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INTRODUCTION

ABOUT THE PROJECT

The project entitled “Hospital Management System” is an attractive menu

driven package. The package provides facilities for the Clients Database

Management like Addition, Modification, Deletion, and Searching of a

particular record etc. Apart from the above mentioned the package efficiently

performs transactions dealing with the purchases and sales of the medicines in

the Hospital. The package also has an effective Reporting system that gives a

clear representation of Reports like Payments, Receipts, Tests, Services, and

Medicines etc.

The system is quite user friendly and provides online help at each step of the

project. Any one who does not know how to operate even Windows and Visual

Basic can use this package without any difficulty. To organize data in proper

format and for easy retrieval tables at the backend are designed. The system

contains seven Master tables and eight Transaction tables. All the tables are

normalized to avoid redundancy.


The interface designed for the package allows users to maintain Masters

easily that is very important to any system. In our package seven screens are

designed to maintain masters and eights screens are designed to do

transactions

ABOUT THE ORGANISATION

“Raju Neuro and Multi Speciality Hospital” is established in 1992. Big

numbers of medical specialists work for this hospital. This hospital is always

having large number of “in-patients” rather than out patients. For the

convenience of the patients the hospital authorities provided a big medical

store inside the hospital. The hospital is also having various departments like

Laboratory for tests, X-rays etc. for servicing the patients.

They have been engaged in practice of medicine since 1992 and accustomed

to do all the task manually. Since increase in the number of Patients, Doctors

and Staff, they wanted to give better service to patients and all others related

to hospital and decided to computerize the entire system.


The hospital provides various types of rooms for inpatients like General,

Single bed, Double bed, A/c, Intensive care etc. After the admission of the

each patient, full treatment from all the ways is maintained for the case sheet.

The preparation of case sheet for each and every patient is very important

because once if patient leaves the hospital after the treatment no one can

remember the things about patient not even patient. So the automation makes

it possible to maintain the in patients information in the form of records.

OBJECTIVES

• The basic objective of the proposed system is that the system should

contain each and every activity carried out in favor of the patients, in

the form of records logically and that data must be available for further

calculations as and when needed

• The system should be accessible to the authorized people only.

Authentication checking must be performed before any one could open

the application. For that purpose the application should prompt for the

login and password before any operation is performed.


• The system computerization should reduce the errors and improve the

service to all those who are visiting the hospital in turn increase the

quality of service and good will

• All the payments and receipts are maintained as a part of the accounts.

For that one master file is maintained containing codes of accounts.

And for each type of transaction (Payments or Receipts) are updated

for a particular code.

• The service charges, tests charges, medical charges, theatre charges (if

any), room charges, and advances from the patients are stored and

presented in the final bill. In fact all the above information is needed

for the calculations at the time of discharging the patients.

• The system should produce the reports department wise as per the need

of the people of hospital like daily report weekly reports etc.

• Only the in patients will be available for the system to do transactions of

just like Test and Operations. Even modification for the patients

irrespective of the state, some operations needs only inpatients.


SYSTEM HARDWARE

Due to the unprecedented growth in the complexities of the organizational

activities and operations, the management of the organizational data

cannot be done without a systematic and logical approach. In this

direction both computer hardware and software act as an information

management tool for the effective storage and retrieval of the data. It

features the diverse pieces of data.

HARDWARE

CPU : PENTIUM

RAM : Minimum of32 MB

SECONDARY STORAGE : Minimum of 3 GB

ADISPLAY : SVGA Monitor

I/P DEVICES : Keyboard& Mouse

SOFTWARE

BACK-END : ORACLE

FRONT-END : VISUAL BASIC 6.0


SYSTEM ANALYSIS

IDENTIFICATION OF THE NEED

The main aim of the system analysis is to identifying the need and

understanding the problem. Analysis is to obtain a clear understanding of the

needs of the clients and what exactly is desired from the software

The “Hospital Management System” or the problem given to me is to

automate the existing manual system. Automating the existing system is to

take care of various concepts regarding the processing of the activities done to

the patient. The need may be making the patient have appointment with the

specialist practicing in the hospital according to the decease of the patient.

