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Physics 212

Lecture 21

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 1

Music
Who is the Artist? A) B) C) D) E) Earth, Wind & Fire War Tower of Power Average White Band Chicago

Why? Topic for today = Power Why not Tower of Power ??? Memories from Bay Area

Your Comments
There was an overwhelming amount of formulas for the average power in RLC circuits. Well do our best to restate the Big Ideas and give examples It would be nice if you gave us some methods to remember all of them. quality factor, what is the motivation behind it to study?and please checkpoints, as i m confused I learned in differential equations that if there is resonance is a system, the system is then destroyed, such as bridges and buildings. Does the same things happen in circuits? Wow this is still really hard - can you go over in great detail how to describe and work with rlc ckts using phasors and phase vectors? the transformers were a tad bit confusing
05

But of course!

Depends on the quality factor, e.g. VL,max=Qmax

ABSOLUTELY We will review today..

Short review + demo


Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 3

What Did We Learn in Office Hours Yesterday?


PHASORS ARE THE KEY !! FORMULAS ARE NOT ! START WITH PHASOR DIAGRAM DEVELOP FORMULAS FROM THE DIAGRAM !!
V = Projection along Vertical

Imax XC

max

Imax XL

R
Imax R

max = Imax Z
Imax(XL-XC) Imax R

Imax XL
XL = L XC = 1/C

Imax R

Imax XC

XL-XC

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 4

Peak AC Problems
Ohms Law for each element
NOTE: Good for PEAK values only)

07

C
2

Vgen = Imax Z VResistor = Imax R Vinductor = Imax XL VCapacitor = Imax XC

Z = R2 + ( X L X C )

L R

Typical Problem

XL = L 1 XC = C

A generator with peak voltage 15 volts and angular frequency 25 rad/sec is connected in series with an 8 Henry inductor, a 0.4 mF capacitor and a 50 ohm resistor. What is the peak current through the circuit?

XL

X L = L = 200
1 XC = = 100 C

Z = R2 + ( X L X C ) = 112
I max = Vgen Z
R

= 0.13 A

XC
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 5

Peak AC Problems
Ohms Law for each element 2 Z = R2 + ( X L X C ) Vgen = IZ VResistor = I R Vinductor = I XL X L = L VCapacitor = I XC X C = 1 C C L R

12

Typical Problem

A generator with peak voltage 15 volts and angular frequency 25 rad/sec is connected in series with an 8 Henry inductor, a 0.004 Farad capacitor and a 50 ohm resistor. What is the peak current through the circuit? Which element has the largest peak voltage across XL it? A) Generator B) Inductor C) Resistor D) Capacitor E) All the same.

X L = L = 200
XC = 1 = 100 C
2

Z = R2 + ( X L X C ) = 112

Vmax = I max X
XC

I max =

Vgen Z

= 0.13 A

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 6

Peak AC Problems
Ohms Law for each element 2 Z = R2 + ( X L X C ) Vgen = IZ VResistor = I R Vinductor = I XL X L = L VCapacitor = I XC X C = 1 C C L R

12

Typical Problem

A generator with peak voltage 15 volts and angular frequency 25 rad/sec is connected in series with an 8 Henry inductor, a 0.004 Farad capacitor and a 50 ohm resistor. What is the peak current through the circuit? Which element has the largest peak voltage across XL it? A) Generator B) Inductor C) Resistor D) Capacitor E) All the same.

X L = L = 200
XC = 1 = 100 C
2

Z = R2 + ( X L X C ) = 112

Vmax = I max X
XC

I max =

Vgen Z

= 0.13 A

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 7

Peak AC Problems
Ohms Law for each element 2 Z = R2 + ( X L X C ) Vgen = IZ VResistor = I R Vinductor = I XL X L = L VCapacitor = I XC X C = 1 C C L R

14

Typical Problem

A generator with peak voltage 15 volts and angular frequency 25 rad/sec is connected in series with an 8 Henry inductor, a 0.4 mF capacitor and a 50 ohm resistor. What is the peak current through the circuit?

