You are on page 1of 40

Construction Information Quarterly

VOL

Issue

2003

y w v

Y Y Y

W Y Y

ClOB

L-

Construction Information Quarterly


VOL 5
Issue 3
2003

In this Issue
CIQ - PAPER 157
HIV/AIDS in Construction: Are Contractors Aware?
Authors:
Dr The0 C. Haupt and Dr John Smallwood

Page 3

CIQ - PAPER 158


Achieving Knowledge Management in Construction: Part 1 - A Review of Developments
Author: Arnab Mukherjee

Page 7

CIQ - PAPER 159


The Potential Benefits of Corporate Social Responsiblity in the Construction Industry
Author: Jocelyn Herridge

Page 12

CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION DIGEST 61 Digest Order Form

Page 17 Page 36

Disclaimer

Whilst every efort has been made to en.sure that the informution contained in this issue is corrwt, neither the author or the ClOB c m uccept responsibility for any errors or omissions or any consequences resuitin,y therefioni. All reuders should .suti.sfi thenise1ve.s qf the f accuracy o the information for their specific reyuirenients.

EDIT0RIAL
This issue tackles three topics that appear, at first sight, to be quite unrelated to each other. Haupt and Smallwood present research into HIV awareness among contractors, Mukherjee reviews current thinking on Knowledge Management and Herridge discusses the applicability of Corporate Social Responsibility to the construction industry. Not only does this issue cover a range of topics; the manner in which they are covered ranges from the presentation of original academic research to the presentation of existing information tailored for the busy construction practitioner. Nevertheless, the papers presented in this issue do have a broad thematic link: all of the subjects under discussion relate to the way people issues impact upon construction, to the way the industry relates to its stakeholders, and to the way in which people in the industry are managed. The issues are relevant to both Construction Managers and to their colleagues in Human Resources, to specialist researchers and to all those with an interest in the future well-being of our industry. Haupt and Smallwood present important research on the role of contractors in tackling HIV. This work has been conducted in South Africa, which currently has a very significant problem with HIV, and contains valuable insights and expertise for those readers who currently have less exposure to the effects of this epidemic. Current attitudes, perceptions and beliefs of construction workers in South Africa regarding HIV infection and AIDS are outlined, and strategies likely to be effective at raising awareness of the risks to workers are discussed. Mukherjees Achieving Knowledge Management in Construction: Part 1 - A Review of Developments is the first in a series of three papers that will map KM developments and opportunities within the industry. This first paper concentrates on the emergence of the KM discipline, and poses the question Why is Knowledge Management needed in construction projects? Subsequent papers will focus on implementation within the construction project environment and emerging best practice. This is a topic that has gained rapid prominence over the last few years, and a review of the discipline within construction was felt to be timely. Finally, Herridges review of the opportunities and challenges around Corporate Social Responsibility for construction firms offers a useful summary of the current thinking on this issue. Herridge highlights the potential of CSR as a tool for improving the image of the industry to its stakeholders, thereby impacting on some of the most crucial challenges facing construction. A shallow espousal of the CSR cause is discouraged, but the author makes the important point that an effective CSR policy need not require huge budgetary resources. A commitment to effective communication is one the most important facets of CSR, and this can be undertaken by sole practitioners as well as by large companies.

If you have any comments on this issue of CIQ, or any suggestions for future articles, please contact me at ciq@ciob.org.uk. Your feedback is always welcome.

Caroline Collier

MAKING THE MOST OF ClQ USING THE CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION DIGEST (see page17)
The digest is comprised of abstracts from current books, journals, magazines and other literature on construction. All the titles featured are selected from new material acquired by the CIOBs Library and Information Service, and can be obtained on request from the library. For your ease of reference, the abstracts are ordered under subject headings, making it as easy as possible for you to locate material likely to be relevant to your work. Articles and loans can be ordered using the form at the back of the journal. However, due to copyright legislation, remember that you can only have one photocopy article per journal issue or per conference proceedings volume. Your order will be delayed if we have to contact you to amend your requirements. Also, dont forget that the Library Service can provide tailored subject searches on request to locate any other material within our holdings that might be relevant to your current interests. ClOB members can also search the library by selecting the MembersArea on www.ciob.org.uk and then selecting the library search option, which allows you access to a database containing over thirty thousand construction references, including the abstracts from all past digests.

CIQ EDITORIAL BOARD


Professor Martin Betts BSc, PhD, FCIOB, FRSA. Queensland University of Technology, Australia Mr Alan Crane CBE, FCIOB. Rethinking Construction, UK Mr David Deas OBE, PPCIOB. Centre for Construction Innovation, UK Mr Colin Enticknap FCIOB, MRICS. Willmott Dixon Ltd, UK Dr The0 Haupt PhD, MPhil, FCIOB, MASI. Peninsula Technikon, SA Ms Zara Lamont OBE, FCIOB. Carillion Plc, UK Professor Peter Lansley BSc, MSc, PhD, MCIOB. University of Reading, UK Professor Roger Liska EdB, FAIC, FCIOB, CPC, PE. Clemson University, USA Professor Ronald McCaffer BSc, PhD, DSc, FREng, FCIOB. Loughborough University, UK Professor Richard Neale BSc, MSc, DSc, CEng, FICE, FCIOB. University of Glamorgan, UK Professor Li Shirong FCIOB. Chongqing Jianzhu University, Peoples Republic o f China Professor John Smallwood PhD (Construction Management), FCIOB, MioSM, MESSA. University o f Port Elizabeth, SA

ClQ Production Team


Caroline Collier Sarah Wilson Jason Soley Editor Publications Executive Designer

Editoral Support Team


Adrian Smith Angels Morris Janet Banfield-Potter

HIWAIDS in Construction: Are Contractors Aware?


Dr Theo C. Haupt & Dr John Smallwood
The0 C. Haupt, Ph.D., M.Phil., FCIOB, MASI is Research Coordinatol; Peninsula Technikon, Faculty of Engineering, Cape Town,South Africa.
John Smallwood, Ph.D., FCIOB is Associate Professor and Head, University of Port Elizabeth, Department of Construction Management, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. ABSTRACT International occupational safety and health legislation requires employers to provide their workers with a safe and healthy workplace and environment. The fight against HIV/AIDS in the workplace is therefore a priority. Already HIV/AIDS is beginning to impact directly and indirectly on company profits. Without proper interventions the quantum of costs is predicted to grow exponentially. Lower productivity and rising replacement and training costs present formidable challenges to the construction industry. This study aims to establish a valid baseline assessment of the levels of knowledge, types of attitudes, perceptions and beliefs of construction workers in South Africa regarding HIV infection and AIDS. This paper reports the findings of an exploratory study commenced in August 2002 with particular reference to the role that contractors should play in curtailing the effects of HIV/AIDS. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, productivity, attitude, behaviour, replacement costs, training costs INTRODUCTION South Africa has one of the worlds worst HIV/AIDS epidemics with more people living with the HIV virus than any other country in the world (Abdool Karim, 2000; UNAIDS, 2002) - an estimated 4.7 million people or about one tenth of the estimated South African population. Construction workers in South Africa made up on average 5.7% (409,300) of the entire workforce (7.12 million) for the period 1994 to 1997 (Haupt, 2001 citing the International Labor Organization, 1999). Assuming that the prevalence of the disease is uniformly distributed across the population, extrapolation of these statistics suggests that an estimated 41,000 construction workers might either be infected with HIV or living with AIDS. Should this indeed be the case the consequences for the industry will clearly be serious. Diseases such as HIV/AIDS potentially reduce the overall labour force, shift the age structure due to mortality, change the skill composition of the labour supply and increase labour turnover. Of particular concern is the rapid shrinking in the general population of the numbers of men in their early thirties (UNAIDS, 2002). Lower productivity and rising replacement and training costs present formidable challenges to the construction industry. The costs to companies will potentially include impacts on employee benefits, absenteeism, recruitment and training needs, productivity, morale and discipline (Rosen et al., 2000; Kelly, 2001; Development Works, 2002). Employee productivity losses have been estimated at between 2% and 50% (Rosen et al.3 2ooo). In the absence Of any Other definitive or similar study, this study aims to establish a valid baseline assessment of the levels of knowledge, types of attitudes, perceptions and beliefs of construction workers in South Africa regarding HIV infection and AIDS. In particular this paper reports the preliminary findings of a study commenced in August 2002. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY For the purposes of this study, data was collected from a sample of construction workers in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa. To assess levels of knowledge, types of attitudes, perceptions and beliefs of construction workers regarding HIV infection and AIDS the investigators adapted a questionnaire previously developed by the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC). The authors accept the limitation common to most surveys of the self-declarations of the respondents with respect to knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours. Questionnaires for data collection items The type of population, the nature of the research questions, and available resources determine the type of questionnaire to be used to gather data. Quantitative data was collected using the questionnaire method. The opinions and views of workers of all age groups on construction sites were gathered during face-to-face interviews in the respondents preferred language. It was hoped that the data gathered would be able to answer how the management of construction firms should improve existing or design new programmes and interventions to deal with the threats posed by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The areas of focus of the questionnaire are shown in Table 1. Table 1: Areas of focus in the construction worker questionnaire Measures Demographic- age, sex, race, education, language, domicile, employment Marital status and marriage practices. Sexual practices, including HIV/AIDS-related behaviour and condom use Perceived risk of HIV Voluntary counselling and testing Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of HIV/AIDS Mass media DEMOGRAPHICS Males made up 72% of the sample. This is not surprising since construction continues to remain a male-dominated industry. While the median age of the sample was 29.6 years (range 2 1.O to 82.0 years), the median age of males was 3 1.O years (range 2 1.3 to 82.0 years) and females 28.2 years (range 21.0 to 43.0 years). Most respondents (77%) had at least 8 years of schooling. Xhosa was the most widely spoken language followed by Afrikaans. This is not surprising considering that most respondents were African and their home language in the Western and Eastern Cape would be Xhosa. English was therefore largely a third language. Workers had worked in construction for a median 2.0 years (range 0.01 to 38.0 years). They had worked a median 0.5 years (range 0.01 to 30.0 years) for their current employers. Further, they had worked for a median 0.25 years (range 0.01 to 10.0 years) on present projects. The sample consisted of: Unskilled workers 48%

Semi-skilled workers Skilled workers Site administration

12% 23% 17%

Table 4: Information about HIV/AIDS Information source Have you ever tried to obtain information about HIV/AIDS yourself! Should your employer provide information about HIV/AIDS? Have You discussed HIV/AIDS with fellow workers in the last month? Yes No Dont know

This result is indicative of the ratio of unskilled workers to other categories of workers on South African construction sites. ACCESS TO INFORMATION ABOUT HIV/AIDS When asked whether they had read, seen or heard anything about HIV/AIDS during the previous 6 months, respondents answered as follows: Often Seldom Never 64% 25% 11%

52.5% 63.6%

47.5% 14.1% 22.3%

72.2%

27.8%

With respect to the sources of their information on HIV/AIDS during the previous 6 months, all respondents indicated that they had obtained information from TV and radio programmes. They had also obtained information from magazines (95.7%), newspapers (90.9%), pamphlets (90.9%) and posters (88.4%). Other sources that were not as popular were advertisements on taxis and buses (79.5%). Only 56.8% had obtained information on the afTliction at work. These findings are shown in Table 2. Table 2: Sources of information in previous 6 months Information source Yes Television 100.0% Radio 100.0% Magazines 95.7% Newspapers 90.9% 90.9% BrochuresiPamphlets 88.4% Posters Videos or films 56.8% Audiotapes 42.5% Advertisements on taxis and buses 79.5% At work 56.8% 3 1.4% Other sources No
-

The most preferred forms of information about HIV/AIDS at work were awareness education where a speaker addressed them (96.6%), brochures, pamphlets and flyers (86.3%), posters (84.6%), induction programmes (82.3%), and wellness management programmes such as counselling (80.8%). Role plays (61.7%) and newsletters (64%) were the least popular forms of information. These findings are shown in Table 5. Table 5: Preferred sources of information at work about HIV/AIDS Information source Yes Awareness education (speaker) 96.6% Induction 82.3% Welhess management (counselling) 80.8% 64.0% Newsletter Newspapers 78.0% Brochures/Pamphlets/Flyers 86.3% Posters 84.6% Videos or films 66.0% Toolbox talks 74.0% Role plays 61.7% Other sources 53.3% No 1.7% 11.8% 9.6% 30.0% 18.0% 7.8% 11.5% 28.0% 14.0% 23.4% 20.0% Dont know 1.7% 5.9% 9.6% 6.0% 4.0% 5.9% 3.8% 6.0% 12.0% 14.9% 26.7%

Dont know

4.3% 9.1% 6.8% 11.6% 40.9% 55.0% 20.5% 43.2% 28.6%

2.3% 2.3% 2.5%

The data in Table 6 indicate the extent of influence which information about HIViAIDS from several sources would have on respondents sexual behaviour and lifestyle. Table 6: Influence of source of information on behaviour or lifestyle

40.0%

Similarly, the data in Table 3 shows the frequency with which information on HIV/AIDS was obtained from several sources during the previous 6 months. Information from work was only received often according to 32.9% of respondents. Television (74.7%), radio (72.7%), newspapers (65.9%), and magazines (63.5%) were the most frequent sources of information. Table 3: Frequency of information from sources in previous 6 months Information source Television Radio Magazines Newspapers Brochures/Pamphlets Posters Videos or films Audiotapes Advertisements on taxis and buses At work Other sources Often 74.7% 72.7% 63.5% 65.9% 45.7% 52.6% 32.0% 24.0% 48.1% 32.9% 26.9% Seldom 14.7% 19.3% 18.8% 15.9% 28.4% 26.9% 21.3% 13.3% 3 1.6% 21.5% 1.9% Never 7.4% 6.8% 15.3% 14.6% 22.2% 19.2% 41.3% 52.0% 17.7% 40.5% 26.9% N/A 3.2% 1.2% 2.4% 3.7% 3.7% 1.3% 5.3% 10.7% 2.5% 5.1% 44.2%

Information Not at all Your employer 3 1.4% 22.5% Fellow workers Health worker 18.0% 20.5% Nurse 16.7% Doctor Person with HIV/AIDS 20.7% T m d i t i O d healer (SangOma) 73.8% Family 15.9% Friends 16.7% TV 16.3% Radio 15.5% Literature 24.1%

sli htl 24.4% 44.0% 18.0% 10.2% 10.0% 9.8% 14.3% 45.5% 39.3% 41.9% 42.9% 36.1%

Very much 44.2% 33.3% 64.0% 69.3% 73.3% 69.6% 11.9% 38.6% 44.0% 41.9% 41.7% 39.8%

Table 7 shows the ranking of the means (95% interval of confidence) of their responses. Persons with medical experience and those with the disease were identified by respondents as being the sources of information that would most influence their sexual behaviour or lifestyles. Employers ranked 10th out of the 12 sources.

While 72.2% of respondents had discussed the subject of HIViAIDS with fellow workers during the previous month, only 52.5% had tried to get information on the disease of their own volition. With respect to whether their employers had to provide information about HIV/AIDS, 63.6% agreed that they should while 22.3% did not know whether they should or not. This finding is shown in Table 4.
4

Table 7: Influences on behaviour or lifestyle Rank Information source 1 2 2 4 5 6 7 8 9


10

were awareness education using a speaker on an HIV/AIDS-related topic and HIViAIDS counselling sessions.

11 12

Mean2 Upper bound Doctor 2.53 2.35 Nurse 2.47 2.27 Person with HIViAIDS 2.47 2.27 Health worker 2.40 2.21 Radio 2.22 2.05 Friends 2.21 2.03 TV 2.19 2.02 Family 2.16 2.00 Literature 2.11 1.93 Your employer 2.08 1.88 Fellow workers 2.07 1.89 Tradifionalhealer(sangoma)1.33 1.18

Lower Standard bound deviation 2.72 0.78 2.66 0.83 2.66 0.83 2.59 0.81 2.39 0.71 2.37 0.73 2.36 0.72 2.32 0.69 2.29 0.77 2.28 0.86 2.24 0.75 1.48 0.65

The findings suggest HIV/AIDS is taken more seriously if the information is communicated via a recognised health source like doctors and nurses as well as persons with the disease. Clearly respondents have noted the importance of behaviour changes communicated through the media and have responded by increased usage of condoms, increased fidelity to a single partner and a subsequent reduction in casual sex.

CONCLUSIONS
This study not only confirmed, in the main, the findings of other studies but it also provided new knowledge that should inform the development of effective responses and interventions to alleviate the threat of HIV/AIDS to the construction industry. There is a need to improve the knowledge and awareness of workers about the nature of HIV/AIDS and ways to prevent infection, and to improve their perceptions and attitudes concerning the disease and its effects. Considering that the fight against HIV/AIDS in the workplace is an African priority, the findings of this study suggest that contractors are not doing enough with respect to HIV/AIDS. While construction workers generally have high levels of correct knowledge, perceptions and attitudes on most issues relative to the disease, their employers have not played a major contributory role as evidenced by the responses of workers. Even though they considered the disease a problem in their communities, construction workers did not regard it as a serious one at work. This perception might be a consequence of the lack of attention given to it by their employers. Of concern is the reluctance with which workers viewed the involvement of their employers in providing them information about the disease. This concern is compounded by the view of most construction workers that their employers would have little influence on their sexual behaviours and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS when compared with other sources of information. Construction workers indicated a preference for information being communicated at work in the form o f , awareness education that involved a speaker on an HIViAIDS related topic; topical and informative brochures, pamphlets and flyers; prominently located illustrative and informative posters; induction and orientation programmes that included HIViAIDS information for new workers; and wellness management programmes that included counselling. Contractors should actively seek to improve knowledge of HIVIAIDS that includes peer education (Harrison, Smit and Myer, 2000) given that there is a positive relationship to prevention behaviours and positive attitudes to HIViAIDS sufferers. Good behavioural risk reduction programmes use skills-based education and training methods and provide strong evidence for the efficacy of behavioural interventions (DiClemente and Wingood, 1995). This study like others (Harrison, Smit and Myer, 2000) highlights the need for further unambiguous, simple and clear education messaging, preferably in the primary language of the target group of workers (Ngubane, 2000). While contractors should introduce strategies and interventions that include all their workers, unskilled African male workers with low levels of education are the group at greatest risk. These accessible workplace-based intervention programmes should form part of a broad-based response that complements existing and new national promotion programmes (UNAIDS, 2002), which include emphasis on: Promoting safe and healthy sexual behaviour; Improving the management and control of STIs; Providing voluntary counselling and testing; and Providing appropriate post-exposure services (Shishana and Simbayi, 2002). Contractors need to recognise the threats posed by HIViAIDS in their workplaces sooner rather than later and engage proactively in dealing with them. Lethargy and apathy will have potentially disastrous consequences for their organisations and eventually the entire construction industry.
5

Respondents were asked which interventions employers could introduce that would help combat HIViAIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Their responses are shown in Table 8. The provision of condoms (94.9%) was clearly the most popular intervention followed by awareness education by means of a speaker (88.8%), wellness management programmes such as counselling (84%), and induction programmes (80%). Role plays (54.8%) and videos or films (56.3%) were the least popular interventions.

Table 8: Possible employer interventions Information source Yes Awareness education (speaker) 88.8% Induction 80.0% Wellness management (counselling) 84.0% Newsletter 70.8% Provision of condoms 94.9% Newspapers 63.8% Brochures/Pamphlets/Flyers 69.9% Posters 77.5% Videos or films 56.3% Toolbox talks 62.3% Role plays 54.8% DISCUSSION
Less than two-thirds of the respondents had frequently been exposed to information about HIVIAIDS during the previous 6 months. The primary and most frequent sources of this information were TV and radio. Slightly more than half of the respondents had been exposed to any information about the disease at work during the period. Only less than one-third of respondents reported that such information was received frequently. Generally, print media were less popular sources of information. This finding is supported in other studies (Shishana and Simbayi, 2002). Slightly more than half of respondents had tried to get information of their own volition.