Moreover the patient must be allotted room as per his economical standards so

the system briefs the details of the types of rooms available in the hospital.

The visitors who come to see the patient would enquire about the people

admitted in the hospital. So the system identifies the room numbers of the

particular patient by their names, date or other information. As well as the

status of the rooms whether vacated or not. This is the one of the needs of the

proposed system.
In developing the software for any “Hospital Management System” it is

very important to identify that every such system will have the activities like

performing the preliminary tests to the patients like taking X ray, Ecg, Blood

test and etc., And

Importantly the activities of operation theatre because scheduling the activities

of the operation theatre are one of the main and vital things.

Almost in every transaction in ever department of the deals with the charges

charged by the hospital authorities for various services done to the patients.

For example when the patient has to be discharged the system should check all

the transactions from all the departments depending on the patient code or

name of the patient. And all the charges should reflect in the final bill with

appropriate description. If this process is done manually it is not always

possible for authorities to serve their patients properly so the need is identified

in a way that the system needed by customer should reduce errors or eliminate

errors that are common in manual operation.

The identification of the need as a part of the system analysis has something to

do with the requirements of the customer (hospital authorities in this context)

and the people working in the hospital who could explain the needs better than

a person who owns the hospital. So the collection of all the details of staff and

their way of doing things will form the need of the proposed system.
PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

The first step in system development life cycle is the preliminary investigation

to determine the system. The purpose of the preliminary investigation is to

evaluate project requests. It is not a design study nor does it include the

collection of details to describe the business system in all respect. Rather, it is

the collecting of information that helps committee members to evaluate the

merits of the project requests and make an informed judgment about the

feasibility of the proposed project.

Raju Neuro and Multi Speciality Hospital is the proposed system and the

preliminary investigation of the above system included the following.

Understanding the system is the first step, because without understanding the

system analysis does not complete. The people of “Raju Neuro and Multi

Speciality Hospital” clarified everything in the proposed system. Then the size

of the project was determined depending on the size of the project some are

influenced like cost and duration of the project and it could help us to access

costs and benefits of the alternative approaches.


The data collected during preliminary investigations are gathered

through three primary methods: Reviewing organization documents, On-site

observation and collecting interviews.

REVIEWING ORGANISATION:

In conducting the investigation it is first learned that about the organization

i.e., in what things the “Raju Neuro and Multi Speciality Hospital” involved

in. For example medical store in the hospital, we first have to know that how

department works and who are the persons directly associated with inventory

system. I also got some details by examining organization charts and studied

written operating procedures. The procedures clearly defined various

important steps involved receiving, managing and dispensing stock.

ON-SITE OBSERVATION:

Another important technique to collect date is on-site observation. In this

method, I observed the activities of the system directly. One purpose of the

on-site observation is to get as chose as possible to the real system being

studied. During on-site observation, I could see the office environment, work

load of the system and the users, methods of work and the facilities provided

by Raju Neuro and Multi Speciality Hospitl to the users.

CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS:
Written documents and on site observation technique told me how the

system should operate, but the did not include enough details to allow a

decision to be made about the merits of system proposal, not do the present

user views about current operations. I used interviews to learn more about the

nature of the project request and the reason for submitting it. Interviews

would provide the details that further explain the project and show whether

assistance is merited economically.

FEASIBILITY STUDY

A feasibility study is carried out to select the best system that meets

performance requirements. An important outcome of the preliminary

investigation is the determination whether the system requested is feasible or

not. The determination of whether or not a project is worth doing is known as

feasibility. Once it has been determined that the project is worth doing i.e. the

project is feasible, one can go ahead and prepare the project specification

which finalizes project requirements. The process by which we determine

whether a project is feasible or not is called feasibility study.


The features of existing system (Raju Neuro and Multi Speciality

Hospital) are in manual. The major drawback observed was un-normalized

data that leads to data redundancy and pupation anomalies. Moreover, the

system was found to be tackling ineffectiveness and efficiency and generally

slow. Due to these drawbacks in existing system a decision to develop an in-

house computerized system has been taken. A preliminary investigation had

been carried out to know more about the problem and also to examine the

usefulness of the system to be developed.