XL

What happens to the impedance if we decrease the angular frequency to 20 rad/sec? A) Z increases B) Z remains the same C) Z decreases (XL-XC): (200-100) (160-125)

XL

Z25

Z20

R XC

R XC

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 8

Resonance

Theremin demo Concert Friday 7:30pm Indi Go Artist Co-Op


http://thereminensemble.com/
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 9

Resonance
Frequency at which voltage across inductor and capacitor cancel R is independent of XL increases with X L = L XC increases with 1/ 1 XC = C

Resonance in AC Circuits

Impedance

Z = R at resonance

Z R XL 0 XC

Z = R + (X L XC )

is minimum at resonance

frequency

Resonance: XL = XC

1 0 = LC

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 10 10

Off Resonance

In general
Q 2 U max U

Umax = max energy stored U = energy dissipated in one cycle at resonance

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 11

Off Resonance

Demo: RLC on Scope


Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 12

Checkpoint 1a

Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above. Compare the peak voltage across the resistor in the two circuits A. VI > VII B. VI = VII C. VI < VII

Z will end up being smaller in circuit 2 and which will cause circuit two to have a smaller max current, which will mean V1>V2. at resonance Xl=Xc since the resistance is the same in both of them, the peak voltage is the same Since the voltage across L increases by a factor of 2 and the voltage across c increases by a factor of two, the peak should be higher as well.
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 13

Checkpoint 1a

Imax XL
Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above. Compare the peak voltage across the resistor in the two circuits A. VI > VII B. VI = VII C. VI < VII

Imax XL Imax R

Resonance: XL = XC Z = R Same since R doesn't change

Imax R Imax XC Case 1

Case 2 Imax XC

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 14

Checkpoint 1b

Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above. Compare the peak voltage across the inductor in the two circuits A. VI > VII B. VI = VII C. VI < VII

The first one has less inductance so less resistance. The peak voltage in the inductor is just the XsubL*Imax. Since XsubL is half as big in case 1, but Imax is bigger in case 2, they cancel out.... I think... Circuit 2 has a Q that is twice as large as that of circuit 1. This increases the maximum voltage across the inductor by 2.
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 15

Checkpoint 1b

Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above. Compare the peak voltage across the inductor in the two circuits A. VI > VII B. VI = VII C. VI < VII

Imax XL

Imax XL Imax R

Imax R Imax XC Case 1 Voltage in second circuit will be twice that of the first because of the 2L compared to L

Case 2 Imax XC

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 16

Checkpoint 1c

Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above. Compare the peak voltage across the capacitor in the two circuits A. VI > VII B. VI = VII C. VI < VII

Case 1 has a larger capacitance, and a larger peak voltage since the two circuits have identical generators and resistances, the peak voltage is the same Since circuit two has half the capacitance, then its voltage is higher: V(capacitance) = I(max)*(1/(w*C))
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 17

Checkpoint 1c

Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above. Compare the peak voltage across the capacitor in the two circuits A. VI > VII B. VI = VII C. VI < VII

Imax XL

Imax XL Imax R

Imax R Imax XC Case 1 The peak voltage will be greater in circuit 2 because the value of XC doubles.

Case 2 Imax XC

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 18

Checkpoint 1d

Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above. At the resonant frequency, which of the following is true? A. Current leads voltage across the generator B. Current lags voltage across the generator C. Current is in phase with voltage across the generator

This is because the this will be a positive phase angle which means that it will lead the voltage across the generator. At resonant frequency, the current should lag the voltage of the generator by 90 degrees, so that it obtains a maximum value when the voltage of the generator is zero. At resonance, the circuit acts as if it only has a resistor.
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 19

Checkpoint 1d

Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above. At the resonant frequency, which of the following is true? A. Current leads voltage across the generator Imax XL B. Current lags voltage across the generator C. Current is in phase with voltage across the generator

