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PRESENTATION ON ENERGY AUDITS

IN

THERMAL POWER STATION

BY

H.S.Bedi
Sr. Vice President (Power)
Energo Engineering Projects Ltd.
A-57/4, Okhla Industrial Area,
Phase – II, New Delhi - 110020
“You cannot Manage what you
cannot Measure”

(Accurately)

- Jack Welch, CEO, General Electric


PATTERN OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION

IN

THERMAL POWER STATION


TYPICAL PLANT LOSSES
TYPICAL BOILER LOSSES
TYPICAL CYCLE LOSSES
1.0 USEFULNESS OF ENERGY AUDIT IN
THERMAL POWER STATION

• Identifies Wastage areas of Fuel, Power and


Water & Air Utilization.
• Reduction in cost of generation by
implementing findings of EA.
• Increases power generation by efficient
utilization of steam in turbine cycle and
reduction in Aux Power Consumption.
• Maintenance planning and availability
improvement.

Contd

1.0 USEFULNESS OF ENERGY AUDIT IN
THERMAL POWER STATION
• Provides guidance in Loading Sequences of
the Units.
• Identification and Rectification of errors in on-
line Instruments.
• Leads to reduction in Green House Gases.
• Utilizes specialized services of experienced
Engineers.
• Training of O&M staff for Efficient Control of
Unit Operation.

Contd

1.0 USEFULNESS OF ENERGY AUDIT IN
THERMAL POWER STATION

• Improves competitiveness by reducing unit


generation.
• Creates bench mark for all equipments and
systems.
• Fulfills bureau of energy efficiency mandatory
requirement of Energy Audit.
EFFECT OF INSTRUMENTATION ON ENERGY
AUDITS
A. Plant on-line instruments with few audit instruments Accuracy
around 3.0%.

B. Accurate calibrated instruments as per ASME-PTC-6 for steam


turbine& ASME-PTC-4-1 for Boilers.
Accuracy around 0.5 %

ERROR OF PROCEDURE OF ENERGY AUDIT OTHER THAN


ASME-PTC-6 for steam turbines and ASME – PTC-4.1 for boiler

– Error in Boiler Energy Audit – around 2.0%


– Error in steam turbine Energy Audit – around 3.0%

Total error because of Instrumentation & Procedure 6.0%

Contd….
IMPORTANCE OF ACCURACY IN ENERGY
AUDITS

– 1.0% Deviation in findings means 25000 tons of coal


loss/annum for 200 MW Unit or approx Rs. 5 crores /
year (4000Kcal coal GCV & Rs.2000/ton coal cost)

– Difference in cost of Energy Audit between B & A is 12


to 14 lacs as against 6 to 8 lacs.
ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF INEFFICIENT MACHINES
(200 MW)

SHORT FALL LOSS IN


CRORES PER
ANNUM
TURBINE CYCLE HEAT RATE 1.0 % 5.0
TG OUTPUT 1.0% 5.0
BOILER EFFICIENCY 1.0% 1.75
AUX. POWER CONSUMPTION 5.0 % 2.5

NOTE:
ƒ TG CYCLE HEAT RATE IS TAKEN AS 2000 KCAL /
KWh
ƒ COAL CV IS TAKEN AS 4000 KCAL / Kg
ƒ PRICE OF COAL TAKEN AS Rs. 2000 / TON
ƒ LOSS INCREASES WITH MACHINE SIZE
Impact of Turbine Efficiency on
HR/Output

Description Effect on Effect on


TG HR KW

1% HPT Efficiency 0.16% 0.3%

1% IPT Efficiency 0.16% 0.16%

1% LPT Efficiency 0.5 % 0.5 %

Output Sharing by Turbine Cylinders are around

HPT 28%
IPT 23%
LPT 49%
HP/IP Turbine Efficiency
Instrument Inaccuracy / lack of corrections

Main Steam HPT Exhaust


Pressure Temp Pressure Temp
Kg/cm2 Deg C Kg/cm2 Deg C
1 1 1 1
HPT
Efficiency 0.6 % 0.6 % 2.0 % 0.7 %

