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Generator Sizing for 3 phase Motor Loads. Considerations for sizing: Initial Condition: No load on the generator. 1.

Ability to provide real power required by motor = Motor rated kW. The pri me mover (the engine) only provides real power, kW. KW demand during a motor sta rting is very low as the power factor is about 0.2. 2. Ability to provide starting kVA for the motor. This is the function of the alternator size. a. For full voltage (DOL) starting, starting kVA= 6*rated kVAod the motor . U se the nameplate LRA data or Code letter where available. b. For Star/delta starting, starting kVA = 2*rated kVA of the motor. (In othe rwords, in star connection the starting current will be 1/3 of the DOL starting (LRA)) c. For any other reduced voltage starting the starting current and torque wil l be reduced by the square of the voltage reduction. d. So obviously one must strive to use reduced voltage starting on a generato r, as long as the starting torque requirements can be meet. 3. Keeping the Voltage drop during motor starting to an acceptable value.

a. While a motor by itself could tolerate 30% to 35% of voltage dip during th e start, it could cause starter coil to drop out. Plus consideration should be g iven to effect on other systems on the generator such as lighting. Therefore mor e realistic value of acceptable voltage dip will be say about 15 to 20%. b. For finding the per unit voltage drop by calculation you need to know the transient reactances of the generator (usually 15-20%) and the motor (usually 20 -25%). Rules of Thumb: Most generators are capable of delivering 300% of the rated current for 10 secon ds, which is sufficient time for most induction motors to get up to the rated sp eed. So for DOL starting a generator rated 2 to 3 times the kVA of the motor wil l easily supply the starting kVA of the motor and for a star/delta start even a generator sized just above the rated motor kVA will be sufficient. These rules o f thumb generally result in generator size that will keep the voltage dip during the motor starting within acceptable limit. IEEE red book have some curves indicating voltage at the motor terminals as perc entage of the rated voltage for DOL starting of various size motors. Of course for more accurate analysis you need to perform some detailed calculati ons. Practical Issues: Theoretically it is possible to show that for most cases a 600kW/750HP motor wit h a star/delta starter can satisfactorily be started on an 800kW/1000kVA generat or set (800kW engine and 800kW/1000kVA generator). Or for a DOL starting, an engine-generator set with 800kW engine and 2250kVA rat ed alternator will suffice. The problem is that it will be a non-standard set. Most generators set manufacture will not customize their engine-generator set. S o chances are most users will end-up with an 1800kW/2250kVA generator for a 600k W motor, technically way oversized.

Systems with initial loads: For systems with initial loads, the generator set size needs to be augmented by the initial kW/kVA in addition to the largest motor sizing. Where practicable, a rranging a starting sequence where the largest motor starts and comes to full sp eed before other loads are added to the generator, will result in most economica l size of a generator. Helpful Hints: Make maximum use of free technical assistance provided by generator manufactures, often in form of a quick generator sizing software on a CD. Starting High inertia loads faq237-1131 Posted: 7 Jul 05 There are a number of considerations when starting a high inerta load. It is imp ortant that the whole system is engineered correctly to prevent field problems a nd equipment failure. A High inertia load, requires an extended starting time to reach full speed. The start time is a function of the load inertia, the load speed and the starting t orque developed by the motor. If we reduce the start voltage or current, the sta rt time will extend. During start, there are two components of torque that is delvered to the load. T here is the work torque which is the torque required to keep the load spinning a t that speed, and there is the acceleration torque which is the torque that caus e the load to increase in speed. The acceleration torque is the difference betwe en the "work" torque and the torque developed by the motor. As we reduce the sta rt voltage or current, the shaft torque of the motor will also reduce, but the w ork torque will stay the same as this is a function of the driven load. The rate of acceleration is determined by the acceleration torque. If the shaft torque i s reduced to low, there will be no acceleration torque and the motor will not re ach full speed. The three key components to be considered are the motor, the starter and the sup ply. If any of these are not suitable for the high inertia load, the result can be disasterous. Motor - Rotor During start, there are high slip losses resulting in a high power disipation in the rotor of the motor. This high power dissipation causes a temperature rise i n the rotor bars. The actual temperature rise is dependant on the total power di ssipated and the thermal mass of the rotor bars. There is a limit to how much te mperature rise the rotor can tolerate. If the temperature is high enough, the ba rs can actually melt, but every time the motor is started, there will be rotor b ar heating and this will result in expansion and contraction of the bars. The ex pansion of the bars will put mechanical stresses on the bars and shorting rings and over a period of time, the interface between the bars and shorting rings can fail due to mechanical fatigue. There is a limit to the maximum amount of energy that can be dissipated in the r otor. Exceeding maximum this will shorten the life of the rotor and result in a premature rotor failure. Motor manufacturers usually quote the limit for motors in one of two ways. Commo nly, the motor manufacturer will quote the maximum Locked Rotor Time which is th e maximum time that the rotor can withstand full voltage and a stationary rotor. Loosely, we use this to indicate the maximum starting time under Direct On LIne

