoare Overhead crane = pod rulant Additional crane vocabulary Crane chain Crane driver Crane load Crane rail Vocabulary enrichment Match the words of the left to their translation o the right Drift sablare

Vice Socket Non-ferrous Saw blade File Refuse Governing Sand-blast cleaning Cuttings Vocabulary enrichment

mufa rebut pila mandrina neferos panza de fierastrau menghina strujire reglare

Match the words of the left to their translation o the right Gear Jacket Asbestos Ballast Teststand Barb Reinforced concrete Coil Groove excavator bobina bavura armatura concasor angrenaj lucru mecanic banc de probe gudron

Crusher Dredger Tar Locksmith Shovel Work

azbest balast beton armat lopata lacatus canelura

Read the text fast so that you understand what tool it is about. Re-read the text carefully paying attention to the distinction between the three types of end mills by pointing out what you think to be an advantage or a disadvantage. End mills are generally cutting tools with two or more flutes. They are the most common tool used in a vertical mill. Two flute end mills can be used for plunge cutting. They are also called center cutting because they can start their own hole. Three flute end mills are a good choice for slotting and provide an acceptable surface finish. Two teeth are in the cut most of the time, reducing chatter. Four flute end mills only cut on their periphery and can plunge cut when a starting hole is pre-drilled or if instead of simply drilling down into the workpiece, perform a three-axis helical motion. They are generally stronger than a two or three flute end mill, therefore allowing for increased feed rates.

Roughing end mills are used to quickly remove large amounts of material. This kind of end mill utilizes a wavy tooth form cut on the periphery. These wavy teeth form many successive cutting edges producing many small chips, resulting in a relatively smooth surface finish. During cutting, multiple teeth are in contact with the workpiece reducing chatter and vibration. Early end mills and most large end mills have a recessed center at each end of the cutter to facilitate resharpening, this results in the full cutting edge being unavailable.

Think of materials which cannot undergo the traditional process of welding.

Think of materials which can undergo the process of casting.


What materials can be extruded?


Read carefully the next fragment and try to understand the structural elements of the insulation system. At the end of your reading you are asked to represent graphically what you understood from this fragment. Insulation and other improvements In general, the more tank insulation the better, since it reduces standby heat loss. It may be possible to add an extra insulating blanket or jacket on the outside of a poorly insulated tank to reduce heat loss. The most common type of water heater blanket is fiberglass insulation with a vinyl film on the outside. The insulation is wrapped around the tank and the ends are taped together. It is important that the blanket be the right size for the tank and not block air flow or cover safety and drainage valves, the controls, or block airflow through the exhaust vent, if any. In very humid locations, adding insulation to an already well-insulated tank may cause condensation problems, potentially causing rust, mold, or operational problems. Other improvements include check valve devices at their inlet and outlet, cycle timers, electronic ignition in the case of fuel-using models, sealed air intake systems in the case of fuel-using models, and pipe insulation. The sealed air-intake system types are sometimes called "band-joist" intake units. "High efficiency" condensing units can convert up to 98% of the energy in the fuel to heating the water. The exhaust gases of combustion are cooled and are mechanically ventilated either through the roof or through an exterior wall. At high combustion efficiencies a drain must be supplied to handle the water condensed out of the combustion products which are primarily carbon dioxide and water vapor. In traditional plumbing in the United Kingdom the space-heating boiler is set up to heat a separate hot water cylinder or hot water tank for potable hot water. Such tanks are often fitted with an auxiliary electrical


immersion heater for a quick temperature boost. Heat from the space-heating boiler is transferred to the potable water tank by means of a heat exchanger, and the boiler operates at a higher temperature than the potable hot water supply. Fill in the gaps 1 10 by choosing one of the words in the caption: wetback heater incidental hot to limit to assist stringent safety cutout release abnormal A wetback stove or (1) is the name for a simple household secondary water-heater using (2) heat. It typically consists of a (3) .. water pipe running behind a fireplace or stove (rather than hot water storage), and has no facility (4) the heating. Modern wetbacks may run the pipe in a more sophisticated design (5) .. heat-exchange. Indian water heaters have to undergo (6) .. norms for safety. The thermostat is the first level (7) .. device. Next come the thermal (8) .. , fusible plug, Pressure- cum- Vacuum (9) . valve, anti- sipho hole make them safe against the (10) .. conditions of usage. Cranes Read the following text which refers to the tower crane. As you read, try to fill in the missing words horizontally booms lattice lower manufacturing hoists lifting sheaves


A crane is a mechanical (1) .. device equipped with (2) .., wire ropes and (3) .. that can be used both to lift and (4) .. materials and to move them ... Cranes are commonly employed in the construction industry and in (5) .. heavy equipment. Construction cranes have either telescoping, (6) .. or articulating (7) .. . Read the following text which refers to the ancient Roman cranes a. As you read, guess in the context the meaing of the underlined words. b. What is the difference between a winch ad a threadwheel and why the replacement of the first by the latter enhaces productivity ? c. What is the difference between threadwheel and capstans ? d. Can you imagie how the Roman crane would look like ? read carefully and try to draw one. The simplest Roman crane, the Trispastos, consisted of a single-beam jib, a winch, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. Having thus a mechanical advantage of 3:1, it has been calculated that a single man working the winch could raise 150 kg (3 pulleys x 50 kg = 150), assuming that 50 kg represent the maximum effort a man can exert over a longer time period. Heavier crane types featured five pulleys (Pentaspastos) or, in case of the largest one, a set of three by five pulleys (Polyspastos) and came with two, three or four masts, depending on the maximum load. The Polyspastos, when worked by four men at both sides of the winch, could already lift 3000 kg (3 ropes x 5 pulleys x 4 men x 50 kg = 3000 kg). In case the


winch was replaced by a treadwheel, the maximum load even doubled to 6000 kg at only half the crew, since the treadwheel possesses a much bigger mechanical advantage due to its larger diameter. It is assumed that Roman engineers accomplished lifting these extraordinary weights by two measures: First, a lifting tower was set up, whose four masts were arranged in the shape of a quadrangle with parallel sides, not unlike a siege tower, but with the column in the middle of the structure. Second, a multitude of capstans were placed on the ground around the tower, for, although having a lower leverage ratio than treadwheels, capstans could be set up in higher numbers and run by more men. a. Have you read anything on medieval cranes or have you seen any documentary? If yes, what information did you find most interesting? Can you detail upon it? b. If not, read the following text that refers to medieval cranes and their functioning. c. As you read try to understand the functioning principles of the medieval crane and discover what elements differentiate it from the modern crane. Medieval cranes The medieval treadwheel was a large wooden wheel turning around a central shaft with a treadway wide enough for two workers walking side by side. While the earlier 'compass-arm' wheel had spokes directly driven into the central shaft, the more advanced 'clasp-arm' type featured arms arranged as chords to the wheel rim, giving the possibility of using a thinner shaft and providing thus a greater mechanical advantage. Mechanics and operation


In contrast to modern cranes, medieval cranes and hoists were primarily capable of a vertical lift, and not used to move loads for a considerable distance horizontally as well. Accordingly, lifting work was organized at the workplace in a different way than today. In building construction, for example, it is assumed that either the crane lifted the stone blocks from the bottom directly into place, or from a place opposite the centre of the wall from where it could deliver the blocks for two teams working at each end of the wall. Additionally, the crane master who usually gave orders at the treadwheel workers from outside the crane was able to manipulate the movement laterally by a small rope attached to the load. It is noteworthy that medieval cranes rarely featured ratchets or brakes to forestall the load from running backward. This curious absence is explained by the high friction force exercised by medieval treadwheels which normally prevented the wheel from accelerating beyond control.

Match the words on the left to their definition on the right. Truss gear Boom Hinge engine Hook a frame supporting a roof or bridge bunch of ropes, cables after being cut together the force or power that makes smth turn around a central point, especially in an the pedal that you press with your foot when driving a vehicle in order to change


Sheaves Clutches Torque Flatcar

a railway carriage without a roof or sides used for carrying goods a curved piece of metal that one uses for hanging things a long pole used as part of a piece of equipment that loads or unloads things a metal part used to fasten a door to its frame, a lid to a box.

. Read the following two texts which refer to two types of cranes ; tower crane and loader crane. a. write in the spaces below all the important components of the two cranes. b. Compare the two types of cranes in terms of components and of utility. Tower crane The tower crane is a modern form of balance crane. Fixed to the ground, tower cranes often give the best combination of height and lifting capacity and are used in the construction of tall buildings. To save space and to provide stability the vertical part of the crane is often braced onto the completed structure which is normally the concrete lift shaft in the center of the building. A horizontal boom is balanced asymmetrically across the top of the tower. Its short arm carries a counterweight of concrete blocks, and its long arm carries the lifting gear. The crane operator either sits in a cabin at the top of the tower or controls the crane by radio remote control from the ground, usually standing near the load. In the first case the operator's cabin is located at the top of the tower just below the horizontal boom. The boom is mounted on a slewing bearing and is rotated by means of a slewing motor. The lifting hook is operated by a system of sheaves. A "jack up" mast supporting a tower crane. The inner element is moved upward with jacks and a new outer section is assembed around the exposed portion. A tower crane is usually assembled by a telescopic crane


of smaller lifting capacity but greater height and in the case of tower cranes that have risen while constructing very tall skyscrapers, a smaller crane will sometimes be lifted to the roof of the completed tower to dismantle the tower crane afterward. A self-assembling tower crane has been demonstrated, which lifts itself off the ground using jacks, allowing the next section of the tower to be inserted at ground level. Loader crane A loader crane offloading aerated concrete bricks at a building siteAlmost invariably called a "Hiab" by its operators, this is a hydraulically-powered articulated arm fitted to a trailer, used to move goods onto or off of the trailer. Unlike most cranes the operator must move around to be able to view his load; hence he will have a portable cabled or radio linked control system. The numerous jointed sections can be folded into a small space when the crane is not in use. One or more of the sections may be telescopic. Often the crane will have a degree of automation and be able to unload or stow itself without an operator's instruction. Pick out the odd word. What common feature could you point out for the remaining three words ? Factory Wedge Torch Network To crush Defect wire defeat plant nail axe engine screw saw screen shortcoming grid to grind flaw

mill wheel chisel

to pound to stir

Spade Chart Protactor Tools and skills


weed column graph

rake table drawing-pins

compases t-square

A draftsman uses a slide-rule for mathematical calculations A pair of compasses is used for drawing circles or measuring distances on a map or chart Right angles are drawn with a T-square A chart or graph is a diagram showing variations in temperature A table contains facts usually listed in columns A set-square is used for drawing angles of 90, 60, 30. A protractor is an instrument for measuring angles A sheet of paper can be fastened to the drawing board with drawing-pins Sheets of paper can be fastened together with clips A square is used for drawing or testing angles Rail transport Read the following text which refers to rail transport and as you read it try to fill in the following missing words. Pay attention to the component parts of rails.


carriages sleepers foundation


buckling track



wheeled Rail transport is the transport of passengers and goods by means of (1) .. vehicles especially designed to run along railways (sometimes known as railroads). A typical railway/railroad (2) .. consists of two parallel steel (or in older networks, iron) rails, generally anchored perpendicular to beams, termed (3) .. or ties, of timber, concrete, or steel to maintain a consistent distance apart, or (4) .. . The rails and perpendicular beams are usually then placed on a (5) .. made of concrete or compressed earth and gravel in a bed of ballast to prevent the track from (6) .. (bending out of its original configuration) as the ground settles over time beneath and under the weight of the vehicles passing above. The vehicles travelling on the rails are arranged in a train; a series of individual powered or (7) .. vehicles linked together, displaying markers. These vehicles (referred to, in general, as cars, (8) .. or wagons) move with much less (9) .. than do vehicles riding on rubber tires on a paved road, and the locomotive that (10) .. energy far more efficiently as a result. After reading the text, identify the component parts of the railway the base of the railway .. two parallel steel bars .. the transversal wood or cement strengtheners .. the train tends to use