Feasibility study refers to a process of evaluating alternative system through

cost/benefit analysis so that the most feasible and desirable system can be

selected for development. The feasibility study of this “Hospital Management

System” is undertaken from three angles.

1. Technical Feasibility.

2. Economical feasibility.

3. Operational feasibility.

TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY

This is concerned with specifying equipment and software that will

successfully satisfy the user requirement. The technical needs of the

system may vary considerably, but might include:


• The facility to produce outputs in a given time in the hospital

• Response time under certain conditions.

• Ability to process a certain volume of transaction at a particular

speed

• Facility to communicate data to distant location.

• This system can be expanded if developed.

• Necessary technology is existing to do what is suggested

• There are technical guarantees like reliability, ease of access and

data security.

In examining technical feasibility of computerization of Raju Neuro and

Multi Speciality Hospital, configuration of the system was given more

importance than the actual make of the hardware. The configuration is

giving the complete picture about the system’s requirements: How many

workstations are required and how the are interconnected and input,

output speed.
ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY

It includes an evaluation of all incremental costs and benefits expected if

the proposed system is implemented. The financial and economic factors

are considered in this stage. Since the project is developed using the

existing resources in the department, there is no extra outlay specific for

the proposed system. Also if the system is developed. Manual data entry

and costs are reduced. Thus considering all the above facts that the

proposed system has passed in all tests of feasibility.

A system that is being developed technically and that will be used if

installed, would still be profitable for the “Raju Neuro and Multi Speciality

Hospital”. Financial benefits must equal or exceed the costs. During the

study of economical feasibility the following are estimated.

• The cost to conduct a full system investigation in “Raju Neuro and

Multi Speciality Hospital” for developing Hospital Management

system.

• The cost of hardware and software for the class of application being

considered
• The benefits in the form of reduced costs or fewer costly errors were

examined.

• The cost if nothing changes.

To be judged feasible, a proposal for the specific project must pass all these

tests.

OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY

Proposed project is beneficial because it can be turned into information

systems that will meet the operating requirements of the organization.

This test of feasibility asks if the system will work when it is developed and

installed. There are major barriers to implementation. In testing the

operational feasibility of this project the following factors are considered.

• The management has given a sufficient support for this system.

• The facilities given in this project are acceptable by the user.

• The user has been involved in planning and development of the

project

• The proposed system does not cause harm it will produce rich result

in any case or area. After implementation there is no chance that

staff performance fall down


• The users have been involved in the planning and development of the

project so the chances of resistance can be possibly reduced.

• The current business methods are acceptable to the users. However

the users welcome a change that will bring about a more operational

and useful system

Issues that appear to be quite minor at the early stage can grow into major

problem after implementation. So operational aspects are considered very

carefully.

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT

SPECIFICATION

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION


DOCUMENT

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Purpose

This Document is to describe the external requirements, external interfaces

and constraints for the project “Hospital Management System“


Scope:

This document is meant for use by the developers and will be the basis for

validating the final delivered system, any changes to the requirements in

the future will have to go through a formal change approval process. The

developer is responsible for asking for clarifications, where necessary and

will not make any alterations without the permission of the client (Raju

Neuro and Multi Speciality Hospital)

2.General Description:

Product Perspective

This system is dependent of many other activities in the organization, such

as the Services, Doctors, and Customers (Patients).

Product Functions

The main function of the system is the collection of information about the

different patients, services and medicine details for every month and
prepares their corresponding reports. The other functions of the system

are to maintain updated bills details.

User Characteristics:

The main user of the system is Manager of “Raju Neuro and Multi

Speciality Hospital”. He maintains the data about Patients, charges and

bills.

Assumptions and Dependencies:

This system assumes or depends on a factor that the details of the master

accounts are available then only transactions will be performed.

Functional Requirements:

Introduction

The main functions of the system are to collect the details of the patients

and the services they provided and producing the appropriate reports like

Case sheet, Patients bills and medicine issues report.


The main user of the system is Manager of “Raju Neuro and Multi

Speciality Hospital”. He maintains the data about Patients, bills and

accounts.

