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A Level Subject Selection Guidelines, Based on Requirements for Higher Education

The Lyceum School - November 2011

You MUST read and understand this document BEFORE you select your A Level subjects. Changes of subject will not be possible after admission, so please make sure you make the correct selection of subjects NOW. 1. This information is a general outline. Please see College Counsellors for detailed information on specific insitutions or on subject areas not included. 2. Information is as accurate as possible at time of publication. It is the students' responsibility to confirm specific entry requirements of desired universities. 3. The following criteria are designed to help you meet admission requirements, but following them does not guarantee admission into any institution. 4. Students are advised to read and understand this entire document, so as to be prepared if your degree of interest or country of destination changes. 5. Information has been carefully presented in the appropriatesections. Requirements meant for one section cannot be automatically applied universally.

page 1 of 8 A. All Students

General Requirements

Prepared for applicants to The Lyceum School for Sept 2012

1. The more rigorous your academic programme, the stronger a candidate you are for the most competitive universities. 4 A Levels is better than 3 A Levels + 1 AS Level (3 1/2), are better than 3 A Levels. Below 3 A Level subjects is not considered rigorous. HOWEVER, Many students will not require more than 3 A Level elective subjects. It is better to get A*/A in 3 elective subjects and English than to have mediocre grades in 3 1/2 or 4 elective subjects. 2. Universities look at grades in ALL subjects including English, not just those related to your future studies. Quality is just as important as quanitity: make sure you can do well in all of the subjects you choose to take on. Grades for core subjects - English General or English Language and at least 3 electives taken in school - should remain as high as possible. Extra subjects should not be taken (either in school or privately) if grades in the core subjects will fall, either for schoolwork or for external examinations. 3. Although grades from re-sits are acceptable, it is preferable to achieve high grades in the first attempt at any AS or A Level exam. 4. A high degree of competence in English is required for all English medium university studies. Striving for high grades in English General/Language will help you to write good admissions statements and prepare you for the high standard required at university. 5. English Language/English General are accepted equally for admissions purposes. 2 exceptions: See UK, item #5, Canada #2. 6. The most competitive universities abroad prefer traditional subjects (math, sciences, humanities, social sciences) to accounting/business. Diverse range of subjects recommended. Business students should consider taking a science, social science (other than economics), or humanities subject. Many universites are happy with A Level business subjects. 7. Math, at least AS level (calculus), is increasingly useful for admissions in social sciences as well as business and engineering. 8. Transcripts with grades received in school are very important to admissions in the US, Canada, LUMS and some others. 9. Extracurricular activities and community service are increasingly important in international and domestic admissions. 10. Extra subjects given privately are generally acceptable to universities. The student is responsible for obtaining a written copy of the forecasted A and/or AS Level grade(s) from the tutor for any private subject. 11. Meeting minimum entrance requirements alone does not make a candidate competitive. 12. The Lyceum school cannot be responsible for sudden changes in admissions or visa requirements.

