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Wake-Vortex & Wind Monitoring Sensors

Air Systems Division


Weather resilient ATM system should be based on new dedicated systems :

ITWS : Integrated Terminal Weather Systems WVAS : Wake Vortex Advisory Systems

New sensors requirements:

High resolution wind monitoring sensors High resolution wake vortex monitoring sensors

New sensor observation assimilation to improve :

Nowcasting performance Forcasting confidence

The key enablers for mitigation of wake-vortex hazards

Air Systems Division

Wake Vortex Advisory System Architecture


Meteo Centre

Meteo Forecast

Selected Separation Mode and Minima ATC Operators HMI WV Prediction Approach Tower Ground WV Alarms

WIND Monitoring Sensors

Local Meteo Sensors Wake Vortex Detectors Meteo Nowcast WVAS ATC-Wake Detectors "Wake Vortex Advisory System"

WV Monitoring Sensors
ATC System Traffic Situation With AC Type

Air Systems Division

Airport Wind Monitoring

Wind Monitoring Requirements:


3D Wind Vector (Head-Wind, Cross-Wind, Up/Down Wind) (Ac. : 0.5 to

1 m/s) Atmospheric Turbulence

Time Constraints:

Update Rate: 10 s to 1 mn Soft Real-Time (low latency) 3 Dimensional Volume All Weather Conditions an Enlarged Airport Area (12 to 25 NM, 4000/5000 feets)

Availability of Data in:

Fusion of Multi-Sensors measurements in a Common 3D Wind Operational Picture Wake-Vortex Predictor (Wake-Vortex Position/Strength Prediction) Nowcasting/Forecasting Weather Systems by assimilation

Progressive Information Exploitation by:

Air Systems Division

Airport Wake-Vortex Monitoring

Wake-Vortex Monitoring Requirements:


Position of each roll-up (Ac. : 10 to 50 m) Strength (Circulation in m2/s) (Ac. : 5 m2/s) Extrapolated Positions (WV detection tracking) (Ac. : 10 to 50 m) Decay Phase Update Rate : 1 s to 10 s Hard Real-Time (very low latency) 2D (along runways) or 3D (Final Approach & Initial Climb) All Weather Conditions Critical Area (along runways, ILS interception, Initial Climb)

Time Constraints:

Availability of Data in:

Multi-Sensors Tracking Wake-Vortex Alert Server Wake-Vortex Predictor (Atypical Behavior, Model Failure)

Progressive Information Exploitation by:

Air Systems Division

Wakenet-3 / Greenwake Workshop


Air Systems Division

Wakenet-3/Greenwake Special Workshop

THALES has organized a Special Workshop on

Wake Vortex & Wind Monitoring Sensors , March 2010 at Thales Research & Technology

In cooperation with European GREENWAKE Study, Eurocontrol & FAA 35 Experts Talks on 2 days 120 attendees from Europe, US, Russia, China, Japan,

Air Systems Division

Wakenet-3/Greenwake Workshop Agenda

Monday 29th March - Sensors for Wind Monitoring in All Weather Conditions

Topic 1 : Wind Monitoring Radars Topic 2 : Radar Wind Profilers Topic 3 : Lidar Wind Profilers Topic 4 : Airborne Sensors & Aircraft Met Data

Tuesday 30th March - Sensors for Wake-Vortex Monitoring in All Weather Conditions

Topic 5 : Radar Wake Vortex Sensors Topic 6 : Acoustic Wake Vortex Sensors Topic 7 : IR & UV Wake Vortex Sensors Topic 8 : Multiple Sensors

Air Systems Division

Key Candidate Technologies

Radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging) Technology

106 Years old (C. Hlsmeyer, 1904)

Lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) Technology

(laser) 50 years old (T. Maiman, 1960)

Sonar (SOund Navigation And Ranging)

(piezoelectric effect) 94 years old (Paul Langevin & Constantin Chilowski, 1916)

Air Systems Division

All these sensors uses Doppler-Fizeau Effects

Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau (1819 1896)

Christian Andreas Doppler (1803- 1853)

freq Radial Velocity (Doppler Spectrum Mean)

Air Systems Division

Var(freq) Turbulence (Doppler Spectrum Width)

Woldemar Voigt (1850 - 1919)

Sensors Technology

Different Sensors Principles :

Sensor Mode :

Active / Passive (mainly in acoustic) Collaborative Multi-sensors Mono-Static / Multi-Static Profiler 1D Scanner 2D/3D

Sensor Configuration : Sensor Exploration :

Mono/Multi-Beams Measurements on :