No Dontknow 6.7% 4.5% 16.0% 4.0% 10.7% 5.3% 19.4% 9.7% 2.6% 2.6% 30.4% 5.8% 17.8% 12.3% 14.1% 8.5% 28.2% 15.5% 17.4% 20.3% 21.0% 24.2%

While information from employers or at work was not the most favoured source of information, when available respondents preferred having someone address them on HIV/AIDS-related topics. They were also amenable to brochures, pamphlets, flyers and posters. Role-plays and newsletters were not as popular. Out of 12 sources of possible influence on their sexual behaviour and lifestyle, employers ranked 10th suggesting that employers were regarded peripherally to issues of a social and personal nature. The most popular intervention that respondents felt employers could introduce to combat HIViAIDS and STIs, was the provision of condoms. The popularity of the provision of free condoms by contractors might be compared with the frequent practice of using Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in hazardous construction situations as a measure of first resort, providing a sense of false security while the actual hazard still existed in reality. Rather than abstain from sexual cncounters workers preferred using protection without changing their actual behaviour. Other popular interventions

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Peninsula Technikon without which this phase of the research project could not be completed. REFERENCES Abdool Karim, S.S. (2000): Rising to the Challenge of the AIDS epidemic, South African Journal of Science, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 262 Development Works, (2002): Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Construction Sector and Implications f o r the Housing Policy: Final Report, Johannesburg, Development Works DiClemente, R. and Wingood, G. (1995): A randomized controlled trial of an HIV sexual risk-reduction intervention for young African-American women, Journal of American Medicine Association, vol.274, no. 16, pp. 1271-1276 Harrison, A., Smit, J.A., and Myer, L. (2000): Prevention of HIV/AIDS in South Africa: a Review of Behavior Change Interventions, Evidence and Options for the Future, South African Journal of Science, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 285-290 Haupt, T.C. (2001): The Performance Approach to Construction Worker Safety and Health, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida Kelly, M.J. (200 1): Challenging the Challenger: Understanding and Expanding the Response of Universities in Africa to HIVIAIDS, Washington, ADEA Working Group on Higher Education Ngubane, B.S. (2000): Message from the Minister, South African Journal of Science, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 26 1 Rosen, S., Simon, J.L., Thea, D.M. and Vincent, J.R. (2000): Care and Treatment of to Extend the Working Lives of HIV-positive Employees: Calculating the Benefits to Business, South Afiican Journal of Science, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 300-304 Shishana, 0. and Simbayi, L. (2002): Nelson Mandela/HSRC Study of HIVAIDS, South African National HIV Prevalence, Behavioral Risks and Mass Media: Household Survey 2002, Cape Town, Human Sciences Research Council Publishers UNAIDS (2002): Report on the Global HIVIAIDS epidemic, Geneva, UNAIDS
1 Human Sciences Research Council. Study of knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and beliefs regarding HIV and AIDS. South Africa: Human Sciences Research Council (Focus Group Health Care Group), 1992; Pretoria: South African Data Archive-distributor, 2000 2 Respondents were asked to indicate the extent of influence of the various sources on their sexual behaviour on a 3-point Likert scale where 1 = not at all, 2 = slightly, and 3 = very much. All means except for Sangoma were between 2 and 3 indicating that influences ranged between slightly and very much.

Achieving Knowledge Management in Construction: Part I - A Review of Developments


Arnab Mukherjee
Arnab Mukherjee BEng (Civil), MSc (CM) is a Trainee Project Manager at Banner Holdings Ltd and is in t h e j h a l stages of his Doctoral research in Knowledge Management at the Universiw of Birmingham. His research interests include knowledge management, construction procurement, project management and construction management.
More recently, he has been the Assistant Technical Editor for the development of the CIOB S Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development, published September 2002.

The aim of this paper is to outline briefly the development of KM as it happened, highlight its performance as a management process and discuss the challenges that are present with respect to its implementation in the UK construction industry. This paper reviews the context in which field research is being carried out, assessing several organisational case studies. EVOLVEMENT OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Knowledge Management, since its resurgence in the early 199Os, has for long been perceived to be an offshoot of Information Management, with much emphasis on ICT for its success. Following the theory that technology enables knowledge sharing, networks of technological systems were developed to codify, store and disseminate knowledge. The core assumptions were objectification of knowledge and convertibility between knowledge and information in either direction using technological means. (Sveiby, 1997). However, despite tremendous achievements in the ICT sector and significant investment in developing KM, most of the attempts remained unsuccessful. Many organisations reported that, despite their best efforts, the outcomes from KM projects either failed to achieve their targets or did not meet their expectations (Strassmann, 1998; Malhotra, 1998, 2002; Swan and Scarbrough, 1999; Swan, 1999; KPMG Research Report 1999, 2000; Sapsed et al, 2000). Attention was then focused on another school of thought, which placed much greater emphasis on the context of the knowledge and highlighted the need to understand knowledge as also being embedded in, and constructed from or through, social relationships and interactions - a process of management in the community (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Blackler, 1995). The core assumption in this model is the importance of context and culture with respect to knowledge. ICT can be used to capture, store and disseminate information, but when individuals assimilate this information, taking into account its appropriate context, the transformation to knowledge is completed (Wikstrom, 1994; Wilson, 1996; Davenport & Prusak, 1997; Kirchner, 1997; Ash, 1998; Webb, 1998; Davenport et al, 1998). Fig. 1 Data - information - knowledge cycle

ABSTRACT This is the first paper in a series of three aiming to map Knowledge Management (KM) within the context of the construction industry, and to discuss its utilisation as a strategic project management tool. The objective of this paper is to look at the process of Knowledge Management. The second paper will focus on the process from a construction project context and the third paper will concentrate on the lessons learned as an outcome of the implementation process and thus progressively developing the best practice guidance on Knowledge Management in this industry. It is hoped that each part will stand alone as a study, but without hindering the inherent interlinking. Keywords: Knowledge Management; Learning Organisation; Managing Knowledge; Construction Project Management INTRODUCTION Following the footsteps of the Learning Organisation, KM came to the attention of management researchers in the early 1990s. The growth of KM can be traced back to the increasing growth of knowledge workers and the general decline of manual trades, with the focus being on the importance of knowledge (Drucker, 1993). The massive expansion of information and communication technology (ICT), and the increasing improvement and popularity of new tools such as intranets and groupware systems (Hibbard, 1997; Mayo, 1998) made it far easier to exchange information among individuals and groups. DiMattia and Oder (1 997) observe that KM is an attempt to cope with the explosion of information and to capitalise on increased knowledge in the workplace. On the academic front, theoretical developments - for example, the resource-based or the knowledge-based views of the firm, which emphasise the importance of unique and inimitable assets such as tacit knowledge (Grant, 1991 ; Penrose in Rutihinda, 1996; Roberts, 1998) introduced the importance and necessity of KM to overall business management. To take a more practical view, downsizing during the 1980s to reduce overheads and increase profits also paved the way, perhaps somewhat unknowingly, for this particular management process. As a result of lean and mean organisations, loss of important knowledge became more and more of a problem as employees left, taking with them the knowledge they had acquired over the years. Organisations felt that there had to be a mechanism to provide successful retention of knowledge in future (Forbes, 1997; Piggott, 1997; DiMattia and Oder, 1997; Martensson, 2000).

THE PROCESS OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT


The basic process of KM is briefly summarised in four stages (Davenport and Prusak, 1997; also see KLICON, 1999; Elhag et al, 2000) Collecting information Storing information Making the information accessible Using the information Researchers and practitioners have since developed various different models defining the scope of KM. A useful synopsis of these models has been outlined in McAdam and McCreedy (1999). Ruggles (1998) suggests that knowledge-focussed activities can be categorised under eight major areas: Generating new knowledge Accessing valuable knowledge from outside sources Using accessible knowledge in decision making Embedding knowledge in processes, products andor services Representing in documents, databases and software

ownership, lack of time, organisational structure, senior management commitment, rewards and recognition, and emphasis on individuals rather than on teamwork. The KFMG research report on Knowledge Management (2000) notes that the organisations see the immediate, internal cost gains but fail to equate these to any external, longer-term benefit, such as intellectual capital growth. The major obstacles, the report said, are: Lack of user uptake owing to insufficient communication Failure to integrate KM into everyday working practices Lack of time to learn how to use the system and a sense that the system was too complicated Lack of training A sense that there was little personal benefit in it for the user Lack of time to share knowledge Failure to use knowledge effectively The difficulty of capturing tacit knowledge

WHY IS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT NEEDED IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS?


During the past few years, especially after the publication of the Latham (1994) and Egan (1998) reports, the UK construction industry ~, has been subjected to movement ior change, with the aim of reducing waste, improving reliability, increasing efficiency, improving the distribution of risk and generally increasing the overall performance of the industry.

Facilitating knowledge growth through culture and incentives Transfemng existing knowledge into other Parts ofthe organisation Measuring the value of knowledge assets andor impact of knowledge management

IMPLEMENTING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Fig. 2 Top five challenges to Knowledge Management


Survey I conducted in 1997 Changing peoples behaviour Measuring the value and performance of knowledge assets Determining what knowledge should be managed Justifying allocation of resources for knowledge initiatives Survey I1 conducted in 2000 Information overload Lack of time to share knowledge Not using technology to share knowledge effectively Reinventing the wheel

The targets set by Latham (later modified by Egan), many organisations in the industry consider, can be achieved by the use of IS/IT based tools (see CPN Members Report E9088, July 1999). However, greater savings can be achieved by the re-examination of knowledge already within the company and adding value to it by using it differently or - sharing it. The best practice and innovative knowledge acquired by one part of an organisation needs to be shared throughout the company (and perhaps across the industry) to gain the fullest benefits (CPN Members Report E9088, July 1999).
I

The fragmentation of the construction industry has been identified as a critical barrier to achieving efficient communication among parties (and individuals) within a project team working together on construction projects (Latham, 1994; Egan, 1998). Supply chains and organisational relationships are highly dynamic and transient due to the temporary nature of construction projects, inhibiting a continuous chain of communication. The fragmented nature gains more significance as: Different organisations, who have different cultures and working practices, own and control different processes within a project; however overlapping they may be. To give an example, risk management is a process that starts right from the inception stage and is undertaken by the clients. At the design stage the principal designer has to incorporate the risk aspect and at the development stage the constructor (who may or may not be involved with the preparation of the initial risk mitigation action plan or the design) has the primary responsibility for effectively managing the risk (Egbu et al, 1999; see also Carillo et al, 2000). Construction project teams are necessarily dynamic in nature. Individuals are moving between teams depending upon the requirements for their skills and knowledge (Orange et al, 2000). It is seldom that a construction project team is left intact to carry on working on the subsequent projects, which breaks the continuity. Such continuity is essential to effectively utilise learning benefits (Barlow and Jashaparal, 1998).

Difficulty capturingtacit knowledge Mapping the organisations existing knowledge and setting the appropriate scope for knowledge initiatives

The people perspective of KM highlights the potential presence of the ten challenges (Senge et al, 1999) to hinder the successful application of KM. Initiatives encouraging communities of practice, creating an atmosphere of trust, developing a rewarding mechanism for knowledge sharing and ensuring project-based learning might enable an organisation to tackle these challenges (Brown & Duguid, 1991; Cook & Brown, 1999; Scarbrough, 1999). A People Management report of a survey (Mayo, 1998) in which individuals responsible for implementing KM strategy were interviewed reveals some interesting points. The results indicated that the main obstacles to successful implementation were lack of
8

The CRISP report (March 2001) notes that compared with future needs, work on Information, Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning appears to be significantly under-funded. It further identified making better use of knowledge as one of the two key challenges facing the industry over the next few years (alongside learning to communicate and working together). This endorses the analysis in Rethinking Construction (the Egan report), and correlates with the trend in other knowledge-based industries: most of them have made major investments in knowledge systems over the past few years, and there is no sign that this (KM) is a passing management theory fad. The recommendations of the CRISP report include the suggestion that as a high priority, steps should be taken to extract useful guidance from the KM literature, from experience in other industries (and in construction, if available), and from recent theory studies, and to encourage further projects which will produce how to guidance for publication (CRISP Report 2001). Historically, the practice of apprenticeship contributed significantly to the circulation of knowledge within the construction industry. In more recent times, the involvement of people in different activities is usually the primary method to sustain knowledge acquisition and transfer. Several contractual and procurement arrangements (for example, long term frameworks, design and build) also enhance the capture, transfer and re-circulation of knowledge by allowing the continuity of involvement of perhaps a single team either across different stages of a project or across different projects sponsored by the same client. Lessons from projects are being captured through published operational procedures, guidelines and best practice guides. Being immensely context and content dependent, perhaps KM problems cannot be expected to be solved using a one-size-fits-all solution (Dixon, 2000). However, the industry has yet to come up with an integrated form of coordinated KM strategy across the supply chain. A 1995 report Construction IT - Bridging the Gap observes that an industry-wide knowledge base should be set up to allow systematic capture and distribution of knowledge around the industry. This is further supported by Egan who recommendedthe creation of a knowledge centre to provide access to information regarding good practices, innovations and project lessons (Egan, 1998).

In construction, KM helps to share and showcase best practice examples across projects. The immediate benefits include a potential reduction of project timescales by full exploitation of knowledge and experience throughout the supply chain. Some other benefits include reduction in the learning curve, encouraging team building, fostering an innovative culture, better risk management, and all-round increased and more efficient sharing of information and experience. This will be dealt with in depth in the next part of this paper.

MANAGING TACIT KNOWLEDGE


We know more than we can tell, wrote the philosopher of science Michael Polyani almost five decades ago (Polyani, 1966). Nonaka and Takeuchi build on Polyanis notion of the tacit knowledge and define it as the knowledge embedded in the human mind, behaviour and perceptions (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995). Tacit knowledge evolves from peoples interaction and involves assumptions, mental models, skills and practice (Senge et al, 1999; Duffy, 2000). On the other hand, the knowledge that can be documented, codified, transmitted and structured, and is conscious and externalised, is termed explicit knowledge (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995). Explicit knowledge can be captured and shared through technological means (Senge et al, 1999; Duffy, 2000). Tacit knowledge is hidden and thus is extremely difficult to either capture or transfer. This type of knowledge resides in social relations, and is highly context and culture dependent (Hamel, 1991;Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995; Guth, 1996; Senge et al, 1999). Nonaka and Takeuchi argue that knowledge, in effect, is the product of the interaction of explicit and tacit knowledge. The process of creating knowledge starts with people sharing their internal tacit knowledge by socialising with others or by part capturing it in some form. Other people then internalise the shared knowledge, and that process creates new knowledge. These people, with the newly created knowledge, then share this knowledge with others, and the process begins again. However, Adams notes that it would be wrong to see knowledge as being either tacit or explicit, rather, tacit and explicit co-exist together. In Polanyis words, all knowledge has tacit dimensions (Polanyi, 1966; Adams, 1999). Marshall & Sapsed (2000) argue that the embedded nature of knowledge makes codification initiatives difficult and often incomplete in projectbased organisations.

APPLICABILITY OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTION


The 1999 CIRIA report Adopting Foresight in Construction notes that KM and skills innovation are the future key factors that will allow companies to gain competitive advantage, to reduce risks and increase efficiency. However, it commented, there will be a need to put systems in place to capture and disseminate knowledge, to promote the sharing of information and to showcase knowledge and skills to all existing and future clients. The 1999 KLICON report on KM in the construction industry discussed and reviewed the current state of KM and IT within the industry. In its conclusion, it emphasises the need to find ways to recycle existing knowledge. The report states four basic reasons for knowledge inefficiency in the construction industry: The size and nature of the industry, Vast differences in the backgrounds of different participants within the industry, The prevailing culture of confrontation and The discrete, project-based nature of the industry.

Recommendations and conclusion


Partnering, or non-adversarial (collaborative) contracting, practiced under several variations, is a tool which incentivises creation, maintenance and utilisation of a knowledge pool across organisations. However, how KM inter-relates with the collaborative work ethos is an underresearched area. Full and successful utilisation of KM in the large, complex and traditional culture of the construction industry will neither be easy nor achieved quickly. However, indications are there that the industry is willing to change its ways. The lessons learnt from similar initiatives in other industries will also help to provide guidance. But the important factor is the commitment and confidence to accept the culture of knowledge working. This literature review highlights the need for a better clarification of the meaning of knowledge. Tht commercial potential may be a determining factor in deciding the acceptable boundary of knowledge. However, there are several questions that are yet to be answered. How to identify the relevant knowledge? Where to draw the line between exploiting and exploring knowledge? How to identify and capture the tacit knowledge effectively? How to control (if at all) the circulation of knowledge? How to incentivise knowledge working effectively? How to impart the knowledge-sharing culture without adversely affecting individual motivations? To what extent is knowledge sharing across two or more organisations feasible in a collaborative work scenario? It is strongly proposed that sfudies should be undertaken, particularly through specific case examples, in order to get practical guidance in these areas.

The process for managing knowledge


The internal process, for example, the internal exchange of company data is applicable to construction as much as any other industry. However, the external sharing of information can impose difficulties in construction. This issue will be discussed in detail in the final part of this paper.