page 2 of 8 B. Pakistan

General Requirements, continued The Lyceum School - November 2011 1. Equivalence certificates from the Inter Board Committee of Chairmen (IBCC) required for most universities. Students MUST check at the earliest to confirm their elegibility for a certificate as requirements are subject to change. Full equivalence details are available at the Inter Board Committee of Chairmen website: www.ibcc.edu.pk. 2. A Level Studies are considered the equivalent of the following local qualifications: Inter, HSC, HSSC, FSc, FA, as follows; Arts: 3 A Level electives; Pre-medical: biology, chemistry and physics; Pre-engineering: math, chemistry and physics. 3. O Level English, Mathematics, Pakistan Studies, Islamiyat, Urdu and some electives are required to obtain an equivalence certificate. Some O Level requirements have recently changed - please confirm your requirements on the IBCC website. Only foreign citizens may sometimes be exempt from Pak Studies/Islamiat/Urdu. Pakistani citizens who took O Level exams abroad must arrange to take exams for missing subjects privately if they will need an equivalence certificate. Non-muslim students may take Bible studies/comparative religion/ethics instead of Islamiat. 4. 3 principal subjects usually required. 2 sometimes required. Urdu as a principal subject is not accepted by some universities. 5. LUMS (for 2011 entry) required their own entry test and three principal A Level subjects. SAT not accepted. LUMS entry prodecures are subject to change annually. Entry requirements for fall 2012 will be available in late fall 2011. 1. Minimum 3 A Level principal subjects recommended to be competitive for the top universities. Many universities require a minimum of 2 A Levels if combined with strong O Levels. 2. Good grades/forcasted grades in either: 3 A Level and 1 O Level examination, or 2 A Level and 3 O Level examinations. Some universities accept 2 AS Level examinations in lieu of 1 A Level exam - AS English General occasionally not be accepted. All exams must be presented in different subjects. Urdu usually accepted. 3. TOEFL or IELTS required by many universities. If desired, exemption must be obtained in writing from each university separately. Universities may require TOEFL/ILETS even from students who meet standard exemptions. Safer just to take it. 4. McGill course requirements are more stringent than other universities, so please confirm requirements for desired major. 5. Minimum 6 As at the O Level usually required for admissions to McGill and York's Schulich Business School. 1. SAT 1 (critical reading, mathematics and writing) usually required. 2. Two SAT II subjects sometimes required (literature, math I, math II, bio, chem, phys, world history, US history, some languages). Three SAT II subjects occasionally required. Math I and Math II combination is not preferred, and occasionally not accepted. 3. TOEFL usually required for international students. Many universities now accept IELTS in lieu of TOEFL. Exemption, if desired, must be obtained in writing from each college or university individually. 4. University entrance requirements are based on the normal US high school curriculum: 4 years of English, 3-4 years of math, 2 years of history/social science, 1-3 years of lab science, and 2-4 years of the same foreign language. Some universities may impose minimum course requirements. Traditional subjects preferred. US high school students do not normally study business subjects - Accounting/BS may not be accepted as college preparatory courses by a few universities. 5. Four A level subjects are strongly recommended for students who wish to apply to the most competitive universities.

C. Canada

D. United States

page 3 of 8 E. United Kingdom

The Lyceum School - November 2011 General Requirements, continued 1. Minimum B grade in O Level math and English usually required. If O Level English is below B, IELTS/TOEFL is generally required. Students must be prepared to provide proof of English proficiency if it is requested as a part of a university's offer. 2. TOEFL/IELTS is required for a visa for students attending Foundation Year programmes (or other degrees below BA level). British visa requirements are undergoing revision. All students must be prepared to give IELTS/TOEFL if required. 3. Minimum 3 A Level principal subject passes usually required. (See section A above.) Native language A Level (Urdu) not acceptable to some universities. A Level Thinking Skills sometimes not acceptable. 4. Competitive University Admissions: 3-4 A Level subjects in a diverse range of traditional subjects preferred. 4 A Level subject combination is more competitive if all of the grades remain high. (Ex. To meet a AAA offer, AAA is better than AABB) A minimum of 2, and preferably 3 A Level subjects must be traditional subjects. Non-traditional subjects (accounting/business studies/art and design) may be taken as a third or fourth A Level subject or as an additional AS Level subject. 5. An additional AS Level subject is required by some of the most competitive universities. Such universities recommend candidates to complete 4 AS level subjects at the end of the first year, and continue at least 3 of them to the full A Level at the end of the second year. AS Level exams taken at the end of the second year, either alone or combined with the A2 exam, are also accepted. AS Level English General/Thinking Skills sometimes not accepted a. 4th AS Level subject required by King's, UCL and Warwick. b. 4th AS Level subject required by some courses at Bath, Bristol, Edinburgh, Imperial, LSE, Nottingham and Southampton. c. Warwick: Avoid subjects with overlapping curricula, for example both Business Studies and Economics to the A Level. d. LSE: Avoid Business Studies/Economics combination at the A Level. Further Maths recommended only as a fourth subject. e. Oxford/Cambridge: Competitive candidates will have a minimum of 7-8 A*/As at the O Level, including English Language, and forecasted A Level grades of A and A*. Thinking Skills Assessment (TSA), subject test, submission of work and/or interviews may be required. 6. Many law programmes require the LNAT test, and most medical programmmes require either the BMAT or UKCAT test. 7. Other programs/universities may have testing/written work/portfolio/interview requirements. Confirm via university website.