(Full Voltage) starting conditions. The alternative rating applied to induction motors, is the maximum load inertia. This is the maximum load inertia that can be started by this motor. A higher inertia would result in to much rotor heating and premature rotor failure. The load inertia is the load inertia as seen by th e shaft of the motor. If the load is spinning at a different speed than the moto r, you need to compensate for the speed difference by multiplying the actual loa d inertia by the square of the speed ratio. i.e. if the load is spinning at half the rotor speed, the effective inertia as seen by the motor, is a quarter of th e actual load inertia. Motor - Start Characteristics Under high start torque conditions, it is important to ensure that the motor is "efficient" during start. That means that the motor must produce a high torque f or reduced current under high slip conditions. If the motor produces a very low start torque, then it is going to take much longer to start the load and this wi ll impact on the supply and on the starter. Correct attention must be paid to th e starting characteristics of the motor. Bottom line the motor must have Good starting characteristics - high start torqu e for low start current, and must also be able to withstand starting the inertia of the load. Motor - Stator During start, there is a high start current flowing in the stator. This will res ult in a high temperature rise in the staor windings and if excessive will resul t in an insulation failure of the stator. Usually, it is the rotor that is damag ed by high inertia starts rather than the stator. Stator failure usually results from continuous load conditions whereas rotor failure is generally due to start ing issues. Because the rotor bears the brunt of the start loading, is is not possible to fu lly protect the motor by the use of thermistors alone. Thermistor protection pro vides good protection for continous operation, but some form of thermal modeling is recommended for rotor protection. Electrical Supply Starting a high inertia load requires a lot of energy to be drawn from the suppl y. If you use any form of starter, (Full voltage or reduced voltage) there will be a high demand on the electrical supply during start. Reducing the voltage wil l reduce the instantaneous current draw, but will extend the starting time. The heating effect in the supply equipment will be the same but the voltage drop wil l be lower. If the supply is not strong enough to start the load, there is a pro blem and the supply will need to be strengthened. A variable speed controller is one way to "start" a high inertia load without th e sever overload on the motor and supply but has the disadvantage of high input harmonics, lower running efficiency and higher capital costs. Starter The starter must be capable of withstanding the high overload during start for t he duration of the start. With a high inertia load, to get the machine to full s peed in a reasonable time, a high torque must be presented to the load. Reducing the voltage too much will extend the start time to an unacceptable period. The starter must be correctly engineered for the start current and time. This ma y require that the starter be increased in size by one or more frame sizes depen ding on the type of starter and the starting conditions. Engineering the start. 1. Determine the load inertia, the load speed and the load speed torque curve . 2. Select a motor rated for the required continuous power for the driven load