CONTINUATION As mentioned at the very beginning, the main objective of this paper is to look at the process of Knowledge Management. In the next part, the implementation process of KM in the construction industry, particularly in construction project management, will be the main focus. Several case studies and examples will be detailed and discussed in order to demonstrate the practicability and possibilities as well as to highlight the challenges. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS School of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham Environment Agency (NCPMS) Banner Holdings Ltd (Henry Boot Management Ltd) Mr D Hoare, University of Birmingham Mrs J Hoare, University of Birmingham REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
Allee, V. (1996) Adaptive organisations, Executive Excellence, Vol. 13, no. 3, p 20 Allee, V. (1997a) Knowledge and self-organisation, Executive Excellence, Vol. 14, no. I , P7 Allee, V. (1997b) 12 principles of knowledge management, Training and Development, Vol. 51, no. 1 1 , pp 71-74 Anthes, G.H. (1998) Learning how to share, ComputerWorld, Vol. 32, no. 8, pp 75-77 Ash, J. (1998) Managing knowledge gives power, ComputerWorld, Vol. 3 I , no. 2, pp 2326 Bassi, L.J. (1997) Harnessing the power of intellectual capital, Training and Development, Vol. 51, no. 3, pp 25-30 Blackler, F. (1995) Knowledge, knowledge work and organizations - an overview and interpretation, Organization Studies, 16(6), ppl6-36 Blake, P. (1998), The knowledge management expansion, Information Today, vol. 15, no. I, pp. 12-13 Blake. P. (2000). The future of knowledge management, Information Today, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 14-15 Braganza, A., Edwards, C. & Lambert, R. (1999) A taxonomy of knowledge projects to underpin organisational innovation and competitiveness, Knowledge and Process Management, Vol. 6, no. 2, pp 83-90 Brown, J., and Duguid., P. ( I99 I ) Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: towards a unified way of working, learning. and innovation, Organizational Science, 2( I), pp 40-57

CRISP (2001) A review of construction-related R&D on information and communication technologies (ICT), CRISP Consultancy Commission 00126, March 2001 Davenport, Thomas H. and Pmsak Laurence (1997) Working Knowledge How Organizations Manage What They Know, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Massachusetts
~

Davenport, T.H., De Long, D.W. & Beers, M.C. (1998) Successful knowledge management projects, Sloan Management Review, Vol. 39, no. 2, pp 43-57 De Jarnett, L. (1996) Knowledge is the latest thing, Information Strategy, The Executives Journal, Vo. 12, no. 2, pp 3-5 DiMattia, S. and Oder, N. (1997) Knowledge management: hope, hype or harbinger? Library Journal, Vol. 122, no. 15, pp 33-35 Dixon, N M (2000) Common howledge: how companies thrive by sharing what they know, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA Drucker, Peter F. (1993) Managing for the Future, Buttenvorth Heinemann, Oxford Duffy, J. (2000) Knowledge management: to be or not to be? Information Management Journal, Vol. 34, no. 1, pp64-67 Egan, Sir John (1998) Rethinking Construction, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, July 1998 Egbu, C; Sturgesand, J. and Bates, B. (1999) Learning from knowledge management and trans-organisational innovations in diverse project management environments, f f in Hughes, W. P. (Ed.) Proceedings o the ISth Annual Conference o the Association o Researchers in Construction Management (ARCOM), f Liverpool John Moores University, pp 95 - 103 Elhag, T., Deason, P.M., Morris, P.W.G. and Patel, M.B. (2000) Development of a Knowledge System for a Construction Contractor, paper presented in The Project Management Institute, New Zealand Chapter, Conference 2000, Christchurch, New Zealand, October 26 - 28. Emery, P. (1997) Knowledge Management, Inform, Vol. 1 I , no. 2, p 2 Finerty, P. (1997) Improving customer care through knowledge management, Cost & Management, Vol. 71, no. 9, p33 Forbes, (1997) Knowledge Management: the era of shared ideas, Forbes, vol. 160, no. 6,

P28
Frappaolo, C. (1997) Finding whats in it Document World, Vol. 2, no. 5, pp 23-30 Galagan, P.A. (1997) Smart companies, Training and Development, Vol. 51, no. 12. pp 20-24 Gopal, C. & Gagnon, J. (1995) Knowledge, information, learning and the IS manager, ComputerWorld, Vol. 29, no. 25, pp SSI-7 Grant, R.M. (1991) The resource-based theory of competitive advantage: implications for strategy formulation. California Management Review, Vol. 30, no. 3, ppl1435 Gronhaug, K & Nordhaug, 0. (1992) Strategy and competence in firms, European Management Journal, Vol. 10, no. 4, pp 438-44 Guth, R. (1996) Where IS cannot tread, ComputerWorld, Vol. 30, no. 4, p 72 Guthrie, J. (2000) Intellectual capital review: measurement, reporting and management, Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 1, no. I Hibbard, J. (1997) knowing what we know, Informalion Week, Vol. 663, 20 October, pp. 46-54 InfoWorld ( 1997) Knowledge equals power, lnfo World, Vol. 19, no. 46, I7 November, pp 116.19 Kao, J.J. (1997) The art and discipline of business creativity, Planning Review, Vol. 25, no. 4, JulyiAugust, pp 6- 11 Keeler, J. (2000) Track 5: social, behavioural, cultural and ethical factors, part 2, American Society for Information Science Keen, P.G.W. (1997) Lets focus on action not info, ComputerWorld, Vol. 31, no. 46, 17 November, p 100 Kirchner, S.R. (1997) Focus on database integration and management for call centers, Telemarketing, Vol. 16, no. 2, August, pp 22-24 Klaila, D. (2000) Knowledge management, Executive Excellence, Vol. 17, no. 3, pp 1314 KLICON (1999) The Role o Information Technology in Knowledge Management within f the Construction Industry, WWW document -

Carrillo, P. M.; Anumba, C. J. and Kamara, J. M. (2000) Knowledge management for construction: key IT and contextual issues, in Gudnason, G . (ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Construction Information Technology, 28-30 June, Icelandic Building Research Institute, Reykjavik, Iceland, pp 155 - 165
Chase, R. (1 997) The knowledge based organisation: an international survey, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. I, no. 1 Chase, R.L. (2000) Knowledge Navigators, WWW mnu.sla.org/pubs/seriaVio/l998/sep98/chase.html document

CIRIA (1999) Adopting Foresight in Construction, CIRIA Funders ReportlCPl64, CIRIA, August 1999 Cole-Gomolski, B. (1997a) Chase uses new apps to ID best customers, ComputerWorld, Vol. 31, no. 35 pp 49-50 Cole-Gomolski, B. (l997b) Users loath to share their know-how, ComputerWorld, Vol 31, no. 46, p 6 Cole-Gomolski, B. (1998) Vendors cram knowledge-ware market, Computer World, Vol 31, no. 5, pp 55-56 Construct IT (1995) Bridging the Gap, Construct IT report Cook, S.D.N. and Brown, J.S. (1999) Bridging epistemologies: the generative dance between organisational knowledge and organisational knowing, Organisational Science, Vol. 10, no. 4, pp 381-400 CPN Members Report E9088 (1 999) Knowledge Management Report o f a workshop held at the Scotch Whisky Heritage Centre, Construction Productivity Network, CIRIA publication
~

(http://www.umist.ac.uWcivil/research/KLICON/
Koudsi, S. (2000) Actually, it is like brain surgery, Fortune, Vol. 141, no. 6, pp 233-34 KFMG Management Consulting (2000) Knowledge Management: Research Report, London, KPMG Web site (www.kpmg.co.uk) Laberis, S . (1998) One big pile of knowledge, ComputerWorld, Vol. 32, no. 5, p97 LaPlante, A. (1997) Strategic Management of Professional Handelshojskolens Forlag, Copenhagen
Service Firms,

CPN Members Report E01 06 (2000) Knowledge Management Report of a joint workshop with the Northern Ireland Construction Forum, Construction Productivity Network, ClRlA publication
~

10

Latham, Sir Michael, (1994) Constructing the Team: Final Report of the Government/lndustry Review on Procurement and Construction Arrangement in the UK Construction Industry, HMSO publication, July I994 Liebowitz, J. (2000) Developing knowledge management metrics for measuring intellectual f capital, Journal o Intellectual Capital, Vol. I , no. 1, pp 54-67 Maglitta, J. (1995) Smarten up! ComputerWorld, Vol. 29, no. 23, 5 June, p 84(3) Malhotra, Yogesh (1998) Knowledge management, knowledge organizations and knowledge workers: a view from the front lines, WWW document (mnu.brint.com) Marshall, N & Sapsed, J. (2000) The limits of disembodied knowledge: challenges of inter-project learning in the production of complex products and systems, paper presented at the conference, Knowledge Management: Concepts and Controversies, Wanvick University, 10-1I February Martensson, M (2000) A critical review of knowledge management as a management tool, Journal ofKnowledge Management, Vol. 4, no. 3, pp 204-16 Mayo, A. (1998) Memory bankers, People Management, Vol. 4, no. 2, 22 January, pp 34-38 McAdam, R & McCreedy, S (1999) A critical review of knowledge management models, The Learning Organisation, Vol. 6 (3), pp 91-100, MCB University Press Nelson, R. & Winter, S. (1982) An evolutionary theory of economic change, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA Nerney, C (1997) Getting to know knowledge management, Network World, Vol. 14, no. 39, 29 September, p 101 Nonaka, 1. (1991) The knowledge creating company, Harvard Business Review, Nov.-Dec., pp 96-104 Nonaka, 1. And Takeuchi, H. (1995) The Knowledge-Creating Company - How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics oflnnovation, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford Orange, G., Burke, A. and Boam, J (2000) The facilitation of cross organisational learning and knowledge management to foster partnering within the UK construction industry, paper submitted to EClS 2000, http://is.Ise.ac.uk/b-hive Ostro, N. (1997) The corporate brain, ChiefExecutive, Vol. 123, May, pp 58-62 Papows, J. (1998) The rapid evolution of collaborative tools: a paradigm shift, Telecommunications (US edition), Vol. 32, no. I , January, pp 31-32 the next Piggott, S.E.A. (1997) lnternet commerce and knowledge management megatrends, Business Information Review, Vol. 14, no. 4, December, pp 169-72
~

Polayni, M. (1 966) The facit dimension, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London Richardson, J., Eysenck, M. & Piper, D (1987) Student learning: research in education and cognitive psychology, Open University Press, London Roberts, H. ( 1 998) The bottom line of competence-based management: management accounting,control and performance management, presented at EAA conference, Antwerp Roos, R. & Roos, J (1997) Measuring your companys intellectual performance, Long Range Planning, Vol. 30, no. 3, pp 413-26 Rutihinda, C (1996) Resource-based internationalization, Akademitryck AB, Stockholm Sapsed, I. et a1 (2000) From IT teams: trends in the management of organisational knowledge, R & D Management Conference 2000: Wealthfrom Knowledge: Innovation in R & D Management, Manchester, UK Scarbrough, H. (1999), in Case Studies in Knowledge Management, Ed. Scarbrough H. and Swan J., London Institute of Personnel and Development, Chapter 10, pp 85-93
~

Scarbrough H. (1999) System Error, People Management, April 1999, pp 68-74 Scarbrough H. (1999) Network Nirvana: The Management of Knowledge in Postmodern Organisations - Working paper (www.cranfield.ac.uWsom/km) Senge, Peter, Kleiner A., Roberts C., Ross R., Roth G, and Bryan Smith (1999) The Dance of Change: The Challenges of Sustaining Momentum in Learning Organizations, Nicholas Bredley, London Stewart, Tom (1997) Intellectual Capital- the new wealth of organisations, Nicholas Brealey Publishing Strassmann, P.A., (1998) Taking a measure of knowledge assets, Computer World, 32(4), p74 Sveiby, K. A. (1997) The New Organizational Wealth: Managing and Measuring Knowledge-based Assets, Berrett-Koehler, Sanfrancisco Swan, 3. (1999) in Case Studies in Knowledge Management, Issues in People Management, Ed. Scarbrough H. and Swan I., London - Institute of Personnel and Development Symoens, J. (1998) Site sewer is a fine set of tools for Website building, InfoWorld, Vol. 20, No. 4, 26 January, p.128

11

The Potential Benefits of Corporate Social Responsibilityin the Construction Industry


Jocelyn Herridge
Jocelyn Herridge BA (Hons) took a degree in English Literature before moving into the construction industry. and is currently a researcherfor the CIOB. As well as being a key member o the CIOB Change in our f Sites campaign team, she has responsibilityfor the CIOB Information and Guidance Series, and has authored several industry publications. Her work includes Improving Site Conditions: The Construction Manager 5 Perspective. She has also co-authored some injluential reports, including Constructing our Future: The Way Forward for Higher Education in Construction and Constructing for Sustainability: A Basic Guide for Clients and their Professional Advisors (with CIC, CIRIA, DTI and ABS Consulting). ABSTRACT The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR) is explained, and its potential benefits are outlined. Ways in whichCSR could improve the industrys image are discussed. It is argued that it is possible to adopt an effective CSR policy without expending significant financial resources, which means that this is a tool that can be used by companies of all sizes. In conclusion, it is suggested that tomorrows industry leaders will be strong, early CSR practitioners. Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; CSR; construction industry; stakeholders INTRODUCTION -WHAT IS CSR? CSR is about meeting more demanding social and environmental expectations while improving business performance. (DTI 2002a) This Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) definition of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a useful starting point for an explanation of what it means to be socially responsible in construction. A successful CSR policy involves meeting the expectations defined by your stakeholders by adopting a new approach to your business aims. There are many stakeholders that a construction company should consider in order to implement a successful CSR policy. This will be discussed in more detail below. What is important presently, for an understanding of Corporate Social Responsibility, is that it is the concept of adhering and reacting to the demands of all parties involved in, or affected by, the operations of a company. The process should be mutually beneficial, serving both to advance the efficient and profitable completion of all projects and to establish and maintain trust between a company and its stakeholders. There are many different examples of areas in which this process can be established and different sources focus on different practices. The Construction Industry Environmental Forum, for example, lists the following areas: CSR encompasses a whole range of issues including the treatment of employees, supporting local communities, environmental performance, human rights, and ethical conduct with competitors, suppliers and customers. (CIEF 2002) This definition focuses on many of the environmental and social elements of CSR that are relevant to construction. There is, however, no definitive answer to the question What is Corporate Social Responsibility? as the concept is defined and practiced differently from company to company. What is clear from examples of successful policies is that CSR goes beyond the occasional environmental or social gesture and that it is more than just a quick fix for a flagging reputation or low profits. Companies would do well to heed the observation that: CSR is seen by leadership companies as more than a collection of discrete practices or occasional gestures, or initiatives motivated by marketing, public relations or other business benefits.. . Rather, it is viewed as a comprehensive set of policies, practices and programs that are integrated throughout business operations, and decision-making processes that are supported and rewarded by top management. (Carroll, 2000, cited in Phillips and Claus, 2002) Therefore, CSR should not be viewed as a short-term policy that can be used sporadically for superficial reasons. Rather, it should be assimilated into all areas and by all members of a company as a central and fundamental business approach. WHY PRACTICE CSR? In todays world climate, construction is under more scrutiny than ever from its stakeholders. Consumer pressure for products and services to be socially responsible is on the increase and it has become common for companies that do not meet this expectation to be boycotted by the public. The media are hungry for transgressions, particularly in the construction industry. Within this environment, companies that fail to respond to social and environmental expectations will not only suffer on an individual basis, but will contribute to the currently declining status of the entire industry. The image of construction is something that is of great concern to the underlying structural supports of the industry, such as the Strategic Forum for Construction, the Construction Industry Council and the CITB. Much needs to be done to raise the industrys profile away from the public notions of irresponsibility that currently surround it. The average consumer associates construction with messy, noisy sites and so-called rogue traders that are perceived to take advantage of the unsuspecting public in order to make a fast buck. Partly as a result of this image problem, the number of competent and skilled personnel entering construction is not high enough to meet the needs of the ever-growing demand for the development of the built environment. Universities are struggling to make courses such as Construction Management viable and simply cannot feed sufficient graduates into the industry.

A report recently published by the CIOB confirms this assertion. Constructing Our Future: The Way Forward for Higher Education in Construction shows that the general trend in the numbers of students

12

graduating from Construction Management (or similar) courses is a decline. It states: Viability of courses remains the biggest threat to construction programmes. Urgent collaboration is required between universities and industry to secure sufficient graduates. (CIOB, 2003) Of course, there are many ways in which this recruitment problem must be tackled, but associating construction with social responsibility is one step that could help to noticeably improve the reputation of building, encouraging more people to join the industry. Todays graduates are more likely than ever to expect high standards and morals from the workplace and this is just as relevant to someone working on a construction site as it is to someone working in an office. A construction industry that strives to minimise detrimental effects and to maintain a high level of communication with the public and other stakeholders would be particularly attractive to young entrants, who are looking for an employer that can balance these agendas with the more traditional business aims of achieving optimum investment and profit. Furthermore, it could be speculated that such a balance of financial, social and environmental aims would attract more females to construction and that greater adoption of the principles of CSR, such as stakeholder engagement, would help to solve the current problem that the industry faces regarding the recruitment of female students, operatives and managers. It is important that the construction industry is (and indeed is promoted to be) reflective in its employment of all social groups. Practising Corporate Social Responsibility not only puts a company under an obligation to be entirely socially inclusive, but it may also have the effect of making it more attractive to all. So far, the potential impacts of practising CSR on the reputation and recruitment problems of the construction industry have been raised. Another reason why social responsibility is important to the future of construction is the expectations and requirements of its stakeholders. This is central to any CSR policy and, as was stated at the beginning of this paper, is one of the defining features of what Corporate Social Responsibility is. The principles of operating a business can be described in terms of one simple concept: supply and demand. Construction clients and investors are now demanding that companies supply a commitment to standards that have recently been established, in part by the media, with regard to respecting the environment and society in which they operate. It may be the case that many construction companies currently do not take much care over reducing waste, preventing damage to their surroundings, reducing levels of noise or improving stakeholder relations. However, many construction analysts and researchers believe that those companies that do pay attention to these issues and that supply a good CSR policy to meet the demands of their stakeholders will soon begin to reap the benefits. Companies with a robust CSR policy will start pulling away from their competitors in the race to win contracts and good favour. The demand for companies to be socially responsible is certainly not likely to decline: in fact, it will probably grow in proportion with increased consumer knowledge and expectations. Therefore, the sooner a company accepts and acts upon this demand, the better. This view is supported by the Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA), which claims: ...those companies who start the CSR journey today will be much better placed within the construction market of tomorrow. (CIRIA, 2003) It would be a logical progression of thought, in terms of the above statement, to deduce that to ignore CSR would be detrimental for a company in the long-term. Logic and common sense, as well as business forecasting, do suggest that CSR should not be disregarded by any business that wishes to remain efficient, profitable and of good repute. Furthermore, a CSR policy, once established, should not be regarded as a sideline or add-on, but should be embraced as a core approach to business. The danger of entering into Corporate Social Responsibility in a half-hearted manner is that the policy may be perceived less as a central business objective and more as a publicity

stunt or ratings booster for the company. Therefore, adopting the principles of CSR cannot be a case of doing the bare minimum. Rather, it involves taking the plunge into a fresh way of approaching construction. CSR must also form a cornerstone for any practitioner wishing to work in a sustainable, environmentally friendly manner. By showing greater respect for the surroundings of a construction site and having more consideration for the wishes of society, the potentially harmful effects of construction can be reduced. THE POTENTIAL BENEFITS O F PRACTISING CSR It has been shown above that there are many reasons for a company to adopt the principles of CSR. This paper will now discuss the potential benefits of doing so. The DTI has said that implementing a CSR policy.. .can bring real business benefits by reducing risk, by enhancing brand value, by opening doors and creating good will, and by improving staff efficiency and morale. It can also attract stable and ethical investment and add competitive edge. (DTI 2002, p. 7) This is a pretty impressive list and one that will need considerable exploration. The first two benefits identified - reducing risk and enhancing brand value - can be considered together under the broader heading of reputation. Reputation is a crucial factor in the success of most companies. In the construction industry there are several ways in which the reputation of a company can affect its success. The repute of a company will be judged on several levels: within the industry, by direct competitors, by clients and within the community. Practicing CSR is an increasingly effective way for a construction company to improve and enhance its reputation. Within the industry, the reputation of a company will be judged for the most part on a financial scale. However, indices for determining the social responsibility credentials of a company have recently been established providing a more balanced evaluation process. FTSE, the independent global index company, has developed the FTSE4Good, designed to measure the performance of companies that meet globally recognised corporate responsibility standards, and to facilitate investment in those companies. (FTSE, 2003) Companies have to satisfy criteria based on three principles: working towards environmental sustainability, developing positive relationships with stakeholders, and upholding and supporting universal human rights. Construction is classed as a high impact sector, meaning that it has a high environmental impact and therefore companies must meet especially stringent criteria in order to be included in the index. There are several advantages to being included in the FTSE4Good index, not least the way in which it will enhance the reputation of a company amongst industry stakeholders. This is particularly important in the construction industry as many companies struggle to establish themselves as environmentally and socially responsible on a measurable scale. Another way in which a successful CSR policy can be implemented to the benefit of a companys reputation is through Socially Responsible Investment (SRI). The Social Investment Forum has effectively defined this concept as Integrating personal values and societal concerns with investment decisions. SRI considers both the investors financial needs and an investments impact on society. (SIF, 2003) Being associated with SRI, the FTSE4Good or with similar indices will demonstrate, both to independent construction industry bodies and to direct competitors, that you are serious about incorporating CSR as a business approach. It also stimulates greater investment and may quite realistically lead to winning contracts and improving profits as more and more clients become aware of these scales and start using them as a means to choose between competing companies. Evidence that consumers are aware of CSR and, more importantly, that they are using it as a criterion on which to judge service providers has been collected by Market and Opinion Research International (MORI), who interviewed 12,000 consumers across Europe on attitudes to the 13

role of business in society. The following results were recorded: 70% of European consumers feel that a companys commitment to social responsibility is important when buying a product or service. 71% of those surveyed in Great Britain (999 people) believed that industry and commerce do not pay enough attention to their social responsibilities. Human rights, protecting the environment and listening to the public were chosen as areas in which companies should do more by 72%, 68% and 49% of all respondents respectively.

likely to inform this decision. Devising and implementinga comprehensive CSR plan is something that demonstrates innovation and thought leadership. In other words, it amounts to being a leader, rather than a follower and being proactive, not reactive. This can motivate current staff as well as attracting new employees to a company.