page 4 of 8

A Level Preparation by Country and Field of Study A Level Preparation by Country and Field of Study United Kingdom See business. LSE may accept A Level accounting for the accounting and finance programme. Further maths recommended. Over 90% of students who pursue membership with the ICAEW have a bachelor's degree in accounting and finance or a related subject, such as business or economics. Related work experience required. Professional designation: CA. A Level mathematics required and further mathematics often required. (esp for LSE). A Level art required by many universities. A Level mathematics recommended. Portfolio usually required. Requirements vary by university. United States See Business. Students generally enter an undergraduate business programme and major in accounting, or study accounting at the master's level. Professinal designation: CPA (Certified Public Accountant) Minimum bachelor's degree and related work experience required. State requirements for licensing vary. Not British system.

The Lyceum School - November 2011

Accounting

Canada See Business. A Level mathematics ususally required. Strong English skills and a test required for admission to Waterloo's Accounting and Financial Management programme. Professional designation: CA. Minimum BA degree in accounting or in a related subject and related work experience required. A Level mathematics required.

Pakistan CA: ICAP- 2 C grades at the A Level provides exemption from the ICAP Pre-Entry Proficiency Test required for entry to the foundation level. ICAP course exemptions available for students with A or B in English, Economics, and/or Maths (P1+P2orP3+Further Maths). ACCA- 3 O Levels including English and Math and 2 A Levels in different subject required. CIMA- 2 A Levels. A Level mathematics required.

Actuarial Science

A Level mathematics strongly recommended. Bachelors of Architecture (5yr) programs may require math and physics. No specific requirements for pre-architecture programs; math recommended. Pre-architecture must be followed by a Master's degree in Architecture.

Architecture

A Level physics and math usually required, and art recommended. Portfolio required. McGill also requires chemistry, physics and math to the O Level, and two of these, preferably math and physics, to the A Level. Most programs are pre-architecture, which must be followed by a master's degree.

NCA/Indus - Aptitude test with drawing and math required. Art background recommended but only required for the extrance test. Any 3 A Levels ok. Other schools - A Level math, physics, and chemistry required (pre-engineering curriculum).

page 5 of 8 Art/Design

A Level Preparation by Country and Field of Study, continued United Kingdom United States A Level Art required. Most Some art schools or programs universities require a foundation will require a portfolio. O or A art course from a UK institution Level art not required. before entry. Portfolio required.

Canada Portfolio required. A Level art recommended.

The Lyceum School - November 2011 Pakistan No specific reqirements, but art background recommended. Aptitude test, including drawing, will be required. A Level biology, chemistry and physics may be required. Check with the IBCC and directly with universities. A Level math recommended. No specific requirements.

No specific requirements. Biology and Biological A Level biology and chemistry and one of either math or physics Science background helpful. Sciences recommended. Business (Finance, Accounting, Marketing, Management, etc.) A Level math may be required. Strong O Level mathematics grade preferred. No specific requirements. A Level math recommended.

A Level biology, chemistry and math is the best combination. Entrance requirements vary. A Level math may be required. AS Level Maths (calculus) is the miniumum requirement at many universities. Some schools require minimum B in A Level math. (e.g. McGill) A Level chemistry, physics and math is the best combination. Entrance requirements vary.

Chemistry

A Level chemistry and one of either math (preferably) or physics.

No specific requirements. Science background helpful.

A Level physics, chemistry and either biology or math. Check with the IBCC and directly with universities.

Computer Science

A Level math usually required. A No specific requirements. Math Level computer studies helpful. strongly recommended.

A Level math required. Additional A Level math recommended. FAST requires A Level math and sciences sometimes required prefers A Level physics, but may (phys/chem/bio). take O Level physics. A Level math usually required. A Level math recommended. AS Level Maths required by most universities.

Economics

A Level math may be required. High grade in O Level math preferred. Economics recommended. Further Maths sometimes recommended (LSE for some programmes).

A Level mathematics strongly recommended.

page 6 of 8 Engineering

A Level Preparation by Country and Field of Study, continued United Kingdom United States A Level math required. A Level A Level physics and math physics usually required. A Level strongly recommended. High chemistry may be required for school math and physics (grades some programs (chemical 9-11) required. engineering, etc.) A Level math usually required. See Computer Science. English - A Level English Literature req. History - A Level History req. Language - A Level in that language usually req. Usually offered within Computer Science. See Engineering

The Lyceum School - November 2011 Canada Pakistan A Level physics, chemistry and A Level physics, chemistry and math required. (Even for math required by all institutions. Pre-Engineering equivalence computer engineering) Chemistry sometimes accepted certficicate from IBCC required at the O Level. by most universities. A Level physics, chemistry and See Engineering. math required. O Level chemistry sometimes accepted. A Level History may be required for archaeology. No specific reqirements.