, that has a sufficiently high "maximum load inertia" or "Locked Rotor Time" to start the load, and provides a high start torque at a low start current. For com parison, take the LRT divided by the LRC as an indicator. Higher is better, and preferable use percentage numbers to keep all things equal. 3. Determine the start time under different start conditions and select a sta rt condition that is suitable for your supply. 4. From the above, you can determine the best starter for the application. Commonly, start currents of 450% - 500% for 30 - 60 seconds are required to star t high inertia loads assuming high start torque motors are employed. Calculations These Calculations can be easily carried out using Electrical Calculations softw are from Step 1. Enter the load characteristics into the Edit Load Data page. The Load To rque is the work torque of the driven load. For a purely inertial load, this wou ld be all zeros. Fan loads are usually a square law and for a freely ventillatin g fan would be approaching 100% at full speed. Step 2. Enter the motor data from the motor data sheets into the Edit Motor Data page. Ensure that the effective inertia of the load is less than the "maximum I nertia" of the motor if this rating is given. Step 3. Open the Acceleration curves and select the load and the motor and then select different starters and settings to see the effect of the reduced start cu rrent. Select the DOL start to get the maximum full voltage start time and compa re this with the "maximum Locked Rotor Time" of the motor. If this is higher tha n the motor rating, try another motor. Step 4. Specify a starter that can withstand the start current and time for your application. NB this is true for the selected motor. A different motor will give different re sults and may need a larger starter, or may not work at all!! Sizing Gen-Sets For Large Motor Starting Feb 1, 2008 12:00 PM, By Larry A. Bey, Cummins Onan Corp. Remember, an on-site engine-generator set is a limited source of power, both in horsepower available from the engine, and kVA available from the generator. As s uch, it must be large enough to start as well as run connected motor loads. You've lost normal power. Your engine-generator set (gen-set) starts up and reac hes speed. Now, you want to start some large motors key to your operation. Sudde nly, starter holding coils drop out, starter contacts chatter, and a few motors stall due to insufficient torque for acceleration. Can this happen to you? It su re can, if you haven't sized your gen-set properly. We all know that motors draw a high inrush current during starting:typically six times full load current. But, inrush currents for the high-efficient motors spe cified today are almost double that amount. Motors with high inertia loads can a lso require up to three times rated power during starting. Yes, it's common for motor starting kVA requirements to determine the size of th e set. However, the following factors also play a key role in sizing gen-sets: Harmonics caused by variable frequency drives. Use of high-efficiency motors.

Sequential starting of motors. What's involved. When starting motors, large voltage and frequency dips may occu r if the generator set isn't sized properly. Other loads connected to the genera tor output may be more sensitive to voltage and frequency dips than the motor or motor starter, and this may cause problems. For example, a rate of change great er than 1 Hz/sec in generator frequency may cause some static UPS units to malfu nction. If the load on the generator set is a single large motor, particularly one requi ring high starting torque, a number of problems can occur. They include: sustain ed low-voltage operation that can cause overheating; extended load acceleration times; opening of circuit breakers or motor protective devices; engine-generator protection shutdowns; and more. Your gen-set's ability to start large motors without excessive voltage and frequ ency dip is a function of the complete system. This includes: The engine power available; The generator's capacity; The response of the generator excitation system; The energy stored in the rotating inertia of the gen-set; and The acceleration of the motor and its load. You must consider all these factors for proper gen-set sizing. Here's a simple r ule for estimating the size of an engine-generator set for motor starting: 1kW o f generator set rating per each 3/4 to 1 hp of motor nameplate. Let's look more closely at a motor start. Induction motors have typical starting characteristics. The curve of motor current versus speed shows that during star ting, the motor draws approximately six times its full load current; this curren t remains high until the motor reaches about 80% of speed. This high inrush curr ent causes a dip in generator voltage. The electric power initially required by the motor (with the motor at standstill) is about 150% of rated power. The power required by the motor peaks at about 300% of rated power and 80% of speed with full voltage applied. But, the generator set supplies less than 300% power becau se starting voltage is lower than full voltage during acceleration, and because the generator set's rotating inertia transfers energy to the motor. The motor must develop greater torque than required by the load. The motor's tor que curve at full voltage is above the load's torque curve. The difference betwe en the torque developed by motor and the torque required by the load determines the rate of acceleration. Since torque is proportional to voltage, any reduction in voltage means a proportional reduction in torque. A properly sized generator set will support the high starting kVA requirements o f the motor, and maintain sufficient output voltage for the motor, so it can dev elop adequate torque to accelerate the load to rated speed. All standby gen-sets use synchronous generators with exciters. Many are availabl e with permanent magnet generator (PMG) excitation systems. The PMG provides exc itation power independent of the generator terminal voltage. As such, it can mai ntain full excitation:even during transient loading, such as motor starting. Ful l excitation power results in a less extensive voltage dip and improved recovery times. Using reduced-voltage starting. Though a voltage dip often causes various proble ms, a controlled reduction in voltage at motor terminals can be beneficial, but only when reduction in motor torque is acceptable. Reducing motor starting kVA c an reduce the required size of the gen-set, reduce the voltage dip, and provide a softer start for the motor loads. When sizing gen-sets, you must first determi ne the acceptable level of motor torque required during starting, or the loads w