IPT Inlet IPT Exhaust


Pressure Temp Pressure Temp
Kg/cm2 Deg C Kg/cm2 Deg C
1 1 1 1
IPT
Efficiency 1.2 % 0.3 % 6.0 % 0.4 %
Effect of Condenser Vacuum on Heat
Rate

10 MM HG IMPROVEMENT IN
CONDENSER VACUUM
LEADS TO 20 Kcal/kwh (1%)
IMPROVEMENT IN HEAT RATE FOR A
210 MW UNIT
EFFECT ON HEAT RATE FOR PARAMETER
DEVIATION (500MW UNIT)

DEVIATION IN EFFECT ON HEAT


PARAMETER RATE (KCAL/KWH)
1. HPT inlet press. by 5.0 ata 6.25
2. HPT inlet temperature by 10.0deg 6.0
C
3. IPT inlet temperature by 10.0deg C 5.6
4. Condenser pressure by 10.0 mm of 9.0
Hg
5. Re spray water quantity by 1.0% 4.0
6. HPT Cylinder efficiency by 1.0% 3.5
7. IPT Cylinder efficiency by 1.0% 4.0
Instrument calibration interval
Calibration intervals should be based on the Specifications given by
OEM / trended calibration observations.
An example of Accuracy degradation as a function of time is:
06 mth 12 mth 18 mth 24 mth
Accuracy 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
(% of span)
Repeatability) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
(of calibrated span)
Drift (@06months) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Overall Instrument 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60
accuracy
CONFORMITY FOR ENERGY AUDITS

FOLLOW TEST CODES

• ASME PTC - 6 For Steam Turbines

ASME PTC - 4.1 for Boilers

CALIBRATION LAB
• Govt. Accredited i.e. NABL Labs

TEST SCHEME
• To be Furnished And Approved Sample enclosed
HEAT LOSS METHOD
BOILER EFFICIENCY = 100 - % AGE LOSSES
1. Heat Loss in Dry flue gas
a. Hg = 0.24 wg (Tg – Ta) as percentage of heat input
G.C.V
a. Hg = K (Tg – Ta) /1.8 K=0.32 for fuel oil
% CO2 in flue gas K=0.35 for Bituminous coal
2. Heat loss due to evaporation of moisture & H2 in fuel
Hm = Wm+9H (100 – Tf) + 540 – 4.6 (Tg -100) %of heat input
G.C.V
3. Heat loss due to moisture in air
Ha = 0.26 Wma (Tg – Ta) % of heat input
G.C.V
4. Heat loss due to Incomplete combustion to Co
Hco = 2414 C x CO x 1 as % of heat input
CO+CO2 G.C.V
5. Heat loss due to unburnt carbon “C”
Hc = Wc x 7831 as % of heat input
G.C.V
6. Heat loss due to Blow Down
Hbd = Wb (hbw – hw) as % of heat input
G.C.V
7. Heat loss due to Radiation

HR = Difficult to evaluate & thus take design values only

In above
Wg =Wt of dry flue gas
W..G = [44.01 *CO2 + 32*O2 28.02 * N2 + 28.01*CO]*[Cb + 12.01 * S/32.07]
12.01 * (CO2 + CO)
Tg = Tempt. Of flue gas at exit of Boiler
Ta = Tempt. Of air at inlet (ambient)
Tf = Tempt. Of fuel inlet
hbw-hw = Heat in blow down
Wm = Weight of moisture
Wma = Wt of waterin Kg/Kg of air X Wt of air in Kg supplied / Kg of fuel
Wc = Weight of unburnt “C”
Wb = Wt of water blow down

All wts are / kg of fuel


FG
Expansion
Bellow

Economizer

HVS
APH

Sampling
Locations
APH

FG
Annexure - I
BOILER EFFICIENCY AND APH TEST SCHEME &
INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM

1.Grid measurement for gas composition and gas temp. at air pre heater
inlet / outlet.
W/6 W/3 W/3 W/6
T1 T2 T3