Inputs:

Inputs for the system Hospital Management System are:

1. Doctor Master

2. Patient Master

3. Room Master

4. Test Master

5. Service Master

6. Medicine Master

7. Account Master

8. Payment Transaction

9. Receipt Transaction

10.Purchase Transaction

11.Issue Transaction

12.Test Transaction
13.Service Transaction

14.Advance Transaction

Processing:

• Maintenance of the Patients details

• Maintenance of the Doctors details

• Maintenance of the Rooms details

• Maintenance of the Medicines details

• Maintenance of the Tests&Services details

Outputs :

• Preparing and generating Payments report

• Generating Receipts report

• Generating Medicines report

• Generating Tests Report

• Generating Services Report


• Generating Bills Report

External Interfaces:

User Interfaces:

• To register the Account details

• To register the Medicine details

• To register the Doctor details

• To register the Patients details

• To prepare various reports

Software requirement specification is produced at the culmination of the

analysis task. Establishing a complete information description refines the

function and performance allocated to software as part of system engineering.

The information of the software requirement specification states the goals and

objectives of the software, describing it in the context of the computer-based

system. The Information description provides a detailed description of the

problem that the software must solve.

A description of each function required t solve the problem is presented in the

Functional description. A processing narrative is provided for each function,


design constraints are stated and justified, performance characteristics are

stated. The Behavioral description section of the specification examines the

operation of the software as a consequence of external events and internally

generated control characteristics.

Validation criteria are probably the most important and, ironically, the most

often neglected section of the Software Requirements Specification. Finally

the specification includes a Bibliography and appendix. Preliminary user

manual presents the software as Black Box. Software requirement

specification is developed as a consequence of analysis. Review is essential to

ensure that the developer and the customer have the same perception of the

system.

SOFTWARE ENGINEERING PARADIGM APPLIED

To solve actual problem in industry setting, a software engineer or a team

or engineers must incorporate a development strategy is referred to as

Software Engineering Paradigm or Process Model. Software Engineering

Paradigm for software engineering is chosen based one the nature of the
project and application, the methods and tools to be used, and controls and

deliverables that are required. In our case the proposed system Hospital

Management System was developed using Linear Sequential Model.

Because the tools, controls chosen for “Raju Neuro and Multi Speciality

Hospital” are suitable for Linear Sequential Software Engineering

Paradigm.

Problem
Definition

Status Technical
Quo Development

Solution
Integration

THE LINEAR SEQUENTIAL MODEL:


The Linear Sequential Model is also called Waterfall Model. This suggests

a systematic, sequential approach to software development that begins at

system level and progresses through analysis, design, coding, testing, and

support. Modeled after a conventional engineering cycle, the linear

sequential model encompasses the following activities:

System/Information Engineering and Modeling:

Software is always part of a larges system; work begins by

establishing requirements for all system elements and then allocating some

subset of these requirements to software. This system view is essential

when software must interact with other elements such as hardware, people,

and databases.

System / Information Engineering

Analysis Design Code Test

Software Requirement Analysis:

The requirements gathering process is intensified and focused

specifically on software. To understand the nature of the program(s) to be


built, the software engineer (“analyst”) must understand the information

domain for the software, as well as required function, behavior,

performance, and interface. Requirements for both the system and

software are documented and reviewed with the customer.

Design:

Software design is actually a multi-step process that focuses on

four distinct attributes of a program: Data-structure, Software

architecture, interface representations, and procedural (algorithmic)

detail. The design process translates requirements into a representation of

the software that can be assessed for quality before coding begins. Like

requirements, the design is documented and becomes part of the software

configuration.

Code generation:

The design must be translated into a machine-readable form.

The code generation step performs this task. If design is performed in a

detailed manner, code generation can be accomplished mechanistically.

Testing:
Once code has been generated, program testing begins. The

testing process focuses on the logical internals of the software, ensuring

that all statements have been tested, and on the functional external; that is,

conducting tests to uncover errors and ensure that defined input will

produce actual results that agree with required results.