Read the following text which refers to rail transport and as you read it try to fill in the following missing words. Pay attention to the efficiency of the rail transport in comparison to the road transport. amount wear frontal smooth per axle freight distribute double-track bogies wagon

Rail transport is an energy-efficient and capital-intensive means of mechanized land transport. Rails provide very (1) .. and hard surfaces on which the wheels of the train may roll with a minimum of friction. As an example, a typical (2) .. can hold up to 125 tons of (3) .. on two four-wheel (4) .. /trucks. Fully loaded, the contact between each wheel and the rail is the area of about one U.S. ten-cent piece. This can save energy compared with other forms of transportation, such as road transport which depends on rubber tires on pavement. Trains also have a small (5) .. area in relation to the load they are carrying, which cuts down on air resistance and thus energy usage. In all, under the right circumstances, a train needs 50-70% less energy to transport a given tonnage of freight (or given number of passengers), than does road transport. Furthermore, the rails and sleepers/ties (6) .. the weight of the train evenly, allowing significantly greater loads (7) .. / wheel than in road transport, leading to less (8) .. and tear on the permanent way.Rail transport makes highly efficient use of space: a (9) .. rail line can carry more passengers or freight in a given (10) .. of time than a four-lane road. Match the words on the left to their definitions on the right. All the words belong to the domain of railways. Gauge a wheeled vehicle, a railway passenger coach


Rail Sleeper

the parallel rails of a railroad goods to be shipped

Carriage a piece of timber, stone, or steel on or near the ground to support a superstructure, keep railroad rails in place, or receive floor joists Bogie Wear and tear Freight Lane Axle Track automotive truck Topics for discussion Whats your opinion on the efficiency of the railway transport in comparison to the road transport? What is the Romanian situation? What do you think of it? What were the causes that influenced road transport to be more prominent than rail transport? Whats your opinion on the current state of the Romanian railroads? Carriages? Have you considering working in this field? Answer the following questions a bar of rolled steel forming a track for wheeled vehicles a relatively narrow way or track a pin or shaft on or with which a wheel or pair of wheels revolves the distance between the rails of a railroad the loss, injury, or stress to which something is subjected by the driving-wheel assembly consisting of the rear four wheels of a 6-wheel


What is the roadbed? How is the roadbed formed? What materials are used in the building of roadbeds? Read the following text and see whether your assumptions referring to roadbeds were right. Discuss any new piece of information in the text Railways are always built to stand above surrounding terrain to prevent track flooding, erosion of the bed and decay of the sleepers/ties. In hilly and mountainous terrain, to avoid large slopes, the railway is at some places elevated, on an embankment, or bridge or viaduct, and at some places in a cutting (ditch or trench) or tunnel. The same are also used for non-level crossings. In the case of many crossings, such as in a city, a longer stretch may be elevated or underground. Any poor quality soil such as peat or mud is excavated to firm soil and the excavation filled in with appropriate material, usually stone rubble from cuts or alluvial gravels. Minor watercourses are led through pipes (culverts) before the grade is raised A bed of stone chips ("ballast") is laid over firm soil in order to ensure drainage around the ties and to distribute local pressure over a wider area. Unlike rounded river rock and gravel, crushed stone will interlock to form a stable base. This crushed stone is firmly tamped to prevent further settling and to lock the stones. Study questions What are the technical solutions for plain areas? What about the mountains?


What is the role of ballast? What do you think that the word trackage might mean? What about ties, plates or spikes? Read the following text which is the answer to the previous questions? Read carefully and try to understand what trackage is about. 1. Trackage, consisting of sleepers/ties and rails, may be prefabricated or assembled in place. Rails may be composed of segments welded or bolted, and may be of a length comparable to that of a railcar or two or may be many hundreds of feet long. 2. The base of the trackage consists of treated wood or concrete "ties", also known as "sleepers". These ensure the proper distance between the rails (known as "gauge") and anchor the rail structure to the roadbed. 3. Plates that receive the rails are fitted atop the ties. 4. After placement of the rail atop the plate, spikes are driven through holes into the plate, entering the tie, where they are held by friction. The top of the spike has a head that clamps the rail. Alternatively, through bolts may be used to retain clamps, preferred since these do not tend to loosen with age. Answer the following questions: Is maintainance necessary with railways? What are the components that need it most? What would be the measures that they may take?

Spikes in wooden ties can loosen over time. Split and rotten ties may be individually replaced. Should the rails settle owing to soil subsidence they may be lifted by specialized machinery and additional ballast tamped down to form a new elevation. Periodically, ballast must be removed and replaced with clean ballast to ensure drainage if wooden ties are used. Culverts and other passages for water must be kept clear lest an impoundment be created by the roadbed. Where roadbeds are placed along rivers, additional protection is usually placed to prevent erosion during times of high water. Bridges are another important item requiring inspection and maintenance. Did you know that In the United Kingdom and most other Commonwealth of Nations countries, the term railway is used in preference to the United States term, railroad. In Canadian speech, railway and railroad are interchangeable, although in law railway is the usual term. Railroad was used in the United Kingdom concurrently with railway until the 1850s when railway became the established term. Several American companies have railway in their names instead of railroad, the BNSF Railway being the pre-eminent modern example. In the United Kingdom, the term railway often refers to the whole organization of tracks, trains, stations, signalling, timetables and the operating companies that collectively make up a coordinated railway system, while permanent way or p/way refers to the tracks alone; however this terminology is generally not commonplace outside of the railway industry or those who take a keen interest in it.


ROADS Activity 1. Match the words on the left to their definition on the right 1. Aggregate 2. Asphalt 3. Binder 4. Bitumen 5. Bulk Density 6. Carriageway 7. Compaction 8. Cracks 9. Macadam 10. Pavement 11. Pavement Distress 12. Paver 13. Rehabilitation 14. Roller a. An item of equipment used for compacting pavement material. Types include pneumatic (multi), static, steel or vibrating. b. The process of restoring a distressed pavement, e.g.. overlay, patching. c. Refers to a pavement type generally consisting of large single size aggregate with a surface layer of smaller material with or without binder to lock the surface together. Can be either a bitumen based or water based Macadam Pavement. d. A machine used to spread asphalt (or crushed rock) to uniform thickness and a level surface. e. The portion of the road, excluding shoulders, placed above the design sub-grade level for the support of, and to form a running surface for vehicular traffic. f. The deterioration of the pavement evidenced by visible surface defects. g. Can refer to the density of the aggregate or the density of compacted asphalt. Typically Asphalt is 2.3 to 2.5 t/m. h. A mixture of bitumen and aggregates (coarse and fine including sand). Produced as Hot Mix or Cold Mix. Referred to as BC (Bituminous Concrete) or AC (Asphaltic Concrete). i. A granular material either natural or processed from deposits of sand, gravel, rock etc j. A product of the oil refinery process. Bitumen is usually stored at approximately 150C to maintain it in a liquid form k. A material used to bind aggregates. Usually bitumen and bitumen blends. l. A process of increasing the density of the asphalt by rolling or using other vibrating compactors. m. The portion of road used by vehicles. Includes the shoulders and auxiliary lanes. n. Break in the surface of the pavement. There are a number of factors that can cause cracking.

Activity 2. Read the following fragment which defines a road. First read without minding the gaps. Then, re-read trying to fill in the gaps with the following words







smoothed (1) .. , paved, or otherwise prepared to

A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. Roads are typically

(2) .. easy travel; though they need not be, and historically many roads were simply (3) .. routes without any formal construction or (4) .. . In urban areas roads may pass (5) .. and be named as streets, serving a dual (6) .. as urban space and route. Activity 3. Pre-reading discussion questions 1. Are you aware of any previous actions to the actual building of the road? 2. If yes, which? 3. How many layers are necessary in the building of a road? 4. What materials are the layers from? Activity 4. Read the following fragments which detail upon rebuilding measures, number of layers, and other technicalities. Pay attention to the underlined words ad try to understand their meaning.


Firstly the longitudinal and vertical alignment of the road is set out by a surveyor. The alignment of the road will be marked with control pegs. The pegs will have level markings as a control mechanism to ensure the road is constructed to the appropriate design levels. Construction of the road commences with the stripping of the topsoil, within the road reserve. The topsoil is usually stockpiled nearby for rehabilitation of newly constructed embankments along the road. The in-situ ground will be removed, using a heavy motorised grader to a level specified by the civil engineer. This is considered as the road-bed level. It will be compacted using a heavy vibratory road roller. Once the road-bed has been compacted to the required density, the pavement layers can now be imported. The first layer to be imported is the selected sub-grade. This is usually a gravel type material. Once placed the material is levelled off by a grader. It will be compacted to a required density, using a road roller. The next layer to be imported is the sub-base. The sub-base material is of a higher quality than the selected sub-grade. It is usually a gravel type material, with a high California Bearing Ratio (CBR). While the material is worked by a grader, it is mixed with water to aid compaction. Once the sub-base layer has been compacted to its required density, the importation of the final layer can commence. The final layer of a road is the base course consisting of gravel or crushed stone. The base course will be leveled of and compacted. Sometimes Portland cement will be added to it, to ensure adequate strength of this layer. On top of the base course is placed a surface course which typically consists of asphalt concrete or a seal considering of a mixture similar sized small stones, bitumen and Portland cement. This surface course strengthens the pavement structure by spreading out the vehicle loads applied to the subgrade. It also provides a smooth and high-friction surface for vehicles to drive on. Activity 5. Shortly, these are the stages of road building. What steps do you think necessary for each stage? 1. The longitudinal and vertical alignment 2. The stripping of the topsoil


The first layer is the selected sub-grade. This is usually a gravel type material. The next layer is the sub-base. It is usually a gravel type material 3. The final layer is the base course consisting of gravel or crushed stone. Activity 6. Match the words on the left to their definition on the right a. pegs b. embankments c. grader d. roller 1. a machine, either self-powered or towed by a tractor, that levels earth, rubble, etc., as in road construction 2. a hardened cylinder of precision-ground steel that forms one of the rolling components of a roller bearing or of a linked driving chain 3. a small cylindrical pin or dowel, sometimes slightly tapered, used to join two parts together 4. a slope of earth, stone that rises from either side of a road

Activity 7. Vocabulary enrichment


Match the words of the left to their translation o the right Drift Vice Socket Non-ferrous Saw blade File Refuse Governing Sand-blast cleaning Cuttings sablare mufa rebut pila mandrina neferos panza de fierastrau menghina strujire reglare

Plumbing Warm-up activity What are the fixtures? Can you name a few fixtures? .. Read the following text which presents different types of fixtures. Pay attention since there are some gaps in the text that you have to fill in.




makers end-users






Plumbing fixtures are the (1) .. installed for the (2) ... Some examples of fixtures include water (3) .. (toilets), urinals, bidets, showers, bathtubs, lavatories, utility and kitchen (4) .., drinking (5) .., ice (6) .., humidifiers, air (7) .., fountains, eyewashes, floor (8) .., garbage (9) .., and hosebibbs. What do you think is the usual plumbing equipment that plumbers make use of? This exercise introduces a few notions of the multitude of plumbing equipment existent, but I order top do this you have to match the words on the left to their definitions on the right. water meters a porous substance, such as paper or sand, that allows fluid to pass but retains suspended solid particles used to clean fluids or collect solid particles pumps any substance that lessens the hardness of water, usually by precipitating or absorbing calcium and magnesium ions or a tank, apparatus, or chemical plant that is used to filter or treat water to remove chemicals that cause hardness

expansion tanks

a device for measuring the quantity or rate of water flowing through a pipe

backflow preventers

any device for compressing, driving, raising, or reducing the pressure of a fluid, esp. by means of a piston or set of rotating impellers


devices which stop a continuous stream or discharge from returning

water softeners water heaters

any device for supplying heat, convector. a standard measurement, dimension, capacity, or quantity, any of various instruments for measuring a quantity: a pressure gauge any of various devices used to check for conformity with a standard measurement

Gauges gases

a large container or reservoir for the storage of liquids or


What are the major plumbing systems, in other words, what are the domains when plumbing is necessary? .. .. .. ..