D/6
N11 N21 N31

D/3 DEPTH
N12 N22 N32

D/3
N13 N23 N33

D/6
D = Duct Depth (Internal)
W = Duct Width (Internal)
Tx = Traverse (x) (Pockets)
x =1 to 5 (Width wise)
Nxy = Nodexy
(Sketch for one half of flue gas duct cross - section)
Grid measurement for gas sampling and temperature measurement at 3 to 5 locations on
APH inlet & at 3 to 5 locations on APH outlet ducting as close to APH as possible shall be
taken provided test pockets are available for inserting sampling probes. Flue gas sampling
and temperature measuring probe shall be inserted at each location and traversed to collect
data at these points in each location. This shall eliminate effect of gas stratification.
Air temperature at inlet and outlet of APH shall be measured at two points each in case
spare pockets are available.
Ambient temperature, barometric pressure & RH is measured near F.D. fans.

Note1 : WBPDCL to provide the test pockets in each of the Air and Gas path for
inserting test instrument.

Note2 : Test instruments shall be used for the above.


b) Turbine cycle heat rate.
This varies with the system changes in cycle i.e.
1.Location of Aux. Stm. Tapping.
2.Whether Reheater spray is reqd. or not.
3.Whether spray for superheater attemperation is tapped off from BFP discharge or after
top heater.
i.Cycle with Aux. Steam from MS or No Aux. Stm.;
No. RH Spray, ;
H. Rate = M1 (H1 – hF) + M2 (H3 – H2 )
Pg
ii.Same as (a) but Aux. Steam from CRH
H. Rate = [M1 (H1 – hF) + M2 (H3 – H2) – MAS (H3 – Hc )]
Pg
iii.Same as (a) but with Reheat Spray.
H. Rate = M1 (H1 – hF) + M2 (H3 – H2) + MRHS (H3 – hRHS )
Pg
iv.Same as (a) but Spray for Superheater from BFP discharge
H. Rate = M1 (H1 – hF) + M2 (H3 – H2) + MSHS (hF – hSHS )
Pg
ENERGY AUDIT SCHEME FOR 210 LMW STEAM TURBINE
PERFORMANCE TEST PROCEDURE FOR PUMPS

Measured flow Q M3 / HR
Suction pressure Ps kg / m2
Discharge Pressure PD kg / cm2
Test speed Nrpm
Liquid temp. T°C
Specific weight of liquid W kg / M3
Total dynamic head at test speed N
H = (PD – PS) X 10 / W MLC

Total dynamic head at design speed N1


H1 = HX (N1 / N)2 MLC

Fluid flow at design speed N1


Q1 = QX (N1 / N) M3 / Hr
Based ion characteristic curve of the pump the expected flow Q2M3 / Hr shall be worked
out at H1MLC of total dynamic head (TDH)

CONCLUSION

For Normal Pump performance Q1M3 / Hr should be more than or equal to Q2 M3 / Hr


Q1 > Q2
FREQUENCY OF READINGS FOR ACCURATE DATA COLLECTION

TURBINE CYCLE AUDIT

Pressure - 5 Minutes
Temperature - 5 Minutes
Flow - 1 Minute
Power - 1 Minute
Levels - 10 Minutes

BOILER UNIT AUDIT

Temperature - 15 to 30 Minutes
Flue Gas Composition - ½ to one hour

DURATION OF AUDIT TEST

Turbine Cycle - 2 Hrs


Boiler Unit - 4 Hrs
TEST INSTRUMENTS ACCURACY, CODE & CALIBRATION
LAB
Accuracy of Energy Audit Instruments

• Pressure Measuring Instruments 0.1 % Acc.


• Temperatures 1/2 DIN Tolerance
Or ASME CLASS ‘A’
• Aux. Power Measuring Instruments 0.2 % Acc.
• Generator Power Measurement 0.1 % Acc.
• Flue Gas Analysis 0.5 % Acc.
• Data Logger 0.03 % Acc.
• Ultrasonic Flow Meter 0.5 % Acc.

