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MANUAL TRAINING

FIRST LESSONS
IN

WOOD WORK
-

NG

BY

ALFRED
NEW YORK, INSTRUCTOR

G.

COMPTON
CHARGE OF THE WORKSHOPS

PROFESSOR OF APPLIED MATHEMATICS IN THE COLLEGE OF THE CITY


OF
IN

OF THE COLLEGE, AND AUTHOR OF A MANUAL OF

LOGARITHMIC COMPUTATION

IVISON,

BLAKEMAN, AND COMPANY


Ipul)lt6ber6

NEW YORK AND CHICAGO

Copyright,
1888,

By IVISON, BLAKEMAN &

CO.

17^084

PRESS OF

HENRY

H.

CLARK & CO., BOSTON,

PREFACE
The
sented
series
is

of

lessons

in

wood-working here pre-

intended, principally, for use in schools in


is

pursued as a part of general The order of sequence is designed to lead training. the pupil from one tool to another of larger capabilities, and from one operation to another requiring a higher degree of skill. In writing the descriptions of operations the aim has been to make them so full as to enable an intelligent pupil to perform the operations tolerably well, even without the help of an instructor, and at the same time to direct the attention of the instructor to the principal points that he ought to insist on, and the principal errors that are found to occur. The work being designed for young pupils, say between the ages of eleven and fourteen, it is not intended to go over much ground, nor to impart great skill, but only to open the way, reserving for another volume a more extended course. For the same reason, a thorough analysis of the mode of action of each tool is not attempted this belongs
:

which hand-work

rather

to

the teaching in a technical

school,
111

and

iv

Preface.

should have higher

its

place in a

more advanced work


it

for

classes.

Nevertheless,

is

intended,

not
tool,

merely

to teach the pupil

how

to

handle the

but also to form in

him

the habit

of considering

how

the

tool

operates,
it

and

what

modifications

it

requires to adapt

to different

uses, affording

thus
for

training not only for the

the

attention

hand and the eye, but and judgment as well, an end

is

to

which hand-work, properly conducted,


well adapted as

at

least

as

many

of the other studies that

have

heretofore monopolized the attention of our schools.

have been interwoven observations on the properties of the materials used, and elementary principles of mechanical
the
exercises in the use of tools

With

drawing, with the idea that the three studies, thus blended together, would lend help and stimulus to each other, and thps be pursued with more zest than
if

taught separately.

The

division into lessons

is

necessarily, to

some ex-

be found too long or too short, according to the time which the school may be able to allow. An intelligent instructor will
tent, arbitrary.

The

lessons

may

easily

combine them or subdivide them


require.

as occasion

may
I

am

indebted to Messrs. Fairbanks


testing-machine,
Professor

&

Co. for the

design for a small

Fig. 8,

and

to

my

colleague.

William

Stratford, for

the

micro-photograph of a section of the wood of Pinus


Sylvestris, Fig. 6.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PAGE

Preface Materials and tools needed


Lesson
I.

iii

vii

Cutting tools
cutting

knife

and hatchet

cross1

II.

III.

IV.
V.

and hatchet continvied; whittling, and hewing Strength of wood The Cross-cut-saw Shrinking, cracking and warping
Knife

...

splitting

8 14
21

of timber

28

VI.

Working-sketches

32 38
;

VII.
VIII.

Working-drawings

IX. X.
XI.

Making a nailed box laying out the work Hammer and nails; putting a box together

44

49
.

XII.
XIII.

XIV.

The same, continued; taking apart The Jack-plane The Smoothing-plane Back-saw and bench-dog The Chisel paring and chamfering acters of different woods
. .

54
58
68

.... .78
.

char.

.85

V]

Contents.

PAGE

XV.
XVI. XVII.
XVIII.

The
The

Chisel,

continued; through

mortise;

brace and bit


Chisel, continued
;

99

end dove-tail
out the

111

Dove-tailed

box

laying

work
119

cutting the dove-tails

Gluing; hand-screws; putting the


gether

box

to-

128

XIX.

Finishing a dove-tailed box; planing end-

wood

136
. . .

XX.
XXI. XXII. XXIII.

Fitting hinges

140 146 160


167

Making a paneled door


Fitting a panel

isometric drawing
;

Paneled door, continued


;

mortise

the plow
;

XXIV.

Chamfering a frame

finishing with

paper and shellac

....

sand-

172 183

Alphabetical Index

Tools and Materials required for the Course of

Lessons
I.

in

Wood-Working.

TOOLS,
2.