Engineering, Software

Humanities (History, Literature, Languages, Philosophy, Religion, etc.) Info. Technology & Information Systems

No specific requirements.

Usually offered within Business.

Usually offered within Business.

Math and computer background helpful. NUST: A Level math, physics and either computers or chemistry required. Law not available as an undergraduate degree at local institutions. Both separate BA and LLB degrees or a combined BA/LLB required to enter practice in Pakistan. 2 to 3 A Level subjects, minimum C grade required for entry to U. of London external programme LLB course.

Law

3 A Level principal subjects required, preferably taken in one sitting. 1 AS Level, in a different subject (not English General), also required by some. A Level law not advised. Traditional subjects preferred. Admission is extremely competitive. To practice in Pakistan, a student with an LLB must also complete 1 year Bar at Law or LLM programme in the UK or obtain a BA degree. Many universities require the LNAT test.

Law not available as an undergradudate degree. Any major can be preparation for the 3 year graduate law programme. Pre-law advising is available at university. Not British system. Degree awarded is JD (Juris Doctor).

Law not available as an undergraduate degree. A BA in history or political science is good preparation for law school, but not required. British system law, with some schools calling it an LLB and others calling it a JD.

page 7 of 8 Mathematics

A Level Preparation by Country and Field of Study, continued United Kingdom United States Canada A Level math required. Further No specific requirements. A Level A Level math required. math recommended. Math strongly advised. Medicine and dentistry not available as undergraduate degrees. Any undergraduate major is acceptable as long as pre-medical/dental requirements are fulfilled during university studies. International students do not have access to all graduate medical programs. Entry to others will be very competitive, and scholarship very limited. 2 year minimum pre-pharmacy programme or undergraduate degree required before the 4 year professional programme. A Level biology and chemistry recommended. Minimum O Level math and physics recommended. No specific requirements. Science background helpful. No specific requirements.

The Lyceum School - November 2011 Pakistan A Level math required. A Level physics, chemistry and biology required. Pre-medical equivalence certificate from IBCC required. AKU prefers 4 A Level subjects, evidence of leadership potential and involvement in community service.

Medicine and Dentistry A Level chemistry, biology and either physics or math (in one sitting) required. Minimum 7-8 As at the O Level, including English, physics, chemistry and biology. Entry extremely competitive, 4 A Levels with good grades recommended. Most universities require either the BMAT or the UKCAT test. Community service necessary. Interview abroad may be required. A or B grade in A level chemistry Pharmacy and and at least 2 A Levels from Pharmacology Physics, Biology or math. O Level Biology may be required. A Level math helpful.

Medicine and Dentistry are not available as undergraduate degrees. Premedical/dental requirements must be met during university studies. International students do not have access to all graduate medical programs. Entry to others will be very competitive.

Minimum 3 A Levels, preferably 4 Physics, chemistry and biology including Mathematics, Physics, required for equivalence Chemistry,and Biology. Minimum certificate from IBCC. Add Maths at the O Level.

Physics

A Level physics and math required. A Level science subject(s) or math sometimes required (ex. UCL). A good grade in O Level math required.

A Level physics and math. A Level chemistry sometimes required

A Level physics and chemistry required. A Level math may be required.

Psychology

May be offered with either No specific requirements. sciences or social sciences. See entry requirements for relevant division.

page 8 of 8 Science

A Level Preparation by Country and Field of Study, continued United Kingdom United States A Level - 2 from math, biology, No specific requirements. chemistry, physics and computer Science background at O or A science required. level helpful. A Level geography may be required for geography. No specific requirements.

The Lyceum School - November 2011 Canada Pakistan Usually A Level math and 2 of A level science subjects. biology, physics and chemistry. The remaining science must be taken at the O Level. No specific requirements. No specific requirements.

Social Sciences (Anthropology, International Relations, Political Science, Sociology, etc.)