Mechanical scanning Electronic scanning

Scattering Air Index variations


Air Systems Division

Wind Monitoring Sensors

VHF Radar Wind Profiler (5 m, 60 MHz)

Multi-Beam Airborne Lidar Lidar (1.5 m) FMCW X-band (1.5 m) E-Scan X-band Polar Radar Lidar Scanner Radar (3 cm, 9.6 GHz) Mono/Bi-Static (1.5 m) C-band Polar Radar (5 cm, 6 GHz) Lidar Scanner (1.6 m) Lidar Profiler (1.5 m)

Bi-Static Radio-Acoustic (2 KHz, 3 cm /10.6 GHz)

Collaborative MultiLidar (1.5 m)

M-Scan X-band Polar Radar UHF Radar S-band PSR (3 cm, 9.6 GHz) High Power GaN Wind Profiler Radar Sodar/RASS X-band Radar (23 cm, 1290 MHz) (1000-3000 Hz, (3 cm, (3 cm, 9.6 GHz) 9 GHz) 23 cm,1290 Mhz)




Air Systems Division

Wake-Vortex Monitoring Sensors

Ka-band Radar Passive Forward (8.5 mm, 35 GHz) Looking Interferometer (3-16 m) Lidar scanner (1.5 m)

X-band Polar Radar (3 cm, 9.6 GHz) Multi-static Active Acoustic (1 KHz)

Passive-Acoustic (IR laser beam)

UV Lidar (300 nm)

W-band Radar Lidar scanner (3 mm, 94 GHz) E-Scan XX-band Passive Phased band Radar Pulse(2 m) Lidar scanner Microphone Arrays (3 cm, 9.6 Compressio Active Acoustic (1.6 m) (200-400 KHz) GHz) n Radar (57 KHz) (3 cm, 9.6 Electromagnetic-Wave Acoustic-Wave GHz)


Air Systems Division

Wind Monitoring Sensors Performances

Low Medium High Anemometers Windlines Sodar/Rass Bi-Static Radio-Acoustic VHF Wind Profiler UHF Wind Profiler S-Band PSR radar C-Band radar M-Scan X-Band radar E-Scan X-Band radar 1.5 m Lidar Profiler 1.5 m Lidar Scanner Coll. Multi 1.5 m Lidar 1.6 m Lidar Scanner 2 m Lidar Scanner
Air Systems Division


Update-Rate Latency Coverage Range Accuracy


Weather Low Cost Resilience

Very Clear / Clear / Haze / Fog /Very Low Visibility / Heavy Rain

* : Existing radar on airports (processing Upgrade)

Wake-Vortex Monitoring Sensors Performances

Low Medium High Passive Acoustic Passive Ac. Phased Array Multi-Static Acoustic 1 KHz Active Acoustic 57 KHz M-Scan X-band Polar M-Scan X-band Pcomp E-scan X-band Pcomp Pol M-Scan Ka-Band radar M-Scan W-Band radar Passive Forw. Look. Inter. 1.5 m Lidar Scanner 1.6 m Lidar Scanner 2 m Lidar UV Lidar
Air Systems Division


Update-Rate Latency Coverage Range Accuracy


Weather Low Cost Resilience

Very Clear / Clear / Haze / Fog /Very Low Visibility / Heavy Rain

Radar/Lidar Sensors

Radar & Lidar are complementary sensors in all weather operations

THALES has proved by derisking campaign (Paris CDG-2008) that X-band Radar & Lidar are complementary for Wake Vortex Monitoring :

Lockheed Martin has proved by derisking Campaign (Westheimer Aiport) that X-band & Lidar are compementary for Wind Monitoring (& Wind-shear)


Air Systems Division

X-band Radar / Lidar Complementarity

Transition region where ground clutter interference becomes problematic for the radar


Lidar = 2 m Lidar
Colors painted on an airborne radar display Super Clear -70 Typ Clear -60 Heavy Haze -50 -40 -30

Lidar dB beta (clear air conditions) Typical Radar Provides No Capability


Air Systems Division

1.5 m Lidar range vs Pulse Energy

1.5 m pulsed Lidar range as a funtion of laser energy


10 cm aperture extinction coef = 3,4 E -6 m -1








1,00E-02 energy(J)

Range resolution 30m (pulses 200ns) integration time 0.1s

Air Systems Division


Low-Cost Multifunction Radar/Lidar Scanners

Main Characteristics :