Imax XL

Imax R Imax XC The voltage across the inductor and the capacitor are equal when at resonant frequency, so there is no lag or lead. Case 1

Imax R

Case 2 Imax XC

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 20

Power
P = IV instantaneous always true
Difficult for Generator, Inductor and Capacitor because of phase Resistor I,V are ALWAYS in phase! P = IV = I2 R

C R

Average Power
Inductor and Capacitor = 0 ( < sintcost > = 0 ) Resistor <I2R> = <I2 > R = I2peak R

RMS = Root Mean Square Ipeak = Irms sqrt(2)

< I2 R > = Irms2 R


Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 21

Power Line Calculation


If you want to deliver 1500 Watts at 100 Volts over transmission lines w/ resistance of 5 Ohms. How much power is lost in the lines?
Current Delivered: I = P/V = 15 Amps Loss = IV (on line) = I2 R = 15*15 * 5 = 1,125 Watts!

If you deliver 1500 Watts at 10,000 Volts over the same transmission lines. How much power is lost?
Current Delivered: I = P/V = .15 Amps Loss = IV (on line) = I2R = 0.125 Watts

DEMO
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 22

Transformers
(Robots in Disguise, as many of you said) Application of Faradays Law
Changing EMF in Primary creates changing flux Changing flux, creates EMF in secondary

V p Vs = N p Ns

Efficient method to change voltage for AC.


Power Transmission Loss = I2R Power electronics

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 23

Follow Up from Last Lecture


Consider the harmonically driven series LCR circuit shown. Vmax = 100 V Imax = 2 mA VCmax = 113 V (= 80 sqrt(2)) The current leads generator voltage by 45o (cos=sin=1/sqrt(2)) L and R are unknown. What does the phasor diagram look like at t = 0? (assume V = Vmaxsint) V ~

L R

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

V = Vmax sint V is horizontal at t = 0 (V = 0)

V = VL + VC + VR

VL < VC if current leads generator voltage


Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 24

Follow Up: Resonance


Consider the harmonically driven series LCR circuit shown. Vmax = 100 V Imax = 2 mA VCmax = 113 V (= 80 sqrt(2)) The current leads generator voltage by 45o (cos=sin=1/sqrt(2)) L and R are unknown. How should we change to bring circuit to resonance? V ~

L R

(A) decrease
Original

(B) increase
At resonance (0)

(C) Not enough info

At resonance XL = XC
XL increases XC decreases

increases

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 25

More Follow Up
Consider the harmonically driven series LCR circuit shown. Vmax = 100 V V ~ Imax = 2 mA X C = 40 2 k VCmax = 113 V (= 80 sqrt(2)) The current leads generator voltage by 45o (cos=sin=1/sqrt(2)) L and R are unknown. By what factor should we increase to bring circuit to resonance? i.e. if 0 = f, what is f?

L R

R= 25 2 k
X L = 15 2 k

(A)

f = 2

(B) f = 2 2

(C)

8 f = 3

(D) f =

8 5

If is increased by a factor of f: At resonance XL = XC

XL increases by factor of f XC decreases by factor of f

X L f 15 2 X C (1/ f ) 40 2
f = 8 3

15 f =

40 f

40 f = 15
2

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 26

Current Follow Up
Consider the harmonically driven series LCR circuit shown. Vmax = 100 V V ~ Imax = 2 mA X C = 40 2 k VCmax = 113 V (= 80 sqrt(2)) The current leads generator voltage by 45o (cos=sin=1/sqrt(2)) L and R are unknown. What is the maximum current at resonance ( Imax(0) )

L R

R= 25 2 k
X L = 15 2 k
8 3

0 =
(A) I max (0 ) = 2 mA
At resonance XL = XC

(B) I max (0 ) = 2 2 mA

(C) I max (0 ) = 8/ 3 mA

Z=R

I max (0 ) =

Vmax 100 = = 2 2 mA R 25 2

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 27