HOW TO PRACTICE CSR


The way in which any construction company should pursue corporate social responsibility is dependent on the size and nature of the business. SMEs and self-employed individuals have different priorities and capabilities to larger contractors, and it is important to recognise that measures must be chosen accordingly. However, whilst scope and expectations should be limited appropriately, similar strategies and techniques can be utilised by all companies. It could be argued that the most important of these is stakeholder dialogue. This dialogue should be fundamentalto any Corporate Social Responsibility policy. It is relatively simple to implement, amounting to instigating and maintaining relationships with all the groups and individuals that are involved in, or affected by, a project. Therefore, it can be practiced by any construction company, regardless of size. Dialogue should be conducted at all stages: during design, whilst building and throughout occupation. Communications should be established with stakeholders through means such as meetings, open forums, brainstorming sessions, newsletters and media inserts - and also through straightforward talking. A construction companys stakeholders will vary according to size, but all of the following should be considered as potential sources of feedback and information: Business Partners: Employees Suppliers Distributors Service Providers Unions Authorisers: Government (legislation and guidance) Regulatory Agencies (e.g. HSE) Shareholders / Investors Professional Bodies (e.g. The Chartered Institute of Building) Board of Directors (in large companies) External Influencers: Consumers / Clients (current and end users of the construction) Public (communities affected by construction) Media Special Interest or Pressure Groups (e.g. environmental or social welfare groups) (Brown et a1 2003) The reason why establishing a culture of transparency and trust between a construction company and its stakeholders is so important is so these groups can then distinguish the weaknesses, strong points, failures and successes of a companys operations. Many companies are failing to capitalise on this resource as a way of preventing and solving disputes, gaining fresh ideas, gaining good publicity, interacting with influential and valuable indushy bodies and improving the morale of the workforce. Holding a local meeting or sending out a newsletter to the local community could help to prevent unnecessary suspicion and resentment, just as approaching and working with the media and pressure groups can prevent bad press and generate positive coverage. Sharing knowledge, when relevant, with investors, suppliers and employees will make for an efficient and empowered team and can help to reduce confusion and prevent delays. A good starting point when practicing CSR is to identify the area of the team that needs most work, or is presently most isolated. Similarly, when taking an overview of the entire CSR policy, it is best to start by assessing the areas that are highest priority or need the most work and

40% of those surveyed in Great Britain said they would pay more for a socially responsible product or service. (CSR Europe, 2003)
It could be argued that these findings (from a survey carried out in the year 2000) are demonstrative of a growing consumer awareness of CSR and that, furthermore, they show a clear correlation between practicing social responsibility and delivering what the consumer wants from a service provider. Construction companies could feasibly expect to achieve a widened customer base by implementing a CSR policy, not only due to the improved reputation that is likely to be generated from the visibly raised social and environmental awareness, but also through the improved communications with the public or the client that will result from the inception of stakeholder dialogue (see below for a discussion of stakeholder dialogue). Community relations are another element of the reputation of a company and this is an area that can be considerably enhanced and improved upon with the implementation of a CSR policy. There are clear business benefits for a company that keeps on good terms with the community in which it is working, as the day to day functioning of the site will run more smoothly if a healthy relationship has been established. Preventing complaints and bad feeling by generating reciprocal understanding will ultimately contribute to meeting deadlines more quickly. Earning and maintaining trust is the key to holding social capital and gaining from CSR. Trust is identified by the DTI in the form of creating good will as a business benefit. Initiating dialogue breeds a healthy attitude of transparency and this is invaluable for any construction company that wishes to raise profile and increase competitive edge. The DTI definition of the potential business benefits of practising CSR also identifies improving staff efficiency and morale as one tangible achievement that can be reached with a successful policy. This could manifest itself in many ways but the general argument is that greater communication within the workforce (one of the biggest stakeholder groups) and between management and employees leads to improved relationships and higher morale. This, in turn, can lead to trust being built, increased commitment from staff, increased productivity, greater efficiency, better teamwork and faster, more thorough completion of projects. A happy workforce is a productive workforce: conversely, complaints and moans slow down work and distract employees from focusing on the job in hand. This is applicable to all teams, from the largest contractor to the smallest business. As a CSR policy should include working towards greater sustainability on sites, efficiency might also be improved on site by the waste reduction and resource management procedures that are taught and practised. A construction company that aims to achieve all of these business benefits (enhanced reputation at all levels, better community relations, a more committed and efficient workforce, and improved practices) will be likely to gain what is referred to by the DTI as competitive edge. This is, of course, a key component of any successful business, but is absolutely critical in the current construction climate. Having the competitive edge over other companies is valuable for the attainment of contracts, and essential for attracting and retaining the highest calibre employees. Due to the current industry skills shortage, competent and skilled entrants to construction have the opportunity to choose between employers. A companys position in the CSR stakes is
14

resources. In many construction companies, there are CSR procedures already in place, even if they are not currently recognised as such. These should be identified, reviewed and built into a new action plan. In larger companies, it may be necessary to gain approval from the board before creating new policies. For a CSR policy to be most successhl, it should be adopted inherently, as a fresh approach to existing business aims. The policy should be realistic, as there may be more damage done than good if a company aims too high and fails to achieve. In large companies, it may be necessary to appoint a CSR committee, or even an officer responsible for overseeing the CSR policy, but it is important to remember that Corporate Social Responsibility is everyones responsibility. Therefore, it is most effective when all employees are working on it together. A basic CSR policy could incorporate the following: Value statements. Objectives for carrying out stakeholder dialogue. Objectives for improving training and communications within the company. Action points for producing newsletters or implementing other methods of community relations. Assessment of PR and media relations. Standards or expectations against which to measure success for reporting purposes. At the implementation stage, plans should be consistently and regularly reviewed, progress should be audited and, where practical (if resources allow; depending on the size of the company), a report should be published. CSR must be reported on in order for the process to be worthwhile. The best policy is to communicate when targets have been missed and why, as well as the ways in which the policy has been successful. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), with its guidelines for business reports, provides a useful starting point for reporting on CSR. The Government has also published some guidelines on reporting and communicating CSR actions within the Corporate Social Responsibility Report 2002: Effective CSR requires effective and transparent communications.. ..There has been a substantial increase in public concern about the social and environmental responsibility of organisations, but awareness of responsible practices is low, and people want to know more. (DTI 2002, p. 34) This is especially true in construction where public perceptions of the industry need to be raised. The Government has published two recent reports on this subject, Creating a Quality Dialogue (DTI, 1999), about relations between companies and their investors, and Creating Value for your Intangible Assets (DTI 2001). Research was commissioned by the DTI during 2002 into the value of all forms of CSR communications. This suggested that organisations should maintain a focus on how communicating CSR could help them achieve their core objectives. The core construction business objectives of improving reputation, increasing profit and enhancing efficiency can all be impacted on considerably by implementing and communicating CSR. Small construction companies as well as large ones should communicate successful social responsibility policies, even if the policy consists simply of a short meeting with suppliers on a monthly basis to discuss procedures and the communication consists of telling clients about the ways in which this has helped them to be a more efficient team. Talking to employees, clients and members of the public about how CSR is integrated into a business is as much a form of reporting as publishing a detailed pamphlet. Finally, it could be argued that the success of CSR in construction relies upon knowledge and experience being shared throughout the industry. Best practice and case studies are available on the Internet and could be used as a starting point for ideas by other companies. An awareness of developments in the way construction companies are

employing CSR is highly beneficial when making and reviewing company policies. Furthermore, it is essential to follow and, if necessary, act on any changes to legislation that may occur on this issue. Currently there are no legal requirements to be socially responsible or to report on it but it is a hot topic of debate throughout the industry so standards and expectations could feasibly change. It will be understood from the discussion above that the direct impact of Corporate Social Responsibility policies will be difficult for many companies to measure. There will undoubtedly be CSR sceptics indeed, its requirement for open, proactive communication may seem counter-intuitive to those accustomed to working in the old-style, adversarial industry. However, this paper has outlined some of the benefits of embracing a holistic approach to business success, and it has been argued that tomorrows industry leaders are likely to have made a firm commitment to CSR. The strength of Corporate Social Responsibility, however, is that it is an inherently inclusive opportunity for business improvement. It can be practiced with a minimum investment of capital, and it requires no prohibitively expensive technology. It is fitting, then, that the ultimate test of the success of CSR may be the level of inclusiveness achieved by the construction industry. If CSR can help construction shed its taciturn, macho image, thus helping the industry attract talent from all sectors of society, it will have more than repaid any investment made in time and communication to the public - who are, after all, the most important stakeholders we have. The CITB has recently run a major campaign to try to raise the profile of the industry, such is the need to do so. The primary objectives of this Positive Image campaign are to attract more higher quality young people into the construction industry, to increase the number of young people undertaking construction qualifications and to improve overall perceptions of the construction industry. The primary target audiences are young people and those who influence them. The campaign included using magazine advertisements, postcards, drinks coasters and animated online pop-up adverts. Many of the larger construction companies have examples of CSR policies that are currently being used on their websites. A good example is the HBG Construction Ltd CSR policy available to view on line at www.hbgc.co.uk

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
Andriof, J., and McIntosh, M . eds. 2001. Perspectives on Corporate Citizenship. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing Ltd Brown, D., Keeble, J. and Roberts, S. The Business Casefor Corporate Citizenship. Cambridge: Arthur D Little Ltd. Available from

http://www.adlittle.uk.com/articles/pdf/corporate-citizen.pdf. Accessed 15th July 2003


Construction Industry Environmental Forum. 2002. communication. personal

Construction Industry Research and Information Association. 2003 Social Responsibility And The Business Of Building London: CIRIA Available from http://www.ciria.org.uWnews~l70702.htm. Accessed 15th July 2003 Chartered Institute of Building 2003. Constructing Our Future: The Way Forwardfor Higher Education in Construction. Ascot: CIOB Department of Trade and Industry. 2002, Business and Society: Corporate Social Responsibility Report 2002. Great Britain: DTI. Available kom http://www.societyandbusiness.gov.u~pd~~r-~~~4.pdf. Accessed 15th July 2003

15

Department of Trade and Industry. 2002a, corporate Social Responsibility Available from http://www.dti.gov.uksustainability/sus/corp.htm. Accessed 15th July 2003 Department of Trade and Industry. 1999. Creating Quality Dialogue Between Smaller Quoted Companies And Fund Managers Great Britain: DTI Available from http://www.innovation.gov.uk/ projectskreating-quality-dialogue/download.htm. Accessed 15th July 2003 Department of Trade and Industry. 2001..Creating Value From Your Intangible Assets. Unlocking Your True Potential. Great Britain: DTI. Available fiom http://mKw.innovation.gov.ukprojects/intangible -assetdindex.htm1. Accessed 15th July 2003 FTSE Group. 2003. FTSElGood Index Series. London: FTSE Worldwide.Available at http://www.ftse.com/ftse4good/ Accessed 15th July 2003 Hopkins, M. 1999. The Planetary Bargain: Corporate Social f Responsibility comes o age. MacMillan: Basingstoke Phillips, R. and Claus, L., 2002 Corporate Social Responsibility and Global HR: Balencing the Needs o the Corporation and Its f Stakeholders, Virginia: Society for Human Resource Management. Available from http://www.cendantmobility.com/cendant/white gaperskorp- soc-resp-global-hr.pdf. Accessed 15th July 2003 Social Investment Forum. 2003. Introduction to Socially Responsible Washington: SIF Available from http://www. Investing. socialinvest.org/areas/sriguide/default.htm Accessed 15th July 2003

The Global Compact: www.unglobalcompact.org/PortaU The London Benchmarking Group: wmr.lbg-online.net/

Other useful websites


Business in the Community www.bitc.0rg.uk (excellent advice on reporting on CSR) Business for Social Responsibility. www.bsr.org. (good on designing a CSR policy) Considerate Constructors Scheme. www.ccscheme.org.uk CSR Europe: www.csreurope.org CSR Forum: www.csrforum.com CSR News: www.csrnews.com CSR Newsletter: www.mallenbaker.net/csr CSR press report and news service: wmr.csrwire.com Ethical Corporation Magazine: www.ethicalcorp.com Ethical Trading Initiative: www.ethicaltrading.org/ Government website for CSR: www.societyandbusiness.gov.uk Institute of Business Ethics: www.ibe.0rg.uk Institute of Social and Ethical Accountability:mKw.accountability.org.uk Payroll Giving (allows employees to donate to charity in a tax-effective way): m.inlandrevenue.gov.uWpayrollgiving Principles for Global Corporate Responsibility:

mrw.web.net/-tccr/benchmarks/index.html
Social Investment Task Force (for new initiatives set up by the Government): mrw.enterprising-communities.org.uk 16

CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION DIGEST


(ADJUDICATION AND DISPUTE RESOLUTION
33212003 ARBITRATION: down but not out! Einstein Network 2003 Running time: 18 min In a studio discussion, this programme examines the current status of arbitration as a means of settling construction disputes and its future within the industry. It also looks at the effect of the Arbitration Act 1996 and why the changes it introduced have not had more of an impact on the use of arbitration in construction. Consideration is given to a 100-day arbitration procedure as a means of speeding up the process. 33312003 USERS GUIDE TO ADJUDICATION: a guide for participants in adjudications conducted under Part II of the Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 Construction Umbrella BodiesAGudication Task Group 2003 25 p This guide provides a general introduction to adjudication in relation to construction contracts and, in particular, the right to adjudication provided by the Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996. It describes what adjudication is and then explains each stage in the process from establishing a right to go to adjudication to dealing with the final decision. 33412003 Altaras D SECURITY FOR COSTS Journal of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators May 2003 69 (2) pp 81-89 The article traces the historical development of providing security for costs in domestic arbitrations, highlighting specific cases that detail when the courts prior to the 1996 Act granted security. Thereafter, following the spirit of the 1996 Act, the power to order security for costs can be ordered by the Arbitrator, circumventing the intervention of the courts. The author then compares the UK legislation with the international rules of UNCITRAL, ICC and LCIA that do not specifically include the power on the Tribunal to order security. However it is sufficiently vague to imply that security could be ordered by a Tribunal. It concludes that there has been a swing from the courts ordering security, to the Tribunal having such power. However, without the input of statistical information, it is difficult to gauge how confident Tribunals are to order security for costs. 33512003 Ameen J R M et al APPLICATION OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS TO QUANTIFY A CLAIM FOR INCREASED COSTS Construction Management and Economics Feb-Mar 2003 21 (2) pp 159-165 The multiple linear regression analysis presented in this paper was successfully used by the authors to argue for increased costs at arbitration. They were representing an earthmoving subcontractor, who had been required by the client and the main contractor to execute work in a manner significantly at variance with the original tender and plans. The authors make the point that it was the claimants detailed recording of the work which

1
facilitated their subsequent analysis of the situation. They also state that their defence of their technique was able to withstand lengthy cross-examination by a QC, and that their work formed the basis of a substantial award in favour of the subcontractor. The method by which the claim was calculated is presented in detail. 33612003 Bingham T TAKING ISSUE WITH EVENTS: a commentary about awarding costs Journal of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators May 2003 69 (2) pp 102-115 The author reviews awarding costs in an Arbitration and provides a commentary, stating that the emphasis has changed in the adoption of costs. This is not, however, a sea change from the established principle that costs follow the event. The author reviews what an event is, warns of mistakes in applying the principle that costs follow the event and then continues to delve into the CPR and exercising discretion, reviewing cases on the point. There are some useful charts that provide clear explanations. The conclusion is to understand the principle, find the event and only then can one depart from the established principle. 33712003 Chan A, Woodward A SINGAPORE AS A PLACE FOR ARBITRATION: recent developments Journal of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators May 2003 69 (I) pp 10-17 This article reviews the complex nature of international arbitration and the specific difficulties that Singapore has experienced, in particular the case of Tang Boon Jek Jeffrey v Tan Poh Stanley that challenged the principle of finality of interim awards, and the case of Dermajaya Properties Sdn Bhd v Premium Properties Sdn Bhd that challenged the boundaries of party autonomy. The response of the Singapore legislature was robust and quick. This was in order to encourage the international community to choose Singapore as a seat for internationalarbitration. The article briefly outlines the Singapore set up and constitution, which is based on the common law tradition and the proactive nature of the Government who have set up SIAC and its rules. It then proceeds to outline the Tang Boon case and the legislative response to it, which effectively reversed the decision in this case, so that an interim award is final once it has been published if it was commenced after November 2001. Thereafter, the Dermajaya case is examined and the legislative response outlined, which again reaffirms the importance of party autonomy. 33812003 Cox C J GETTING A SUCCESSFUL OUTCOME THROUGH MEDIATION Journal of the Institute ofArbitrators May 2003 69 (I) pp 18-23 This article outlines the dynamics of mediation and how the process works and compares it with lawyer based negotiations, which are not the same. Mediation by its nature is either 17

facilitative or evaluative and this article describes the former Protocol, the procedure at Trial, Costs including Security for mode. It details the importance of the skill set of a mediator and Costs, and Limitation. It reviews the case law from the TCC in how to select the appropriate mediator for the type of dispute in adjudication along with other cases. question. It then turns to the contractual arrangement between the parties and suggests that there should be a pre-agreement 34212003 OReilly M to mediate in the contract. Thereafter, the use of appointing RETHINKING COSTS IN COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION bodies is outlined and this is then followed by a more detailed Journal of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators May 2003 69 procedural analysis of the information exchange between the (2) p p 122-129 parties and the problems of not involving the people with the real interest in the outcome. It then explains the purpose and This article opens up the debate about bringing costs in arbitration function of mediation, and how it should work in practice. It uses into the 21st century. It reviews the basic rules on costs and the input from a lawyers perspective to aid further understanding outlines Sections 61 and 63 of the 1996Act, noting that although of the process of mediation. It concludes that mediation is by no arbitrators tend to follow the established principles, there is means a simple process, but that it will empower parties to nothing prohibiting them in the 1996 Act from straying. resolve their disputes, provided they fully understand the procedurelprocess. It then proceeds to outline the commercial reality required of costs, arguing that in fact it is appropriate for parties to develop their own rules to costs. The author then proposes new rules in 33912003 Dundas H R RECENT DEVELOPMENTS REGARDING COSTS IN order to stimulate debate, first outlining them and then applying them in. LITIGATION: are they applicable in arbitration? Journal of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators May 2003 69 It concludes that we should be looking to explore and develop (2) p p 90-101 new rules and not be constrained by past practice. The author reviews costs in light of the recent Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) and looks, in particular, at the Fence Gate case in 34312003 Pickavance K which HHJ Thornton QC has opened debate by statements in RENAISSANCE his judgment. This is then compared with the approach adopted Construction Law Journal 2003 19 (3) p p 131-134 in litigation under the CPR and how this could, or indeed should be, compared and used in Arbitration under the 1996 Act. The This is a short commentary on the SCL Delay and Disruption author reviews cases and judgments and concludes that despite Protocol that the author was part of. Here, he outlines the core the changes brought about by the 1996 Act and the principles reasons for the Protocol, exploring how it is intended as a best behind the CPR, there is still a reluctance by Arbitral Tribunals to practice guide to assist contract administrators in dealing with take the full powers given to them by the 1996 Act and that such delays and also to avoid them from occurring in the first place. tribunals should also keep themselves appraised of litigation It concludes that those responsible for training contract case law under the CPR. administrators (who are, in the main, architects) need to review the training and to ensure that critical path methods of analysis are taught. 340/2003 Homes R, OReilly M APPEALS FROM ARBITRAL AWARDS: should Section 69 34412003 Pike A be repealed? CONTRACTS TRIBUNAL Journal of the Institute ofArbitrators May 2003 69 (1) p p 1-9 AMENDING THE JOINT CONTRACTS - PART II This article evaluates the operation of Section 69 in light of Construction Law Journal 2003 19 (2) p p 71-83 decided case law and suggests that Section 69 goes against the spirit of the 1996 Act of party autonomy and independencefrom This is the second part of the review on the JCT standard form. judicial intervention, as well as adding to costs and inefficiency. The author again outlines the amendments and additions, It provides a brief historical overview of Arbitration and the pro- providing a commentary on each of them. It is however, his own visions of Section 69. It then offers a critique of Section 69 with view and should not be taken as legal advice. The following are two particular questions. Firstly, does the Section provide what detailed : Nominated Sub-Contractors; Performance Specified the parties want? Secondly, are the aims of Section 69 met in work; Collateral Warranties; Performance Bond and parent practice? The article details a survey of Section 69 decided company guarantee; proscribed materials; Appendix; JCT cases and provides Commentary on whether Section 69 oper- Adjudication Agreement; Adjudication Agreement (named); ates with the commercial safeguards required by the parties. It Bonds; PI1 clause for use with the JCT WCD 98; and JCT concludes that its practical application does not merit the Management Contract. increase in costs and uncertainty that follow. Furthermore,they suggest that empirical data could be collected to substantiate 34512003 Pike A their observations that Section 69 should be repealed. AMENDING THE JOINT CONTRACTS TRIBUNAL CONTRACTS PART I 34112003 Nissen A Construction Law Journal 2003 19 (1) p p 3-16 FORMAT FOR LITIGATION AND ARBITRATION AFTER ADJUDICATION This is the first article of two and reviews the amendments and Construction Law Journal 2003 19 (4) p p 179-186 additions to the JCT Standard Form of Building Contract, 1998 Edition, Private With Quantities. It provides commentaries on This is an interesting article, which reviews the impact of each of the amendments and additions, outlining the Adjudication after the Adjudicators decision has been issued. It advantages for the employer. It also notes matters that are not deals with the legal technicalities of how a party may proceed in covered by JCT, such as performance bonds, warranties and the event of taking the same matter to arbitration and/or parent company guarantees. This article reviews the following: litigation. It starts by reviewing the scope of the action and how Articles 3 and 4 that deal with the role of the Architect and QS; an adjudicators decision forms the basis of a cause of action Definition of conditions; Contract Bills in relation to the Articles, and the complexities that can emerge as a result of an arbitration Conditions and Appendix; Assignment; Insurance of the Works; clause, for instance. Thereafter it follows through the Pre-Action Damages for non-completion; Relevant Events; Loss and