ill accelerate slowly, or even fail to reach full speed:ultimately causing motor damage. Using solid-state starters. Solid-state starters can adjust the starting torque, acceleration ramp time, and current limit for controlled acceleration of a moto r when it starts. For the purpose of sizing a gen-set, the current limit adjustm ent reduces the inrush current and may be used to reduce the starting kW and kVA requirement on the generator. The range of available current limit settings is typically from 150% to 600% of full-load current. A 600% current limit setting o n the solid-state starter results in a gen-set sizing that's the same as an acro ss-the-line starting. A 300% current limit setting reduces starting kVA by 50%. Use of the current limit setting also reduces motor torque available to the load . From a gen-set sizing perspective, an extended acceleration ramp time and low current limit setting (if appropriate for the motor and the mechanical load) wou ld result in the least voltage and frequency excursions. One downside to using solid-state motor starters is their integral SCRs (silicon -controlled rectifiers) will cause voltage distortion. To compensate, you'll hav e to oversize the generator. The recommendation: two times the running kW load, except where you're using an automatic bypass. If the solid-state starter does h ave an automatic bypass, the SCRs are only in the circuit during starting. Once the motor is running, the bypass contactor closes and shunts the SCRs. In this c ase, you can ignore the voltage distortion during starting, and you don't have t o add generator capacity. VFDs require larger generators. All versions of variable frequency drives (VFDs) are current limiting and reduce starting kW and kVA. The current drawn by these drives is nonlinear (having harmonics), which causes a distorted voltage drop a cross the reactance of the generator. Since VFDs are nonlinear, you must include an additional generator capacity sizing factor to keep voltage distortion to a reasonable level of approximately 15% total harmonic distortion (THD) or less. T he larger the generator, the greater the reduction in impedance of the power sou rce (generator), which in turn, reduces the effects caused by harmonic current d istortion. For six-pulse VFDs, a typical generator sizing factor would be twice the running kW of the drive. This offsets any reduction in starting kW and kVA. If it is th e pulse width modulated (PWM) type (or includes an input filter to limit current distortion to less than 10%), then you can reduce the sizing factor down to 1.4 times the running kW of the drive. Using a step starting sequence. The starting sequence of loads can have a signif icant effect on the size of a gen-set. One commonly used approach is to assume a ll connected loads will start in a single step. This results in the largest genset selection. Unless you do something to add load incrementally (such as multip le transfer switches with staggered time delays, or a step load controller), the n you should use a single-step load for sizing purposes. In multiple step applications, you start the largest motor first, to minimize th e gen-set size. Once placing all loads on line with the gen-set, you can stop an d start load equipment with automatic controls. Here, you'll have to size the ge n-set by assuming the largest motor starts last, with all other connected loads already on line. Examples of sizing gen-sets. You can size a gen-set with manual calculations (us ing a worksheet) or with PC software available from most major gen-set manufactu rers. The basic process is the same. It's always best to use actual data (if kno wn).

