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Three stages: Fertilization, gastrula, and implantation I. Fertilization a.

union of male and female gametes ( sperm and eggs)

The sperm has three parts: head, middle piece, and tail. - On the head, there is a nucleus, plasma membrane, and acrosome. The egg has a nucleus, inner nuclear membrane, and zona pelucida.. covering the zona pelucida is a thick gelatinous layer called the corona radiata cells Where: Fertilization takes place in the upper part of the uterine tube called the ampallary part. How (mechanism): 1. Capacitation (removal of plasma proteins from the membrane) 2. Acrosome reaction a. When the sperm comes close to the corona radiata it secretes an enzyme called hyalurondine b. The sperm is now moving and comes into contact with the zona pelucida and the acrosome now secretes zona lyses. c. The sperm nucleus (which is called a sperm pro nucleus) now meets with the egg nucleus (egg pro nucleus) Why (significance): Humans have 46 chromosomes. We have haploid cells in which we have 22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome. Fertilization accomplishes: 1. diploid number is restored 2. Egg only has one X chromosome and sperm has either X or Y (sex is determined) 3. stimulates the production of secondary oocytes 4. ensures variability in species 5. Most important: further development is ensured. If there is no fertilization, egg will diminish II. Gastrula a. First stage is cleavage (further division of the fertilized egg) i. Becomes a morula b. Cells start rearranging themselves in the blastocyst stage: i. Cells become restricted to the upper part (trophoblast) and lying below the trophoblast is the embryoblast.

1. Trophoblast is concerned with the process of implantation (attachment) and placentation (formation of placenta) 2. Embryoblast gives rise to all the organ systems of the body, for example the respiratory system, muscular system, urogenital system. ii. Large cavity underneath is formed called the blastocel. Two divisions: what forms from the trophoblast and the what froms the embyroblast Embyroblast: 1. The cells of the embryoblast divide and redivide. a. The upper layer is called the epiblast (larger cylindrical) and the lower layer (small cuboidal) is called the hypoblast. b. In the epiblast, there is a depression called the primitive streak which is a narrow groove with bulging ends on its sides. 2. The cells of the epiblast undergo further division, which is called proliferation (increase in the number of embryonic cells) 3. The next step is migration and the cells of the primitive streak invaginate (turning in). 4. As they turn in, the cells are spreading across both sides in between the epiblast and hypoblast, creating a third layer in between called the mesoderm. a. The epiblast becomes ectoderm b. Hypoblast becomes endoderm. 5. When these three layers form, this becomes a gastrula (also known as the trilaminar stage) 6. Ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm are known as trigeminal layers (since they give rise to certain systems). a. Endoderm most of the GI system, which includes the esophagus, stomach, duodenum. Liver, pancreas, gallbladder. Respiratory system. Endocrine system like the thyroid and thymus. b. Mesoderm becomes three different areas - first part is paraxial (upper) i. Muscular skeletal system

Intermediate (in between) i. urogenital system Lateral (lower) i. Cardiovascular system c. Ectoderm As the ectoderm is developing, differentiates into two parts. Upper is called the surface ectoderm and lower is called the neural ectoderm. 1. Surface ectoderm a. Skin b. Memory glands c. Sebaceous and sweat glands d. Hair, nails, eyes e. Enamel 2. Neural ectoderm a. Spinal cord b. Brain c. Cranial nerves d. Spinal nerves Neural crest cells (wandering cells) are derived from the neural part of the ectoderm, and are scattered throughout the body and will differentiate into the structures. 1. dorsal root ganglion 2. autonomic ganglion 3. adrenal medulla 4. melanocytes 5. pigment cells 6. dentin III. Implantation: Side note: Fertilization takes place at the ampullary part. After fertilization, the fertilized egg does not stay there. The fertilized egg comes to lie in the upper part of the uterus. a. Step number one (attachment): implantation is completed by trophoblast. Trophoblast sends vili which attach themselves to the wall of the uterus. i. Cells of the trophoblast divide and redivide called the cytotrophoblast (have cell boundaries) ii. Cells lose their boundaries called syncytiotrophoblast. b. Step number two (excavation): the cells of the synctiotrophoblast start eroding the wall and they excavate.

c. The wall of the uterus covers it and this is step number three (embedding). The embedding of the embryo into the upper part of the uterus has to be complete in order for viable fertilization. Around five days, it begins implantation. After 9 days, it has fully implanted.

**the synciotrophoblast will form the placenta and secretion of hormones** In order for implantation to take place, the zona pelucida must disappear. Developing millions of techniques for zona pelucida to remain to deal with overpopulation. Normal implantation: upper part of the uterus Abnormal implantation (ectopic): gets lost in the abdominal mesentry Ampullary implantation: the egg remains in the ampulla Tubal pregnancy: when the size of the uterine tube is narrow Interstitial pregnancy: When the tube entering the uterus is really narrow Internal os (check)? pregnancy: The egg is trapped in the internal os of the uterus Ovarian implantation: when the egg is lost in the ovary