ONE FOR EACH PUPIL.

Pocket-knife, two blades.

Lead

pencil, No.

Marking-gauge.
Cross-cut-saw, 22 inches long,

teeth to the inch.


"

Rip-saw,

22 14
8

"

4^
12
15
"
"

Tenon-saw,
Dove-tail-saw,

"
"

"

Try

square, steel blade, 6 inches long.


1 lb.,

Hammer, weight
Mallet,
"

handled.
handled.

1 lb.,

Two-foot folding rule, metric and English on opposite


sides.

Jack-plane, double-ironed.

Smoothing-plane, double-ironed.

Firmer
"

chisel,

one inch, pear-tree handle,


half-inch

"
n.

quarter-inch

"

"

TOOLS,

ONE FOR EACH BENCH (tWO


closets.

PUPILS).

Double bench, with

Bevel, blade 12 inches longo


vii

viii

Manual

Training.

Oil-stone, in box.

Oil-can, filled.

Bench-dog, 6 inches by
Brace.
Center-bit,

12.

^ inch.
^'^

Screw-driver, ^ inch.

Brad-awls,

and ^V^
III.

TOOLS

FOR EACH CLASS.

One chopping-block, 12
high.

to 15 inches in diameter, 20 inches

One dozen

straight-edges,
1

2^'

24'',

pine.

Three glue-pots,

quart.

Three glue-brushes.

Two dozen
a a

hand-screws, 14 inches.
a
u

Twenty pounds glue. Can of sperm-oil, 1 gallon.


"

white shellac varnish,


fore-plane.
bits.

1 gallon.

One

Three plows, with

One

draw-knife.
IV.

MATERIALS
of white

FOR EACH PUPIL.


pine,
i''

Lesson

I.

Stick Two

square,

10" long.

Stick of pine or hemlock fire-wood, 2 feet long, 2 inches


thick.

Lesson

II.

pieces of pine, each

i''

2"

6'',

one

straight-grained the other crooked.

Piece of pine or

hemlock fire-wood,

six or eight inches

Tools

and

Materials,

ix

long, about

three inches square, with

square ends,

without knots.

Lesson

III.

Two Piece

strips

of pine,

I''

i''

3'',

one cut
12'',

length-ways of the grain, the other cross-ways.

Lesson IV.

of mill-dressed

pine,

r'x4''
6''

to try tools on.

Piece of straight-grained clear pine,


dressed, cut from the

fX

4' 6', mill-

end of the board, showing the

rough end and the cracks or checks.


Lesson V.

Half dozen
V
X
3''

\ inch dowels, about 4 inches


other hard-

long, with a piece of maple, cherry, or

wood,
size

8'',

bored with holes of the same

as the dowel.

Lesson IX.

Lesson

Two dozen four-penny XI. Piece of clear pine, about


nails.

i"x6'' 12",
for

for practice

with plane.
pine board, f ''

Lesson XIII.

Clear

8''

26'',

top

and bottom of box. Pine plank, 1|" Lesson XIV.

thick, not very straight-

grained, to be cut to lengths of 9",

and

split to

width

of li",

and similar plank of white-wood, furnishing


1

one stick of one kind, 1^" X

^''O" to each pupil.


4''"''

Lesson
Lesson
2"

XV. Two pieces of clear pine, XVI. Two pieces of clear white-wood,
-8".

xS'^"'-

IS"^""-

1-|-"

Lesson
1

XX.

1 pair brass hinges,

^"

li",

with screws.

brass hook, 1", with staple or screw-eye.

Lesson XXI.

Clear
X Hi"

pine or white-wood

plank,

H"

12"Ditto

3'

6" for frame.

i"

16i" for

panel.

Manual
Lesson
V.

Training,

XXIV.

Half sheet sand-paper, number

0.

MATERIALS
for

OF ILLUSTRATION FOR EACH CLASS.


flax for Lesson III., p. 14.

Specimen of fiber of hemp and


bark on,
Lesson

Piece of round pine or spruce, about six inches ,long, with


III., p. 16.

Small testing-machine (desirable but not indispensable)


for

Lesson

III., p. 18.

Piece or pieces of round timber, about 10 or 12 inches in

diameter and 2
character

feet long, stripped of bark,

showing

and direction of cracks


p. 31.

(or

checks) for

Lesson V.,

Similar pieces cut into boards, which are

numbered and

tied together, slabs included, in their proper places,


for same.

Block of walnut
Nailed box,
9^'^

5'^

3^''

9'',

with hole in one end as

in description, p. 34, 35.