High-Power 1.5 m Scanner in Clear Air or Very Clear air Low-Cost E-scanning X-band Radar with Pulse Compression in Low Visibility (Fog, Heavy Rain) Multifunction in All weather Conditions (Wet & Dry) : Wind & Wake-Vortex Monitoring 3D Scanning, High Update-Rate, High Resolution/Accuracy Very Low Cost

Main Advantages :


Air Systems Division

Available Soon (First tests at CDG Airport, in SESAR WP12.2.2)

TRL Roadmap : Low-Cost X-band E-scan Radar

Requirements & standards

year 2010
Air Systems Division





TRL Roadmap : High-Power 1.5 m Lidar Scanner

Requirements & standards

year 2010
Air Systems Division





Lidar/Radar Wake-Vortex Sensors Simulator

Lidar Wake-Vortex Simulator:

1.5 m Lidar Simulator: UCL (Belgium) re-use by THALES in SESAR, LEOSPHERE (France) 2 m Lidar Simulator: LMCT (USA)

Radar Wake-Vortex Simulator:

High Resolution Simulator: NUDT (China) + upgrade with THALES/ONERA (in Rain, Doppler Signature) Generic Simulator: UCL(Belgium) as THALES SESAR sub-contractor
o * : vertical mode : lateral mode
Water Vapor

large characteristic scale larger magnitude 10-7 small characteristic scale smaller magnitude 10-8

Bragg scattering

Peak RCS in low frequency band

Bragg scattering

Peak RCS in high frequency band

Air Systems Division

K. Shariff prediction

-60 -70 -80 -90 -10 0 -11 0 -12 0 t= 5 s -13 0 -14 0 -15 0 6 10

Gilson Experiments

Our result





Sensors/Model Collaboration: Wake-Vortex Tracker TU-Braunschweig as sub-contractor of THALES in SESAR WP12.2.2 Wake-Vortex Tracking based on:

Lidar/Radar Multi-sensors Wake-Vortex Detections Traffic Information MET information Wake-Vortex Prediction Model
update on new prediction

state WV traffic, MET, sensor angles model state transition ~ established prediction models covariance ~ uncertainty bounds in current models, decreased by measurement

state WV traffic, MET, sensor angles covariance ~ uncertainty boundszin H x x k x k K k k currentk models, decreased by measurement measuredk quantitiesk position, strength (WV), range, bearing (sensor)

P I K H Pk


x0, P0

update on new measurement


Most favorable in terms of

Air Systems Division

Accuracy Reduced Uncertainty Model/Sensor Interaction

Radar Clear-air Wind Monitoring

Radar Wind Monitoring Performances in Clear-Air :

Radar can monitor Wind in Rain (light to heavy rain, hail) Existing Weather Radar can monitor Wind in Clear-Air with an availability from 40 to 55% until range of 15 km and altitude of 500 m
Meteo-France C-band Radar

Maximum detection distance (with a sensitivity of 0 dBZ at 100 km) Cn (m-2/3):10-13 , S-band: -15dBZ(15 km), C-band: -26dB(4,4 km), X-band:34dBZ (1,9 km)

New High-Power Emitter Weather Radar can monitor Wind in Very Clear-Air with an availability of 100% until range of 15 km

Toshiba GaN Weather Radar : detects air conditions including wind speed even in very clear weather a very difficult task for most weather radars.


Air Systems Division

Upgrade of Existing Equipment

Upgrade of ATC PSR Radar Weather-Channel

Rain Cell Tracking Doppler Wind Monitoring Doppler Turbulence Map

Time serie of Reflectivity Images (Update rate : 5mn)


Cloud Tracking (Morphological Skeletons Matching) Turbulence map

INCHON SITE A (31 july 2001, 10:30) Weather detection levels 1 (dark green) and 2 (light green)

ATC PSR Radar (weather channel)

Weather Radar

Wind Filed Estimation (Doppler + Cloud Tracking)


Air Systems Division

Doppler Mean

Down-link of Wind Information by ADS-B/Mode S

Wind Information by Mode S Data-link (Monopulse Secundary Surveillance Radar) :

Thales RSM 970 S Secundary Radar Mode S "Enhanced Surveillance" (EHS) : Surveillance Radar can extract 1 to 5 BDS per scan :

Register 50 hex (Track and Turn Report) : ground speed, true track angle, true airspeed, and the roll angle. Register 60 hex (Heading and Speed Report) : magnetic heading, indicated airspeed, and Mach number.

