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Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research 2010;4 (1): 1-3

JCPR 2011;4 (1): 1-3 2010 Medipoeia Received: 5-11-2010 Revised: 12-11-2010 Accepted: 2-12-2010

Isolation of Volatile Oil from Some Plants of Zingiberaceae Family and Estimation of Their Antibacterial Potential
Sadikali F. Sayyad, Sanjay R. Chaudhari

Sadikali F. Sayyad, Sanjay R. Chaudhari Amrutvahini College of Pharmacy, Sangamner, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India - 422 608

ABSTRACT Objective: Volatile oil from the rhizomes of few plants belonging to family Zingiberaceae extracted and their antibacterial potential was analyzed in the present study. Materials and Methods: Rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale), turmeric (Curcuma longa) and mangoginger (Curcuma amada) belonging to family Zingiberaceae are collected locally and volatile oil is extracted by hydrodistillation method using Clevengers apparatus and used for determining antibacterial potentials by disc diffusion assay. Result: These oils showed antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with varying magnitudes. Conclusion: Volatile nature of plant essential oils can be explored as strong candidate drugs for prevention and treatment of pathogenic diseases. Key words: antibacterial, volatile oil, Zingiberaceae

1. INTRODUCTION Majority of worlds population depends on traditional medicine for primary healthcare. Plants have been extensively used as a rich source of medicine as they contain organic compounds with therapeutic value (Prabuseenivasan et al., 2006; Chandarana et al., 2005). Herbal products are suitable for treating wide array of infections and other diseases (Bansod et al., 2008). Volatile (essential) oils are the reservoir of biologically active compounds and there has been increased interest in looking at their antimicrobial properties (Prabuseenivasan et al., 2006). The Zingiberaceae is one of the largest family of plant kingdom and one of the most important herbaceous group founds in tropical forest with approximate 50 genera and over 1000 species (Sirirungsa, 1998). In Ayurveda Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa and Curcuma amada rhizomes are most commonly used due to medicinal values (Sunilson et al., 2009). The present study was undertaken to analyze the antimicrobial potentials of volatile oils obtained from different species of Zingiberaceae family. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Correspondence: Mr. Sadikali F. Sayyad Amrutvahini College of Pharmacy, Amrutnagar, P. O. Sangamner (S.K.), Tal. Sangamner, Dist. Ahmednagar 422 608 Maharashtra, India e-mail: sadik_sayyad@rediffmail.com

Plant material The plant of ginger (Zingiber officinale), turmeric (Curcuma longa) and mangoginger (Curcuma amada) belonging to family Zingiberaceae were collected locally. Extraction of oil Fresh rhizomes are washed to remove dirt, chopped into small pieces and ground in a blender. The material is subjected to hydrodistillation using Clavenger-type glass apparatus for 4 hours. The oil samples were stored at 0oC in air-tight containers after drying them over anhydrous sodium sulfate (Bhuiyan et al.,

Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research 2010;4 (1): 1-3

Table 1. Antibacterial activity of different extracted volatile oils using disc diffusion method. Ginger 1:1 Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcu s aureus Micrococcus luteus Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aerogenosa Proteus vulgaris Klebsialla pneumoniae 1:5 1:10 1:20 1:1 Turmeric 1:5 1:10 1:20 1:1 Mangoginger 1:5 1:10 1:20

12.70.6

11.30.6

9.00.0

7.01.0

10.30.6

9.01.0

7.30.6

11.70.6

10.70.6

9.30.6

7.70.6

11.01.0

10.30.6

9.30.6

7.01.0

9.70.6

8.70.6

7.00.0

11.31.5

10.70.6

10.01.0

8.70.6

8.30.6

7.30.6

6.70.6

6.30.6

8.70.6

7.30.6

6.30.6

8.01.0

6.70.6

10.70.6

10.31.5

8.70.6

7.30.6

8.30.6

7.30.6

8.30.6

7.01.0

6.30.6

10.30.6

9.01.0

7.70.6

6.70.6

8.00.0

6.70.6

8.70.6

7.70.6

7.00.0

10.70.6

9.30.6

8.31.5

7.00.0

9.30.6

8.01.0

6.70.6

9.70.6

9.01.0

7.30.6

6.70.6

7.70.6

7.00.0

Note: The zone of inhibition is measured in millimeter and expressed as meanSD

Test microorganisms Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 2162), Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2602), Micrococcus luteus (NCIM 2704), and gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (NCIM 2576), Pseudomonas aerogenosa (NCIM 2200), Proteus vulgaris (NCIM 2813), Klebsialla pneumoniae (NCIM 2957) were obtained from National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India. All cultures were maintained at 4oC over nutrient agar slants throughout the experiment. The cultures incubated overnight at 37oC in nutrient broth before using for antibacterial activity. Antibacterial assay The disc diffusion method was employed for screening the antibacterial properties of isolated volatile oil. Five hundred microliters of overnight old bacterial suspension were spread over the nutrient agar plates using a sterile cotton swab in order to get a uniform microbial growth. The essential oils were dissolved in 10% aqueous dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) with Tween 80 (0.5% v/v for easy diffusion) and sterilized by filtration through a 0.45 m membrane filter. Under aseptic conditions, empty sterilized discs (Whatman no. 5, 6 mm diameter) were impregnated with 50l of different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20) of respective volatile oils and placed on the agar surface. Paper disc moistened with aqueous DMSO was placed on seeded petriplates as a vehicle control (Wayne, 2008). A standard disc containing ampicillin (5g/disc) was used as a reference control. The plates were left for 30 min at room temperature to allow the diffusion of oil and then

incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition against the test microorganism. All experiments were carried in triplicates. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The yield of essential oil from the rhizomes of ginger, turmeric and mangoginger obtained by hydrodistillaton is 0.9, 0.4, 0.8% v/w respectively on wet weight basis. The antibacterial activity of these three extracted oil evaluated against selected seven bacteria is summarized in table 1. DMSO control disc not showed any activity. Plant essential oils and extracts have been used from thousands of years in food preservation, pharmaceuticals, alternative medicines and natural therapies (Prabuseenivasan et al., 2006; Bansod et al., 2008). However, scientific investigation of plants used in traditional medicine is essential to improve their quality and healthcare benefits. Essential oils are potential source of novel antimicrobial agents especially against bacterial pathogens (Mitscher et al., 1987). In contrast to antibiotics, essential oils are highly volatile at room temperature, thus can be used for inhalation therapy in respiratory tract infections (Inouye et al., 2001). Plants belonging to Zingiberaceae family are widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Southeast Asia (Chairgulprasert et al., 2005). Their use as folk medicine (Bhuiyan et al., 2008) spices, food preservative (Abe et al., 2004) and mosquito repellant (Bhuiyan et al., 2008) has been reported in many literatures. Generally these capabilities lie in their bioactive antimicrobial and other components. Many of

Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research 2010;4 (1): 1-3

Zingiberaceae species possesses antibacterial activities (Bumrela et al., 2008; Tadtong et al., 2008). The present study showed that the selected essential oils showed antibacterial potentials against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with varying magnitudes. Volatile oil of Zingiber officinale has been exhibited highest and Curcuma longa exhibited lowest antibacterial potentials, Curcuma amada showed intermediate activity. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria have been equally sensitive but gram-positive bacteria showed quiet larger inhibitory action. Bacillus subtilis was found as most susceptible bacteria against these oils. 4. CONCLUSION The development of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens creating the problems in treatment of diseases using antibiotics, herbal drugs showing antimicrobial potentials can be considered as effective alternative for antibiotics. Due to volatile nature essential oils are the strong candidate drugs for prevention and treatment of diseases. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are thankful to Board of College and University Development, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind Pune, for their financial assistance in the present study. 4. REFERENCES Abe M., Ozawa Y., Uda Y., Yamada F., Morimitsu Y., Nakamura Y., Osawa T. Antimicrobial activities of diterpenene dialdehyde, constituents from myoga (Zingiber mioga roscoe), and their quantitative analysis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2004; 68(7): 1601-1604. Bansod S. and Rai M. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Indian medicinal plants again human pathogenic Aspergillus fumigates and A. niger. World J Med Sci. 2008; 3(2): 81-88. Bhuiyan M.N.I., Chowdhury J.U., Begum J. Volatile constituents of essential oils isolated from leaf and rhizomes of Zingibercassumunar Roxb. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2008; 3: 6973.

Bumrela S. and Naik S. Antibacterial activity of rhizomes of Curcuma pseudomontanah Grah. J Pharm Res. 2009; 2(4): 680682. Chairgulprasert V., Prasertsongskun S., Wichapaorn W. Chemical constituents of essential oil and antibacterial activity of Zingiber var. halbada. Songklannakarin J Sci Technol. 2005; 27(4): 813-818. Chandarana H., Baluja A., Chanda S. Comparison of antibacterial activities of selected species of Zingiberaceae family and some synthetic compounds. Turk J Biol. 2005; 29: 83-87. Inouye S., Takizawa T., Yamaguchi H. Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gaseous contacts. J Antimicrobial Chemother. 2001; 47: 565-573. Mitscher L.A., Drake S., Gollapudi S.R., Okwute S.K. A modern look at folkoric use of anti-infective agents. J Nat Prod. 1987; 50: 1025-1040. Prabuseenivasan S., Jaykumar M., Igancimuthu S. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils. BMC Compl Alter Med. 2006; 6: 39. Sirirungsa P. Thai Zingiberaceae: species, diversity and their uses. Pure Appl Chem. 1998; 70: 98-110. Sunilson J.A.J, Suraj R., Rejitha G., Anandarajagopal K., Kumari A.V.A.G., Promwichit P. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation of Zingiber officinale,Curcuma longa and Alpinia galangal extracts as natural food preservatives. Am J Food Technol. 2009; 4(5): 192-200. Tadtong S., Wannakhot P., Poolsawat W., Athikomkulchai S., Ruangrungsi N. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Etlingera punicea rhizomes. J Health Res. 2009; 23(2): 77-79. Wayne PA. NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) Method for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests of bacteria that grow aerobically. Approved Standard. 2002; M100-S12.