X 8''- 12'',

as figured

on

p. 38.

Lessor
Cutting Tools.

I.

Knife
is

and Hatchet.
a

EVERY
You have

cutting tool

wedge, which

is

pressed or driven between the particles of

the wood, pushing

them apart
ten

as

it

advances.

a stick of white pine half an inch

square and

about

inches

long.
it

Lay

it

down on your

bench, holding
it

hand, and try to cut

your left across with your knife,


in

about an inch from the end.

Pressing

down

on the knife pretty hard, you force the blade in a short distance, pushing the wood right and left, and making a small notch. You soon find, however, that you cannot force the knife forward any farther the sides exercise of the notch resist the advance cro"^^;^ting of the knife, and stop it when with knife, you have pushed it in perhaps an eighth of an inch. If you could remove the wood that presses against the sides of the knife-blade you might be able to drive it farther forward and
;

i.

Manual
cut deeper.

Training,
this if j^ou proceed

You can do

little

differently.

Begin again on the op-

posite face of the stick, at the

same distance

from the end

but this time, instead of pressFig.


1."^

ing squarely against the side of the piece, press


obliquely in the direction of the line a
b,

The knife moves forward more

I
5'-^r'

easily,
lifts

because

it

up the

fibers

on one

side

and

pushes
away, bending them as in the
a while,
figure.

them
Even
after

now, however, the wood ceases to yield

and the blade advances no farther. If you now place your knife just to the right of the former cut and cut down towards the
left,

in the direction
c d,

of the line

you

^
as

will cut off the ends

of the fibers that are

bent
*

up,

and

leave a notch,

in

Fig.
Figs.

2.

The crooked

lines at the

end of the drawing in


left

1, 2,

mean
is left

that the portion of the object to the

of such lines
in Figs.

out as unnecessary.

Similar lines are

shown

32, 45,

and

others.

Wood - Working,
Next place the knife a the notch, and cut in
as as
at
first.

little

to

the

left

of

in

Fig.

You will 3. You easily


in

same direction turn up another chip,


the
cut
off this
v

chip

by
d,

cutting

the
(c

^_

second
even,
time,

direction

^^
Fiq3.

Fig. 1),
at

and can the same


,

by making this cut a little to the Repeatright, widen and deepen the notch. ing these operations, you may cut half-way
stick.

through the

In this exercise, as in every other operation with cutting tools,


rule,

make
it

it

an invariable

never
if

to

cut

towards
slips

your

own hand.
perhaps
cut

Then
more,

your tool
it

may
cut

your bench, but


it

cannot

you.

Further-

may

be observed here, that in movshop,


in

ing about the

you should
do
so.

never carry
it

any
it

cutting

tool

your

hand, unless

i&

absolutely necessary to

In such cases
care,
else.

must be carried with extreme not to wound yourself or any one


attention to these rules
is

so as
Strict

absolutely necessary.

You have now

cut half-way through your

Manual

Training,

stick.

Beginning on the other

side,

you may
first

now make another


done
this

cut to meet the

one,

thus cutting the stick quite in two.


once,

Having
another

you

may

cut

off

piece an inch long, this time paying particular attention to the following principle.

The

any other tool for cutting wood, works best when, instead of pushing directly down on the tool, you at the same time draw it along. This is more important the softer the material is, and is well illustrated in cutting or carving meat, where, if we press on the knife without drawing it along we only bend the fibers instead of cutting them. You
knife,

or

will

therefore this time, as

always hereafter,
cutting tool, parit

in using

a knife

or other

ticularly

on soft wood, try to give ing motion along with the pressure.
mind, try now to cut
this,

a slid-

Bearing
second

this in

off the

inch of your stick clean and smooth.


After
this
left

cut off a third

piece,

working

time with the stick firmly held in the

hand instead of resting on the bench. Holding the stick thus you will have a better command of the knife, and will more readily

Wood - Working,
give
it

the proper sliding motion


careful

but, unless

you will run some risk of cutting yourself in making the second or If you do not feel safe in backward cut. making this cut, you may again rest the stick on the bench. To vary the exercise, you may cut the stick from all the four sides successively, leaving it nicely pointed in the form
you are very
of a square pyramid.

After every exercise try to judge the quality


of your work.