Here are the major plumbing systems 1. Potable cold and hot water supply
2. 3. 4. 5.

Traps, drains, and vents Septic systems Rainwater, surface, and subsurface water drainage Fuel gas piping

Here is an enumeration of the most common fixtures water closets (WC) (known as toilets in the USA, loos, flush toilets or lavatories in Britain) urinals lavatories (also called bathroom sinks) kitchen sinks utility sinks bathtubs showers bidets drinking fountains Hose bibbs (connections for water hoses) Terminal valves for dishwashers ice makers humidifiers

Do you know what tapware means? Do you think it is related to taps? Here is the answer to the previous question. Try and find the meaning of the underlined words. Tapware is an industry term for that sub-category of plumbing fixtures consisting of water taps (British English) or faucets (American English) and their accessories such as water spouts and shower heads. Read the following text which describes a bathtub drain. Each of these plumbing fixtures has one or more water inlets and a drain. In some cases, the drain has a device that can be manipulated to block the drain to fill the basin of the fixture. Each fixture also has a flood rim, or level at which water will begin to overflow. Most fixtures also have an overflow, which is a conduit for water to drain away, when the regular drain is plugged, before the water actually overflows at the flood rim level. However, water closets and showers usually lack this feature because their drains normally cannot be stopped. Each fixture usually has a characteristic means of connection. Normal plumbing practice is to install a valve on each water supply line before the fixture, and this is most commonly termed a stop or "service valve". The water supply to some fixtures is cold water only. Most fixtures also have a hot water supply. In some occasional cases, a sink may have both a potable (drinkable) and a nonpotable water supply.

Lavatories and water closets normally connect to the water supply by means of a supply, which is a tube, which connects the water supply to the fixture, sometimes through a flexible hose. For water closets, this tube usually ends in a flat neoprene washer that tightens against the connection, while for lavatories, the supply usually ends in a conical neoprene washer. Kitchen sinks, tubs and showers usually have supply tubes built onto their valves which then are soldered or 'fast jointed directly onto the water supply pipes. Study questions 1. What is a trap ? 2. Whats the function of a trap ?

All plumbing fixtures have traps in their drains; these traps are either internal or external to the fixtures. Traps are pipes which curve down then back up; they 'trap' a small amount of water to create a water seal between the ambient air space and the inside of the drain system. This prevents sewer gas from entering buildings. Most water closets, bidets, and many urinals have the trap integral with the fixture itself. The visible water surface in a toilet is the top of the trap's water seal. Each fixture drain, with exceptions, must be vented so that negative air pressure in the drain cannot siphon the trap dry, to prevent positive air pressure in the sewer from forcing gases past the water seal, and to prevent explosive sewer gas buildup.

BRIDGES Vocabulary for bridges. These words are common in bridge building. Match the words to their definitions on the right and try to learn the words. Strut tie truss beam pier deck bridge or arch to buckle damper strand girder system caisson etc a large beam, esp. one made of steel, used in the construction of bridges, buildings, a pillar that bears heavy loads, esp. one of rectangular cross section a watertight chamber open at the bottom and containing air under pressure, used to a structural member used mainly in compression, esp. as part of a framework a device to reduce electronic, mechanical, acoustic, or aerodynamic oscillations in a a structural framework of wood or metal, esp. one arranged in triangles, used to a set of or one of the individual fibres or threads of string, wire, etc., that form a to bend or cause to bend out of shape, esp. as a result of pressure or heat to sink or cause to sink in parts, as under weight or pressure: a long thick straight-sided piece of wood, metal, concrete, etc., esp. one used as a the interval, space, or distance between two points, such as the ends of a support a roof, bridge rope, cable, etc

horizontal structural member

carry out construction work under water

span sag

a horizontal platform a structural member such as a tie beam or tie rod

Pre-reading task. Read the following questions and try to answer them 1. Are you familiar with such terms as struts and ties? If yes, what do they mean ? 2. Are you aware of any difference in use and material between the two? 3. How can you explain that a strut is thicker than a tie? 4. Whats the name of the force that manifests upside downside ? 5. What about the one that manifests laterally? Reading task. Read carefully the following fragment which explains what struts and ties are, what is/are the difference(s) between them and their appropriate joints. The strut is always in compression, while the tie is always in tension. Ties pull the things at each end, while struts push. In trussed structures, there may be some parts in which the forces may change polarity as a result of moving loads or changes in the direction of the wind. Why is the strut thicker than the tie? The reason is that there is not an exact symmetry between the parts. If you pull a tie which is slightly curved, it will tend to straighten: if you push a strut, it may tend to become more curved. The tie is intrinsically stable, even if it is a thin cable: the strut is not, unless it is made sufficiently stiff. Connecting struts, ties and other components is a matter of great importance, because the joints must not produce stress concentrations that cannot be sustained, remembering that we must

consider not only static forces, but varying, or even alternating ones, raising the possibility of fatigue. This is especially important for struts, because any error in assembly that diverts the forces, even slightly, from the intended position, is likely to increase the risk of buckling. In the case of ties, the attachments can be much bigger than the member itself. Read the following text which defines cables trying to fill in the gaps with the following words. Pay attention because three words are not to be used. Assembly suspension cable-stayed main buckling weight flexible tie dampers curved strands attachment rigidity

A cable is a (1) .. that is (2) .. , and it is usually long, though it may be divided into segments by the (3) .. of other parts. A (4) .. cable is very often so heavy that it is (5) ... The cables of (6) ... bridges may look straight, but they are always slightly curved by their (7) ... . Long (8) ... cables are often built up on site from numerous thin (9) ... , which are then bound and sealed. Long cables may require (10) ... or subsidiary cables to reduce oscillations. Pre-reading task 1. What are the beams ? 2. What is the function of the beams ? 3. What is/are the forces to which beams are exposed ?

Reading task. Read carefully the following fragment which explains what beams are. Beams are usually neither struts nor ties: their action is to rest on two or more supports, providing enough rigidity to remain reasonably straight. All beams experience compression and tension simultaneously. In a European house, a beam is usually a baulk of wood with rectangular cross section, though concrete is sometimes used. Small wooden footbridges often use simple beams, sometimes given depth by laminating numerous beams together. Very large beams may be constructed as trusses or box girders, again, to achieve lightness and make maximal use of the material. Pre-reading task 1. What are the piers ? 2. What is their function ? 3 What material(s) are they made of ? 4. Can they be cast underwater ? Reading task. Read the following fragment which explains what piers are, what their function is, what materials they are made of and finally if they ca be cast underwater. They are often founded under water or deep underground, so that we never see the complete structure. A great many bridges would look very strange if we could see them without the water in

which they sit. Piers are not always the most obviously attractive or interesting parts of a bridge, yet their construction can present the most difficult problems and the greatest dangers in bridge building. Deep water requires caissons: the greater the depth, the higher the pressure. Until caisson sickness ("the bends") was understood, there were many deaths and injuries. The nature of the ground is crucial. The shape of piers is particularly important when powerful water currents can occur. Are piers, then, simply a means of holding up a bridge? No, not at all. Although many bridges do comprise a beam or two resting on some piers, the supports of a span can play a much more subtle role. An obvious improvement for a bridge of one beam and two piers, is to connect the three parts rigidly to form a bent or frame. No mathematics is needed to see that the sag of the beam will be reduced, or maintained at the same value with less material. Pre-reading task 1. What do you think that a deck represents in the structure of a bridge ? 2. Taking into consideration its position, does it have an important role ? 3. What problems do you think that may arise when lying down the deck ? Reading task. Read carefully the following fragment which explains what decks are. We have not mentioned the one part of a bridge that you are certain to notice when crossing, whatever the type of bridge. That part is the deck. This may not seem very interesting, but aside from the necessity of providing a surface of the required smoothness with high resistance to

skidding, there is the problem of what holds that surface up. For a box girder bridge or a suspension bridge with an aerodynamic deck, the answer is straightforward, because the top is flat. The same is true of masonry arches, which are built up to receive the roadway. For truss bridges, however, something more is needed. Many truss bridges have two trusses per span, often widely separated. A four-lane roadway means a wide spacing, unless a third truss is placed on the midline of the bridge. Plate girders pose the same problem. Both types often have lower members with horizontal flanges, on which some transverse beams can be rested. The problem here is that the downward force of the beams is not repeated on the outer sides of the girders, and so the forces are eccentric. These cross beams may be placed at the joints of the truss, or they may be placed between. The stresses in the lower members will differ in the two cases. The cross beams will have gaps between them, which have to be filled. In older plate girder bridges these gaps were often spanned by numerous little arches. The road or railway was laid upon these. In the case of a railway over a river there is no need for a solid deck, and the railway could be laid on the cross beams. With a road underneath, there is the risk of objects being thrown from the train, or even falling off, and so a solid deck is preferable. Pre-reading task 1. What is the function of the foundations ? 2. What would be the ideal qualities of soil for foundations ? 3. When the soil is not ideal for foundation building what is there to be done ?

Reading task. Read carefully the following fragment which explains the function of the foundation Foundations are the structures that connect the main structure with the ground. Forces do not end at the ends of a bridge. They do not even end at the boundaries of the foundations. They spread throughout the earth, getting weaker as the distance increases. Foundations must be made wide enough to reduce the stresses to values that the ground can sustain indefinitely. The size and strength of foundations will depend on the quality of the ground. The foundations may be deep underground, and in some cases under water as well, requiring the use of pneumatic caissons with sharp cutting edges, and pressurised air to keep the water out. If the weight of earth removed for foundations is greater than the weight of the structure supported, the foundations on average cannot settle, because the structure is floating. Nevertheless, a building might still tilt in these conditions, while not sinking overall. Bridges II The following text enlarges upon bridge building and difficulties involved in it. Read carefully as you have to fill in the 15 missing words. Across the gap compressed minimum snap bend steel factors brittle cheap support properties supporting traffic breaking stiffer withstand

Some of the most impressive structures in the world are bridges. Bridges have to be built to (1) .. a variety of forces. These forces come from a combination of (2) ..: the

weight of the bridge, the weight of the (3) .. , and the strains exexrted by the weather, such as wind, rain and snow. Bridges are costly to build and engineers go to a great deal of trouble to ensure that they are safe, yet use the (4) .. amount of material. To be able to do this they must fully understand the (5) .. of the materials they are going to use. Some materials, for example, are easy to (6) ... They are flexible. Flexible materials can be useful in bridge-building but need to be combined with (7) ... materials to support large loads. Stiff materials are difficult to bend but tend to be (8) ... . Glass, for instance, is a stiff material but will (9) ... easily if you try to bend it. Stiff materials can be very hard to compress and are useful when used as (10) ... pillars in bridges. The property that is perhaps the most important in bridge-building materials is the strength to withstand large forces without(11) .... Steel is such a strong material that is why it is often used. Concrete is a stiff material and, like glass, tends to snap if bending forces are applied but it is very strong when (12) .... . If concrete is used to (13) .... a bending force, then it must be reinforced with another material. (14) .... is usually used because it is relatively (15) .... and it good at supporting bending forces. Study Questions 1. What is the preferable relationship between the strength and the weight of the materials used in bridge-building? 2. Can you identify a possible shortcoming of the flexible material? Whats the remedy to it? 3. Can you identify a possible shortcoming of the stiff material? Whats the remedy to it? Match the following words to their definitions on the right. Snap easily cracked, snapped, or broken; fragile

Brittle Stiff Withstand

to stand up to forcefully; resist to break or cause to break suddenly, esp. with a sharp sound not easily bent; rigid; inflexible

The following fragment details upon Arch Bridges. Read carefully as you will have to answer the questions at the end of the text. The essence of an arch is that ideally there should be no tendency for it to bend, except under live loads. It should be purely in compression, and for that reason it can be made of materials such as, masonry, cast iron and concrete, that perform poorly in tension. Of course, in a trussed arch there will be some tension members, but the main ones are always in compression. These main members are always much thicker than the cross-members. On the other hand, in a deck-stiffened arch, the deck is much thicker than the arch, because the deck is resisting any tendency to bend or buckle, leaving the arch chord to resist pure compression. In such a bridge, the deck can be very much thinner than a simple beam across the gap, because its weight is supported by the arch, and the arch can be very much thinner than a simple arch, because it is stiffened by the beam. Answer the following questions : 1. What forces react in arch bridges ? 2. What materials are arch bridges of ? .. ..

