Sie sind auf Seite 1von 40

Instrumentation Principles and Trend

Definition Principles Elements of an Instrument Trend


is the science and technology of complete measurement systems with which physical quantities are measured so as to obtain data which can be transmitted to recording and display devices.

Industrial Instrumentation
The application of Instruments to a process for monitoring or measuring its activity to direct or control it.

Measurable Quantity
Possibility of math operation ( +, - , * , / ) Notion of ratio Notion of measure Other Quantity Unit Quantity

measure of that quantity State 1 of the Quantity State 2 of the Quantity Measure 1 Measure 2

Basic Measurands
Mechanical Quantities

Thermal Quantities Magnetic Quantities Electrical Quantities Optical Quantities Molecular Quantities

Instrumentation Principles and Trend

Definition Principles Elements of an Instrument Trend

General Instrumentation Principle

A Variable, which is to be measured, in some way affects a property of the instrument causing a change in state. This change in state must be detectable by one of the 5 senses. Measurement is dependent on the relationship of these interactions, .i.e., the physics of the system.

Some Properties that Change in State

Change in Position Change in Shape Change in Volume Change in Concentration Change in Resistance Change in Conductance Change in Inductance Change in Capacitance Change in Potential Change in Frequency

Some Physics Principles

Hookes Law Charles and Boyles Law Newtons Law: Force Balance Electric Field and Magnetic Field Laws Refraction and Interferometry Photo voltaic principles

Force Balance Deflection Method 0

Deflection is proportional to the weight applied

Spring Balance

Force Balance Null Method

Always Uses horizontal position (null point) to establish the weight Beam Balance

Silicon Nitride Spider Web Bolometer

Silicon Leg Spider Web Bolometer

LMT/GTM Instrumentation

Bolometer Active Element Sensor

LMT/GTM Instrumentation

Semiconductor Gas Sensor

NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio

Silicon Based Gas Sensor

Schottky Diode NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio

Sensor/Transducer Measurands
Input Mechanical Output Mechanical Balance Thermal Magnetic Electric Calorimeter Magneto Elastic Resistive Inductive Capacitive Photo electric Interferometer Ultrasonic




Optic Crooke's Tube Bolometer

Molecular Hydrometer Combustion Calorimeter NMR

Thermometer Magnetometer Electrometers Calorimeter Eddy Current Peltier Cells

Paramagnetic Magnetic Devices Recorder Thermistor Hall-Effect Thermocouple

Electromagnetic Currie Meter transducers Transformers

Polarography Photo Electric potentiometry Photo Resistive Electric field Lenses Photographic emulsions spectroscopy chemical indicators

Optic Molecular

Pyranometer Faraday Cell Laser Thermal Dye Paramagnetic Electrolytic Oxygen Cell Cell

Measurement System

Measurand - is the physical quantity to be measured Transducer -converts the physical quantity of one form of energy to another form of energy (usable form) Transmission channel - path over which the signal is conveyed Signal Processing - process of extracting the information form a signal

Instrumentation Principles and Trend

Definition Principles Elements of an Instrument Trend

Instrumentation System Elements

Transducers Modifiers Transmitters Receivers Display Record / Storage

Block Diagram of a Measuring System

Transducer Display Recording

Signal / Data Processing Amplification Conversion



Bourdon Gauge

Bourdon C Gauge Anatomy

Display Output Device

Spring Force Balance Rotary Amplifier Sensor Transmission Link Rotary Converter


Typical Sensors used in Industry

Pressure Sensors Level Sensors Flow Sensors Temperature Sensors Force, Torque, Speed Sensors Analytical Sensors

Instrumentation Principles and Trend

Definition Principles Elements of an Instrument Trend

Silicon Technology Based Sensors Instrumentation Networks Virtual Instruments Distributed Control Systems Icon Based v.s. Script Based Programming OLE for Process Control (OPC) System on Chip (SOC)

Icon Based Programming

Instrumentation Principles and Trend Conclusion

Need Still Higher Efficiency? LOOK TO INSTRUMENTATION Continuous operation and automation - the keys to productivity in chemical process plants. Plants have had to be made not just efficient but competitive -- and not just domestically but worldwide.

Responding to the challenge, engineers have revamped plants wholesale, by replacing processing equipment by upgrading process instrumentation Newer, better instruments have become critical for higher levels of Productivity, Quantity, Quality, and Optimality to meet demands as tighter safety to meet environmental regulations.

To boost operating efficiency in process plants, manufacturers have come up with new and improved sensors, controllers, process computers, distributed controllers, data-acquisition-and-handling systems, tools for enhancing process control

Instrumentation system facilitates process-control integration

Makes plant-wide communications possible can also reduce installation Costs

Maintenance costs.

The modular architecture allows users: to purchase the functionality just needed to address current needs, to later integrate additional hardware and software, to build up to a plant-wide management and information systems.

Scientific Instrument Application

As A Means for study As an Object of study