If this information isn't available, using PC software is the best option, since much of the required information on typical load characteristics is available a s default information. If you use the manual sizing procedure, it should result in a recovery voltage of at least 90% of rated voltage and a starting instantane ous voltage dip of approximately 20% to 40%. The instantaneous voltage dip and frequency dip will likely vary from manufactur er to manufacturer, based on equal ratings of gen-sets. For a closer estimation of transient (starting instantaneous voltage) performance, use the manufacturer' s sizing software. Using the manual sizing procedure. Step 1: Gather information. You'll need to know the following for each motor loa d: Nameplate hp, Running kilowatts (RkW), Running kilovolt-amperes (RkVA), Running motor power factor (PF), Starting motor PF, and Locked rotor kVA/hp. You can use the following equation to calculate RkW and RkVA for motors: RkW = [ (Nameplate hp) x (0.746kW/hp)] / Efficiency (eq. 1) RkVA = RkW / Running motor PF (eq. 2) To calculate starting kilovolt-amperes (SkVA) and starting kilowatts (SkW) for m otors, use these equations: SkVA = (Nameplate hp) x (Locked rotor kVA/hp) (eq. 3) SkW = (SkVA) x (Starting motor PF) (eq. 4) Step 2: Total the RkW, RkVA, SkW, and SkVA numbers for all the loads. Step 3: Select the gen-set by comparing the RkW, RkVA, SkW, and SkVA to the rati ngs on the manufacturer's specification sheets (after appropriate derating for a mbient temperature and altitude). Example One calculation. Determine gen-set size for three loads started across-t he-line in a single step. Here's pertinent information: Two 200 hp motors, Code G, 92% running efficiency, 0.25 starting PF, 0.91 runnin g PF. Total 100kVA of fluorescent lighting, starting PF of 0.95, and running PF of 0.9 5 (Note: We're using the terms starting and running PF for the lighting load her e for clarification when adding the motor loads. Actually, the ballast for the l ighting load has a constant PF of 0.95.) Step 1: Information gathering and calculations. 200 HP motor: RkW = (200 hp x 0.746 kW/hp) / 0.92 = 162.2kW RkVA = 162.2kW / 0.91 PF = 178.2kVA SkVA = 200 hp x 5.9 kVA/hp41180kVA SkW = 1180kVA x 0.25 PF = 295kW Florescent Lighting:

RkW = 100kVA x 0.95 PF = 95kW RkVA = 100kVA SkVA = 100kVA SkW = 100kVA x 0.95 PF = 95kW Step 2: Totals. Load.......... 200hp Motor 200hp Motor RkW 162.2 162.2 RkVA 178.2 178.2 SkW 295 295 100... 457.. 685 SkVA 1180 1180 95. 100 2460

Lighting....... Totals (kVA).

95.... 420...

Step 3: Selection. At a minimum, you'll have to size the gen-set to supply the m aximum starting (surge) demands and the steady-state running loads of the connec ted load equipment. In this example (using one manufacturer's published data), y ou would select a 750kW generator set with 2944 SkVA available at 90% recovery v oltage to supply the total load SkVA of 2460. The load totals for RkW, RkVA, and SkW are well within the rating of the 750kW (938kVA) gen-set you selected. The running kilowatt load of 420kW is 56% of the 750kW gen-set standby rating. Example Two calculation. Assume you have the same three loads as in Example One, but now you're using an autotransformer type reduced voltage starter that is se t at the 65% starting voltage to start the two motors. This tap setting will red uce the starting kVA by the square of the voltage (0.65)squared, or 0.42 times t he starting kVA. Step 1: Calculations 200 HP motor: RkW = (200 hp x 0.746 kW/hp) / 0.92 = 162.2kW RkVA = 162.2kW / 0.91 PF = 178.2kVA SkVA = 200 hp x 5.9 kVA/hp = 1180 x (0.65)squared = 495kVA SkW = 495kVA x 0.25 PF = 124kW Florescent Lighting: RkW = 100kVA x 0.95 PF = 95kW RkVA = 100kVA SkVA = 100kVA SkW = 100kVA x 0.95 PF = 95kW Step 2: Totals Load.......... RkW.. RkVA SkW SkVA

200hp Motor 200hp Motor Lighting...... Totals (kVA)

162.2 162.2

178.2. 178.2.