In this

last,

for

instance, see

pyramid are perfectly smooth and alike, whether they meet exactly in a point, and whether the edges are straight and sharp.
whether
all

four of the

faces of the

If the

piece

of

wood

to be cut were three

or four inches thick instead of half an inch,


it

might be cut

off in

exactly the same


is

way

with the hatchet or ax, which

only a short,

heavy knife driven forward by blows instead of pressure, and without the sliding motion
just
as

described.

With the hatchet or

ax, just

with the knife, a blow square across the

fibers will

make
to

the tool penetrate but a short

distance,

and

make

it

cut to any consider-

Manual
able depth the blows

Training,

and

left

alternately,

must be directed right gradually widening the


with the knife,
obliquely
cut
or

cut, exactly as in the exercise

leaving

the

piece

beveled
is

on the end.
that the

This

exactly the kind of cut


his

woodman makes with


and afterwards
try
it

heavy ax
it

in felling a tree,

in cutting

up into

logs.

You may
feet
it

with a light
fire-

hatchet on a stick of pine or hemlock

wood, two or three


inches thick.

long and about

two

Lay

on the chopping-block,
left

holding the end in the


Exercise
2.

hand.

First strike

a square blow with the hatchet, ob-

cros^^ting serving
with hatchet.

how

little

it

penetrates.

Ncxt Strike obliqucly, right and left alternately. Be very careful not to strike very hard, nor to let the hatchet glance, lest you cut yourself. When you have cut about half through you may turn the stick over and cut from the other side but if you do this you must work rather carefully when you have nearly cut through, for if the last stroke, which
;

cuts through, should be delivered too squarely,

or with too
fly up,

much

force, the

end piece would


in the face.

and might

strike

you

Wood - Working.

You have now


as the knife

learned that such cutting tools

and the hatchet are not adapted for cutting square across the grain of wood, though

they cut very well obliquely.

We

shall learn

by and by what instrument

to use

when

it

is

necessary to cut square across the grain.

Lesson
Knife

II.

and Hatchet
hatchet,

Continued.

THE
cutting
splitting

knife, the

and similar
are

tools

are used for other purposes besides cross-

or

chopping:

they
or

used

for

and for You have two

hewing

paring.

pieces of pine | of

an inch

and about 6 inches long, marked A and B, Try to split from one edge a piece half an inch wide. The pieces have been selected by inspecting the grain of the
thick, 2 inches wide,

wood, so that in one case this task shall be


easy,

and

in the other case


3.

impossible.

Exercise

the piece

marked A,

Take Set it up
Place

Splitting with
knife.

^ndwise on your bench.

inch with

from
the

your knife on the end, about an the edge, and press down hard
right

hand.

You

find

that

the

knife runs out, cutting off too narrow a piece,


or runs
in,

cutting too wide a piece.

Take

the piece
8

marked

and try the same experi-

Wood - Working.
ment, and you find no difficulty in splitting
off the piece

required.

Now, looking
find

at

the

sides of the pieces,

you

that your knife

in both cases followed the grain of the

wood,
if

indicated by lines that

you

see

on the face

Your experience, examine with care. then, shows you that when you wish to split wood in a given direction you must pay attention to the grain, and when the grain is not favorable, if you wish to cut along a given line you will have to use some other method than that of splitting. We shall learn, in a few lessons, what this method is, and Avhat tool must be used. As thin and soft wood is split with the knife, so heavier and harder wood may be split with the hatchet or the ax. Try the hatchet on a piece of fire-wood, about six or
you
eight inches long, taking
first

a piece of soft

wood,
knots,

such

as

pine

or

hemlock,

without
4.

and with square ends, so that it will stand upright on the


block
first,

exercise

without
to

being

held.

get control

of the
strike

At movement

splitting with hatchet,

of the

hatchet,

you

may

a light blow, caus-

10

Manual

Training,

ing

the

hatchet to stick in

the wood,

and

then, lifting hatchet and stick together, strike

a harder blow, driving


Afterwards, but
of

the

hatchet through.
are

not
to

till

you

quite

sure

your
to,

ability

strike

just

wish
hold

even when hitting


steady

where you hard, you may


the
left

the piece

with

hand,

snatching the hand away, just as you strike

with the

right.
care,

This must be practiced with

and only by one pupil at a time, and under the eye of the instructor. Last of all, when you are quite sure of your stroke, you may venture to strike with the right hand while holding the piece with the left, but use a pretty large piece, and do not
extreme
try to split off

much
used,

at once. as

From

short pieces and soft wood, such


just
it

you have
to enable

requires only practice

you to work up gradually to longer pieces and harder wood, requiring stronger blows and heavier tools. Besides cutting across the grain and splitting along the
grain,

we may
to

cut

along the

grain instead of splitting, for the purpose of

trimming the piece down

given

mark.