3. Is 4. Why Can

there in some the

tension cases

in the deck

arch deck is be an

bridges ? thicker also arch

.. than the arches ?... When ? curved? disadvantages ?


thinner ? be What about

. 6. Why Can you must identify any ...





bridges ?

This fragment answers to question 6. If we consider any section of an arch, the forces comprise two distinct kinds - those pulling down, the weight of the section pulling down, and the load, if any - and the forces from the sections on either side. In order to balance the two downward forces, the forces from the side must not be exactly in line: the angle between them, repeated throughout the arch, is the reason for the curvature. A beam, because it is straight, cannot work like this - it has to balance the downward forces by means of shear stress. In one sense, the arch is one of the simplest of all bridges, because if you build it against hard rock, you only need the arch, and no other parts. The rock acts as abutments, provided that you cut the rocks to the right shape so that they are at right angles to the arch.

This fragment answers to question 7. 1. The entire arch is in compression. The compression is transferred into the abutments, and ultimately resisted by tension in the ground under the arch. The absence of tension in the arch means that it can sustain much greater spans than beams can achieve, and it can use materials that are not strong in tension. 2.An arch cannot stand until it is complete. Therefore it must either rest on falsework (centring) until it is complete, or the two halves must be cantilevered from the springing, using cables. The cantilever method cannot be used for masonry arches or concrete arches. The following fragment details upon Beam Bridges. As you read try and make a comparison between the arch bridges and the beam bridges. Like the arch, the beam is in principle very simple. In fact it looks even simpler than the arch, being usually straight. As with the arch, we see the spreading of the force in the ground, but this time the ground has to support only the weight of the beam: there is no horizontal thrust. The nature of the ground is therefore not quite as critical as it is for an arch. You might ask why anyone builds an arch, when a beam looks so much simpler. The apparent simplicity is deceptive. The fact is that forces within a beam can be far greater than they are in an arch of the same weight and span. The reason is that the beam is pulled down at all points by its local weight, which tends to make it bend.








bridges ?



disadvantages ?

1. Because a beam rests simply on the supports, the effects of thermal expansion and movements of the ground are fairly easily sustained. The supports can be simple vertical piers, because there is no horizontal reaction. In principle, a beam may be built away from the final position, and lifted swiftly into place with minimal disruption of traffic or navigation. 2. The beam maintains its shape by means of the opposed tension and compression, and by the shear forces also. This means that a beam contains forces which are much larger than the load, and it needs to be relatively massive, though truss construction reduces the mass in the larger examples. Complete the sentences with a preposition: 1. Im the afternoon shift this afternoon 2. We produce components the car industry. 3. Exports account 70 per cent of total sales. 4. We have factories all the world. 5. We specialize top-of the-range cars. 6. Were trying to diversify more expensive models. 7. What does IBM stand ? 8. Hes responsible Quality Control. 9. Im in charge the workshop.

10. 11.

Who takes care after-sales service? I have to liaise our production planners.

Complete the sentence using a word from the box below. apprentice operations plant people overtime components flexi-time workforce shift turnover

1. Our this year will be about $500 000. 2. Im doing this week so Ill earn more money. 3. My son is an at a local furniture factory.

She works so she can start work any time between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m.

5. Our company has in more than twenty countries. 6. What are you on this week? 7. Our has been cut because we dont have enough orders. 8. They manufacture electronic for computers. 9. Our maintenance do all our repairs. 10. DAK is opening a new car in the UK next year.

Match the following descriptions with one of the jobs below.

Production planner machine operator inspector welder

electronic engineer electrician

joiner lab technician



1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Someone who works with wood: .................................................... Someone who works in a laboratory: .................................................... Someone who works with a machine on a production Someone who puts together, adjusts or installs machinery or Someone who works with electrical equipment: .................................................... who joins metal together, usually using heat: .................................................... who repairs and maintains engines, especially car who checks the quality of work or goods: .................................................... who schedules the order of production runs: ....................................................

line: .................................................... equipment: ....................................................

6. Someone 7. Someone

engines: ....................................................
8. Someone 9. Someone 10.

Someone who works with things like computers, TVs, radios,

etc.: ....................................................

Choose a word from the box to make the name of a palce where something is produced or processed. factory mine station yard refinery works mill reactor

1. Power .................................................... 2. Oil .................................................... 3. Steel .................................................... 4. Coal .................................................... 5. Ship .................................................... 6. Nuclear .................................................... 7. Chocolate .................................................... 8. Cotton .................................................... Choose the correct form of the word in brackets: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. You need to ...................................................... it by another two metres. (wide) How ...................................................... is the tank? (wide) Whats the ...................................................... of the room? (wide) How ...................................................... is the axle? (long) Can you ...................................................... this workbench? (long) I think we need to adjust the ...................................................... of the shelves. (long) Do you know how ...................................................... the reservoir is? (deep)

8. 9. 10.

Please make sure the tank is the correct ...................................................... . (deep) I cant reach that shelf. Its too ...................................................... . (high) We might need to increase the ...................................................... of the new shed. (high)

Complete the sentences using a word from the box below. Loosen tape facilities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Im afraid we dont have that item in .............................................. That makes a total of 59 897 tonnes. Say, 60 000 tonnes if Please dont take anything from the stores room today. Im trying to do a This is too tight, could you .............................................. it a bit? Where are the chemicals .............................................. ? The new workshop will have better .............................................. . Dont leave the tools lying on the .............................................. ! Put them away. Have you seen my .............................................. measure? I think Ive lost it. stored round workbench check stock

we .............................................. it up to the nearest thousand. stock ..............................................

Match the two parts of the sentences:

1. Have you tried 2. Ill order 3. Its small, round and 4. We carry out 5. Can you widen it 6. Im afraid theyre 7. I can install it 8. How deep is the

a. Out of stock b. By about 30 cm? c. New tank? d. Using a pair of pliers? e. Another one for you f. Made of plastic g. Most repairs ourselves h. As soon as it arrives

Complete the sentences using the words from the box below. Services peak Reputation
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

charge conditions







If we dont .............................................. this order on time, we will lose the contract. Were thinking of changing our raw material .............................................. Its a very .............................................. warranty. It covers everything. I work in the Lab. I dont usually .............................................. with our customers directly. We supply a wide range of goods and .............................................. . Its important to have a good .............................................. in business.

6. We operate to very tight .............................................. levels.


8. 9. 10.

Is the company on our .............................................. list? Were very busy at the moment. Its one of our .............................................. times. Ive just heard that our main supplier has gone .............................................. . Are you sure youve read the terms and .............................................. carefully? We guarantee to replace it free of .............................................. .


Choose the correct time preposition:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The guarantee is valid until / for / by three years The warranty runs out within / in / until September. Its due for renewal at / on / in the beginning of the month. The guarantee runs for / until / in next June. We must have that part on / by / in next Friday. If the machine breaks down on / during / for the guarantee period, we offer an immediate replacement. We guarantee delivery for / by / within three working days. We usually take on extra fitters on / within / at peak time. We cant deliver the part until / on / during next Monday. If the job is urgent, we will get to you for / during / within a couple of hours.

7. 8. 9. 10.

Match the two parts of the expression Wear conditions

Parts Goods Terms Repair

tear maintenance labour services

MECHANISMS Scanning a text Scanning is the best strategy for searching for specific information in a text. Move your eyes up and down the text until you find the word or words you want. Try to ignore any information which will not help you with your task. Scan the text quickly to find out which of these mechanisms are mentioned. 1. cam 2. tap 3. pendulum Mechanisms 4. foot pump 5. escalator

Mechanisms are an important part of everyday life. They allow us to do simple things like switch on lights, turn taps, and open doors. They also make it possible to use escalators and lifts, travel in cars, and fly from continent to continent. Mechanisms play a vital role in industry. While many industrial processes have electronic control systems, it is still mechanisms that deliver the power to do the work. They provide the forces to press steel sheets into car body panels, to lift large components from place to place, to force plastic through dies to make pipes. All mechanisms involve some kind of motion. The four basic kinds of motion are : rotary : wheels, gears, and rollers involve rotary movement oscillating : the pendulum of the clock oscillates it swings backwards and forwards linear : the linear movement of a paper trimmer is used to cut the edge of the paper reciprocating : the piston in a combustion engine reciprocates Many mechanisms involve changing one kind of motion into another type. For example, the reciprocating motion of a piston is changed into a rotary motion by the crankshaft, while a cam converts the rotary motion of the engine into the reciprocating motion to operate the valves. Now read the text to find the answers to these questions : 1. What does a cam do ? 2. What does oscillating mean ?

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

How are plastic pipes formed ? What simple mechanisms in the home are mentioned directly or indirectly ? What is the function of a crankshaft ? Give an example of a device which can produce a linear movement ? What do mechanisms provide in industry ?

The technical words in column A are similar in meaning to the more general English in column B. Match them. A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Oscillates Rotates Reciprocates Has a linear motion Converts Motion Escalator Sheets 4. f 5. a 6. e B a. changes b. large, thin, flat pieces c. moving stairs d. goes round and round e. movement f. goes in a line g. swings backwards and forwards h. goes up and down 7. c 8. b

1. g 2. d 3. h CENTRAL HEATING

How can you heat a house in cold weather ? List the possible ways. Using the diagram, try to explain the function of these components : 1. the pilot light

2. the heat exchanger fins 3. the flue 4. the thermostat 5. the pump Scan the text quickly to check the explanations you made in the previous task. Gas central heating Most gas central heating works on the wet system of heat transfer between water flowing through pipes. A typical system includes a boiler, a network of pipes, a feed, an expansion tank, radiators, and a hot storage system. In conventional boilers, water is heated by gas burners. It is then pumped around the central heating system and the hot water storage cylinder. The flow of gas to the burner is controlled by a valve (or valves) which can be operated by a time switch or by a boiler thermostat, hot water cylinder thermostat, or by a thermostat located in one of the rooms. Air is necessary for complete combustion and is supplied to the burners either form inside the house, when adequate ventilation must be ensured, or directly from outside through a balanced flue.