124. 124.

495 495 95... 100

95..... 420...

100... 457...



Step 3: Selection. Using one manufacturer's published data, you would select a 4 50kW gen-set to supply the required starting kVA. The running kilowatt load of 4 20kW is 93% of the gen-set's standby rating. So, if you want a margin for future load additions, you would select a 500kW gen-set running at 84% of rated standb y power.

Sidebar: Here's What Causes Dip in Starting Voltage When you start a motor across-the-line with a gen-set, the motor represents a lo w impedance load while at locked rotor or stalled condition. This causes a high inrush current. The high motor inrush current (I ms) flows through the generator armature windings and is affected by the reactance. This causes a drop in gener ator voltage. Impedance controls the flow of current in AC circuits. But, the ge nerator armature reactance is such a large part of its total impedance that resi stance is ignored. The generator terminal voltage drops instantaneously when the motor starter cont acts close at time t40, as a function of the subtransient reactance (X"d). Gener ally, the larger the generator, the lower its reactance. So, one way to minimize the instantaneous voltage dip is to increase the generator size. The generator terminal voltage may drop further, depending on response of the ge nerator's automatic voltage regulator and the power capability of the excitation system. (Most gen-set automatic voltage regulators include underfrequency prote ction.) During momentary overloads, the engine speed may also dip. If it does, the autom atic voltage regulator reduces excitation power to the main field, which lowers the generator terminal voltage. This, in turn, reduces the load on the engine, a llowing it to recover to rated speed. Typically, a maximum generator terminal vo ltage dip of 30% will not cause coils to drop out. (This allows for approximatel y 5% additional voltage drop in the conductors between the generator and the mot or). Although the voltage dip, due to under frequency protection, may extend the volt age recovery time, it also allows the engine to be sized closer to the steady-st ate running load rather than starting load. This is particularly important with diesel engines, which should not run for an extended duration at less than 30% o f rated load. (Extended light-load operation of a diesel engine can result in th e accumulation of unburned fuel in the exhaust system, due to incomplete combust ion from low combustion temperatures, called wet stacking. Light load operation can also result in engine damage from fuel and water contaminating lubricating o il.) After the initial voltage dip, it's important the generator restore voltage to a minimum of 90%-rated value while supplying the motor starting kVA. At least 90% recovery voltage is necessary for the motor to develop adequate torque to accel

erate its load to rated speed. A motor starting a high starting torque load, such as a loaded compressor, requi res higher recovery voltage than one starting an unloaded compressor. As the mot or comes up to speed, the voltage will rise, as the starting kVA input decreases . Once the motor is up to speed, the voltage should return to rated value, if th e gen-set is sized properly.

Sidebar: How Inertia Affects Gen-Set Sizing The moment of inertia of a rotating mass offers resistance to acceleration. The load connected to the motor shaft has its moment of inertia, and in practical si tuations for specific equipment, this may or may not be available information. Fortunately, for the purpose of sizing a gen-set, or more specifically to determ ine the engine power needed to start and accelerate a rotating motor load, the m otor load's moment of inertia need only be broadly categorized as low or high in ertia. High inertia loads are characterized by high breakaway torque requiring prolonge d acceleration. Low inertia loads are characterized by low starting torque at st andstill, with increasing torque as motor speed increases resulting in rapid acc eleration to rated speed. Starting low inertia loads will reduce the normal starting kW needed. Look for m ore information on this is in the sample calculations within this article.