18

Expense caused by matters that affect regular progress of the works; Determination by Employer or Contractor; and finally Certificates and Payments. 34612003 Tackaberry J SOME REFLECTIONS ON THE MAKING OF OFFERS AND THE CAPPING OF COSTS IN ARBITRATION Journal of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators May 2003 69 (2) pp 116-121 This article looks specifically at the making of offers and capping of costs in arbitral proceedings, looking at case law, the provisions of the Act and the input of the CPR that can be used as guidance. It concludes that the tribunal should keep a note of the costs as well as encouraging the parties to do so. It also reminds the reader of the duty and object of arbitration and to keep in mind that costs are not a simple matter to be dealt with at the end of a matter by application of a simple rule. 34712003 Trotman T LOCAL AUTHORITY LIABILITY AND DEFECTIVE BUILDINGS: the implications of Marcic v Thames Water Utilities Construction Law Journal 2003 19 (1) pp 17-24 This article reviews the case of Marcic v Thames Water Utilities 2001 (Marcic) and suggests that the current state of domestic tort law may have to be reconsidered if the courts were to follow the decision of Marcic at first instance. It proposes that the incremental approach would need to be jettisoned where local authority action or inaction could amount to a lack of respect for the home or a deprivation of property. This relates to Article 8 of the European Convention of Human Rights and Article 1 of the First Protocol thereto. The article outlines the facts of Marcic and the outcome of the first instance decision along with the Court of Appeals reasoning. This is broken down into finding the appropriate formula and then applying the formula to the given facts of Marcic. Thereafter, a comparison is made with the burden upon a Local Authority when exercising building control functions and a review of the English case is made from Murphy v Brentwood. The author concludes that whilst there may be an uncertain area of public liability that has been opened by the first instance decision in Marcic, for public authorities to justify their actions, it is unlikely to apply in the case of inaction. 34812003 Wallace I N D answer to right question no answer? Construction Law Journal 2003 19 (4) pp 187-192 This article reviews the specific and often difficult provisions within the HGCRA of withholding payment and how the TCC Judges have taken the principle. If he (the adjudicator) has answered the right question in the wrong way, his decision will be binding. If he has answered the wrong question, his decision will be a nullity. The author suggests that to apply this principle, where a party has failed to comply with section 111(2) of the Act, is wrong as a matter of law. The article then briefly reviews the TCC decisions that specifically reviewed the application of withholding payment and the use of such a mishap to prevent a party from using it as a defence that the adjudicator should consider. The review includes a detailed analysis of the judgment in Nikko Hotels and of the earlier authority of the Anisminic case where Lord Reid in the House of Lords explained the wrong answer principle and how it has been taken out of context in the current adjudication climate and the author finds this surprising, but sees this as a political trend to foster the superficial illusion of increased access to the legal system for the public, whilst taking procedural steps to prevent any increased expenditure in the provision of public services to meet the increased demand, which is paradoxically implemented by the judiciary.

BUILDING CONTROL
34912003 Lennon T PRECAST CONCRETE HOLLOW CORE SLABS IN FIRE Structural Engineer 15 Apr 2003 81 (8) pp 30-35 This article reports on fire tests carried out at Cardington, the BRE facility. The slabs were assessed against their fitness to fulfil the performance criteria set out in Approved Document B of the Building Regulations. The tests and their results are described in detail, and it is found that the slabs performance meets the requirements of the Building Regulations. However, it is noted that only a relatively small number of tests have been carried out to date.

BUILDING CONSERVATION

35012003 Allen G C et al RAINDROPS KEEP FALLING ON MY LEAD Journal of ArchitecturalConservation March 2003 9 (1) pp 23-44
It is explained that the dull appearance of lead is, in fact, due to a patina that lead forms once exposed to the atmosphere. When freshly milled, it has a silvery appearance. The patina itself is what provides lead with resistance to further corrosion. However, the circumstances in which lead can corrode are outlined in this article. The presence of organic acid vapours is identified as a source of corrosion, and condensation corrosion inside roofs is also discussed. It is further noted that the problem may have become worse in recent years, due to changes in heating, ventilation and insulation. Following case study reports, the authors recommend that the use of freshly milled lead be avoided, so that the patina can form. Also, contact with moisture and volatile organic acids has to be kept to a minimum.

35112003 Earl J BUILDING CONSERVATION PHILOSOPHY Donhead 2003 3rd ed 248 p This book is about the ideas behind building conservation. It addresses such things as the history of building conservation, the nature of a historic building, the relationship of buildings to their environment, why buildings are preserved, and the philosophical problems which surround any act of preservation including such controversial issues as skin-deep preservation and the use of substitute materials. 35212003 Gilfillan R, Gilbert S BELFAST ROOF TRUSS -WORTH CONSERVING? Journal of Architectural Conservation March 2003 9 (1) pp 45-57 The development of this truss type is outlined, and it is argued that it is an efficient structure which can be replicated in historic buildings. Information on its load carrying behaviour is reported, and the authors conclude that it is an elegant and efficient structure. 35312003 Lynch G, Pavia S BRICKS USED FOR GAUGED BRICKWORK - PART ONE Journal of Architectural Conservation March 2003 9 (1) pp 7-22 Rubbing bricks are low-fired bricks - ones which do not develop a protective fireskin. Such bricks are durable, but can be cut through to varying depths. Their historical background, and the development of gouged brickwork are reviewed. The brickearth

19

used to make such bricks, and its chemical composition, are discussed. A discussion of their weathering and hardening is commenced in this paper, which is the first in a series of two. 35412003 Nasser N CULTURAL CONTINUITY AND MEANING OF PLACE: sustaining historic cities of the lslamicate world Journal ofArchitectura1Conservation March 2003 9 (1) pp 74-89 Cultural continuity is a problematic concept in a rapidly evolving world, which leads the author to consider such questions as the definition of authenticity and meaning of place in a cultural concept. It is argued that living traditions need to be conserved, and that the lslamicate world needs to build on its cultural continuity. 355/2003 Rodwell D SUSTAINABILITY AND THE HOLISTIC APPROACH TO THE CONSERVATION OF HISTORIC CITIES Journal ofArchitectura1Conservation March 2003 9 ( ) 58-73 Ipp The author argues that architectural conservation will continue to underachieve until such time as it not only integrates with, but also becomes a driving force in, sustainable development.
~~ ~ ~ ~

359/2003 Brown D C NOVEL METHOD OF EXCAVATION Journal of ConstructionEngineeringand Management Mar/Apr 2003 129 (2) pp 222-225 It is hoped that the method presented in this paper may reduce the risk of damage to adjacent buildings during the construction of underground carparks and basements. The method has been found to be both successful and cost-effective, although labour intensive. 360/2003 Dinwoodie J M, Enjily V WOOD-BASED PANELS: Oriented Strand Board (OSB) BRE 2003 6 p Oriented strand board (OSB) is a relatively new product. This Digest describes the performance of OSB in general terms, offers guidance on its use and looks at how to select and specify the different grades of OSB in accordance with European Standard EN 300. 361/2003 Dunster A M, Crammond N J DETERIORATION OF CEMENT-BASED BUILDING MATERIALS: lessons learnt BRE 2003 6 p This paper provides a brief overview of some lessons learnt from BRE technical consultancy case studies concerned with the deterioration of cement-based materials and components. There is coverage of damage resulting from sulfate reactions, steel slag reactions, popcorn calcite deposition, alkali-silica reaction caused by de-icing salts, and acid attack. In many cases a contributory factor to the damage was a build-up of moisture. 362/2003 Forth J P et al MOVEMENT IN A SEVEN STOREY REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAME Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings 2003 May 156 (2) pp 131-140 The research is conducted on a frame built at BRE, Cardington. Six key findings on the effects of vertical loads on horizontal movements are presented, and it is hoped that these may prove useful for structural analysis. 36312003 Gibb A OFFSITE FABRICATION: prefabrication, pre-assembly and modularisation Whittles 1999 284 p This book describes the principles, applications and implications of off-site fabrication (non-volumetric, volumetric and modular building) from an international perspective. Areas covered include the history of industrialised building methods; the benefits of off-site fabrication in terms of time, cost, quality, productivity and reliability; the countries and project types where off-site manufacture is most commonly employed; and procurement strategy implications. Numerous case studies describe the use of off-site fabrication on a range of project types including the annular roof for Wimbledons No. 1 tennis court, Scottish Widows headquarters in Edinburgh, a McDonalds drive-thru in Peterborough, and an industrial plant in Singapore. 364/2003 Kumar A STRENGTHENING OF LONDONS LAMBETH BRIDGE Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings 2003 May 156 (2) pp 151-164 The identification and correction of structural deficiencies in the

BUILDING SURVEYlNG
356/2003 Bravery A F et al RECOGNISING WOOD ROT AND INSECT DAMAGE IN BUILDINGS BRE 2003 3rded 126p This book begins by outlining the equipment and procedure for inspecting buildings for wood rot and insect attack. It then presents keys for identifying fungi and insects causing damage together with detailed descriptions, illustrations and remedial treatments. The third edition contains a new section on termites. 357/2003 Oxley R SURVEY AND REPAIR OF TRADITIONAL BUILDINGS: a sustainable approach Donhead 2003 217p This book stresses that providing suitable guidance on the care and repair of traditional buildings requires an understanding of their unique requirements. It looks at the principles and techniques crucial to the survey and assessment of a traditional building, taking into account its particular construction, its need to breathe and the importance of achieving a sustainable approach. In the treatment of damp and timber decay, remedies appropriate to older buildings are advocated rather than the more standard treatments which can be damaging. Case studies show not only good conservation in practice but also how projects can go wrong.

BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

>

35812003 Barrett P S HYBRID CONCRETE: improved processes and performance Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings 2003 May 156 (2) pp 193-203 Hybrid concrete combines in situ and precast concrete. This paper combines discussion of factors regarding its utilisation with an examination of supply chain and communication issues. Three projects are analysed, and the authors discussion might well be of interest to others researching barriers to the uptake of innovation.

20

original arched steel ribs of the bridge are described.

slender diagonal bracing members are most vulnerable to corrosion.

36512003 Liang Q Q et al LOCAL AND POST-LOCAL BUCKLING OF DOUBLE SKIN COMPOSITE PANELS Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers: Structure and Buildings 2003 May 156 (2) pp 111-119 The behaviour of biaxially compressed steel plates is investigated via finite element modelling technique. The results are used to develop formulae for ultimate strength design. 36612003 Lord J, Hayward T, Clayton C SHAFT FRICTION OF CFA PILES IN CHALK ClRlA 2003 6 1 p
This report makes recommendations for the design of shaft resistance of continuous flight auger (CFA) piles in low- and medium-densitychalk. It is concluded that the factor which most influences the shaft resistance of CFA piles in chalk is how readily the chalk remoulds.

37212003 Stirling C OFFSITE CONSTRUCTION: an introduction BRE 2003 8 p


In the post-war years prefabricated construction gained a rather negative image but, with modern materials and production methods, the process has much to offer to todays construction industry. This guide provides an introduction to the process of off-site construction and its benefits.

37312003 Tomlinson M FOUNDATION DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Prentice Hall 2001 7th ed 581 p
Aimed at construction undergraduatesand practising engineers, this book deals with the design and construction of a wide range of types of foundation, including in difficult ground conditions. Topics covered include site investigations;the general principles of foundation design; foundation design in relation to ground movement; strip, pad, raft and deep shaft foundations; basement, bridge and piled foundations; cofferdams; and shoring and underpinning. The theory is reinforced with numerous worked examples.

36712003 Lucas J M THERMAL ACTIONS ON A STEEL BOX GIRDER BRIDGE Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings 2003 May 156 (2) pp 175-182 36812003 Mottram J T et al PHYSICAL TESTING FOR CONCENTRICALLY LOADED COLUMNS OF PULTRUDED GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED PLASTIC PROFILE Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings 2003 May 156 (2) pp 205-219 36912003 Picken D H, llozor B D HEIGHT AND CONSTRUCTION COSTS OF BUILDINGS IN HONG KONG Construction Management and Economics Feb-Mar 2003 21 (2) pp 107-111
The researchers found that, contrary to their expectations, cost per square metre steadily reduced in buildings up to 30 storeys high, before starting to increase again. This was surprising, because previous studies had suggested that optimum savings were achieved at a much lower level - in the construction of three to four storey buildings. Finding more questions here than answers, the researchers suggest many reasons why this might be the case. It is possible that the results were affected by the type of projects studied, the expertise of Hong Kong construction managers in building at height and other country-specific factors. One such factor may be the lack of provision for pay enhancements for workers at height in Hong Kong.

COMMERCIAL MANAGEMENT
37412003 Ammar A et al INDICATOR VARIABLES MODEL OF FIRMS SIZEPROFITABILITY RELATIONSHIPOF ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORS USING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC DATA Journal of Construction Engineering and Management Mar/Apr 2003 129 (2) pp 192-197 37512003 Ekstrom M A et al ACCOUNTING FOR RATER CREDIBILITY WHEN EVALUATING AECSUBCONTRACTORS Construction Management and Economics Feb-Mar 2003 21 (2) pp 197-208
This US-based research, which explores challenges in the development of e-commerce in construction, finds that Trustbuilder, a prototype rating tool, provides an effective mechanism for companies wishing to explore the credibility of new potential partners.

37612003 Nicholas J, Edwards D J MODEL TO EVALUATE MATERIALS SUPPLIERS AND CONTRACTORS BUSINESS INTERACTIONS Construction Management and Economics 2003 April-May 21 (3) pp 237-245
It is noted that many transactions between suppliers and contractors are conducted on credit. This paper offers a method whereby suppliers can enhance their commercial decisionmaking, and perhaps use the knowledge to pass on advantages to good debtors. It is suggested that this might ultimately result in more economical construction.

37012003 Ronalds B F, Pinna R EIGEN BUCKLING OF CYLINDRICAL SHELLS IN OFFSHORE STRUCTURES: influence of geometry, loading and end conditions Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings 2003 May 156 (2) pp 183-191 37112003 Smith J W ENERGY APPROACH TO ASSESSING CORROSION DAMAGEDSTRUCTURES Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings 2003 May 156 (2) pp 121-130
It is expected that the proposed method may assist in the identification of concealed and unexpected corrosion in chemical plants. The search procedure used reveals that

37712003 Tang Y H, Ogunlana S 0 MODELLING THE DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF A CONSTRUCTION ORGANIZATION Construction Management and Economics Feb-Mar 2003 21 (2) pp 127-136
The model developed in this paper offers a method for describing the interaction between organisational performance (a public company from Malaysia is used as a case study) and wider economic conditions. The effect of the Asian financial crisis has had a profound effect on construction organisations in Malaysia.

21

CONTRACTS/ LEGAL
37812003 Akenhead et al (eds) R (FACTORTAME LTD AND OTHERS) V SECRETARY OF STATE FOR TRANSPORT, LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND THE REGIONS Building Law Reports Feb 2003 1 pp 1-19 In March 2oooi the accepted the Offer made by the Secretary Of State, and the Secretary Of State was Ordered to pay the Claimants costs. It was held that the Claimant could also recover the CharteredAccountants costs, so the Secretary Of State appealed. The Of Appeal dismissed the appeal On various grounds including the fact that the Chartered Accountants did not act as an expert witness, but were retained as independent experts. 379/2003 Akenhead et al (eds) BALDWINS INDUSTRIAL SERVICES PLC V BARR LIMITED Building Law Reports May 2003 4 pp 176-183 Baldwins hired a crane and driver to Barr for use at the new football stadium in Southampton. After an incident with the crane, Baldwins Ought damages from Barr for repairs and lossAn adjudicator was appointed to resolve the dispute and Barr was ordered to pay for the repairs, loss of hire changes, and costs. Barr did not pay and eventually administrative receivers were appointed for Baldwins, who Ought summary judgement to enforce the decision. Summary judgement was awarded showing that the hiring of the crane and driver does fall within the definition of a construction operation for the purposes of the Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996, and a stay of execution was granted. 380/2003 Akenhead R et al (eds) (1) ROGER JAMES LEYLAND (2) DEBORAH ANN LAYLAND V (1) FAIRVIEW NEW HOMES PLC (2) THE LONDON BOROUGH OF LAMBETH Building Law Reports Feb 2003 1 pp 20-30 The case concerns the Claimants purchasing a property from Fairview. Local authority searches showed that there were no proposals for the adjoining land, yet months after the Claimants moved in, the Borough started the building of an incinerator, power plant, chimney and boiler. The Court gave judgement stating that there was no realistic diminution in value and no evidence in favour of the Claimant. The Claimants appealed and the appeal was allowed on a number of grounds including the fact that expert witnesses can only be tested at trial by crossexamination and although the case for diminution looked weak, it could not fairly be stated that the Claimant stood no chance of success. 381/2003 Akenhead R et al (eds) FERSON CONTRACTORS LIMITED V LEVOLUX AT LIMITED Building Law Reports April 2003 3 pp 118-124 Ferson employed Levolux AT &AT) as the subcontractor under the GCNVorks subcontracti with made by the parties. A dispute arose Concerning LATS application for payment and the matter was taken to adjudication. The dispute was centred on Section 111 of the Housing Grants, Construction and RegenerationAct 1996 and the withholding of notice. The adjudicator found in favour of LAT. Ferson did not pay and LAT brought proceedings. Fersons grounds were to do with Section 112 of the Act and its links with clause 29 of the subcontract. The adjudicators decision was enforced and Ferson appealed. The Appeal was dismissed.