Note: - Price and Quality / Grade of Energy Audit Depends largely on


Instrument Accuracies
3.0 METHODOLOGY TO BE ADOPTED FOR ENERGY
AUDIT

3.1 INTERACTION WITH PLANT ENGINEERS AND OBTAIN DATA


ON
• Various equipment problems.
• Present performance level i.e. unit heat rate, fuel
consumption, DM Water and raw water consumption etc.
• Plant design data for the main and auxiliary equipments.
• Boiler TG Cycle layout, condensate, feed and steam pipe line
schematics.
• Performance / Guarantee test reports of the tests carried out
on equipments.
• Plant electrical power distribution system and transformer
etc
• Auxiliary power distribution system and transformer
etc.
• Evaluation procedure for day to day monitoring i.e.
plant M.I.S. systems
• Loading / requirement during test.

3.2 Follow enclosed Test scheme for boiler and turbine


testing.
3.3 Develop Energy Audit procedure covering following
for each equipment
• Object of energy audit
• Scheme and list of measurements
• Range, make & class of accuracy of instruments.
• Frequency of instrument readings.

• Duration of instrument readings.

• Required man power.

• Interconnected plant data required.

• Finalize procedure with customer / consultants

3.4 CHECK UP THE AVAILABILITY OF INSTRUMENT


MOUNTING POINTS AND ORGANIZE FOR MISSING
POINTS. (CUSTOMER TO ARRANGE OR SPARE
ALTERNATE POINTS)

3.5 ARRANGE CALIBRATED INSTRUMENTS.

3.6 PLAN SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES FOR ENERGY


AUDIT.
3.7 Customer to Arrange shutdown if required for
providing non available / missing points and
attending defects noticed during walk down
survey.

3.8 Conduct test as per above plan.

3.9 Prepare preliminary energy audit report.

3.10 Evaluate Final Results.

3.11 Conduct mass and energy balance in Turbine


cycle components and boiler.
3.12 Make comparison with design Acceptance
test data and establish shortfall areas.

3.13 Furnish recommendations in the form of


cost benefit analysis.

3.14 Give presentation on findings with backup


data
SCOPE FOR CONSULTANT

• Frame SPECS for Energy Audits

• Approve Energy Audit Schematics

• Approve Procedure Covering Evaluation Procedure, Type

and Class of Accuracy of Instruments & their Calibrations

• Installation of Instruments and Ensure Compatibility of Data

Thermodynamically

• Supervise Conductance of Energy Audit

• Review & Acceptance of Audit Report


SCOPE OF WORK FOR ENERGY AUDIT OF THERMAL
POWER PLANT UNITS

Energy Audit should cover evaluation of the present performance


level of all major equipments, identify the controllable losses and
suggest remedial measures for improvements with cost benefit
analysis and pay back period. The detailed scope of work covering
the following is given as under.
•Boilers
•Turbine including regenerative cycle and condenser
•Electrical system
•Fans and Pumps in the above areas
•Insulation
•Balance of Plant including Station auxiliaries power consumption,
Coal Handling plant, ash handling system, DM Plant, Station
Compressed air system, CW system and Air conditioning.
Preliminary Energy Audit, Preliminary Checking / Hot
walk down
Energy Auditing agency to check the complete unit steam, condensate
and feed water system along with the functioning of Heat cycle
equipment like Boiler, Condenser Regenerative system Turbine
Cylinders etc. during HOT WALK DOWN. Problem if any, shall be
brought to the notice of the authority for rectification and arranging
provisions for mounting audit instruments during Audit Preparatory
Activities, prior to start of the detailed EA.
DETAILED ENERGY AUDIT

A Energy Audit Of Boilers


Performance of Boiler and APH be established by measuring exit flue
gas temperature and its analysis at around nine to fifteen points in flue
gas duct cross section before and after APH to eliminate effect of gas
stratification as per international practice (Refer enclosed boiler test
scheme Annexure – I). This is because boiler efficiency differs by
around 2.0% by this method than if the measurements are taken at
single point. Scope will include the following

• Conduct boiler efficiency measurements as per above test


scheme by indirect method i.e heat loss method, evaluate Boiler
efficiency and identify potential areas for improvements such as.
a. Heat loss due to heat in dry flue gas.
b. Heat loss due to moisture in as fired fuel.
c. Heat loss due to moisture from burning of hydrogen in fuel
d. Heat loss due to moisture in air.
e. Heat loss due to surface radiation and convection.
f. Heat loss due to formation of carbon monoxide.
g. Heat loss due to combustibles in bottom and fly ash