Wood - Working.
This operation

11

performed on

small

piece

with a knife or a
hewing.
Since,

chisel, is called

paring;
it

on
is

a larger scale, with the hatchet or ax


in
this
case,

the

cutting

is

mostly in the direction of the grain, or nearly


so,

we have

to be careful not to let the

tool

split

the wood, so as to run inside of the pro-

posed mark.

Take the
side of
it

piece

crooked edge,

which has now a and draw a straight line on the


again,
exercise
5.

with your lead-pencil,

about half an inch from the

for- Paring or wint^^i^s^i^^^^^i^efirst

mer
from

edge.

To prevent the wood


is

splitting within this

mark, the

pre-

caution to be taken
tion that the

to cut in such a direc-

knife, following

the grain, will

run outward rather than inward.

Thus,

if

the

grain runs as in Fig.


line to

4,

in
is

which

A B

is

the

which the piece

to be pared

down,

12

Mamtal

Ti^aining,

the part from


to right, to
left.

must be pared from left to B from right and the part from
to 0,

second precaution that

may

be obis

served, particularly

when much wood


is

to be

removed, and when the grain


or
is

very irregular,
it

when
to
''

it is difficult
'^

to see

which way

runs,

score

the

edge with several oblique

cuts, as

in Fig.

5, after

which the pieces

be-

Fia.

5,

tween these cuts can be cut


the opposite direction, or from
scores
off.

off,

working in
to A.

New
split

are

then

made and new


as

pieces
to

As soon
line

you

begin

approach
to

the
cut

B^ special care must be taken


knife shall

so
in.

that the

run

out

rather

than
ax,

The operation
is

of hewing, with
as this.

hatchet or
stick

just the

same

The

must

be turned with alternately one and the other

Wood - Working.
end
up,

and when much wood is to be taken off, it must be The scored and split as in the last exercise. operation may be tried on one exercises.
according
to

the

grain,

of

the

sticks of
2.

fire-

wood used Hewing with


stick
left
hatchet,

in Exercise

Holding the
towards

upright on the block with the

hand, turn
Score

one of
then

the

faces

the

right.

obliquely into the


split

more prominent

parts,

and
with

them

off.

When
plane,

the face has been

made

pretty nearly

smooth

it

off

light strokes of the

hatchet, turning

up now

one end and now the other, so as to cut with


the grain.
see

Examine your work


face

critically to

whether the
is

you have been working

on

straight

and smooth.

Lesson
Strength of

III.

Wood.
previous exercises,

WE
If

have
that
it

seen,
is

in our

much

easier to cut

and
will

split

wood lengthwise than

crosswise.

We

now

look into this matter more closely.

we examine with
consists

a microscope the structtree,

ure of the trunk of a

we

find that the

wood
other

of

fibers

or

threads

running
plants

lengthwise of the trunk and adhering to each

more or

less strongly.

In

many

and more easily separated than in trees, and they are used for twisting into ropes and into threads to be used in weaving. By examining specimens of hemp and of flax, you will learn something of In the length and strength of such fibers. some kinds of wood these fibers adhere so loosely that they can be separated by heat, moisture, and bruising. The fibers of basswood and some others are thus separated, to
these fibers are longer
14

Wood - Working.
be used in

15

making

paper.

Fig. 6

shows the

appearance of the
of Pine, under

fibers of

Scotch Fir, a species

the microscope.

Now, while

these threads have singly considerable strength,

and still more, of course, when a number of them are taken together, their adhesion to
each other
is

not so great.

On

the next page

16

Manual

Training.

is

shown a round pine

stick, six
it

inches thick,
tree,

with the bark on, just as

grows in the

and we will cut off some pieces to illustrate what has been said. The stick is cut square across at the ends, and you can see the rings which mark how much the trunk grows each
year.

First I cut

off a
7.

cylindrical

piece

six

inches long, Fig.


off

Next, from

this,

I split

with an ax or a draw-knife some pieces

a quarter of an inch thick, beginning at the


outside,

and

splitting

wider and wider pieces.

ct.
.

ff

\\\
'

till

get

one four or
along
c

five

inches wide, by
b,

splitting

the

lines

c.