382/2003 Akenhead R et al (eds) SAUNDERS V WlLLlAMS Building Law Reports April 2003 3 pp 125-130 The case concerned damage to a party wall and following admission of liability by Williams, Saunders received damages. Saunders appealed asking for quantificationof the damages and made two applications during the Appeal, that the Judge did not have jurisdiction and permission to reopen issues. The permission to reopen issues was refused appeal. The appeal was held in part stating that the Judge did have jurisdiction and that reopening of only took place in rare circumstances, The Judge discussed foreseeable damages in relation to quantification. 38312003 Akenhead R et al (eds) SCOTTISH AND NEWCASTLE PLC V D G CONSTRUCTION (ST ALBANS) LIMITED Building Law Reports April 2003 3 pp 131-146 , Scottish & Newcastle emrdoved GD Construction to undertake refurbishmentworks to a public house, under the JCT IFC 1984. This case was based on the specific clauses, 6.1.2, 6.3.2 and 6,3c1, in relation to indemnity for loss, specified and insurance policies, The employer stated that the fire in the property was a result of the contractors breach of the contractual and common law duties of care. The trial addressed a preliminary issue, namely that if the employer pleaded on the grounds of breach of contract and negligence, the contractors would be liable for several categories of loss. The Judge said yes and the contractor appealed on the issue of the cost of repairs to the existing structure. The appeal was held on numerous grounds. 38412003 Akenhead R et al (eds) HOK SPORT LTD V AINTREE RACECOURSE COMPANY LTD Building Law Reports May 2003 4 pp 155-175 The two parties entered into a contract in order to replace part of a stand with a new stand at Aintree Racecourse, which would increase the capacity of spectators. There were various design changes and the stand was constructed with a loss of 685 standing places. An arbitrator was appointed and his award addressed the reduced occupancy issue. The core finding was that the Claimant was not in breach of duty to provide a specified number of seating places, but in breach of not warning the defendant of the loss. The Claimant sought leave to appeal on a question of law, and the appeal was allowed and the award varied. In the judgement, HHJ Thornton QC addressed a variety of issues, including the fact that the principles in South Australia Asset Management CO Ltd v York Montagu Ltd (1997) AC 191, were applicable. 38512003 Albertini A ADJUDICATION AFTER FIVE YEARS - NEED FOR REFORM? Construction Law May 2003 14 (4) pp 14-17 Statutory adjudication has been around now for 5 years and it has been a success. The possible threat of adjudication has provoked settlement of disputes, and decisions are now being considered as final, In this article, the author looks at the areas where, if there were Some reform, the process may work even better. 386/2003 chappell JCT STANDARD BUILDNG ONTRACTS Spon 2003 7th ed 160 p This work is a guide to the JCT 98 series, written in accessible language so that practitioners in construction can refer to it

without the need for a legal dictionary. Unlike some works, it groups its chapters by topics instead of by clauses: it is argued that otherwise salient points can be missed. The topics are contractors obligations; insurance; third parties; work in progress; money; claims: completion; dispute resolution. 38712003 Choat R BETTER LATE THAN NEVER Construction Law June 2003 14 (5) pp 17-19 In this article, the author reviews the latest Scottish case, St Andrews Bay Development Ltd v HBG Management Ltd and Mrs Janey Milligan (4 April 2003), where the judge held that even though the adjudicators decision was given late, it could still be enforced. Should there be a distinction as to when an adjudicator has to reach a decision and when it has to be communicated? Adjudicators are finding ways around this, by making provisions in their terms of appointment. 38812003 Chynoweth P PARTY WALL CASEBOOK Blackwell 2003 486p This book analyses more than 80 significant court cases relating to the Party Wall etc Act 1996 describing, in each instance, the facts of the case, the key issues and the decision. It provides guidance on various aspects of the practice of party wall surveying including ensuring that notices are properly served, protecting the interests of appointing owners during negotiations and dealing with compensation claims by adjoining owners. 38912003 David Short DOES THE HRA PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT? Construction Law May 2003 14 (4) pp 27-29 The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) made no reference to the environment, but lawyers have found ways to interpret the Convention so that it can be used in environmental challenges. In 2000, the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) was brought into force and incorporated the ECHR. Significant developments have been seen in relation to HRA and the environment, and the author discusses the potentialfuture claims. 39012003 Greenstreet B, Chappell D, Dunn M LEGAL AND CONTRACTUAL PROCEDURES ARCHITECTS Architectural Press 2003 5th ed 112 p

39212003 Selwyn N LAW OF EMPLOYMENT Butterworths 2002 12th ed 737 p This standard text on employment law covers all areas of the subject including contracts, discrimination, equal pay, parental rights, employment protection, TUPE, health and safety, disciplinary procedures, dismissal, redundancy, employment tribunals and the law relating to trade unions and industrial relations. This edition has been updated to include the provisions of recent legislation such as the Employment Act 2002 and the effects of British and European court decisions. The book is aimed at students of law and management, personnel specialists and others who have to advise on the subject. 39312003 Stebbings S PENALTIES IN MORE SENSES THAN ONE? Construction Law June 2003 14 (5) pp 20-22

In construction contracts for contractors and employers, a common and important clause is the liquidated damages provisions. The provisions deal with the risk of delay to either party, and are beneficial to both parties. Case law has shown that these clauses in a contract should not be treated as a penalty clause simply because a sum is agreed. The author looks at the clauses and warns that they could become a one-way bet in favour of the contractor.

DESIGN
39412003 Davis Langdon & Everest et al COST MODEL Building 17 April 2003 (15) pp 74-81 This article examines the cost of office fit-out. The data provided includes indicative costs for a category A fit-out (developers finish) of City of London and out-of-town offices; indicative tit-out costs by sector (legal, banking, corporate and public); indicative costs for the fit-out of office space from shell-and-core condition; and indicative rates for office fit-out components and furniture. There is also brief coverage of increasing efficiency through fit-out, taxation issues and procurement routes. 39512003 Spain B GUIDE TO HOME IMPROVEMENT COSTS Butterworth-Heinemann 2003 176 p This guide is aimed at the homeowner considering a home improvement project. It offers advice on choosing and engaging a contractor, DIY building, self-build and project costing. The book contains numerous tables which show, for any of the home improvement tasks listed, the time likely to be taken by an average DIY enthusiast, material costs, the level of difficulty, and the cost of employing a builder to do it. 39612003 Tait P D, Swaffield L M CONSTRUCTION SITE WASTE - THE REAL COSTS AND BENEFITS AVAILABLE FROM WASTE REDUCTION Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction March 2003 8 ( I ) pp 3-15 It is noted that the true cost of waste to a construction project is in the region of 4% of project costs, but that only the cost of waste disposal - about 0.05% - is usually accounted as the figure for cost of waste. It is noted that if its true cost was more widely realised, contractors might accord a higher priority to waste minimisation. It is also noted that controlling waste brings other, indirect business benefits.

FOR

This legal, contractual and administrative guide for architects provides an overview of the legal principles affecting the profession and describes, with the help of flow charts, checklists and sample documents, the duties and administrative procedures carried out by the architect at each stage in a building project. The fifth edition includes a new section on adjudication. 39112003 Newman P HOW TO BEHAVE AT A MEDIATION Construction Law May 2003 14 (4) pp 30-32 The Courts are beginning to encourage parties in a dispute to consider mediation. Some Courts have a mediation scheme attached to the Court, which will allow parties 3 hours mediation within the Court, in order to aid the dispute. The author of this article discusses alternative dispute resolution procedures and how, even though they are less formal, you must conduct yourself appropriately.

23

INTERNATIONAL
39712003 Minato A and T REPRESENTING CAUSAL MECHANISM OF DEFECTIVE DESIGNS: A SYSTEM APPROACH CONSIDERING HUMAN ERRORS Construction Management and Economics 2003 April-May 2 1 (3) pp 297-305 This investigation centres on how errors happen in design. Workplace and organisational factors are considered. Failures in both the original design and subsequent checks are discussed. It is suggested that organisational factors may form the root cause of defects. 39812003 STEEL DESIGNERS MANUAL Blackwell Science 2003 6th ed 1337 p This is the sixth edition of a comprehensive manual on steel design, first published in the 1950s. It aims to give a complete overview of conventional steelwork design. It covers design synthesis; steel technology; design theory; element design; connection design; construction. This last element features sections on tolerances, fire protection, corrosion and the eurocodes. 39912003 Bibby L et al DEFINING AN IMPROVEMENT PLAN TO ADDRESS DESIGN MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITHIN A UK CONSTRUCTION COMPANY International Journal of I T in Architecture, Engineering and Construction February 2003 1 (1) pp 57-66 It was found that the current design process in the company was unstructured, and that this has led to inconsistencies in terminology. The authors also conclude from this initial study that more staff education and training is required to help them effectively manage the design process. 40012003 Bingel P R OFF-THE-FRAME BRICKWORK: analysis of the data from Winterton House, London Structural Engineer 6 May 2003 81 (9) pp 27-33 The data gathered in this paper has been used to help develop a method for the design of vertically restrained clay brickwork on steel and reinforced concrete frame buildings. 40112003 lnoue A TAlPEl INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CENTER, TAIWAN Structural Engineer 15 Apr 2003 81 (8) pp 15-17 Currently under construction, this building will stand 101 storeys high with a five storey basement. It will, therefore, be one of the tallest buildings in the world. The article discusses the tower structure; excavation and shoring; mat foundation and mass concrete; structural steel; high-strength concrete; tuned mass damper; earthquake response.

beneficial, and that it is most beneficial to those participants with the least project management experience. 40312003 Myers D FUTURE OF CONSTRUCTION ECONOMICS AS AN ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE Construction Management and Economics Feb-Mar 2003 21 (2) pp 103-106 It is noted that, despite increasing governmental focus on the need for construction to contribute to the realisation of sustainability, it is rare for sustainability issues to be incorporated into degree-level construction economics syllabi. It is argued that there is still a lack of consensus, even amongst educational practitioners, about what the subject might constitute as an academic discipline. The lack of an underpinning theory is also underlined. The note concludes by calling for a new attempt at consensus within the discipline, which might increase the ability of the industry to fulfil the need for sustainable construction. 40412003 Nassar K CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS IN A COMPETITIVE MARKET: C3M, a simulation game Engineering, Constructionand Architectural Management 2003 10 (3) pp 172-178 The simulation game presented in this paper is intended to help students test bidding strategies. It could also be used for professionaltraining. The mechanics of the game are explained, and it is suggested that an on-line version might also be a useful training tool.

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

40512003 CONSTRUCTING FOR SUSTAINABILITY: a basic guide for clients and their professional advisors CIC 2003 2 8 p This guide for clients summarises the key aims and objectives relating to sustainable development. It outlines such things as how sustainability can reduce project risk, health and safety aspects, good site management, and costs and benefits. It includes a clients checklist to help gauge a projects level of sustainability. 40612003 Budd M et al COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL SITE GUIDE ClRlA 2003 164 p Construction activities can be very detrimental to the coastal and marine environment. This guide describes the potential effects on coastal and marine habitats of poor environmental practice on site and offers practical advice on avoiding and lessening any adverse impact. Subjects considered include setting up site, waste storage and disposal, noise and vibration, dust and emissions, ground contamination and maintaining water quality. The key environmental issues relating to various construction activities are listed including demolition, dredging, pipeline installation and piling. 40712003 Budd M et al COASTAL AND MARINE WORKING ON SITE ClRlA 2003 1 8 p This pocket book is based on the ClRlA publication Coastal and marine environmental site guide and summarises how to carry out coastal and marine works on site without harming the

(-

~~

EDUCATION AND TRAINING

40212003 McCreery J K ASSESSING THE VALUE OF A PROJECT MANAGEMENT SIMULATION TRAINING EXERCISE InternationalJournal of Project Management May 2003 21 (4) pp 233-242 Research into the benefits of PM training at a North Carolina University is presented. It is concluded that the training is

24

environment. Subjects covered include waste management, noise and vibration, dust, emissions and odours, ground and sediment contamination, and water quality. 40812003 du Plessis C BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN SOUTH AFRICA Building Research and Information May 2003 31 (3-4) 240pp

Building Research and Information May-Aug 2003 31 (3-4) pp

21 0-221
According to the authors, it is expected that the UK climate will become warmer and drier, although theories that climate change could 'switch off the gulf stream, thus making the UK far colder, cannot be totally discounted. Flooding, subsidence, wind impact , driving rain, air quality, thermal comfort and heritage buildings are all discussed. It is noted that different sectors and organisations are responding in different ways. The Building Regulations, standards and codes, insurance and finance, the construction industry and householders are all reviewed within the context of climate change. It is noted that there are challenges to revising regulations and standards due to the current degree of uncertainty over future conditions. It is not felt that current awareness of the issues within the industry is high.

256
The issue is discussed within the context of other policy issues facing South Africa. The contribution of South Africa to climate change is also described. Climate change could affect South Africa through temperature rises and changes in rainfall patterns. Current initiatives for mitigation and adaptation are described, and gaps in policy and research are identified.

41412003 Shimoda Y 40912003 Hertin J et al ADAPTATION MEASURES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE AND CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE UK HOUSE BUILDING THE URBAN HEAT ISLAND IN JAPAN SECTOR: perceptions, impacts and adaptive capacity Building Research and Information Mav-Aun 2003 31 (3-4) OD Building Research and Information May 2003 31 (3-4) 278- 222-230 pp

290
The current level of awareness within the industry is reviewed, and possible strategies for future adaptation are described. This paper is part of continuing research into adaptation behaviours and strategies, and the researchers hope to use their findings to develop a tool which assists companies with the adaptation process. 41012003 Larsson N ADAPTING TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN CANADA Building Research and Information May-Aug 2003 31 (3-4) pp 231-239 Rises in temperature and sea level are expected. It is further expected that this will exacerbate the problem of urban heat islands, absorbing even more solar radiation. Suggested responses include passive cooling, a change in thermal insulation strategies, and a change of building and urban form. 41512003 Vegter J et al RISK-BASED LAND MANAGEMENT - A CONCEPT FOR THE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF CONTAMINATED LAND Land Contamination and Reclamation 2003 11 (I) pp 31-36 Implementation of this concept would require continued research into contaminated land, to increase knowledge and support the development of policy. It also needs good knowledge sharing and integrated policies. RBLM considers fitness for use, protection of the environment, and long term care of sites when appropriate.

It is stated that Canada is expected to produce a framework for adaptation in 2003. Climate change could be dramatic, leading to a thawing of permafrost in the north and increased air pollution, amongst other effects, further south. The issue is starting to receive considerable attention in Canada, and government funded projects in response to the situation are listed in an appendix.
41112003 Lis0 K R et al PREPARING FOR CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS IN NORWAY'S BUILT ENVIRONMENT Building Research and Information May-Aug 2003 31 (3-4) pp

ESTIMATING
41612003 Skitmore M, Drew D ANALYSIS OF PRE-TENDER BUILDING PRICE FORECASTING PERFORMANCE: a case study Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 2003 I0 (1) pp 36-42 41712003 Spain B ed SPON'S HOUSE IMPROVEMENT PRICE BOOK: house extensions, storm damage work, alterations, loft conversions and insulation Spon 2003 2nd ed 512 p Provides cost data, including labour rates, for standard items of domestic construction work. Forty different sizes and types of extension and three different sizes of loft conversion are individually costed. Cost data is also provided for common alterations from shoring and underpinning to plumbing and painting. New to this edition is a section on the repair of damage due to floods, fires and gales. 41812003 Trost S M, Oberlender G D PREDICTING ACCURACY OF EARLY COST ESTIMATES USING FACTOR ANALYSIS AND MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION Journal of Construction Engineering and Management Mar/Apr 2003 129 (2) pp 198-204

200-209
Forecasts suggest that Norway may experience an increase in temperature over the next fifty years and the potential impacts of this are outlined. Areas for potential concern - such as property insurance - are discussed, and future research and likely adaptation to change are described. 41212003 Lowe R PREPARING THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT FOR CLIMATE CHANGE Building Research and Information May-Aug 2003 31 (3-4)pp

195-I99
The different international responses to the challenges of climate change are briefly outlined. Regulation, divergence of different adaptation strategies and other contextual issues are also measured. This is a guest editorial to a special journal issue on climate change, and it provides a useful overview of emerging issues in this field. 41312003 Sanders C H, Phillipson M c UK ADAPTATION STRATEGY AND TECHNICAL MEASURES: the impact of Chnate change on buildings

25

The estimate score procedure is presented. This is a model that allows project teams to predict the accuracy of an estimate. A software tool has been developed to automate this procedure.

RE-ENGINEERING THE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS IN THE SPECULATIVE HOUSE-BUILDINGSECTOR Construction Management and Economics Mar-Apr 2003 21 (2) pp 137-146 This paper reports on the innovations being attempted by a major UK housebuilder. Many different options providing alternatives to traditional building are discussed; the skills shortage, tighter insulation standards and consumer expectations being key drivers for change. The drive for greater prefabrication with mass customisation (which is a prevalent model in Japan) is coupled with a commitment to process re-engineering and supply chain management. 42512003 Grantham R, Enjily V MULTI-STOREY TIMER FRAME BUILDINGS: a design guide BRE 2003 5 0 p This book is concerned with the design, construction and performance of multi-storey timber frame buildings of platform frame type construction. It provides design and best practice guidance on aspects such as structural stability and robustness, fire safety, differential movement, the construction process and building tolerances. 42612003 Packham G PARTNERING IN THE HOUSE BUILDING SECTOR: a subcontractors view InternationalJournal of Project Management July 2003 21 (5) pp 327-332
~ ~~ ~

FACILITIES MANAGEMENT
41912003 GUIDE TO BUILDING SERVICES FOR HISTORIC BUILDINGS: sustainable services for traditional buildings CIBSE 2002 8 7 p When installing, upgrading or renewing building services in historic buildings it is important to remember that modern materials and techniques can be incompatible with traditional construction and may cause harm to the building fabric. This book provides guidance to help ensure that the installation or upgrading of building services in such buildings is done in an appropriate and sympathetic manner. Twenty-seven case studies illustrate the many issues that have to be considered when making appropriate and efficient alterations, and solutions that have been adopted.

HEALTH & SAFETY

>

42012003 Abudayyeh 0 et al ANALYSIS OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES AND FATALITIES IN ELECTRICAL CONTRACTING INDUSTRY Journal of Construction Engineering and Management Mar/Apr 2003 129 (2) pp 152-158 42112003 Hinze J, Gambatese J FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SAFETY PERFORMANCE OF SPECIALTY CONTRACTORS Journal of Construction Engineering and Management Mar/Apr 2003 129 (2) pp 159-164 The researchers surveyed three different contractor populations in the U.S. Respondents came from different trades and geographical areas. There were some factors that seemed consistently to have a positive relationship with good safety performance. These were the minimisation of workforce turnover; the implementation of workforce drug testing; training with assistance from contractor organisations. Safety incentive programmes were not found to be uniformly effective, but growth in company size had a positive correlation with improved health and safety performance. 42212003 Rowlinson S et a1 HONG KONG CONSTRUCTION FOREMENS SAFETY RESPONSIBILITIES:a case study of management oversight Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 2003 10 ( I ) pp 27-35 This study is based on 69 foremen from 13 companies. The information gathered provides many suggestions for how managers might improve the ability of their foremen to deliver improved site safety. They often lack training and authority to be fully effective in supervising for safety, but are characterised as being willing to improve their skills and performance in this area. The authors suggest that a tripartite effort from managers, foremen and government is needed to improve safety supervision.