ƒ Check up air ingress in boiler from LTSH area downwards


upto I.D fans.
ƒ Determine Air preheater performance to establish.
a. Gas Side Efficiency – As ratio of gas temperature drop corrected
for no air leakage to temperature heads.
b. Air leakage as percentage of air passing from airside to gas side.
c. X-Ratio I,e heat capacity of air passing through the air heater to the
heat capacity of gas passing through the air heater.
d. Air side and gas side pressure loss across the air heater.

ƒ Input power measurement of ID FANS / FD fans, PA fans, Fan


Loading & combined efficiency of fan and motor and their specific
power consumption
ƒ Energy Audit test has to be carried out for four hours by recording
parameters at every 15 minutes and average of data to be utilized
for evaluation.
B Energy Audit of steam turbine cycle and it auxiliaries
For Energy Audit of steam turbine cycle, all the parameters as per the
enclosed scheme in Annexure – II are to be measured
simultaneously by hooking up these calibrated instruments to
a data logger. The recording has to be at least for a minimum
period of two hours with each measurement being recorded at an
interval of one minute. Average of the data so collected to be
utilized for evaluation of the following and suggestions for
deficient areas for improvements to be made.
1. Turbine cycle heat rate.
2. HP and IP cylinders efficiency
3. Turbine pressure survey
4. TTD & DCA of HP / LP heaters performance
5. Condenser performance i.e
• Condenser back pressure after duly considering the effect of
present C.W inlet temp. C.W flow, heat load on condenser
and air ingress to condenser vis-à-vis design conditions
• C.W side pressure drop in condenser
6. Cycle losses
7. Performance of turbine glands
8. Ejector performance
For accurate heat rate determination, Turbine inlet flow and reheat
flow need to be evaluated as per international practice by
measuring condensate flow through measurement of ∆p of plant
condensate flow orifice after checking its condition and using
evaluated drip and extraction to deaerator flows through heat and
mass balance across heaters and deaerator as per scheme. Fall in
deaerator level and HPTV and IPV leak off flow are also considered.
Alternately by mass balance across deaerator if flow orifices are
installed in drip and extraction lines to deaerator. Deaerator outlet
feed flow shall then be taken as the main steam flow after
considering for RH spray tap off from Boiler feed line.
C. Electrical system

1 Transformers • Assessment of the health &


Transformer load loss of GT, UAT,
Station Service transformers etc.
• Identification of possible Energy
conservation options in this area.
2 Motors • Assessment of Loading condition of
HT and LT motors of Boiler area,
Turbine area and Balance of Plant
area.
• Assessment of operating parameters
like load variation, Power factor, of HT
and LT motors consuming power
more than 50 KW.
• Identification of possible Energy
conservation options in this area (with
latest techniques).
Capacitors • Assessment of health of capacitors.

Plant Lighting system • Lighting load survey and Assessment of


installed load efficacy (I.L.E) and I.L.E
ratio at various areas of plant.
• Assessment of present lighting controls
• Identification of Energy Conservation
Opportunities.
D Fans and Pumps Performance
Performance of fans consuming power more than 50 KW such as ID,
FD, PA fans etc.
•Input power measurement
•Fan loading and combined efficiency of fan and motor
•Specific energy consumption
Pump performance for BFPs, CEPs, Aux C.W.P & C.W.Pand
pumps consuming power more than 50 KW etc.
•Check Performance of the pumps by comparing the corrected
measured flow at operating speed to design speed with that of the
expected flow derived from the characteristic curves against the
corrected total dynamic head at design speed.
•Determine Pump efficiency as the ratio of power input to the pump
shaft to hydraulic power.
•Specific power consumption
E Insulation Audit:
A. Walk through survey of Boiler, Turbine and associated steam
piping to identify the damaged and Hot spot area.
B. Surface temperature measurement at the damaged and Hot
spot area by infrared temperature indicator.
C. Estimation of heat loss in the hot spots and damaged
insulation area.