Water is circulated through a heat exchanger above the burner. The heat exchanger is made of tubes of cast iron or copper, which resist corrosion. Both types use fins to increase the surface area in contact with water, which improves the transfer of heat. A thermostat located in the boiler causes the gas control valve to shut off when the water temperature reaches the pre-set level. After being pumped through a diverter or priority valve, water circulates around either one of two loops of pipework, which act as heat exchangers. One loop passes through the inside of the hot water storage cylinder in a coil arrangement. Heat is transferred to the surrounding water, which can then be drawn off from this cylinder from various hot taps in the house when required. The loop then returns to the boiler for re-heating. The other loop of the circuit passes to the radiators, which provide room heating. Several radiators are generally connected, where one pipe provides the hot water input and the other carries the cold water back to the boiler. In this way, all radiators receive hot water directly from the boiler. Put these statements in the correct sequence. The first and last have been done for you. a. water is circulated through a heat exchanger b. the loop returns to the boiler for re-heating ______4___ 1 ___5____

c. one loop passes through the inside of the hot water storage cylinder in a coil of pipes

d. water is heated by gas burners e. the hot water is pumped through a diverter valve f. the other loop of the circuit passes to the radiators g. cold water from the radiators returns to the boiler

___2____ ___3____ ____6___ 7

The words listed in the first column of this table are common in descriptions of technical plant. They describe how substances are moved form one stage of the process to the next. Some of these words can be used for any substances; others are more specific. Write an X under Solids, Liquids, or Gases if the word on the left can be used to talk about them. Solids Carried Circulated Conveyed __________X_____ X ______________ _____X_________ X ________X________ _________X_______ Liquids X _____X__________ Gases

Distributed ______X________ _______X________

Fed ______X________ ______________ ________X______ Piped Pumped Supplied ______________

_________X_______ ________X________ _________X_______ _______X_________ _________X______ ________X_______ ________X_______ _________X______

Fill in the gaps in this table with the missing adjectives and nouns.
Adjectives elastic plastic tough soft rigid wear-resistant brittle hard Nouns wind-resistant plasticity toughness softness rigidity wear-resistance brittleness hardness wind resistance elasticity

Each of the verbs in column A has a related noun ending in er or or in column B. Complete the blanks.
A Verbs Refrigerate Condense evaporate compress resist B Nouns refrigerator condenser evaporator compressor resistor

charge generate conduct exchange radiate control

charger generator conductor exchanger radiator controller

Complete this table of common quantities and forces to be measured in engineering, the units in which they are measured, and the instruments you use to measure them.

Quantity/ Force
1. Current 2. _____Force_____________ 3. Velocity ______Speedmeter__________ 4. ___temperature_______________ 5. Thickness 6. _____Resistance_____________ 7. Voltage _________Voltmeter________ 8. Pressure

____Amp_________ Newton km/hr C _______millimetre_______ Ohm _____Volt_________ ______Pascal/ Bar________

Ammeter Force gauge

Thermometer Micrometer Ohmmeter


ROAD BREAKER With your partner, make a list of any devices you know that use compressed air: road drills, dental drills, automatic doors, truck brakes, paint sprayers, pressing equipment. List any advantages compressed-air devices have compared with electrical devices no sparks no electric shocks in damp conditions cheap Reading Read the text below and the diagram: ROAD BREAKER Air has considerable power when it is compressed. Compressed air is used to drive all sorts of machines, from construction tools to paint sprayers. Pneumatic or air-driven machines all make use of the force exerted by air molecules striking a surface. Compressed air exerts a greater pressure than the air on the other side of the surface, which is at atmospheric pressure. The difference in pressure drives the machine.

Pneumatic drills, or road breakers, are powered by compressed air produced by a compressor. Compressed-air power is cheap and safe. An air device does not risk creating sparks in an explosive atmosphere and can be used under wet conditions without danger of electric shocks. Compressed air is therefore the only type of power used in some mining or construction operations.

A pneumatic drill works a little like an automatic hammer. The compressor pumps the compressed air to the drill through a hose. There it drives a piston up and down. The movement of the piston delivers repeated blows to the chisel that hammers into the road surface. Pressing the throttle, or control lever, downwards releases the control valve. This allows compressed air to enter the drill. The air passes through the valve and down a chamber called a return chamber to the underside of the piston. The pressure forces the piston to rise up the cylinder. As the piston rises, it covers the exhaust, preventing the air from escaping. At the same time, the rising piston starts to compress the air trapped above it. The increase in pressure forces the operating valve to open, admitting air to the top of the chamber and closing off air in the return chamber. As the pressure in the chamber increases, it forces the piston to strike the chisel. When the piston passes the exhaust, the air is released into

the atmosphere and the valve closes. This opens the return chamber again, which allows the air to pass to the underside of the piston and restarts the cycle. Common verbs in engineering Study this list of common verbs in engineering. They all have the sense of making something happen Lower Raise Heat Release Compress Reduce Increase make low make high make hot make free make smaller volume make smaller make larger

Fill in the blanks in these sentences with suitable verbs from the list above. 1. When thermoplastic are heated, they soften. 2. If a gas is compressed, it heats up. 3. Refrigeration preserves food by lowering its temperature. 4. A heater raises the temperature of the water. 5. The rising piston compresses the fuel fixture. 6. Designers try to reduce the weight of a structure.

7. When the push button is released, the valve spring pushes up the spool. 8. Pumping fluid into the main cylinder gradually raises the jack. 9. Aerodynamic design reduces wind resistance. 10. The motor starts up slowly, then gradually increases speed. 11. At intermediate substations, power is reduced to 11 kV for light industry. 12. When the child releases the handle, the seat swings back under the weight. HOUSES I . Give as many synonyms as you know of the word HOUSE: dwelling, residence, home, abode, accommodation, housing, lodging., II. The following exercise introduces types of houses, older or newer. Your task is to match the definitions to the words designations the house types:
1. Castle, 2. Cottage, a. usually a small country dwelling b. Since the late 18th century is a style of housing where (generally) identical individual houses are conjoined into rows - a line of houses which abut directly on to each other built with shared party walls between dwellings whose uniform fronts and uniform height created an ensemble that was more stylish

than a "rowhouse". However this is also the UK term for a "rowhouse" regardless of whether the houses are identical or not. 3. Detached (free-standing), 4. Bungalow, 5. Mansion, c. constructed of ice d. two houses joined together e. Two separate residences, usually side-by-side, but sometimes on two different floors. The former often looks like two houses put together, sharing a wall; the latter usually appears as a townhouse, but with two different entrances. The terms 'triplex' and 'four-plex' refer to similar structures with three or four units 6. Villa, 7. Igloo, 8. Apartment: 9. Duplex: 10. Semi-detached: f. originally an upper-class country house, though since its origins in Roman times its idea and function has evolved considerably g. any house that is completely separated from its neighbours h. primarily a defensive structure dating from the Middle Ages to the nineteenth century i. a single-story house (not including optional basement j. a relatively self-contained housing unit in a building which is often rented out to a family or one or more people for their exclusive use. Sometimes called a flat. Some locales have legal definitions of what constitutes an apartment. In some places 'apartment' denotes a building that was built of such units, while 'flat' denotes a unit in a building built originally as a singlefamily house and later subdivided 11. Terraced house: k. a very large detached house

1. _h____ 7. __c___

2. ___a__ 8. __j___

3. __g___ 9. ___e__

4. ____i_

5. __k___

6. ___f__

10. ___d__ 11. ___b___

III. The foundation is an important element in the resistance structure of a house. The following texts offer information about two types of houses: a shallow and a deep type. First, read the texts in order to fill in the gaps with the appropriate words and then answer the following questions: Shallow foundations Strips bedrock spread frost slab embedded

Shallow foundations are usually (1) embedded .. a meter or so into soil. One common type is the (2) spread .. footing which consists of (3) slab .. or pads of concrete (or other materials) which extend below the (4) frost .. line and transfer the weight from walls and columns to the soil or (5) bedrock ... Another common type is the (6) slab.. -on-grade foundation where the weight of the building is transferred to the soil through a concrete slab placed at the surface.

Deep foundations piles weak drilled load

Deep foundations are used to transfer a (7) load .. from a structure through an upper (8) weak .. layer of soil to a stronger deeper layer of soil. There are different

types of deep foundations including piles, (9) drilled .. shafts, caissons, piers, and earth stabilized columns. The naming conventions for different types of foundations vary between different engineers. Historically, (10) piles .. were wood, later steel, reinforced concrete, and pre-tensioned concrete. Sometimes these foundations penetrate bedrock. 1. Which type of foundation has more advantages? 2. Is the deeper foundation safer? 3. Is cost an important issue in building a certain foundation type? 4. Are there other types of foundations that you know? IV. Concrete is a fundamental element for foundation casting and not only. Here is a presentation of some types of concrete. Read them and evaluate their strength, resistance, cost, malleability, depending on the materials they are made of. Precast concrete = is an ancient type of construction material made with concrete cast in a reusable mold or "form" and cured in a controlled environment, then transported to the construction site and lifted into place. In contrast, standard concrete is poured-in-place in large forms and cured on site. Precast "stone" is distinguished from precast concrete by using a fine aggregatein the mixture so the final product approaches the appearance of naturally occurring rock or stone.

Pervious concrete

= contains a network of holes or voids, to allow air or water to move through the concrete

Aerated concrete

= produced by the addition of an air entraining agent to the concrete (or a lightweight aggregate like expanded clay pellets or cork granules and vermiculite) is sometimes called Cellular concrete

Roller-compacted concrete

= sometimes called rollcrete, is a low-cement-content stiff concrete placed using techniques borrowed from earthmoving and paving work. The concrete is placed on the surface to be covered, and is compacted in place using large heavy rollers typically used in earthwork. The concrete mix achieves a high density and cures over time into a strong monolithic block

Glass concrete

= The use of recycled glass as aggregate in concrete has become popular in modern times, with large scale research being carried out at Columbia University in New York. This greatly enhances the aesthetic appeal of the concrete. Recent research findings have shown that concrete made with recycled glass aggregates have shown better long term strength and better thermal insulation due to its better thermal properties of the glass aggregates.

Asphalt concrete

= Strictly speaking, asphalt is a form of concrete as well, with bituminous materials replacing cement as the binder.

Polymer concrete

= Polymer concrete is concrete which uses polymers to bind the aggregate. Polymer concrete can gain a lot of strength in a short amount of time. For example, a polymer mix may reach 5000 psi in only four hours. Polymer concrete is generally more expensive than conventional concretes.


= Limecrete or lime concrete is concrete where cement is replaced by lime

Name of concrete Precast concrete Pervious concrete Aerated concrete Roller-compacted





concrete Glass concrete Asphalt concrete Polymer concrete Limecrete V. Roofing is an essential part in building a house. Here is an image illustrating the component parts of a roof.

VI. Match the types of roofs to their definitions a. Crow-stepped gable b. skillion c. hip roof/ hipped roof d. gable e. flat roof 1. A E is a type of covering of a building. Its form is horizontal or nearly horizontal. Materials that cover them should allow the water to run off freely from a very slight inclination. 2. A B roof is normally a single sloping roof surface, not attached to another roof surface. They are sometimes called a shed roof in the UK and Australia.

3. A D is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of a sloping roof. Its shape and how it is detailed depends on the structural system being used (which is often related to climate and availability of materials) and aesthetic concerns. Thus the type of roof enclosing the volume dictates its shape. 4. A A is a stair-step type of design at the top of the triangular gable-end of a building. The top of the parapet wall projects above the roofline and the top of the brick or stone wall is stacked in a step pattern above the roof as a decoration and as a convenient way to finish the brick courses. 5. A C is a type of roof where all sides slope downwards to the walls, usually with a fairly gentle slope. Thus it is a house with no gables or other vertical sides to the roof. A square such roof is shaped like a pyramid. Such roofs on rectangular houses will have two triangular sides and two trapezoidal ones. These roofs often have dormers VII. What materials can be used to cover houses? Enumerate as many as you know: Thatch, straw, seagrass, shingles, slates, asbestos, bitumen, polyester, fiberglasses

What is the difference between balusters and balustrade ? Balusters- Vertical members in a railing used between a top rail and bottom rail or the stair treads. Sometimes referred to as 'pickets' or 'spindles'. Balustrade- The rail, posts and vertical balusters along the edge of a stairway or elevated walkway. 1. Backfilla.. A member transversely supporting a load. A structural member carrying building loads - "girder".