Support:

Software will undoubtedly undergo change after it is delivered

to the customer (a possible exception is embedded software). Change will

occur because errors have been encountered, because the software must be

adapted to accommodate changes in its external environment, or because

the customer requires functional of performance enhancements. Software

support/maintenance reapplies each of the preceding phases to an existing

program rather than a new one.

Linear Sequential Model is oldest and most widely used paradigm for

software engineering. And it is the software engineering paradigm applied

for developing Hospital Management System in “Raju Neuro and Multi

Speciality Hospital”.
TESTING

Testing is a major quality control measure employed during software


development. Its basic function is to detect errors in the software. During
requirement analysis and design, the output is a document that is usually
textual and non-executable. After the coding phase, computer programs are
available that can be executed for testing purposes. This implies that testing
not only has to uncover the errors introduced during coding, but also errors
introduced during the previous phases.

Testing is an extremely critical and time-consuming activity. It requires


proper planning of overall testing process. Frequently the testing process
starts with a test plan. This plan identifies all the testing related activities that
must be performed and specifies the schedule, allocates the resources and
specified guidelines for testing. The test plan specifies condition that should be
tested different units to be tested and the manner in which the modules will be
integrated together. For the different test units, a test case specification
document is produced, which tests all the different test cases, together with the
expected outputs, that will be used for testing.

There are two basic approaches to testing, functional and structural. In


functional testing. In functional testing, the structure of the program is not
considered. Test cases are decided solely on the basis of the requirements or
specification of the program or module, and the internal of the module or
program are not considered for the selection of test cases. Due to its nature,
functional testing is often called “BLACK BOX TESTING”. In the
structural approach, test cases are generated based on the actual code of the
program or module to be tested. Thus, structural approach is sometimes is
called “GLASS BOX TESTING”.

UNIT TESTING:
Unit test focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of software design,
the module. Using the details design description as a guide, important
control paths are tested to uncover errors with in the boundary of the
module. Unit testing as many important results for the next integration
testing to be easy.
The unit test considers the following conditions of a program module while
testing.

MODULE

Interface
Local Data Structures
Boundary Conditions
Independent paths
Errors handling paths

TEST CASES
The test applied on the module is the interface test, to ensure that
information properly flows into and out of the program unit under test.
The local data a structure is examined to ensure that data stored
temporarily maintains in integrity during all steps in algorithm execution.
Boundary conditions are tested to ensure that module operates properly at
boundaries, established to limit or restrict processing.

INTEGRATION TESTING:
Integration is nothing but putting together the modules into one major
program. Here the integration testing is applied to check the integration
interfacing. Date can be lost across an interface. One module can have an
inadverant, advance effect on another. Sub functions, when combined may
not produce the desired major function. Individually acceptable
impression may be magnified to unacceptable levels; global data structure
can present problems and so on.
Incremental integration testing is a process of integration testing where the
program is constructed and tested and tested in small segments, so that
errors can be easily isolated and a systematic test approach may be
applied.
SYSTEM TESTING:
System testing is a method of testing applied on the whole system. A classic
system problem is finger pointing. This occurs when a defect is uncovered.
The software engineer anticipated potential interfacing problems and
• Design error-handling paths that test all information coming from to
the elements of system.
• Conduct a series of tests that simulate bad data or other potential
errors at the software interface.
• Record the results.

The software development in the design phase is tested to make sure


whether the software is running according to its specifications and logic in
the way the user expect it to do. The test data are prepared so as to test
each and every condition of the logic.

The test data used are live and real, and their output are compared
with the actual outputs and made to match. But in future some other type
of data may be expected and they may not be available currently as live
data. For this, the artificial test data is used. Using these two types of
data, all sorts of logic are tested.

The program is executed many times using the test data with the
explicit intention of finding errors. Each program and module of the
system is tested independently in time of unit testing method to locate the
errors with in that module. While testing the module the upper level
modules are tested first followed by the lower level modules.

This “Hospital Management System” has been developed for he client


according to the requirement of the “Raju Neuro and Multi Speciality
Hospital”.

TESTING STRATIGIES
Modules are integrated by moving through control hierarchy,
beginning from main module. Main module is treated as driver and sub
modules are tested as per detailed specifications given below.

