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# Generator Sizing for 3 phase Motor Loads. Considerations for sizing: Initial Condition: No load on the generator. 1.

Ability to provide real power required by motor = Motor rated kW. The pri me mover (the engine) only provides real power, kW. KW demand during a motor sta rting is very low as the power factor is about 0.2. 2. Ability to provide starting kVA for the motor. This is the function of the alternator size. a. For full voltage (DOL) starting, starting kVA= 6*rated kVAod the motor . U se the nameplate LRA data or Code letter where available. b. For Star/delta starting, starting kVA = 2*rated kVA of the motor. (In othe rwords, in star connection the starting current will be 1/3 of the DOL starting (LRA)) c. For any other reduced voltage starting the starting current and torque wil l be reduced by the square of the voltage reduction. d. So obviously one must strive to use reduced voltage starting on a generato r, as long as the starting torque requirements can be meet. 3. Keeping the Voltage drop during motor starting to an acceptable value.

a. While a motor by itself could tolerate 30% to 35% of voltage dip during th e start, it could cause starter coil to drop out. Plus consideration should be g iven to effect on other systems on the generator such as lighting. Therefore mor e realistic value of acceptable voltage dip will be say about 15 to 20%. b. For finding the per unit voltage drop by calculation you need to know the transient reactances of the generator (usually 15-20%) and the motor (usually 20 -25%). Rules of Thumb: Most generators are capable of delivering 300% of the rated current for 10 secon ds, which is sufficient time for most induction motors to get up to the rated sp eed. So for DOL starting a generator rated 2 to 3 times the kVA of the motor wil l easily supply the starting kVA of the motor and for a star/delta start even a generator sized just above the rated motor kVA will be sufficient. These rules o f thumb generally result in generator size that will keep the voltage dip during the motor starting within acceptable limit. IEEE red book have some curves indicating voltage at the motor terminals as perc entage of the rated voltage for DOL starting of various size motors. Of course for more accurate analysis you need to perform some detailed calculati ons. Practical Issues: Theoretically it is possible to show that for most cases a 600kW/750HP motor wit h a star/delta starter can satisfactorily be started on an 800kW/1000kVA generat or set (800kW engine and 800kW/1000kVA generator). Or for a DOL starting, an engine-generator set with 800kW engine and 2250kVA rat ed alternator will suffice. The problem is that it will be a non-standard set. Most generators set manufacture will not customize their engine-generator set. S o chances are most users will end-up with an 1800kW/2250kVA generator for a 600k W motor, technically way oversized.

If this information isn't available, using PC software is the best option, since much of the required information on typical load characteristics is available a s default information. If you use the manual sizing procedure, it should result in a recovery voltage of at least 90% of rated voltage and a starting instantane ous voltage dip of approximately 20% to 40%. The instantaneous voltage dip and frequency dip will likely vary from manufactur er to manufacturer, based on equal ratings of gen-sets. For a closer estimation of transient (starting instantaneous voltage) performance, use the manufacturer' s sizing software. Using the manual sizing procedure. Step 1: Gather information. You'll need to know the following for each motor loa d: Nameplate hp, Running kilowatts (RkW), Running kilovolt-amperes (RkVA), Running motor power factor (PF), Starting motor PF, and Locked rotor kVA/hp. You can use the following equation to calculate RkW and RkVA for motors: RkW = [ (Nameplate hp) x (0.746kW/hp)] / Efficiency (eq. 1) RkVA = RkW / Running motor PF (eq. 2) To calculate starting kilovolt-amperes (SkVA) and starting kilowatts (SkW) for m otors, use these equations: SkVA = (Nameplate hp) x (Locked rotor kVA/hp) (eq. 3) SkW = (SkVA) x (Starting motor PF) (eq. 4) Step 2: Total the RkW, RkVA, SkW, and SkVA numbers for all the loads. Step 3: Select the gen-set by comparing the RkW, RkVA, SkW, and SkVA to the rati ngs on the manufacturer's specification sheets (after appropriate derating for a mbient temperature and altitude). Example One calculation. Determine gen-set size for three loads started across-t he-line in a single step. Here's pertinent information: Two 200 hp motors, Code G, 92% running efficiency, 0.25 starting PF, 0.91 runnin g PF. Total 100kVA of fluorescent lighting, starting PF of 0.95, and running PF of 0.9 5 (Note: We're using the terms starting and running PF for the lighting load her e for clarification when adding the motor loads. Actually, the ballast for the l ighting load has a constant PF of 0.95.) Step 1: Information gathering and calculations. 200 HP motor: RkW = (200 hp x 0.746 kW/hp) / 0.92 = 162.2kW RkVA = 162.2kW / 0.91 PF = 178.2kVA SkVA = 200 hp x 5.9 kVA/hp41180kVA SkW = 1180kVA x 0.25 PF = 295kW Florescent Lighting:

RkW = 100kVA x 0.95 PF = 95kW RkVA = 100kVA SkVA = 100kVA SkW = 100kVA x 0.95 PF = 95kW Step 2: Totals. Load.......... 200hp Motor 200hp Motor RkW 162.2 162.2 RkVA 178.2 178.2 SkW 295 295 100... 457.. 685 SkVA 1180 1180 95. 100 2460

## Lighting....... Totals (kVA).

95.... 420...

Step 3: Selection. At a minimum, you'll have to size the gen-set to supply the m aximum starting (surge) demands and the steady-state running loads of the connec ted load equipment. In this example (using one manufacturer's published data), y ou would select a 750kW generator set with 2944 SkVA available at 90% recovery v oltage to supply the total load SkVA of 2460. The load totals for RkW, RkVA, and SkW are well within the rating of the 750kW (938kVA) gen-set you selected. The running kilowatt load of 420kW is 56% of the 750kW gen-set standby rating. Example Two calculation. Assume you have the same three loads as in Example One, but now you're using an autotransformer type reduced voltage starter that is se t at the 65% starting voltage to start the two motors. This tap setting will red uce the starting kVA by the square of the voltage (0.65)squared, or 0.42 times t he starting kVA. Step 1: Calculations 200 HP motor: RkW = (200 hp x 0.746 kW/hp) / 0.92 = 162.2kW RkVA = 162.2kW / 0.91 PF = 178.2kVA SkVA = 200 hp x 5.9 kVA/hp = 1180 x (0.65)squared = 495kVA SkW = 495kVA x 0.25 PF = 124kW Florescent Lighting: RkW = 100kVA x 0.95 PF = 95kW RkVA = 100kVA SkVA = 100kVA SkW = 100kVA x 0.95 PF = 95kW Step 2: Totals Load.......... RkW.. RkVA SkW SkVA

162.2 162.2

178.2. 178.2.

124. 124.

## 495 495 95... 100

95..... 420...

100... 457...

343.

1090

Step 3: Selection. Using one manufacturer's published data, you would select a 4 50kW gen-set to supply the required starting kVA. The running kilowatt load of 4 20kW is 93% of the gen-set's standby rating. So, if you want a margin for future load additions, you would select a 500kW gen-set running at 84% of rated standb y power.

erate its load to rated speed. A motor starting a high starting torque load, such as a loaded compressor, requi res higher recovery voltage than one starting an unloaded compressor. As the mot or comes up to speed, the voltage will rise, as the starting kVA input decreases . Once the motor is up to speed, the voltage should return to rated value, if th e gen-set is sized properly.

Sidebar: How Inertia Affects Gen-Set Sizing The moment of inertia of a rotating mass offers resistance to acceleration. The load connected to the motor shaft has its moment of inertia, and in practical si tuations for specific equipment, this may or may not be available information. Fortunately, for the purpose of sizing a gen-set, or more specifically to determ ine the engine power needed to start and accelerate a rotating motor load, the m otor load's moment of inertia need only be broadly categorized as low or high in ertia. High inertia loads are characterized by high breakaway torque requiring prolonge d acceleration. Low inertia loads are characterized by low starting torque at st andstill, with increasing torque as motor speed increases resulting in rapid acc eleration to rated speed. Starting low inertia loads will reduce the normal starting kW needed. Look for m ore information on this is in the sample calculations within this article.