2. Backing3. Barge4. Beam5. Bearing point6. Bearing wall7. Bearing header8. Bedrock9. Blankets10. Boom1. _____ 2. _____

b. A subsurface layer of earth that is suitable to support a structure. c. Frame lumber installed between the wall studs to give additional support for drywall d. A beam placed perpendicular to joists and to which joists are nailed in framing for a chimney. e. Fiber-glass or rock-wool insulation that comes in long rolls 15 or 23 inches wide. f. A truck used to hoist heavy material up and into place. g. The replacement of excavated earth into a trench around or against a basement /foundationwall. h. A wall that supports any vertical load in addition to its own weight. i. Horizontal beam rafter that supports shorter rafters. j. A point where a bearing or structural weight is concentrated and transferred to the foundation 3. _____ 4. _____ 5. _____ 6. _____ 7. _____ 8. _____ 9. _____ 10._____

Define the following words : Caisson Cantilever - Corbel - Culvert Designate the words that have the following descriptions : 1. The upper member of a column, pilaster, door cornice, molding, or fireplace - 2. Wood trim molding installed around a door or window opening - 3. The gray powder that is the "glue" in concrete. - 4. A framed enclosed space around a flue pipe or a channel in a wall, or through a ceiling for something to lie in or pass through. - 5. A vertical structural compression member which supports loads. - 6. The mixture of Portland cement, sand, gravel, and water. - 7. A mechanical device that pressurizes a gas in order to turn it into a liquid - 8. The rate at which heat is transmitted through a material. -

9. A foundation wall section that strengthens (and generally perpendicular to) a long section of foundation wall 10. A shallow space below the living quarters of a house, normally enclosed by the foundation wall and having a dirt floor. Here are the elements fixing the door : doorjamb, door stop, door handle, butt hinge Can you identify their function ? Doorjamb . door stop . door handle .. butt hinge

The following text details upon the Drywall /or Gypsum Wallboard. From among the words provided below fill in the gaps with the appropriate ones.
nailed panel A manufactured (1) made out of (2) plaster and (3) in a thin cardboard. Usually 1/2" thick and 4' x 8' or 4' x 12' in size. The panels are (4) or screwed (5) . the (6) and the joints are (7) and covered with a 'joint (8) . 'Green board' type drywall has a greater (9) to (10) than regular (white) plasterboard and is used in bathrooms and other "wet areas". framing gypsum moisture compound encased onto resistance taped

Here are some elements that are roof components : eaves, barge, barge board, built-up roof, cornice, cricket, fascia, felt, hip, hip roof, gable, girder,

gutter, pitch, rafter, ridge, ridge board, ridge shingles, slope, soffit, truss. Can you identify their function ?
Eaves .. Barge .. Barge board Built-up roof... Cornice ... Cricket Fascia .. Felt ..... Hip ..... Hip roof . Gable .. Girder . Gutter . Pitch ... Rafter . Ridge .. Ridge board Ridge shingles Slope ..

Soffit .. Truss .. SOILS Types of Soils What are the features of the following types of soils ? Sand . Gravel .. Silt Clay .. This fragment details upon the different types of soils. Compare the information in the text to your previous answers. Then, fill in the words with the following words that you consider appropriate: stability further disintegrated categorized cobble from disintegrated grains larger grained

Soils are generally (1) .. as gravel, sand, silt and clay. Sand consists of particles from near 0.5mm to 5.0mm (about 1/4 inch) in diameter. Gravel ranges (2) . near 5.0mm to 75mm (about 3 inches) in diameter. Anything (3) .. is considered either a (4) .. or boulder. Silt and clay are fine (5) . . The difference between the two is that silt consists of very small particles of (6) .. rock (the same material as sand and gravel) whereas clay results from changes or (7) .. of the original rock material. Soils are (8)

.. differentiated by the shape of the (9) .. (spherical, flat, etc.) which has a further effect on their (10) . Enumerate the factors that make soils unstable? a. b. c. d. e. f.

Read the following text which enumerates a few factors causing soil instability. Scan the text and try to find out in the context the meaning of the words in bold. What are the consequences of these factors on the building ? The ability of the soil to support the foundation is measured by its compressibility or consolidation potential as well as bearing strength. Ideally, a built foundation should not move once put in place. However certain conditions in the soil can cause foundation movement and consequent foundation or structural damage. In granular soils (sand, gravel), movement often results from a condition in which there are too many voids between particles. A good mixture of particle size normally will increase stability. Some types of silt deposits termed "loess" are held together because of particle bonding or cementing minerals. These soils may be susceptible to collapse if exposed to excessive amounts of water. A dramatic type of failure occurs in areas of so-called expansive clays. These soils are prone to large volume changes related to moisture content. They shrink in dry seasons; swell in wet seasons or when otherwise in the presence of water. Ground freezing is responsible for soil expansion due to "frost heave." Soil deposits containing silts are very prone to severe frost heave. Expansion caused by frost heave is great enough to lift even heavily loaded foundations and slabs. Do you know any solution to soil instability ? What measures can be taken ? For what types of soil ? Read the following solutions to soil instability. Do you agree to them ? Are they valid ?

Underpinning whereby the built foundation is extended downward to competent strata. Injection grouting in which grout (a cementitious material) is forced under the slab to level and stabilize the structure.

Anchors of various types are installed around the building and either driven into or screwed into the ground. t the same time, it may also be necessary to replace some existing foundation soil.

Here are some elements that are door components : bifold door, bipass doors, doorjamb, door stop, threshold. Can you identify their function ? Bifold door .. ..
Bipass doors .. Doorjamb, interior ... Door stop ... Threshold .. What is the difference among concrete, grout and mortar? ..

Here are some elements that are piping components : hose bib, humidifier, jumpers, louver, percolation test or perc. test, plumbing boots, plumbing ground, plumbing jacks, plumbing rough, plumbing stack, plumbing trim, plumbing waste line, radiant heating, R Value, sanitary sewer, scupper, septic system, shingles, tee, vapor barrier, waste pipe and vent. Can you identify their function ?

Hose bib . Humidifier Jumpers. Louver. Percolation test or perc. test- . Plumbing boots Plumbing ground Plumbing jacks Plumbing rough Plumbing stack Plumbing trim Plumbing waste line Radiant heating R Value. Sanitary sewer Scupper. Septic system Shingles. Tee.

Vapor barrier Waste pipe and vent Designate the words that have the following descriptions : 1. Any material high in resistance to heat transmission that, when placed in the walls, ceiling, or floors of a structure, and will reduce the rate of heat flow . 2. The side and head lining of a doorway, window, or other opening. Includes studs as well as the frame and trim . 3. The location between the touching surfaces of two members or components joined and held together by nails, glue, cement, mortar, or other means. . 4. A building material of narrow wood, metal, gypsum, or insulating board that is fastened to the frame of a building to act as a base for plaster, shingles, or tiles. . 5. A horizontal structural member that supports the load over an opening such as a door or window. . 6. Includes all exterior walls and any interior wall that is aligned above a support beam or girder. . 7. A vented opening into the home that has a series of horizontal slats and arranged to permit ventilation but to exclude rain, snow, light, insects, or other living creatures. . 8. The shelf above a fireplace opening. Also used in referring to the decorative trim around a fireplace opening. . 9. Stone, brick, concrete, hollow-tile, concrete block, or other similar building units or materials. Normally bonded together with mortar to form a wall. .

10. A wood strip having an engraved, decorative surface. . MEASURING Lineal foot- A unit of measure for lumber equal to 1 inch thick by 12 inches wide by 12 inches long. Examples: 1" x 12" x 16' = 16 board feet, 2" x 12" x 16' = 32 board feet. Lumens- Unit of measure for total light output. The amount of light falling on a surface of one square foot. Yard of concrete- One cubic yard of concrete is 3' X 3' X 3' in volume, or 27 cubic feet. One cubic yard of concrete will pour 80 square feet of 3 " sidewalk or basement/garage floor. Designate the words that have the following descriptions : 1. A thin flat piece of wood, plywood, or similar material, framed by stiles and rails as in a door (or cabinet door), or fitted into grooves of thicker material with molded edges for decorative wall treatment . 2. A column of masonry, usually rectangular in horizontal cross section, used to support other structural members. . 3. A panel (normally 4' X 8') of wood made of three or more layers of veneer, compressed and joined with glue, and usually laid with the grain of adjoining plies at right angles to give the sheet strength. . 4. 6'-8' long wooden timber that was used to hold railroad track in place. . . 5. The wood panels or sheet material fastened to the roof rafters or trusses on which the shingle or other roof covering is laid. .

6. Usually, a wood member embedded in concrete, as in a floor, that serves to support and to fasten the subfloor or flooring. . 7. Refers to an outside plaster finish made with Portland cement as its base. . 8. A vertical wood framing member, also referred to as a wall stud, attached to the horizontal sole plate below and the top plate above. Normally 2 X 4's or 2 X 6's, 8' long (sometimes 92 5/8"). One of a series of wood or metal vertical structural members placed as supporting elements in walls and partitions. . 9. A device that completes or disconnects an electrical circuit. . Designate the words that have the following descriptions : 1. A ceramic material molded into masonry units . 2. 2. The bottom metal or wood plate of an exterior door frame. Generally they are adjustable to keep a tight fit with the door slab . 3. The walking surface board in a stairway on which the foot is placed . 4. Extremely thin sheets of wood. Also a thin slice of wood or brick or stone covering a framed wall . 5. A pipe or duct which allows the flow of air and gasses to the outside. Also, another word for the moving glass part of a window sash, i.e. window vent .


ACTIVITY I. Fill in the blanks with the words that are given in the rightful places: manufacture carpentry apart habitats segmented man-made occurring

Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. Many naturally (1) substances, such as clay, sand, wood and rocks, even twigs and leaves have been used to construct buildings. (2) from naturally occurring materials, many (3) products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. The (4) of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically (5) into specific specialty trades, such as (6) , plumbing, roofing and insulation work. This reference deals with (7) and structures including homes.

ACTIVITY II. Fill in the gaps with the words that you consider appropriate; more possibilities will be accepted. Building materials can be generally (1) .. into two sources, natural and synthetic. Natural building materials are those that are (2) .. or minimally processed by industry, such as lumber or glass. Synthetic materials are made in industrial (3) .. after much human (4) .., such as plastics and petroleum based paints. Both have their uses. Mud, stone, and fibrous plants are the most (5) .. building materials, aside from tents made of flexible materials such as cloth or skins. People all over the world have used these three materials together to create homes to suit their local (6) .. conditions. In general stone and/or brush are used as (7) .. structural components in these buildings, while mud is used to (8) .. in the space between, acting as a type of concrete and (9) ... A basic example is wattle and daub mostly used as permanent (10) .. in tropical countries or as summer structures by ancient northern people.

