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3D Roton Excitations and Supersolids in laser-driven Bose-Einstein Condensates

Nils Henkel, Rejish Nath and Thomas Pohl

Max-Planck-Institut fr Physik komplexer Systeme, Dresden u

A striking consequence of long-range interactions in BECs is the appearance of a roton-maxon like dispersion relation [4, 7], which may lead to self-assembled density modulations, i.e. a BEC with supersolid character. For dipolar interactions [2, 3], it has been found that one-dimensional supersolids are, indeed, possible [8]. Here, we investigate the behavior of Bose-condensed atoms, whose electronic groundstate is optically coupled to a highly excited (Rydberg-)state, leading to an isotropic eective interaction with soft-core character. As we show, this interaction gives rise to three-dimensional roton-excitations as well as to the formation of stable supersolid-like density modulations.

Static simulation
2 . Energy density of the homogenous gas: hom = 3 For > suso 30, a wave function with periodic modulations can have a smaller en-

ergy than the homogenous one, leading to a rst order phase transition to a supersolid state:

Eective interaction by laser induced dressing

Dynamic simulation
Question: Is it possible to reach a supersolid state by a real time evolution?

Drive the system with time-dependent

Very quick transition to a superglass (b) switch on small energy dissipation Ground state and excited state coupled by o-resonant laser (dressing) with Rabi frequency and detuning . Van-der-Waals interaction V (r) = C66 between excited states r Interaction blockade leads to nite value at r = 0 Perturbation theory yields: C6 . where C6 = U (r) = 6 Rc + r 6 4 6 = C6 . C 6 , Rc 2 2 Supersolid (e) Coexistence of a superuid phase and a growing phase with periodic density modulations (c), (d)

Highly tunable since Rc and C6 depend on and . All other interactions can be approximated by a contact potential, that may be tuned to very small values (Feshbach resonances). For simplicity it will be neglected in the following.

Experimental feasibility for

Main limitations for BEC stability:



Bogoliubov excitations and dynamical instability

We apply the Gross-Pitaevskii equation:

2 1, but: eective decay rate only = Rydberg state decay rate 10ms e 2 , with small 2 Rydberg state population 2 . eective lifetime on the order of several seconds. Decay of intermediary P -state, with e = 1 2 1 . Can be suppressed by decreasing 2 , but: 21 1 this decreases the two-photon Rabi frequency = 12 . 21


2 + 0

d3r |(r, t)|2U (|r r|) (r, t) = i t(r, t)


With appropriate length and energy scaling, it can be written as 1 2 + 2 d3r |(r, t)|2W (|r r|) (r, t) = it(r, t) (2)

Way out: use a 6P -state as intermediate state, then the Rydberg trasition can be driven by a strong 780nm-laser with 2 of a few hundred MHz, yielding lifetimes of about 0.5s. Phase diagram for 0 = 1020m3:


1 and the single dimensionless parameter = 0M C6 ( : average density). with W (r) = 1+r6 2R 0 c Dispersion relation for Bogoliubov excitations ueikrit, |u| 1:

a = 100a0 a=0

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 10 20 30 40

(k)2 = k 2

k + 2W (k) , 2


For > inst 50.06: k : (k)2 < 0, i.e., Bogoliubov excitations with such a wave number become unstable. Numerical simulation of eq. (2) is necessary to go beyond the (linear) Bogoliubov-deGennes equation




We have predicted that a laser dressed Rubidium-BEC is governed by an eective interaction that gives rise to a dynamical instability, creating a glass-like supersolid and that such systems have a crystalline ground state. It should be possible to experimentally test these predictions with current technical capabilities.

[1] N. Henkel, R. Nath, T.Pohl, arXiv:1001.3250 [2] A. Griesmaier et al., PRL 94, 160401 (2005). [3] Q. Beauls et al., PRA 77, 061601(R) (2008). [4] L. Santos, G. V. Shlyapnikov, and M. Lewenstein, PRL 90, 250403 (2003). [5] S. Komineas and N. R. Cooper, PRA 75, 023623 (2007). [6] O. Dutta, R. Kanamoto, and P. Meystre, PRL 99, 110404 (2007). [7] D. H. J. ODell, S. Giovanazzi, and G. Kurizki, PRL 90, 110402 (2003). [8] S. Giovanazzi, D. ODell, and G. Kurizki, PRL 88, 130402 (2002). [9] R. Heidemann et al., PRL 100, 033601 (2008).