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Physics 212

Lecture 15 Amperes Law

B d = o I enclosed

Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 1

Music
Who is the Artist? A) B) C) D) E) Robert Plant Lyle Lovett Alison Krauss Mark Knopfler John Prine

Mark Knopfler, OBE Dire Straits to country We had a request How old is he?

Physics 212 Lecture 15

Your Comments
I actually understand this. Something must be wrong... I don't understand how you can tell the direction of the magnetic field from a picture. Can we go over the second checkpoint? The second question was not covered in the prelecture. I dont quite get the use of 'n' in the formula for magnetic field from an infinite plane. like if we are solving a problem you will not tell as that this infinite plane contains these many infinitely long current carrying wires will you? What does the integral of bdl find you?
Example today Still some trouble with directions in office hours will review quickly

Calculate field in solenoid; compare to infinite sheet

I AMPEREful of not understanding the content of this past pre-lecture.

Hour Exam II Wed. Oct. 26


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Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 3

B Fields and Forces Check

What are the directions of the field and the force due to I3 at I1?
B F B

A.

B.

C.

D.

F F

E.
B

What are the magnitudes of the field and the force due to I3 at I1? A. B1 =

0I 3 , F31 = I1LB1 2 d

B. B1 =

0I1 , F31 = I3LB1 2 d

C. B1 =

0 I3 , F31 = I3LB1 2 d

B1 due to I3; F on I1

Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 4

Infinite current-carrying wire LHS: RHS:

B d = Bd = B d = B 2R I enclosed = I

o I B= 2R

General Case

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Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 5

Practice on Enclosed Currents


Checkpoint 1a Checkpoint 1b Checkpoint 1c

Ienclosed = I

Ienclosed = I

Ienclosed = I

Ienclosed = 0

Ienclosed = 0

Ienclosed = 0

For which loop is Bdl the greatest? A. Case 1 B. Case 2 C. Same

For which loop is Bdl the greatest? A. Case 1 B. Case 2 C. Same

For which loop is Bdl the greatest? A. Case 1 B. Case 2 C. Same

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Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 6

An infinitely long hollow conducting tube carries current I in the direction shown.

Checkpoint 2a

Cylindrical Symmetry
X X X X

Enclosed Current = 0 Check cancellations


What is the direction of the magnetic field inside the tube? A. clockwise B. counterclockwise C. radially inward to the center D. radially outward from the center E. the magnetic field is zero

If you point your thumb in the direction of I, your fingers curl CW. Force is tangent to the cylinder so according to the RHR the magnetic field must be radailly towards the middle The enclosed current is zero, and if you take a non-zero closed path, then we zeo that the field MUST be zero in order for amperes :22 law to hold true

Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 7

Amperes Law

I into screen

Bd
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I enc

Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 8

Amperes Law

B d = o I enc

dl B dl B dl
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B
Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 9

Amperes Law

B d = o I enc

Ienc = 0!

dl B B dl B dl
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Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 10

Amperes Law

B d = o I enc

dl

B dl

B dl

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Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 11

Which of the following current distributions would give rise to the B.dL distribution at the right?

A
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C
Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 12

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Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 13

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Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 14

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Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 15

Match the other two:

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Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 16

A current carrying wire is wrapped around a cardboard tube as shown below.

Checkpoint 2b

In which direction does the magnetic field point inside the tube? A. Left B. Right C. Up D. Down

E. Out of screen

Use the right hand rule and curl your fingers along the direction of the current.
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Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 17

Simulation

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Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 18

Solenoid
Several loops packed tightly together form a uniform magnetic field inside, and nearly zero magnetic field outside.

From this simulation, we can assume a constant field inside the solenoid and zero field outside the solenoid, and apply Amperes law to find the magnitude of the constant field inside the solenoid !!

3 2

4 3

1 4

B d = o I enc

B d + B d + B d + B d = o I enc
1

BL + 0 + 0 + 0 = o I enc
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BL = o nLI
n = # turns/length

B = o nI
Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 19

Similar to the Current Sheet

Total integral around the loop

loop

B id = 2BL = 0Ienclosed

B =

0NI
2L

0 nI
2
Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 20

Example Problem
An infinitely long cylindrical shell with inner radius a and outer radius b carries a uniformly distributed current I out of the screen. Sketch |B| as a function of r.
a

I
x

Conceptual Analysis

Complete cylindrical symmetry (can only depend on r) can use Amperes law to calculate B B field can only be clockwise, counterclockwise or zero!

B d = o I enc

B d = o I enc For circular path concentric w/ shell


Strategic Analysis
Calculate B for the three regions separately: 1) r < a 2) a < r < b 3) r > b
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Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 21

Example Problem
r What does |B| look like for r < a ?

I
a b
x

B d = o I enc
0

so B = 0

(A)
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(B)

(C)
Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 22

Example Problem
r What does |B| look like for r > b ?

I
a b
x

B d = o I enc
I

(A)
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(B)

(C)
Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 23

Example Problem
What does |B| look like for r > b ?

dl LHS: RHS:

I
a b
x

B d = Bd = B d = B 2r

I enclosed = I

o I B= 2r

(A)
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(B)

(C)
Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 24

Example Problem

I
What is the current density j (Amp/m2) in the conductor?
a b
x

(A)

I j= 2 b

(B)

I j= 2 2 b +a

(C)

I j= 2 2 b a

j = I / area

area = b2 a 2
I j= 2 2 b a

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Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 25

Example Problem
r What does |B| look like for a < r < b ?

I
a b
x

(A)
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(B)

(C)
Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 26

Example Problem
What does |B| look like for a < r < b ? r

I
a b
x

B d = oI enc

B 2r = o jAenc

B 2r = o

(b 2 a 2 )

(r a )

o I (r 2 a 2 ) B= 2r (b 2 a 2 )

Starts at 0 and increases almost linearly

(A)
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(B)

Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 27

(C)

Example Problem
An infinitely long cylindrical shell with inner radius a and outer radius b carries a uniformly distributed current I out of the screen. Sketch |B| as a function of r.
a

I
x

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Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 28

Follow-Up
Add an infinite wire along the z axis carrying current I0. What must be true about I0 such that there is some value of r, a < r < b, such that B(r) = 0 ?
a

I I0 X
x

A) |I0| > |I| AND I0 into screen B) |I0| > |I| AND I0 out of screen C) |I0| < |I| AND I0 into screen D) |I0| < |I| AND I0 out of screen

E) There is no current I0 that can produce B = 0 there

B will be zero if total current enclosed = 0


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Physics 212 Lecture 15, Slide 29