ACTIVITY III. MUD AND CLAY Derive the words at the end of the lines so that it perfectly matches the needed speech part: The amount of each material used leads to different styles of buildings. The (1) factor is usually connected with the quality of the soil being used. Larger amounts of clay usually mean (2) the cob /abode style, while low clay soil is usually (3) with sod building. The other main ingredients include more or less sand /gravel and straw/grasses. (4) earth is both an old and newer take on creating walls, once made by compacting clay soils between planks by hand, now forms and mechanical pneumatic compressors are used. Soil and especially clay is good thermal mass; it is very good at keeping temperatures at a constant level. Homes built with earth tend to be (5) cool in the summer heat and warm in cold weather. Clay holds heat or cold, releasing it over a period of time like stone. (6) walls change temperature slowly, so artificially raising or lowering the temperature can use more resources than in ,say, a wood built house, but the heat/(7) stays longer. Peoples building with (8) dirt and clay, such as cob, sod, and adobe, resulted in homes that have been built for centuries in western and northern Europe as well as the rest of the world, and continue to be built, though on a smaller scale. Some of these buildings have remained (9) for hundreds of years. (1) DECIDE (2) USE (3) ASSOCIATION (4) RAM

(5) NATURE (6) EARTH (7) COOL (8) MOST


ACTIVITY IV. Read the following text which presents the rock as a building material. Rock structures have existed for as long as history can recall. It is the longest lasting building material available, and is usually readily available. There are many types of rock throughout the world, all with differing attributes that make them better or worse for particular uses. Rock is a very dense material so it gives a lot of protection too, its main drawback as a material is its weight and awkwardness. Its energy density is also considered a big drawback, as stone is hard to keep warm without using large amounts of heating resources. Dry-stone walls have been built for as long as humans have put one stone on top of another. Eventually different forms of mortar were used to hold the stones together, cement being the most commonplace now. Circular huts were constructed from loose granite rocks throughout the Neolithic and early Bronze Age, and the remains of an estimated 5,000 can still be seen today. Granite continued to be used throughout the Medieval period and into modern times. Slate is another stone type, commonly used as roofing material in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world where it is found. Mostly stone buildings can be seen in most major cities, some civilizations built entirely with stone such as the Pyramids in Egypt, the Aztec pyramids and the remains of the Inca civilization. Study questions 1. What are the advantages of the stone? 2. What about the disadvantages? 3. Identify the features of the rock

ACTIVITY V. Correct the spelling mistakes in this text:

Concrete is a composit building material made from the combination of agregate and a binder such as ciment. The most comon form of concrete is Portland cement concrete, which consists of mineral agregate (generally gravel and sand), Portland ciment and water. After mixing, the ciment hidrates and eventually hardens into a stone-like material. When used in the generic sense, this is the material refered to by the term concrete. For a concrete construction of any size, as concrete has a rather low tensile strenght, it is generally strengthened using steel rods or bars. This strengthened concrete is then refered to as reenforced concrete. In order to minimize any air bubbles, that would weeken the structure, a vibrator is used to eliminate any air that has been entreined when the liquid concrete mix is poured around the ironwork. Concrete has been the predominant building material in this modern age due to its longevity, formability, and eese of transport. Recent advancements combine the concrete forming and other construction steps (installation of insulation).

ACTIVITY VI. Provide the antonyms of the words that are underlined: Metal is used as structural framework for larger buildings such as skyscrapers, or as an external surface covering. There are many types of metals used for building. Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, and is the usual choice for metal structural building materials. It is strong, flexible, and if refined well and/or treated lasts a long time. Corrosion is metal's prime enemy when it comes to longevity. The lower density and better corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys and tin sometimes overcome their greater cost. Brass was more common in the past, but is usually restricted to specific uses or specialty items today. Metal figures quite prominently in prefabricated structures can be seen used in most cosmopolitan cities. It requires a great deal of human labor to produce metal, especially in the large amounts needed for the building industries. Other metals used include titanium, chrome, gold, silver. Titanium can be used for structural purposes, but it is much more expensive than steel. Chrome, gold, and silver are used as decoration, because these materials are expensive and lack structural qualities such as tensile strength or hardness.

ACTIVITY VII. Designate the words that have the following descriptions :

1. A thin flat piece of wood, plywood, or similar material, framed by stiles and rails as in a door (or cabinet door), or fitted into grooves of thicker material with molded edges for decorative wall treatment . 2. A column of masonry, usually rectangular in horizontal cross section, used to support other structural members. . 3. A panel (normally 4' X 8') of wood made of three or more layers of veneer, compressed and joined with glue, and usually laid with the grain of adjoining plies at right angles to give the sheet strength. . 4. 6'-8' long wooden timber that was used to hold railroad track in place. . . 5. The wood panels or sheet material fastened to the roof rafters or trusses on which the shingle or other roof covering is laid. . 6. Usually, a wood member embedded in concrete, as in a floor, that serves to support and to fasten the subfloor or flooring. . 7. Refers to an outside plaster finish made with Portland cement as its base. . 8. A vertical wood framing member, also referred to as a wall stud, attached to the horizontal sole plate below and the top plate above. Normally 2 X 4's or 2 X 6's, 8' long (sometimes 92 5/8"). One of a series of wood or metal vertical structural members placed as supporting elements in walls and partitions. . 9. A device that completes or disconnects an electrical circuit. .

VIII. Designate the words that have the following descriptions: 1. A ceramic material molded into masonry units . 2. The bottom metal or wood plate of an exterior door frame. Generally they are adjustable to keep a tight fit with the door slab 3. The walking surface board in a stairway on which the foot is placed . 4. Extremely thin sheets of wood. Also a thin slice of wood or brick or stone covering a framed wall . 5. A pipe or duct which allows the flow of air and gasses to the outside. Also, another word for the moving glass part of a window sash, i.e. window vent IX. Vocabulary enrichment Match the words of the left to their translation o the right Gear Jacket Asbestos excavator bobina bavura

Ballast Teststand Barb Reinforced concrete Coil Groove Crusher Dredger Tar Locksmith Shovel Work azbest balast

armatura concasor angrenaj lucru mecanic banc de probe gudron

beton armat lopata lacatus canelura


ACTIVITY 1. Fill in the spaces with the words that you consider appropriate: levels design Civil engineering is a (1) . engineering discipline that deals with the (2) ., construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally (3) . environment, including (4) . such as bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings. Civil engineering is the oldest engineering (5) . after military engineering, and it was defined (6) . non-military engineering from military engineering. Civil engineering takes place on all (7) .: in the public sector from (8) . through to federal levels, and in the (9) . sector from individual homeowners (10) . to international companies. built to distinguish through municipal professional discipline works private

1. professional 2. design 3. built 4. works 5. discipline 6. to distinguish 7. levels 8. municipal 9. private 10. through

ACTIVITY II. Derive the words at the end of some lines in order to fill in the gaps which correspond to them

Civil engineering is (1) .. of physical and scientific principles, and its history is (2) .. linked to advances in understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history. Because civil engineering is a wide (3) .. profession, including several separate specialized sub-disciplines,



its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils, (4) .. , environment, mechanics and other fields. Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans, such as stone masons and (5) .., rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and seldom supplanted by advances. Structures, roads and infrastructure that existed were (6) .., and increases in scale were incremental. One of the (7) .. examples of a scientific approach (8) .. to physical and mathematical problems to civil engineering is the work of Archimedes in the 3rd century BC, including Archimedes Principle, which (9) .. our (10) .. of buoyancy, and practical solutions such as Archimedess screw . (9) PIN (10) UNDERSTAND (7) EARLY (8) APPLY (6) REPEAT (5) CARPENTRY (4) HYDROLOGIST

1. the application

2. intricately 3. ranging 4. hydrology 5. carpenter 6. repetitive 7. earliest 8. applicable 9. underpins 10. understanding

ACTIVITY III. Fill in the gaps with words that you consider appropriate for the meaning of the text. More possibilities are accepted: In general, civil engineering is (1) with the (2) interface of human created fixed projects with the greater world. General civil engineers (3) closely with surveyors and (4) civil engineers to fit and serve fixed projects within their given site, community and terrain by (5) grading, drainage, pavement, water supply, sewer service, electric and communications supply, and land divisions. General engineers spend much of their time (6) project sites, developing community consensus, and preparing construction (7) . General

civil engineering is also referred to as site engineering, a (8) of civil engineering that (9) focuses on converting a tract of land from one usage to another. Civil engineers typically apply the principles of geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, environmental engineering, transportation engineering and construction engineering to residential, commercial, industrial and public works projects of (10) sizes and levels of construction. 1. Concerned 2. Overall 3. Work 4. Specialized 5. Designing 6. Visiting 7. Plans 8. Branch 9. Primarily 10. all

ACTIVITY IV. Derive the following verbs in order to obtain nouns and then fill in the gaps which correspond to each number: Construction engineering Construction engineering involves (1) . and (2) . of the (3) . from (4) ., site (5) ., hydraulic, environmental, structural and geotechnical engineers. As (6) . firms tend to have higher business risk than other types of civil engineering firms, many construction engineers tend to take on a role that is more business-like in nature: (7)

. and (8) . contracts, (9) . logistical (10) ., and closely-monitoring prices of necessary supplies.

1. to plan . 2. to execute . 3. to design . 4. to transport . 5. to develop . 6. to construct . 7. to draft . 8. to review . 9. to evaluate . 10. to operate .

ACTIVITY V. Earthquake Engineering 1. What do you think earthquake engineering is? . 2. What do earthquake engineers train in? . 3. What are the measures and decisions that earthquake engineers can take/ suggest? .. 4. Read the text and see whether your answers are similar or close to those in the text: Earthquake engineering Earthquake engineering covers ability of various structures to withstand hazardous earthquake exposures at the sites of their particular location. Earthquake engineering is a sub-discipline of the broader category of structural engineering. The main objectives of earthquake engineering are:
Understand interaction of structures with the shaky ground. Foresee the consequences of possible earthquakes. Design, construct and maintain structures to perform at earthquake exposure up to the expectations and in compliance with building codes.


1. What do you believe that structural engineering is?

.. 2. What does it serve to? .. 3. What is a dead load? What is a live load? Can you say how they influence the structure of the building? .. 4. What is the difference between a static and a dynamic load? 5. Read the text to check your answers. 6. Explain the different types of loads that appear in the text

Structural engineering is concerned with the structural design and structural analysis of buildings, bridges, towers, tunnels, off shore structures like oil and gas fields in the sea, and other structures. This involves identifying the loads which act upon a structure and the forces and stresses which arise within that structure due to those loads, and then designing the structure to successfully support and resist those loads. The loads can be self weight of the structures, other dead load, live loads, moving (wheel) load, wind load, earthquake load, load from temperature change etc. The structural engineer must design structures to be safe for their users and to successfully fulfill the function they are designed for. Due to the nature of some loading conditions, sub-disciplines within structural engineering have emerged, including wind engineering and earthquake engineering. Design considerations will include strength, stiffness, and stability of the structure when subjected to loads which may be static, such as furniture or selfweight, or dynamic, such as wind, seismic, crowd or vehicle loads, or transitory, such as temporary construction loads or impact. Other considerations include cost, constructability, safety, aesthetics and sustainability.


ACTIVITY 1. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words:

Resembles sliding plates

incorporate powered

flattened to empty

volume to reduce





The compactor is a machine or mechanism used (1) the size of waste material or soil through (2) . A trash compactor is often used by homes and businesses to reduce the (3) of trash. Normally (4) by hydraulics, compactors take many shapes and sizes. In landfill sites for example, a large bulldozer with (5) wheels called a landfill compactor is used to drive over waste deposited by waste collection vehicles. Waste collection vehicles themselves (6) a compacting mechanism which is used to increase the payload of the vehicle and reduce the number of times it has (7) . This usually takes the form of hydraulically-powered (8) which sweep out the collection (9) and compress the material into what has already been loaded. Different compactors are used in (10) metal processing, the most familiar being the car crusher. Such devices can either be of the "pancake" type, where a scrap automobile is (11) by a huge descending hydraulically-powered plate. The other type is the baling press, where the automobile is compressed from several directions until it (12) a large cube.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

to reduce compaction volume powered spiked incorporate to empty hopper sliding plates scrap flattened



ACTIVITY 2. Derive the words at the end of the line to better fill in the gaps in the text: A bulldozer is a (1) , equipped with a substantial metal plate (2) as a blade used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, etc., during construction work and (3) equipped at the rear with a claw-like device known as a ripper (4) (5) -compacted materials. The term "bulldozer" is often used to mean any heavy equipment, sometimes a (6) and sometimes an excavator), but (7) , the term refers only to a tractor, usually tracked, (8) with a dozer blade. That is the (9) used here. 1. crawler 2. known 3. typically 4. to loosen 5. densely 6. loader 7. precisely 8. fitted 9. meaning (1) TO CRAWL (2) TO KNOW (3) TYPE (4) LOOSE (5) DENSE (6) TO LOAD (7) PRECISE (8) TO FIT (9) TO MEAN

ACTIVITY 3. Fill in the gaps with the words that you consider appropriate; there are more possibilities