INDUSTRY INFORMATION
42712003 Mann W CJ50 - CARILLION GETS ON THE RIGHT ROAD Contract Journal 24 April 2003 418 (6423) pp 18-19 The league table shows infrastructure orders healthy but private commercial work down. 42812003 Mann W CJ50 AMEC TAKES POLE POSITION AGAIN Contract Journal 19 March 2003 416 (6418) pp 22-23

Figures for February 2003 show significant activity in infrastructure, but private commercial orders are down. 42912003 Mann W CJ50 Contract Journal 21 May 2003 41 7 (6427) pp18-19 New orders for April 2003 are over $3.5 billion. This is believed to be the highest recorded by Contract Journal. 43012003 Ofori G PREPARING SINGAPORES CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY FOR THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY: practices, procedures and performance Construction Management and Economics Feb-Mar 2003 2 1 (2) pp 113-125 Ofori discusses the characteristics of the post-industrial knowledge economy, and offers a critique on the way the challenges of participation are being addressed in Singapore. The Construction 21 steering committee has been created to look at the future of the industry, and its recommendations are outlined. However, it is argued that there are other areas in need of development. Corporate models, business models, sustainability, alternative procurement models and partnering arrangements

HOUSEBUILDING

42312003 Liu A M M QUEST FOR QUALITY IN PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECTS: a behaviour-to-outcome paradigm Consfruction Management and Economics Feb-Mar 2003 21 (2) pp 147-158 42412003 Roy R et al

26

are identified as fields where further development might be beneficial to the industry.

these three groups. It is noted that some of the criteria cited as important are relatively difficult to measure effectively.

43112003 Richards M WHAT GOES AROUND.. . Building 4 April 2003 (13) pp 38-42
This 2003 salary survey gives data on pay for architects, surveyors and engineers.

4372003 Pietroforte R, Gregor T INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS OF THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR IN HIGHLY DEVELOPED ECONOMICS Construction Management and Economics 2003 April-May 21 (3) pp 319-327
The study covers eight industrialised countries in the 1970s and 1980s. Similarities and differences are discussed. It focuses on the effects of national economies, and the sectors relationship with these.

43212003 Taylor D AJIOO ArchitectsJournal 20 March 2003 217 (11) pp 38-42


The UKs largest architectural practices, and the fastest growing and highest earning firms are identified.

INTERNATIONAL
43312003 Chua D K H et al IMPACTS OF OBSTACLES IN EAST ASIAN CROSSBORDER CONSTRUCTION Journal of Construction Engineering and Management Mar/Apr 2003 129 (2) pp 131-141
This paper places obstacles to co-operation into five categories. These are business environment risk: regulatory restrictions; contractual arrangements; differences in standard; differences in culture. There is some data for nine counties, and a detailed focus on China and Singapore.

43812003 Ssegawa J K BUILDING PRICE INDEX FOR THE BOTSWANA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction March 2003 8 (I) pp 17-28
This paper reports on investigation into the possibility of establishing a price database of commonly used building items for public projects. Arising from the building price database, a building price index is constructed and a forecasting model formulated.

IT
43912003 AlJibouri A et al INFORMATION LINK MODEL FOR CONSTRUCTION USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE International Journal of IT in Architecture, Engineering and Construction May 2003 1 (2) pp 87-103
A knowledge-based system for clients is described. It is suggested that, as well as helping the project manager to monitor progress, the system may help configure the project team, as it shows interdependencies and responsibilities for information gathering.

43412003 Crawford P, Bryce P PROJECT MONITORING AND EVALUATION: a method for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of aid project implementation International Journal of Project Management July 2003 21 (5) pp 363-373 43512003 Muriithi N, Crawford L APPROACHES TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN AFRICA: implications for international development projects International Journal of Project Management July 2003 21 (5) pp 309-319
It is noted that there is a paucity of literature dealing with project management in developing countries, particularlywhere Africa is concerned. Two case studies from Uganda and Kenya are presented, dealing with the cut flower sector and a development corporation respectively. Cross-cultural factors and external environmentalfactors are discussed. The authors conclude that common concepts may not have universal application, as they assume that drivers such as economic rationality govern human behaviour. The development of a project management framework for Africa is recommended.

44012003 Brahame R, Mahdavi A COMPLEX EARLY DESIGN INQUIRIES VIA GENERATIVE DESIGN AGENTS Construction Innovation 2003 3 (2) pp 81-95
The paper outlines a method for analysing a buildings technical systems early in the design phase. It is noted that these systems are integral to building performance, and a method by which they can be assessed at an early stage is presented. Differential representation, homology-based automatic mapping and generative design agents are used. It is noted that these techniques could also be employed to provide information on HVAC systems at all stages of the design.

43612003 Odusami K T CRITERIA FOR MEASURING PROJECT PERFORMANCE BY CONSTRUCTION PROFESSIONALS IN THE NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction March 2003 8 (1) pp 39-47
Following a survey of 120 professionals, it was found that time and cost did not figure as highly as other measures for success. The most cited measure was building functioning as intended, followed by Client satisfaction and quality. The survey encompassed clients, consultants and contractors. There was found to be no Significant differences between the responses of

44112003 Chen Z et al WEBFILL BEFORE LANDFILL: an e-commerce model for waste exchange in Hong Kong Construction Innovation 2003 3 (1) pp 27-43
The Webfill system is an e-commerce solution that, it is proposed, could enhance the existing Trip-ticket system, which is currently used to manage waste from construction and demolition in Hong Kong. The methodology is described and the system is tested using a simulation. The results indicate that the Webfill-enhanced TTS apparently reduces the total amount of waste. This is achieved via the encouragement of waste recovery.

27

344212003 Duyshort B et al EXAMPLE OF DEVELOPING A BUSINESS MODEL FOR INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) ADOPTION ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AUSTRALIA PROJECT Engineering, Constructionand ArchitecturalManagement 2003 10 (3) pp 179-192

2003 129 (2) pp 173-181


This paper introduces a method for estimating time and cost on projects in order to select the optimum fleet configuration. 448/2003 Marzouk M, Moselhi 0 DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR CONSTRUCTION BIDDING Construction Innovation 2003 3 (2) pp 111-124 The advantage of this tool is that, as well as supporting both mark-up and bid evaluation, it can be adapted to reflect commercial environment, strategy, and preferred attitude towards risk. The paper is supported with examples of the system in practice 449/2003 Morris P W G et al IT SUPPORT FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN DESIGNER AND CONTRACTOR BRIEFING International Journal of Architecture, Engineering and Construction February 2003 1 (I) pp 9-24 This paper presents the findings of the KLICON research group, which has been investigating the role of IT in supporting KM. They have found that culture is as important as technology in the effective use of IT, and that the type of knowledge being shared dictates the type of system needed to share it. It is also found that ontologies are not always necessary to effective KM. 45012003 Motawa I A et al FUZZY APPROACH FOR EVALUATING THE INTEGRATED IMPLEMENTATION OF INNOVATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION International Journal of I T in Architecture, Engineering and Construction May 2003 1 (2) pp 105-118 A Dependency Structure Matrix (DSM) is used to simulate innovation implementation,as it is argued that there has been a need for more effective assessment of the effectiveness of implementations. The model is described, and it is hoped that its use will lead to more effective management of the deployment of innovations. 45112003 Najafi A A INTEGRATED COMPUTER-AIDED ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN International Journal of I T in Architecture, Engineering and Construction May 2003 I (2) pp 137-155 A method via which geometric designs in AutoCAD can be analysed and developed is described. 45212003 Rezgui Y et al IT-BASED APPROACH TO MANAGING THE CONSTRUCTION BRIEF International Journal of I T in Architecture, Engineering and Construction February 2003 I (1) pp 25-37 The CoBrlTe project is presented. The project aims to improve the briefing process via IT. Five key areas for technological improvement were established, together with the prototype for a system which addresses these and offers an integrated environment to support briefing. 45312003 Robeiro F L, Love P E D VALUE CREATION THROUGH AN E-BUSINESS STRATEGY: implication for smes in construction Construction Innovation 2003 3 (1) pp 3-14 In the discussion of two case studies, the authors argue that ebusiness cannot function independently of an overarching

The National Museum project is presented as a case study, demonstrating an instance where a business case for ICT adoption was created prior to the construction of the building. Although this is a single case study, it is useful in that exercises such as ROI calculation are offered as a public demonstrationof construction best practice. 44312003 Eastwood G (ed) UNWIRED: the new freedom: how to unleash the power of wireless computing to transform your business Caspian 2003 8 0 p As wireless computing technology becomes more widespread, the next few years are likely to see an expansion in workrelated mobile computing allowing for a more mobile workforce, more flexible working practices and increased productivity. This book comprises twelve short articles on wireless computing in business. Consideration is given to aspects such as the rise of mobile computing, the business benefits, setting up a wireless network, security implications and wireless computing in the public sector. 44412003 Elliman T, Orange G DEVELOPING DISTRIBUTED DESIGN CAPABILITIES IN THE CONSTRUCTION SUPPLY CHAIN Construction Innovation 2003 3 (I) pp 15-26 It is posited that the rise in demand-driven product design will facilitate the development of an electronic market to exploit distributed design knowledge within the supply chain. It is noted that working practices would need to develop in tandem with new information systems to support this. The paper offers a development approach to explore associated re-engineering, whilst also addressing the cultural issues, such as trust, which are needed for such systems to work in practice. 445/2003 Kamara K M, Anumba C J INFORMATION MODEL FOR CONSTRUCTION BRIEFING International Journal of I T in Architecture, Engineering and Construction February 2003 I (I) pp 39-55 This paper offers a model that can be used to define, analyse and translate client requirements. It is described using EXPRESS-G graphical notation. The model focuses on describing client needs in terms of attributes and functions rather than materials or other physical components. 44612003 Kumaraswamy M M IDENTIFYING NEEDS AND POTENTIAL FOR DECISION SUPPORT IN CONSTRUCTION PROCUREMENT International Journal of I T in Architecture, Engineering and Construction May 2003 1 (2) pp 119-136 It was found that enhanced procurement selection would benefit construction performance levels. It was noted that there are crucial elements of procurement sub-systems (such as work packaging) where expert support could have a particularly strong positive impact on selection. 447/2003 Marzouk M, Moselhi 0 OBJECT-ORIENTED SIMULATION MODEL FOR EARTHMOVING OPERATIONS Journal of Construction Engineering and Management Mar/Apr

28

strategy, which needs to be developed with regard for business process assimilation. Potential platforms for web technologies are described. 45412003 Tam C M et al ELECTRE 111 IN EVALUATING PERFORMANCE OF CONSTRUCTION PLANTS: case study on concrete vibrators Construction Innovation 2003 3 (1) pp 45-61 45512003 Thorpe D ONLINE REMOTE CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT TRIALS IN QUEENSLAND DEPARTMENT OF MAIN ROADS: a participants perspective Construction Innovation 2003 3 (2) pp 65-79 The potential benefits of electronic communication, which can save travel time and paperwork, are briefly outlined. Its specific applications in construction, and the deployment of ORCM, are then described. Project participants using the system on two different projects were surveyed, and were found to be reasonably satisfied, although there were no especially high rankings for any aspect of the software. It is observed that the studies are of projects where lnternet access is slow, being remote areas with low bandwidth. Nevertheless, observed benefits included improved response times, and also the opportunity to use information on the web as a tool for public relations. However, there are still many issues to be addressed, including logistical difficulties, lnternet access, personnel training, cultural issues, legal issues and expense. It is also noted that ORCM may be best suited to larger projects, rather than more straightforward tasks. It is concluded that, despite the issues to be overcome, the potential for profound process change remains. 45612003 Tseng A A et al ROTATING LASER-BASED SYSTEM FOR FULL PROFILE MEASUREMENT Construction Innovation 2003 3 (2) pp 97-110 The system described measures inner profiles, and can be operated from a hand-held computer. It can provide cross-sectional profiles, and accuracy of within 4% is reported.

46012003 Wood B BUILDING CARE Blackwell Science 2003 208 p Michael Latham asserts that Woods book helps to put maintenance at the centre of the post Egan reform process. The text discusses the prevailing situation, devoting a chapter to planned preventative maintenance. He then goes on to consider JIT, procurement, process re-engineering and customer care. Intelligent building care, sustainable building care and the future of the field are then discussed, before finishing with an exposition of whole-life assessment and related design implications.

MANAGING CONSTRUCTION
46112003 Ballard G et al LEARNING TO SEE WORK FLOW an application of lean concepts to precast concrete fabrication Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 2003

I0 (1) pp 6-14
This article describes how an operation increased productivity and reduced lead times by focusing on work-flow instead of the maximisation of worker and plant activity. 46212003 Cain C BUILDING DOWN BARRIERS: a guide to construction best practice Spon 2003 139p This book considers how those involved in construction procurement can increase profitability through removing unnecessary costs from the design and construction process whilst delivering a higher quality product. It describes and compares the main aspects of three construction procurement best practice standards: the Confederation of Construction Clients Charter Handbook, published December 2000; the National Audit Office report Modernising Construction, published January 2001; and the Department of Culture, Media and Sport report Better Public Buildings, published October 2000. It also shows how to assess current working practices and compare them with the best practice of the standards. The standards are compared with similar developments internationally. 46312003 Cheung S-0 et al BEHAVIOURAL ASPECTS IN CONSTRUCTION PARTNERING InternationalJournal of Project Management July 2003 21 (5)

REFURBISHMENT
45712003 El-Haram M A, Horner R M W APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF ILS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF COST EFFECTIVE MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES FOR EXISTING BUILDING STOCK Construction Management and Economics 2003 April-May 21

(3) pp 283-296
The paper reports on research to assess the benefits of using ILS (integrated logistics support) as a maintenance management tool. Eighteen properties were sampled, and it was found that using the technique created cost savings of 18.5%. 45812003 Shohet I M et al INTEGRATED MAINTENANCE MONITORING OF HOSPITAL BUILDINGS Construction Management and Economics Feb-Mar 2003 21

pp 333-343
Trust is identified as the issue of paramount importance in the development of successful partnering relationships. Five factors that can hinder trusting relationships are identified and described. A case study where proactive measures are being employed to grow a successful partnering environment is reported, and it is emphasised that there needs to be a shift away from traditional confrontational attitudes within the culture of the industry. 46412003 Cushford M, Cornford T INFRASTRUCTURESFOR CONSTRUCTION COLLABORATION: the cross organizational learning approach International Journal of I T in Architecture, Engineering and Construction February 2003 1 (1) pp 67-76 The development of a review process for inter-organisational knowledge sharing is described.

(2) pp 219-228
Four key Performance indicators - building performance, manpower sources, maintenance efficiency and organisational structure of the maintenance division -are developed and discussed. 45912003 Wirahadikusumah R, Abraham D M APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING AND SIMULATION FOR SEWER MANAGEMENT Engineering, COnstrUCtiOn and Architectural Management 2003 I0 (3) pp 793-208

29

a strategic vision top-down. Previous research studies, and 46512003 Dulaim M F et al ORGANIZATIONAL MOTIVATION AND INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL attitudes to the economic order are characterised as distributive INTERACTION IN CONSTRUCTION INNOVATION IN (assuming opposition and seeking concessions) or integrative (emphasising negotiation and mutually beneficial solutions). SINGAPORE They also provide examples of distributive attitudes to the Construction Management and Economics 2003 April-May 21 occupational order. They also state that an integrative attitude (3) pp 307-318 to the occupational order was rarely observed. However, this may be because such attitudes are so fundamental to the It is concluded that success in innovation takes effort, high occupational order as to be invisible. Strategies for changing projected goals, favourable results and commitment. It is culture are discussed, and it is noted that this cannot be always helpful if there are incentives for all involved parties. be achieved by focusing solely on the goal of customer satisfaction. It is concluded that cultural change must be the first step in any 46612003 Emmitt S, Gorse C attempt to improve productivity. CONSTRUCTION COMMUNICATION Blackwell 2003 224p 47112003 Shi J J, Halpin D W ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING FOR CONSTRUCTION This book examines the main communication issues that impact BUSINESS MANAGEMENT on the success of construction projects. The physical, organisational and cultural barriers to communication are investigated and Journal of Construction Engineering and Management Mar/Apr guidance is offered to help make communicationmore productive. 2003 129 (2) ~ ~ 2 1 4 - 2 2 1 Topics covered include interpersonal, group and organisational communication, communication networks, building an effective communication culture, managing meetings and conflict management. 4612003 FoxS MATRIX TO INDICATE THE UTILITY OF TECHNOLOGIES Construction Management and Economics Feb-Mar 2003 2 1 (2) pp 187-196 It is explained that the technology matrix can be used by firms who need to assess the relevance of a potential innovation to their work without expending significant time and resources. The workings of the system are explained, and guidelines for its successful introduction are offered. 46812003 Holroyd T BUILDABILIm successful construction from concept to completion Thomas Telford 2003 189 p This guide to efficient building practice shows that successful projects depend on good planning and design and tend to be those which are easy to build in a safe manner. It reviews the Latham and Egan reports and proposes ways to help reduce construction problems and costs, increase safety and make the work itself more straightforward. 46912003 Pongpeng J, Liston J CONTRACTOR ABILITY CRITERIA: a view from the Thai construction industry Construction Management and Economics 2003 April-May 21 (3) pp 267-282 It was found that there were only slight differences in the importance of criteria to the government and private sectors. This allowed the development of common criteria. Project planning was found to rank highest, followed by project monitoring, project management experience, ability to adjust a project and performance. 47012003 Rooke J et al CLAIMS CULTURE: a taxonomy of attitudes in the industry Construction Management and Economics Feb-Mar 2003 21 (2) pp 167-174 The authors trace evidence of the culture of claims back to the Tavistock Report of 1965. They also discuss previous papers on culture change, highlighting the need to negotiate within the existing organisational culture rather than attempting to impose The development of ERP, a tool for integrating the functions of an enterprise within a database, is traced. It is then suggested that construction needs to develop its own system - CERP - for construction enterprise resource planning. Stressing the need for a theory on which to build this, the authors suggest that it needs to be project-oriented; integrated; paralleled and distributed; open and expandable; scalable; remotely accessible; transparent; reliable and robust. A three-tier architecture - user interfaces, management server and applications - is proposed. Potential benefits, such as information sharing and improved management transparency and efficiency, are discussed, and areas for further research are outlined. 47212003 Tang Y H, Ogunlana S 0 SELECTING SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT POLICIES Construction Management and Economics April-May 2003 21 (3) pp 247-256 Systems dynamics are used to evaluate potential improvement policies. Simulated results calculated following adoption of preferred strategies suggest that short-term improvement policies are likely to be effective.

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

47312003 Dainty A R J et al REDEFINING PERFORMANCE MEASURES FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGERS: an empirical evaluation Construction Management and Economics Feb-Mar 2003 2 1 (2) pp 209-218
It is argued that more sophisticated performance measures need to be developed because traditional measures - such as cost - are influenced by many factors outside of managerial control. This study analyses the views of different stakeholders and develops a range of nine key performance criteria. These are discussed in turn. It is concluded that the most demanding and important task of the project manager appears to be to build, develop and maintain the project team, and that this should be the managers first concern.

47412003 Maloney W F LABOR-MANAGEMENT COOPERATION AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Journal of Construction Engineering and Management Mar/Apr 2003 129 (2) pp 165-172

30

It is argued that labour-managementrelations need to be developed with a focus on customer satisfaction in order to establish a partnership working towards common goals.