F Balance Of Plant
(i) Compressed air system:
•Free Air Delivery i.e. Capacity evaluation of the Plant and Instrument
air compressors.
•Checking volumetric efficiency of compressors.
•Assessment of compressed air leakage quantity.
•Assessment of Energy performance of the air compressors/ specific
power consumption.
•Study of the compressed air network and suggest suitable energy
saving options.
(ii) Air conditioning system:
•Performance evaluation of AC Plant w.r.t net cooling / refrigeration
capacity along with heat load of Air handling unit and energy
requirements at the operating conditions vis-à-vis design condition to be
determined.
(iii) Ash Plant
•Performance of ash Slurry pumps through power measurement and flow
measurement.
•Ash water ratio assessment and recommendations for optimization in
water and power consumption.
(iv) Cooling Tower Performance
•It shall include establishment of
•Liquid/Gas ratio
•Fan efficiency as the ratio of shaft power developed and the work done
by the fan
•Cooling Tower Effectiveness, approach and range.
•Cooling capacity.
V Coal Handling Plant
Input Power measurement of all the key equipment of the CHP area
like: Paddle feeders, Conveyors, Stacker & Re-claimer, Wagon
Tipplers, Crushers,
Establishment of specific energy performance indicators.

Accuracy and calibration of the instruments

The proposed instruments should have following level of accuracy.


i.Thermocouples and PRTs – ASME special class ‘A’ i.e ½ DIN
tolerance
ii.Pressure and differential pressure - 0.1%
transmitters better than
iii. Power Meter for generator & - 0.1%
Unit Aux Power measurement
iv Data Logger - 0.03%
v Power transducers / Load Analyser - 0.5%
vi Flue gas analyser - 0.5%
vii Ultrasonic flow meters - 0.5%
viii Anemometer - 1.0%
xi Infrared Thermometer - 1.0%
x Lux meter - 1.0%
xi RH meter - 1.0%
These should be duly calibrated from NABL accredited lab.
The above accuracies for S.No. I to V are as per ASME specified for
Performance Evaluation of Thermal Power Plants.
OUR EXPERIENCE OF ENERGY AUDITS OF
THERMAL POWER PLANTS

–Two 2 x 210 MW units of M/s WBPDCL Kolaghat


Thermal Power Plant.
–15 units of Saudi Electric company of Saudi Arabia
having unit sizes varying from 60 MW to 660 MW.
–Two 2 x 18 MW units of M/s Shree Cements Captive
Power Plant.
METHODS / OBSERVATION FOR SAVINGS ENERGY IN
POWER PLANT

1) Operation of machine at very low turbine I/L parameters.

2) Operation of turbine at lower loads.

3) HP and IP turbine cylinder efficiencies are very low.

4) Main steam and HRH inlet temperature to turbine very low.

5) RH pressure drop high

6) High quantity of SH Spray and its tapings before HPH-5


resulting of loss in heat because of changed cycle.

Contd….
METHODS / OBSERVATION FOR SAVINGS ENERGY IN
POWER PLANT

7) HP heater no. 5 out of service.

8) Turbine cycle not operating as per design scheme i.e.


Ejector and Deaerator pegging steam from PRDS
header as against normal source from deaerator &
extraction steam respectively.
9) Passing of turbine cycle drain valves.
10) Make up quantity to cycle is very high which indicates
excessive system steam (heat) loss.
11) TTD & DCA of heaters high
Contd….
METHODS / OBSERVATION FOR SAVINGS ENERGY IN
POWER PLANT

12) Condenser air ingress and dirty tubes.


13) Under loading of motors
14) Excessive air leakage in compressed air system
15) Faulty insulation
16) Drain valves passing
17) Air ingress to Boiler furnace
18) FAD of compressors low
Thanks…
Energo Engineering Projects Ltd.
A-57/4, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase – II
Phone: +91 - 11 - 26385323/ 28/ 29/ 38
Fax: +91 – 11 – 26385333
E-mail: energo@del3.vsnl.net.in
energo@energo.co.in
Web: www.energoindia.com