The ripper is the (1) .. claw-like device on the (2) .. of the bulldozer. Rippers can come singly (single shank/giant ripper) or in (3) .. of two or (4) .. (multi shank rippers). Usually, a single shank is (5) .. for heavy ripping. The ripper shank is fitted (6) .. a replaceable steel alloy tip. Ripping rock lets the ground surface be broken into small rubble (7) .. to handle and transport, which can then be removed, so grading can (8) .. place. Agricultural ripping lets rocky or very hard earth be broken up so otherwise unploughable land can be (9) .. . For example, much of the best land in the California wine country (10) .. of old lava flows. With heavy bulldozers the lava is shattered, (11) .. agriculture. Also, hard earth can be ripped and decompacted to allow planting of orchards where trees (12) .. not otherwise grow. 1. Long 2. Back 3. Groups 4. More 5. Preferred

6. With 7. Easy 8. Take 9. Farmed 10. Consists 11. Allowing 12. Could

ACTIVITY 4. Correct the spelling errors in this exercise: Excavators are heavy equippment consisting of a boume, bucket and ceb on a rotating platform (known as the "house"). The house sits atop an undercariage with tracks or whils. All movement and fanctions of the excavator are accomplished through the use of hidraulic fluid, be it with rams or motors. Their design is a natural progresion from the steem shovel. Excavators are used in many ways:

Diging of trenches, holes, fundations Material handling Brush cuting with hidraulic attachments Forestary work

Demollition General grading/landscaping Heavy lift, e.g. lifting and placing of pipes Mining, especially, but not only open-pit mining River dredging

Driving piles, in conjunction with a Pile Driver equippment boume ceb undercarriage whils fanctions hydraulic progression steem Diging Foundations Cutting Forestary Demollition

Excavators come in a wide variety of sizes. The smaller ones are called mini or compact excavators.Caterpillar's smallest miniexcavator weighs 3549 lb (1610 kg) and has 19 hp; their largest model weighs 187,360 lb (84,980 kg) and has 513 hp. The largest excavator available is the KOMATSUPC8000, it weighs in excess of 1,540,000 lb (700,000 kg), has 4010 hp and has a bucket size of about (42.0 m). Engines in excavators drive hydraulic pumps; there are usually 3 pumps: the two main pumps are for supplying oil at high pressure (up to 5000 psi) for the rams, slew motor, track motors, and accessories, and the third is a lower pressure (700 psi) pump for Pilot Control, this circuit used for the control of the spool valves, this allows for a reduced effort required when operating the controls. The two main sections of an excavator are the undercarriage and the house. The undercarriage includes the blade (if fitted), tracks, track frame, and final drives, which have a hydraulic motor and gearing providing the drive to the individual tracks, and the house includes the operator cab,counterweight engine, fuel and hydraulic oil tanks. The house attaches to the Undercarriage by way of a center pin, allowing the machine to slew 360 unhindered. The main boom attaches to the house, it can be one of 3 different configurations, Most are Mono Booms, these have no movement apart from straight up and down, some others have a Knuckle Boom which can also move left and right in line with the machine, the other option is a hinge at the base of the boom allowing it to hydraulically pivot up to 180 independent to the house, however this is generally available only to compact excavators. Attached to the end of the Boom is the Stick (or dipper arm), the stick provides the digging force required to pull the bucket through the ground, the stick length is optional depending whether reach (longer stick) or break-out power (shorter stick) is required. On the end of the stick is usually a bucket. A wide, large capacity (Mud) bucket with a straight cutting edge is used for cleanup and leveling or where the material to be dug is soft, and teeth are not required. A general purpose (GP) bucket is generally smaller, stronger, and has

hardened side cutters and teeth used to break through hard ground and rocks. Buckets have numerous shapes and sizes for various applications. There are also many other attachments which are available to be attached to the excavator for boring, ripping, crushing, cutting, lifting, etc. A road roller (sometimes called a roller-compactor, or just roller) is a compactor type engineering vehicle used to compact soil, gravel, concrete, or asphalt in the construction of roads and foundations. In some parts of the world, road rollers are still known colloquially as steam rollers, regardless of their method of propulsion. This typically only applies to the largest examples (used for road-making). Road rollers use the weight of the vehicle to compress the surface being rolled. Initial compaction of the substrate is done using a pneumatic-tyred roller, with two rows (front and back) of pneumatic tyres. The flexibility of the tyres, with a certain amount of vertical movement of the wheels, enables the roller to operate effectively on uneven ground. The finish is done using metal-drum rollers to ensure a smooth, even result. Rollers are also used in landfill compaction. Such compactors typically have knobbed ("sheeps-foot") wheels, and do not achieve a smooth surface. The knobs aid in compression due to the smaller area contacting the ground. A paver (paver finisher, asphalt finisher) is an engineering vehicle used to lay asphalt on roadways. It is normally fed by a dump truck. A separate machine, a roller, is then used to press the hot asphalt mix, resulting a smooth, even surface. The sub-base being prepared by use of a grader to trim crushed stone to profile after rolling.

PROBLEM SOLVING CENTRAL HEATING TASK 1. A. Read the following text and solve the tasks underneath.

Cold top section of radiator This is usually an indication that air has got into the system somewhere and has become trapped. Air in a radiator will rise to the top forming a pocket stopping the hot water from getting to that part. This can be released, but remember to turn the heating off first. Now, armed with a rag beneath, use a radiator key to slacken the air bleed valve which is at one end towards the top of the radiator. There will be a hissing sound as the air comes out. As soon as water begins to flow, close the vent again and wipe away any water. Take care not to get scalded the water may be pretty hot. The heating can then be switched back on. Some systems have an automatic air release valve fitted. This usually has a small red top which should be slack to enable the air to escape. Radiators should not need frequent bleeding. If they do, air is getting in and this should be sorted out by a professional heating installer B. Circle the right answers according to the information in the text; there is only one correct answer. 1. What is it that the air does when it accumulates in a radiator? a. it lifts b. it lowers 2. What is the contextual meaning of the verb to slacken (line 4)? a. to release b. to open c. to loosen d. to tighten 3. When the radiator is aired, is it normal to let any water come out of the pipe? a. yes b. no 4. To be scalded (line 6) means

a. to be splashed b. to be burnt c. to get wet d. to get a cold 5. Bleeding (line 9) in this context means a. losing blood b. letting a substance go out c. blending substances d. opening a valve

TASK 2. A. Read the following text and solve the tasks underneath.
Cold bottom section of radiator This is a sign of rust and sludge build up which is sitting in the bottom of the radiator. Following the guides on removing and refitting a radiator, take the radiator outside and flush it through with a hosepipe. If you have the radiator standing on end, you should be able to flush out most of the sludge. With an open vent system, you may also consider using a proprietary heating system sludge remover. Iron oxide which has built up in the system is broken down and dispersed through flushing. This will mean adding it to the feed and expansion tank and, a few days later, emptying and refilling the system. Treating the system with a sludge remover will maintain the efficiency of your heating system conserving fuel and saving you money. B. Circle the right answers according to the information in the text; there is only one correct answer. 1. Rust (line 1) means:

a. deposit of dirt b. deposit of earth c. a sound produced by old installation d. a product resulted from corrosion 2. Sludge (line 1) means: a. a mixture of water and oil b. a mixture of salt and clay c. a mixture of dirt and water d. a mixture of oil and dirt 3. To flush (line 2) means: a. to clean b. to wipe c. to pour water d. to scratch

TASK 3. A. Read the following text and solve the tasks underneath.
Upstairs radiators cold This is most often an indication that the feed and expansion cistern in the loft has run dry. This should not happen and indicates another problem which needs to be sorted.

Its probable that the ball valve is not operating correctly. It may have jammed or be obstructed. Clear any obstruction or replace worn parts. Remember when refilling and adjusting the ball valve that there must be enough room for the water to expand when the system heats up. Therefore, when the system is cold, there should be just enough water to make the ball to float and switch off the water coming in. Warm radiators upstairs when the heating is off, and hot water is on If this happens, it is probably because the check valve on a gravity fed system has failed. In a gravity fed system, the hot water cylinder is heated by water from the boiler which flows due to the gravity and not a pump. To prevent the water also heating the radiators when the heating is off, a check valve is fitted. If this has failed, the radiators upstairs will begin to receive some of the heat. The valve will need to be replaced by a heating engineer. B. Circle the right answers according to the information in the text; there is only one correct answer. 1. The feed cistern (line 1) means: a. the foot of the cistern b. a full cistern c. an alimentation cistern d. a cistern that is fitted 2. To sort (line 2) means: a. to choose b. to solve c. to organize in sorts d. to match 3. To obstruct (line 3, 4) means: a. to stop something from happening b. to allow something to happen

c. to make something abstract d. to construct something 4. What is a gravity fed system? .

TASK 4. A. Read the following text and solve the tasks underneath.
No heating or hot water Make sure that the power supply is on and that a fuse hasnt blown. Remember, if a fuse has blown, you should always rectify the cause first. As always, take great care with any electrical inspection or work. Check that the gas or oil supply has not been turned off inadvertently. In the case of oil, check that you actually have some oil in the tank by reading the gauge. Check that the programmer is in the on position and that the thermostats are turned up high enough. Check that the pump is running. If not, get a heating engineer in to investigate. Check that the pilot light is lit. If it isn't, follow the details for relighting in the boiler manual. If none of these solve the problem, its time to call in a heating engineer. B. Clarify the meaning of the following phrasal verbs: a. To be on b. To turn off c. To turn up


Name .


TASK 1. A. Read the following text and solve the tasks underneath.
The pump which sends the water around the system may be set too 'fast. In this case, try turning it down to a lower setting. Pumps can also cause this noise in the pipe work through vibration of the pipes. This can be eliminated by mounting the pump on special brackets which absorb the vibration rather than transferring it to the pipes. Finally, the problem can arise where undersized pipes have been installed. B. Circle the right answers according to the information in the text; there is only one correct answer. 1. Set (line 1) means: a. fixed b. established c. categorized d. regulated 2. Mounting (line 3) means: a. climbing b. rigidifying c. fixing d. clamping

3. Undersized (Line 4) means: a. sized under b. understand c. bigger than d. smaller than 4. What is the cause of pipe vibration? a. mounting of the pipes b. setting special brackets c. fast setting d. low setting KNOCKS AND CREAKING

TASK 1. A. Read the following text and solve the tasks underneath.
Everywhere that pipes pass through other materials like floor joists or walls, there is a possibility that they will rub when they expand or contract unless enough space has been left. If you can identify where the noise comes from, investigate the pipe work in the area to see where it is rubbing. Rubbing against floor joists where the notch is too narrow to allow a little movement, is a common cause. This can easily be widened by cutting an extra slither away from one side with a saw and chiseling away the waste. Take care not to damage the pipe and do not deepen the notch as this weakens the joist. You can also pack a bit of fiberglass insulation around them to cushion the rubbing. This packing can also help where pipes come up through floorboards. Sometimes pipes running beneath the floorboards have not been supported properly. If you find pipe work which has a lot of free movement - for example where they run parallel to the joists - they will need to be secured. Fit a small batten, screwed between the joists, and use pipe clips to retain the pipes.

B. Circle the right answers according to the information in the text; there is only one correct answer. 1. Give the opposites (antonyms) of the following words: a. narrow vs. b. deep vs. c. weak vs. d. beneath vs. 2. To rub (line 2) means: a. break b. clean c. crack d. fret 3.Notch (line 4) means: a. whole b. hole c. entrance d. outlet 4. Rubbing can happen in the following situations (two correct answers out of six possibilities): a. small space b. big space

c. narrow joists d. expansion e. leakage f. contraction

5. To cushion the rubbing (line 7) means: a. b. c. d. to inspect the rubbing to seal the rubbing to protect the rubbing to create the rubbing

6. To chisel the waste (line 5) means: a. to eliminate the unnecessary b. to put around ones waist c. to add something extra d. to put the garbage away