Sidebar: Examples of High and Low Inertia High inertia loads include: Single- and multi-cylinder pumps Single -and multi-cylinder compressors without unloading valves Crushers Hydraulic elevators without unloading valves Low inertia loads include: Fans, centrifugal and blower Compressors starting unloaded Centrifugal pumps Motor-generator elevators Note: Pumps starting into high head pressure and large diameter fans or fans sta rting into high restriction areas should be classified as high inertia loads. Posted by Michael Vista on 30 October, 2006 - 11:39 pm Good day. I have been looking for materials wherein the Moment of Inertia of the load is being considered in the design of motors. I have seen "inertia matching " in some books. It says that, in the motor-gearbox-load configuration, the Iner tia of the load "as seen" by the motor should be the same as the inertia of the motor in order to obtain maximum acceleration. This inertia matching will be dep endent on the gear-ratio of the gearbox. My question is this... If there is no g

earbox, what will happen to the motor-load configuration if the load's moment of inertia is too high? Or, is it ok to put whatever amount of moment of inertia a s a motor load? Including reference materials in your response will be very help ful. Thanks in advance. This is my email just in case. thank you very much. Reply to this post... -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Posted by Robert Scott on 1 November, 2006 - 12:04 am The "inertia matching" that you referred to is only for guiding you in choosing a gear ratio. If there is no gearbox then you don't have that choice and that pa rticular optimization is not open to you. If the load inertia is "too high", then you won't get optimal acceleration, that 's all. Of course the more you can reduce the load inertia by removing mass at t he load, the more acceleration you will get. But that option is probably also no t available to you. But forget about inertia matching unless you can affect the gear ratio. Robert Scott Real-Time Specialties Embedded Systems Consulting Reply to this post... -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Posted by S Reid on 2 November, 2006 - 12:56 am Matching of motor to load inertia is more of theroretical interest than for any practcal reason. The fastest acceleration will be obtained with the lowest load inertia. The load inertia can be much larger than the motor inertia in direct dr ive applications. The most important reason for knowing the load to motor inertia ratio is when th e motor is coupled to the load with a flexible coupling (as they amost always ar e). At inertia ratios above, say, 3 to 1, servo instability is a real possibilit y due to the resonant frequency of the load inertia/coupling spring constant. Reply to this post... -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Posted by california bob on 2 November, 2006 - 1:19 am No other reference materials are needed other than your mind: What is Inertia? It is a resistance to change in velocity. An analogy I use often with motion control is thinking of the load as a big roun d rock. The bigger and heavier the rock, the harder it is to make it roll, and of course, to stop it from rolling. That is what a motor is doing, making the load roll, and then being able to stop

it. If you are a little guy against a big rock your job is difficult, if not impossi ble, to make the rock stop and start like you want. No difference with a motor. Without getting theoretical, you can assume a motor with a certain rotor inertia is designed so it can move itself around well. The closer the load inertia is to the motor inertia the greater you r chance of success. The time you need to accelerate and decelerate the load is as important as the i nertia ratio. There are many factors to consider, but to distill things: If you want to *position* your load with reasonable acceleration and deceleratio n parameters: Keep: Jl / Jr < 10 (Jl = load inertia (as connected to motor), Jr = motor rotor inertia) If you are just trying to adjust velocity you can get away with a much higher in ertia ratio. For Maximum Acceleration/Deceleration of a motor/drive combination Jl <= Jr. Robert B. Trask, PE Los Angeles, CA Reply to this post... -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Posted by William Sturm on 4 November, 2006 - 9:41 am If you have an inertia mismatch, the system wil be increasingly harder to tune a nd have lower performance as a result. The rule of thumb is 10:1 mismatch or les s. 5:1 or less would be better for a "high performance" system. 1:1 is optimum, but is is overkill for most applications. Bill Sturm Reply to this post... -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Posted by Robert Scott on 4 November, 2006 - 7:57 pm Well, tuning might not be a problem if the motor is not being used in a closed-l oop servo. The original question did not say if this was closed-loop or not. If not, then there is nothing to tune. Robert Scott Real-Time Specialties Embedded Systems Consulting Reply to this post... --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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