A. Check list for interface testing:


1. Number of input parameters equal to number of arguments?
2. Units and order of parameters, arguments match?
3. Transmission of arguments to modules, functions are correct?
4. Global variables defined consistently across modules?

B. Check list for I/O testing :


1. File attributes correct?
2. Open/Close statements are correct?
3. Format specification match I/O statements?
4. EOF condition handled properly?
5. I/O errors handled properly?

C. Check list for logical data structure testing?


1. Improper or inconsistent typing?
2. Erroneous defaults?
3. Data type mismatches?
4. Incorrect variable name (Misspelled/Truncated)?
FUTURE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The development of an software system should be used an organization

needs a careful and thorough understanding of the technology used, including

the present system, the analysis stage must consider the major operational

areas and justification of computerized information system developed.

The project “HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM “ is aimed to

provide powerful graphical user interface applications that access the

database, and having powerful GUI VISUAL BASIC 6.0. The Project is

developed in a user-friendly manner. So without any computer qualification

one can work on the system after a little training. The complete package is

thoroughly tested with all kinds of data available in the hospital. The project is

also capable of marinating the medical shop for that it maintains one master

and two transaction tables. So the project is compatible for all the daily

activities of the hospital for a long time.


The tables are normalized to reduce redundancy and inconsistency. To

perform operations on the database, different forms are designed and

developed. The database is organized in a way that no conflict will arise

Even though more front-end tools are added in future. The project is

developed not only for existing requirements but also for future needs as the

equipment, doctors, staff, and patients will increase day by day. The system

gives the scope for the further enhancement if in future the requirements are

broaden.

PERT CHART – GANTT CHART

15th , des
Pert Chart:

create tables

25th, des

write code of
Class Module

15st , nov 10th , des 10th,jan

start design design forms

10th, jan 10th , feb


Write code Integration
for forms And test

25th,jan

Connect database

1st ,feb

Write manual
25th , feb

Finish

Pert chart for “Hospital Management System”

GANTT CHART:

15th nov 10th,des 15th,des 25th,des 10th,jan25th,jan 1st,feb 10th feb 25th feb

start

Design
Create tables

Write code of class module


Design forms

Write code of forms

Connect database

Write manual

Integration
&testing

finish

Gantt chart for the “Hospital Management System"

MAINTENANCE

Software will undoubtedly undergo change it is delivered to the customer,

changes will occur because errors have been encountered, because the
software must be adapted to accommodate changes in its external environment

enhancements.

Software maintenance has been characterized as an “iceberg”. The ubiquitous

nature of change underlies all software work, change is inevitable. As more

programs are developed, a disturbing trend has emerged the amount of

effort and resources expanded on software maintenance are growing.

Maintenance is necessary to eliminate errors in the working system during its

working life and to tune the system to any variations in its working

environment. These are always some errors detected that must be corrected.

IMPLEMENTATIONS

During implementation, the components builds during development are put

into operational use. Usually this means that the new and old systems are run

in parallel for some time. To complete the change over, users must be trained

in system operation and any existing procedures must be converted to the new

system.
The result implementation is the working system. This includes the set of

working programs.

IMPLEMENTATION

This is one of the important phases of system development life cycle (sdlc). It

includes all those activities that take place to convert to old traditional system to

the new system. Proper implementation is essential to provide a reliable system to

meet the organization needs/requirements.

SYSTEM TESTING:

The software development in the design phase is tested to make sure whether the

software is running according to its specifications and logic in the way the user

expect it to do. The test data are prepared so as to test each and every condition of

the logic.

The test data use are live and real and their output are compared with the actual

outputs and made to match. But in future some other type of data may be

expected and they may not be able currently at live data. For this the artificial test

data is used. Using these two types of data, all sorts of logic are tested.
The program is executed many times using the test data with the explicit

intention o finding errors. Each program and module of the system is tested

independently in line of unit testing method to locate those errors within the

module. While testing the module upper level modules are tested first followed by

lower level modules. The project has been developed at the client sight according

to the requirements of the organization.

SECURITY MEASURES

Security measures prevent unauthorized persons to access the system.