Output from SSR Radar : ASTERIX format BDS 4/5,6 RSM 970 S Records scheduled by Thales in 2010

Thales RSM 970 S

Wind information by ADS-B Data-link (Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast)

1090 MHz Extented Squiter Link : Thales AS 680 ADS-B Ground Station and Multichannel AS 685-ADS-B/TIS-B and Existing Messages : Aircraft emitter category, Aircraft position and pressure altitude Aircraft speed, and heading New requirements (update-rate : 10 s to 20 s) : Wind speed and direction, Static temperature and barometric pressure, Aircraft weight and configuration, Atmospheric turbulence (eddy dissipation rate and total kinetic energy) Constraints : bandwidth limitations in high density of aircrafts case, data latencies
Fin al A

Thales AS 685 ADS-B/TIS-B Multichannel Ground Station

ppr oac h

Thales AS 680 ADS-B Ground Station / MAGS


Air Systems Division

Down-link of Wind Information by ADS-B/Mode S

Paris Traffic (CDG/LE Bourget/ORLY Airports) : Potential ADS-B Data Coverage


Air Systems Division

SESAR WP12.2.2 Project schedule overview

Phase 1 2010-2012 Phase 2 2013-2014 Full scale simulation model
Model calibration & validation XP0 Trials XP1 Trials XP2 Trials
Full scale prototype: Shadow Mode Weather Dependant Separation (CDG)
WVAS System : Separation Mode Planner Wake Vortex Predictors WV Alerts Operator HMI WV sensors : X-band radar (elec scan) 1.5 m Lidar Weather Sensors : Selected Wind profiling sensors

Phase 3 2015-2016

XP3 Trials
Full scale updated prototype: Shadow Mode Pair Wise Separation (Frankfurt)
WVAS System : Mode Planner Wake Vortex Predictors WV Alerts Operator HMI

Partial prototype: Data acquisition: Off-Line demonstration Sensors Time Based Separation Benchmark (CDG) (CDG) February 2011
WV sensors : X-band radar (mech scan) 1.5 m Lidar

WVAS System : Mode Planner Wake Vortex Predictors WV Alerts Operator HMI


Weather Sensors : Ultrasonic Anemometers Lidar Wind Profiler UHF Radar Wind Profiler SODAR X-band weather radar

WV sensors : X-band radar (elec scan) 1.5 m Lidar Weather Sensors : Selected Wind profiling sensors

WV sensors : X-band radar (elec scan) 1.5 m Lidar Weather Sensors : Selected Wind profiling sensors

Note: The Wake Vortex Advisory System: WVAS 28

Air Systems Division

Suite of Sensors benchmarking

THALES will supervise benchmarking of :

Wake Vortex Monitoring Sensors

M-Scan X-band Radars

1.5 m Lidar Scanner

Wind Monitoring Sensors

Weather 1.5 m Lidar X-band Radar Wind Profiler

UHF Radar Wind Profiler

UHF Radar Wind Profiler

Ultrasonic Anemometers

Existing Meteo-France Equipment at Paris CDG Airport



Air Systems Division

European Research Needs

Simulators RCS signature in clear-air/rain Doppler signature High Range Resolution Sensors :

Wake-Vortex Monitoring Radar Simulator (VHF to W bands)

Technology for Low-Cost Polarimetric X-band Electronic scanning Radar Antenna Technology for High-Power 1.5 m Lidar Scanner Advanced Wake-Vortex Detection/Fusion based on multi-sensors Radar/Lidar data Tracking with Model/Sensors Collaboration Advanced Weather Channel of ATC PSR Radar Mode S ADS-B



New standard for Met Data by Data-link:

Air Systems Division

A new generation of low cost sensors has recently emerged, boosted by technological breakthroughs & Renewel Wind Energy Market :

Electronic scanning Low Cost X-band Radar High Power 1.5 micron Lidar scanner Weather channel of S-band ATC PSR Radar Met Data from ADS-B/Mode S Extented Squiter

Existing Equipments can be upgraded :

These sensors and data-links will be key enablers for critical Wake Vortex Advisory System that will be developed in :
SESAR WP12.2.2 Runway Wake Vortex Detection, Prediction and decision support tools. Wind data will be ingested in Wake Vortex Predictor and will require:

In future systems, operational in all weather conditions,

accurate/high space resolution fast time update rate Wake vortex position Wake vortex strength (circulation in m2/s) Wake vortex phase (transport & decay)

Wake-Vortex monitoring will improve confidence of Safety Nets with :


Air Systems Division

From System-centric approach to Sensor-centric Approach


blind in one eye is the king in blinds kingdom

Dont let the ATC Operator & system use their 6th sense for Wake-Vortex Mitigation. Allow them to have access to the Clear-sightedness of Wind & Wake-Vortex sensors.
Air Systems Division