47512003 Mann D C WHO DESIGNS YOUR GROUND CONDITIONS? Structural Engineer 15 Apr 2003 81 (8) pp 20-21
It is argued that it is beneficial to projects if a geotechnicaV environmental specialist is brought in to work in collaboration with a structural engineer at an early stage. It is noted that this area can be contentious in the engineering community. Procurement is also discussed.

Path Analysis and other Project Network Techniques. The text is divided into two parts. The first part is concerned with project management. It looks at the features which differentiate project management from other forms of management, the four phases of a project (conception, development, realisation and termination) and has separate chapters examining projects in relation to company organisational structure, planning, quality, procurement, risk management, project examination, time control and cash control. The second part looks at project network techniques and how they are applied. 48212003 Standing N VALUE MANAGEMENT INCENTIVE innovations in delivering value Thomas Telford 2001 126 p

PROGRAMME:

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
47612003 Bresnen M et al SOCIAL PRACTICES AND THE MANAGEMENT OF KNOWLEDGE IN PROJECT ENVIRONMENTS International Journal of Project Management April 2003 21 (3) pp 157-166 This is a case study of organisational change in a construction company. It was found that social processes were a crucial factor of success, and suggested that strategies for improvement need to replicate these social mechanisms. 47712003 Clegg Bradley F, Sayer B CHIPPING NORTON LEISURE CENTRE Building 14 March 2003 (10) pp 67-71 There is a collection of data on the client brief; project team; architectural design; lighting design; procurement and cost control; elemental cost analysis. 47812003 Frimpong Y et al CAUSES OF DELAY AND COST OVERRUNS IN CONSTRUCTION OF GROUNDWATER PROJECTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: Ghana as a case study International Journal of Project Management July 2003 21 (5) pp 321-326 47912003 Kirn E-H et al MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF EARNED VALUEMANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY International Journal of Project Management July 2003 21 (5) pp 375-382 The authors find that EVM is becoming more widely accepted. Ways of maximising its impact are suggested. 48012003 Lock D PROJECTMANAGEMENT Gower 2003 8th ed 648 p A new edition of an authoritative text, the work covers all aspects of project management. The work is organised into six parts: the nature and organisation of project management; the financial and commercial framework; planning and scheduling; computer applications; purchasing and materials management; managing work and costs. 48112003 Lockyer K, Gordon J PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND PROJECT NETWORK TECHNIQUES FT Prentice Hall 1996 6th ed 304 p This is the sixth edition of the work previously entitled Critical

Value management incentive programmes are little used in the UK but are a standard feature of the American and Australian construction industries. This book looks in detail at value management incentive programmes, their application and the benefits to both client and contractor. It also considers contractorled value engineering and its effective use in different types of procurement.

PROGRAMMING AND PLANNING


48312003 Tam C M, Tong T K L GA-ANN MODEL FOR OPTlMlZlNG THE LOCATIONS OF TOWER CRANE AND SUPPLY POINTS FOR HIGH-RISE PUBLIC HOUSING CONSTRUCTION Construction Management and Economics 2003 April-May 21 (3) pp 257-266 Artificial neural networks are used as a modelling tool for determining optimum location. 48412003 Abeid J, Arditi D PHOTO-NET: an integrated system for controlling construction progress Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 2003 I0 (3) pp 162-171 The technique presented in this paper uses a Windows environment to store and manage digital film of construction progress, and allows comparisons between as-planned and as-built progress. It is expected that this technology could be used to detect delays, observe contractor performance, monitor materials delivery and investigate accidents. 48512003 Kaka A P et al EFFECTS OF THE VARIABILITY OF PROJECT PLANNING ON COSTS COMMITMENT CURVES: a case study Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 2003 10 (I) pp 15-26 Four planners produced a programme for one project, independently

of each other, and the cost flow for each of the resulting
programmes was calculated. It was found that the impact of each plan on the shape of the cost flow was not considerable, and, as far as can be ascertained from a study of such a small size, it is thought that project characteristics rather than individual plans have a far greater impact on the shape of the cost flow.

PURCHASING
48612003 Luu D T et al PROCUREMENT SYSTEM - AN EMPIRICAL SURVEY Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 2003 I0 (3) pp 209-218

31

34 procurement selection parameters (PSPs) were elicited via an industry survey. The list was refined further, arriving at consolidation down to eight key factors. It is noted that interrelated factors should all be carefully considered by clients selecting a procurement system. 48712003 Marsh C BUILDING SERVICES PROCUREMENT Spon 2003 288p The subject of building services procurement is discussed with reference to operations management,an approach which focuses on the use of management tools to maximise the utilisation of resources. Commencing with a discussion of client requirements and contract strategy, the author then goes on to illustrate the need for building services procurement to be considered in a wider context of project modalities. Development of strategy and quality are then discussed. Subsequent chapters deal with retrofitting and maintenance; product modalities; the supplying market; forming the team; engaging the supply chain; performance modalities; the project environment; design responsibilities and programmes; tendering: the procurement process. This final chapter brings together the issues covered in the book, listing the key considerations to impact on the decision making process. 48812003 Schaufelberger J E, Wipadapisut I ALTERNATE FINANCING STRATEGIES FOR BUILDOPERATE-TRANSFER PROJECTS Journal of Construction Engineering and Management Mar/Apr 2003 129 (2) pp 205-213 The subject of study is approached from the perspective of the project sponsor. After analysing thirteen projects, the authors conclude that project risks, project conditions and availability of financing are the major considerations in selecting a financing strategy. The project risks that were determined to be most significant in financing strategy selection were political, financial and market risks. Using this information, a decision making model is developed. This tool provides options for appropriate financing under different risk level conditions.

The authors argue the case for the U S . Army Corps of Engineers to adopt businesslike metrics and benchmarks in the delivery of EMP, the Environmental Management Programme. 49112003 Cox R F et al MANAGEMENTS PERCEPTION OF KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR CONSTRUCTION Journal of Construction Engineering and Management Mar/Apr 2003 129 (2) pp 142-151
It is noted that there are differences between the perceptions of project managers and executives, and also between companies that perform a high percentage of work themselves and those that contract out heavily. Those managing self-performed works concentrate on qualitylrework KPls, whereas those who use subcontractors more tend to focus on on-time completion.

49212003 Toakley A R, Marosszeky M TOWARDS TOTAL PROJECT QUALITY - A REVIEW OF RESEARCH NEEDS Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 2003 I0 (3) pp 219-228 It is emphasised that quality should be considered in all project phases, and noted that the construction phase itself only comprises a small fraction of the cost and value of a project. Areas for further research are identified.

QUANTITY SURVEYING
~

49312003 Hogg K ROLE OF THE QUANTITY SURVEYING PROFESSION IN ACCOMMODATING CLIENT RISK Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction March 2003 8 (1) pp 49-56 It is noted that there are sometimes missed opportunities for the QS to assist the client with contingency performance analysis. More attention to risk analysis for the calculation of the contingency fund is recommended.

QUALITY MANAGEMENT

3(

RESEARCH

48912003 Arditi D, Lee D-E ASSESSING THE CORPORATE SERVICE QUALITY PERFORMANCE OF DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTORS USING QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT Construction Management and Economics Feb-Mar 2003 21 (2) pp 175-185 Quality function deployment (QFD) is used to develop a measurement tool, and its workings are described in detail. A questionnaire was then sent to 127 owners of US design-build firms. The response rate was 15.45%. Another survey was sent to the firms senior executives, which drew a response rate of 17.36%. A third survey was administered to a design build quality management system assessor. The data collected is then used to demonstrate the workings of the measurement tool. It is suggested that the tool could be used to rank design-build companies, or as an in-house assessment tool. 49012003 Brunso T P, Siddiqi K M USING BENCHMARKS AND METRICS TO EVALUATE PROJECT DELIVERY OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PROGRAMS Journal of Construction Engineering and Management Mar/Apr 2003 129 (2) pp 119-130

49412003 Palaneeswaran E, Kumaraswamy M K KNOWLEDGE MINING OF INFORMATION SOURCES FOR RESEARCH IN CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Journal of Construction Engineering and Management Mar/Apr 2003 129 (2) pp 182-191 This paper explores some emerging technologies and associated research methodologies from an information supply chain perspective. Critical success factors, key performance indicators and mining strategies are considered 49512003 Steemers K TOWARDS A RESEARCH AGENDA FOR ADAPTING TO CLIMATE CHANGE Building Research and Information May 2003 31 (3-4)pp 29130 1 It is argued that there needs to be further research into the adaptive potential of both buildings and their occupants.

RISK MANAGEMENT

49612003 Mills E CLIMATE CHANGE, INSURANCE AND THE BUILDINGS SECTOR: technological synergisms between adaptation

32

and mitigation Building Research and Information May 2003 31 (3-4) 257pp

277
49712003 San Santoso D et al ASSESSMENT OF RISKS IN HIGH RISE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IN JAKARTA Engineering, Constructionand Architectural Management 2003 10 (I) pp 43-55
It is found that risks relating to management and design are the most significant in this category of construction. The minimisation of client intervention is recommended, as is regular equipment maintenance. It is noted that the information on which this article is based was gathered from contractors, rather than from other stakeholders, and that that may have influenced the outcome of the survey.

49812003 Morris B, Jackman L A EXAMINATION OF FIRE SPREAD IN MULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS VIA GLAZED CURTAIN WALL FACADES Structural Engineer 6 May 2003 81 (9) pp 22-26
Ways in which careful specification can help prevent fire spread are outlined.

49912003 Wilcock R CONTRACTORS GAIN CONTROL OVER SPECIFICATION Contract Journal 2 April 2003 416 (6420) pp 14-15
It is reported that contractors are much more influential in the specification. This is due to initiatives such as partnering and supply chain management.

33

Conditions of Publication

THE CIQ COPYRIGHT POLICY STATEMENT


The copyright of articles published in CIQ is assigned to the Chartered Institute of Building. It has been found to be beneficial for publishers to hold copyright of articles as a protection against infringement, libel or plagiarism, and it also enables the CIOB to deal with further requests for the work in an efficient and timely manner. The CIOB will, however, honour your moral right to be credited with authorship. All proprietary and patent rights associated with the contents of your article are unaffected by the assignment of copyright, and remain with either the author(s) or their employing institution. Furthermore, permission to adapt, rewrite, include in further publications, present orally etc. the material contained in the article will only be withheld in exceptional circumstances, and will normally be granted on the sole condition that CIQ is acknowledged as the original place of publication. The CIOB accepts that authors may wish to photocopy their article, and allows this to be done for distribution for educational purposes within the authors company or institution, or for any other reasonable and non profit-making purposes of the author. If the CIOB receives any requests from third parties wishing to reproduce your article, your approval will be sought prior to any agreement. However, your approval will be presumed if we do not hear from you within four weeks. Authors should note that it is their responsjbility to update their corresponding address for this purpose. The assignment of copyright to the CIOB includes electronic storage and publication. Employees of government, whose work is subject to British Crown Copyright or its equivalent, must ensure that they obtain, for the CIQ, a non-exclusive licence to publish and deal with permissions. Authors must confirm that their work is original and unpublished. Permission must be obtained from the publisher for use of any excerpts from other copyright works, which must be fully acknowledged, and the relevant permission correspondence must be attached to the form. Failure to obtain such permissions could lead to litigation: therefore, they must be supplied. Furthermore, authors must indemnify the CIOB in respect of claims made against it by third parties for copyright infringement relating to publication of the article, or concerning authorship or rights of publication over the article.

CIQ Form for Authors


This form is to be completed for all accepted CIQ articles, and to be either posted to: The Editor, CIQ CIOB Library and Information Service The Chartered Institute of Building Englemere Kings Ride ASCOT Berks SL5 7TB or faxed to 0 1344 630764 We cannot currently accept this declaration by e-mail. Article title Author(s)
~~ ~~~~~~~~

Employing Institution(s) with claim to copyright

One signature is required from each author (or by each authorised signatory for corporate or institutional copyright holders). By signing this form, you confirm that you are the current copyright holder(s) of the above-named article, which is an original work, not previously published or currently under consideration for any other publication. Any necessary permissions for the use of copyright materials excerpted in the article are attached, and you hereby indemnify the CIOB in respect of claims made against it by third parties for copyright infringement relating to publication of the article, or concerning authorship. You also hereby confirm that you have read and do accept the document Conditions of Publication - The CIQ Copyright Policy Statement. Furthermore, you assign the present and future copyright of this article, throughout the world in any form and any language, to the CIOB. You also agree that the CIOB may seek payment of fees from corporate bodies or individuals for the privilege of making copies of the article from the conventional printed form or from copies stored electronically, e.g. by document-delivery services. Signatory Signatory Signatory Signatory Date Date Date Date

Please photocopy this whole page when sending to CIQ.

34

Writingfor the Construction Information Quarterly

AN AUTHORS GUIDE
ABOUT THE CIQ

The Construction Information Quarterly is the learned publication of The Chartered Institute Of Building. Its aim is to communicate construction innovation to the widest possible audience of industry stakeholders. Although the CIQ publishes work by many of the most eminent authors in Construction, anyone with a piece of research or an original example of best practice to communicate is encouraged to submit a paper. Collaborations between academics and practitioners are particularly welcomed, as our particular interest is in work that is both of scholarly standard and of practical benefit in the field. All clear and original work on topics of interest to construction professionals will be considered, but the emphasis is on research and innovation where the relevance to practitioners is clearly highlighted. Papers discussing and disseminating information on industry initiatives are also sought.
THE REVIEW PROCESS

certainly not usually more than 6000 words in total, including references and appendices. The paper should be prefaced by an abstract of about 100-150 words, and also by up to ten keywords covering the topics addressed. Autobiographical details for all authors should be included on a separate sheet. This is because the details of authors will not be sent to the reviewers. The details should comprise full name, with all academic and professional qualifications; career information, e-mail address and, ideally, a form of contact that can be offered to readers for correspondence. Details for one corresponding author will be considered sufficient for this purpose if preferred. Autobiographical information will typically comprise 50-100 words per author. In addition to information for publication, we will also require full contact details for all authors, comprising address, telephone number and e-mail. (Postal addresses are needed because authors of papers accepted for publication are sent six complimentary copies of the issue carrying their work.) It is helpful if papers are divided into headings, although neither these nor paragraphs should be numbered. Footnotes should be used sparingly, if at all, and references should be incorporated into the text using the Harvard style of referencing and bibliography. The University of the West of England Library Services offer a useful web based summary of Harvard at:

Papers are reviewed by the Editor in the first instance, who will either pass them to appropriate members of the Editorial Board for review, or else return them to the author. Returned papers may be accompanied by suggestions for strengthening the paper for resubmission. Papers which are passed to the Editorial Board will be peer reviewed by at least two Board members or, where appropriate, by specialists with specific expertise to offer to a particular paper. The review process is double-blind - that is, the identities of the authors and the reviewers are not revealed during the process. The reviewers will be looking for work with clear appeal and applicability to construction practitioners. The paper will be examined for cogency, originality of thought and robustness of method, research, argument and conclusions. Where there is an existing body of literature on the subject, clear references to the existing work will be expected, so that interested readers are able to easily investigate topics in greater depth. Reviewers will either accept a paper without any caveats, return it for recommended amendments or reject it. Acceptance of returned papers which are resubmitted is dependent on changes being made which satisfy the recommendations made for amendments. Authors are entitled to request copies of any comments made on their paper, whatever the outcome of the review. When papers have been accepted, the final version of the paper must be submitted to the Editor accompanied by a hlly completed CZQ Form for Authors.
COPYRIGHT

http://www.uwe.ac.uklibrary/resources/generaUinfo-study-skillsl
harvard2.htm ,with additional information on citing electronic sources at: http://mrw.uwe.ac.uklibrary/resources/genera~info-study-s~lls/ harvelec.htm These links are taken from Study Skills: How to Reference (2002) [accessed 12th March 20021, and are cited by kind permission of the UWE. There are similar guides on many other university library websites, and we can offer advice from the CIOB Library on request. Tables, Figures, Photographs and any other illustrative material should be saved separately from the main file. Please indicate where they should appear in the paper by leaving a blank line, typing TABLE 1 (or FIGURE 2 or PLATE 3) leaving another blank line and continuing with the text. When submitting artwork and pictures electronically, please note that the images need to be 200 DPI upwards to be of sufficient quality. Our design studio prefers to scan from the original photograph, but can accept the following formats: .tiff .Jpg .eps .bmp Tables, figures and plates should be labelled in bold, using Arabic numerals. For a copy of the CIQ Form for authors and the CIQ copyright policy statement, and for all submissions please e-mail to ciq@ciOb.0rg.uk, or mailed on disk to: The Editor, CIQ CIOB Library and Information Service The Chartered Institute of Building Englemere Kings Ride ASCOT Berks SL5 7TB

Articles submitted to the CIQ should not be under consideration for publication elsewhere, and should be the wholly original work of the named authors. All submissions must be accompanied by a CIQ Form ,for Authors, which must be signed by all authors and/or, where applicable, any employer or agency entitled to hold the copyright of an employees output. Please refer to The ClQ Copyright Policy Statement for further information.
FORMAr FOR THE SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPTS

Articles for the c I Q should typically be around 4000 words long, and

35

ORDER FORM
8t COPYRIGHT DECLARATION FOR PHOTOCOPIES
Membership No:

......................

.............................
Address: .......................................................................

Name: ........................................................................

......................................................................................................................
Postcode: ................

.............................................................................
..........

* wish to make payment using a cred/Vdebif card * II wish to make payment by cheque
Start Date: ........................

.....................

..............................

Card No: .....................................................................

Expiry Date: .....................

Issue No Switch Card Only

IMPORTANT: ONLY ONE ARTICLE PER ISSUE OF A PERIODICAL OR SET OF CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS MAY BE SUPPLIED WITH EACH ORDER
Key: L = Loan item from the LIS available only to ClOB members and ClQ subscribers resident in the UWEire (6 loan items only), R = Reference only, COPYRIGHT DECLARATION
This MUST be signed before your request can be processed Rubber stamping or typing is not acceptable I undertake thal Ifa copy IS supplled to me in compliance with my request, I mll not use it except for the purpose of non-commercial research, pnvate study orjudlclal proceedmgs I have not previouslybeen supplied wth a copy and I undertake not to Sell or reproduce the copy supplied. Signed:

.....................................................................................

Dated:

............................................................................

Return to: Library 8 Information Service, Chartered Institute of Building, Englemere, Kings Ride, ASCOT, Berkshire SL5 7TB Tel: 01344 630741 Fax: 01344 630764 Email: lis@ciob.ora.uk

36

ORDER FORM
& COPYRIGHT DECLARATION FOR PHOTOCOPIES
Membership No: ......................................

...............................................................
..............................................................................................
Postcode: ..........................................................

.........................................................................................................
.............................................

* *

I wish to make payment by cheque I wish to make payment using a creditldebit card

...............................................................................

Start Date: ........................

Expiry Date: .....................

Issue No: ........... Switch Card Only

ONE ARTICLE PE

MAY

Key: L = Loan item from the LIS available only to ClOB members and ClQ subscribers resident in the UWEire (6 loan items only), R = Reference only, COPYRIGHT DECLARATION
Thls MUST be signed before your request can be processed Rubber stamping or typing is not acceptable I undertakethat if a copy is supplied to me in compliancewith my request, I will not use it except for the purpose of non-commercial research, pnvate study or judicial proceedings I have not prevlously been supplied with a copy and I undertake not to sell or reproduce the copy supplied. Signed:

.....................................................................................

Dated:

............................................................................

Return to: Library & Information Service, Chartered Institute of Building, Englemere, Kings Ride, ASCOT, Berkshire SL5 7TB Tel: 01344 630741 Fax: 01344 630764 Email: lis@ciob.ora.uk

Order Form continued

TOTAL DUE: f

*CHARTERED

INSTITUTE OF

BUILDING
The White House Englemere Kings Ride Ascot Berkshire SL5 7JR