To have a security measure the system should be provided with the login id

and password facility. Security is provided for both the database level and

application level. In out “Hospital Management System” every user is

provided a separate user id and password thus the system is capable of

avoiding unauthorized user form accessing the system.

Only the authorized persons to avoid the data corruption access the

database. The database can be accessed only if correct login id and password

are provided. At the application level the user is given permission to go ahead
with the package only if he enters the correct password at the first stage.

Again after entering the main menu to access the master files there is another

password, which has to be entered correctly. In this way only the authorized

persons are given permission to access the master files.

COST ESTIMATION

The cost of the proposed system is estimated by considering some standard things

that are almost common to ever system. They are:

The cost of the system analysis. That is the cost incurred during investigation of

the existing system. Every proposed system is investigated first to decide that

whether feasible or not.

Secondly the cost of the software that is developed. It includes the software cost

and development cost. This is the major cost among all other costs. Because

software only is the one that runs the system.


Next comes hardware cost it completely depends on the configuration chosen by

the organization. The hard ware configuration will be guided by the people those

who are developing the system. After all to decide the hardware configuration the

system requirement is considered. Like input or output speed.

Now the training of the employs working in the organization cause some cost.

Before working on the new system everyone should get trained. The people who

developed the package do this process.

Finally the maintenance cost, necessary to the every system. After installation

every system should be done maintenance for the smooth execution of the

functions.

CODE EFFICIENCY

The efficiency of the code written for developing “Hospital Management

System” for “Raju Neuro and Multi Spieciality Hospital” is considered

depending on the way of doing programming. If the maximum number of

lines of code is decreased, it is called efficient code. Because if the same task is

done with little amount of code really it will be efficient code. In the present
project a class module was written to contain the methods that will be called

and used by all the forms. To maintain the spirit of modularity the task is

divided into the subtasks.

The code for connection establishment is written in the class module whatever

form is opened that form can call this method and established the connection

with the database Oracle. Next every form will have their own record sets and

each record set variable is passed to the class module to have the appropriate

characteristics. Next the moving of next record, previous record is done by

explicitly calling the methods from class module. The function clears () is

called when we have to clear the fields of any form but we should pass the

form as parameter.

Deleting the record from any table is made by delete () function where we pass

the record set variable order of the field and value for the field. In order to

traverse across the records of the table the function go () is called. In order to

add items to combo box the function combofill () is called by passing the

parameter like record set and order of the field.

OPTIMISATION OF CODE
The code written for “Hospital Management System” on be half of “Raju

Neuro and Multi speciality Hospital” is made most effective user for the

application. Briefly the methods are all written in such a way the reuse is

done to each and every method. The main advantage with optimism is that

if the code is written applying modularity and used repeatedly the size of

the project gets reduced and package will run faster.

There are some methods written in class module of the project. The

specialities of those functions are that they are called repeatedly for the

same type of job in any form. That is if a record is to be deleted the

method delrec () of class module is called for all the forms. The basic idea

behind this is to optimize the code and for one type of operation

everywhere in the project only one function is enough for entire project

In any project developed using Relational Database Management system,

just like our project, the database tables are accessed using record sets. In

out project every form has its one record set declaration (private), and

commonly for all forms only one connection is done. So there will be no

conflict.
VALIDATION CHECKS

• Checking for the unique Account code, Test code, Service code and

Patient code, doctor code. And codes are automatically generated in

every master maintenance, i.e.,. if the master is added with new record,

the last code is added one anther number and that number is applied

because code should be ordered.

• Checking for required quantity before issuing the medicines. The

medicines that are available only used for transaction to issue the

patients. All the medicines that are purchased should be available for

transaction and new stock should be added to the present stock.

• Checking for the vacancy before providing rooms. The rooms that are

provided for patients should not be accessed to another allotment unless

the patient is did not get discharged or shifted to another room.


• Valid reference of bill before accepting final amount for discharge bill.

All the expenses of the patients should be added to the billtran a billing

transaction table, in appropriate columns. The advance amount should

be subtracted from the final bill properly to calculate balance.

• Checking whether sufficient advance is paid before providing services. If

a service is to be done to a patient, sufficient advance must be collected