In the

piece

a b d

thus cut off you can see the

edges of the layers of fibers of which the ends

Wood - Working,

17

were seen in the cylindrical block, and, comparing carefully the end of the thin board
with the
see
face,

you

see

that these

edges con-

stitute the ''grain'' of the

wood, and can also

why

they are closer together near the edge


the board
fine-grained near the

of the board and farther apart near the middle, or

why
now

is

edge and coarse-grained at the middle.


I will

cut off from a 6

c?

a strip a b

f g,

half an inch wide, with a fine saw.


strip,

In this runs
hatchet, I

which

will

mark

A^ the
or
i,

grain

crosswise.

Next, with a knife

will split off another strip,

fd

also half

an

inch wide, in which the grain runs lengthwise,

and which
first

will

mark

B.

Now

taking the

by the ends and pulling it, I can break it in two but no pull that I can give is strong enough to break the other. (I am careful not to bend either of the sticks, because I want to consider now only the question of breaking by a direct pull breaking by bending is something more complicated, and cannot be considered till later.) I hand you
piece
; ;

all

now

number

of

such

strips,

of

both
that

kinds,

and you readily

satisfy yourselves

18

Manual
is

Training,

it

much

easier to separate

the

fibers

from
is

each other than to break them.


After

we have thus found out

that

wood

stronger lengthwise than crosswise,


a step further,

we may go and inquire how much stronger.


apply an in-

We may

put one of the pieces of each kind in


breaks.

a small ^^testing-machine," and


creasing force to
a
it
till
it

With such

machine we find that the piece A is broken by a pull of 65 pounds, while it takes 700 pounds to break B, and, as the two pieces are of the same size, we conclude that this kind of wood is about eleven times as strong The operation lengthwise as it is crosswise. of testing," and the machine used for the purpose, are of the greatest importance. The architect and the engineer make use of powerful machines, in which large bars and columns can be strained till they break, and the breaking force measured. At the proper time you will find no difficulty in understanding these larger machines and operations, if you have understood the smaller ones. In the machine shown in Fig. 8, the piece to be broken is held by the clamps A and B. The wheel C
^^

Wood - Working.
being

19

turned

the screw

is

drawn down,

which raises the other end, E, of the lever, E F, and stretches the piece till it breaks. The index, G, on the spring-balance shows hoAv
great
is

the force

applied

at

F;

and

the

Fi^<y
force applied
at

E
H,

is

as

many
of

times greater

than this
before

as

the length

is

greater

than that of

As the
is
/,

piece

stretches
at
first
C,

breaking, the pull

applied

by means of the screw

and afterwards by

20

Manual

Training.

Our experiments with


cutting-tools.

these pieces

of

wood
of

agree with our observations on

the action the

The

knife

and

hatchet,

when
trate

cutting

square across the

fibers,

pene-

but a short distance, unless a very great


is

force
fibers

applied, but

when
tools,

cutting between the


easily pressed
for-

they are

much more
such
lengthwise

ward.
obliged

With
to

therefore,

we were
and

cut

or

obliquely,

found

it

nearly impossible to cut a thick piece


If

square across.

use another tool.


for this

work

is

we wish to do this we must The tool specially designed the cross-cut-saw, which we

will study in our next lesson.

Lessor IT.
The Cross-cut-saw.

EXAMINE
that
teeth,
it

your saw

carefully.

You

find

consists of a

number

of triangular

each of which acts as a sort of knife.


to the inch.

Count the number of teeth


will find this
different

You
in-

in

saws

that are

tended for different purposes.

The one

that

you have

saw for moderately If you now examine one of these soft wood. teeth, you will find that it is pointed, and the front edge is sharp. It would be a useful exercise, and would help you to underis

^'

cross-cut ''

stand the

mode
wood

of action

of the

saw,

if

you

would cut out with your knife from a piece


of

thin

(say

of

an

inch

thick) a

model of half a dozen teeth of each of your various saws as you become acquainted with them. When you push the saw across the grain, each of these teeth makes a cut across the fibers, just such as you can make by hold21

22

Manual

Training.

your knife upright and drawing it across Next, examining the successive the grain. teeth, you find the alternate ones sharpened in
iiig

different ways.

While one has


the next has
sets

its

sharp edge

towards the
the right.

left,

its

edge towards

Thus the two


at

of teeth

make
to

two
cuts

different cuts across

the grain, and these


apart

are

distance saw, or
are

equal

the

thickness

of the

little

more, inas"'

much

as the

teeth

spread apart, or

set.''

All this you will easily


attentively the saw
description.

make

out

if

you study
this

itself,

and not merely

Now,
makes.

try to

make with your


a
piece

knife just such

a cut across the grain as

one of these teeth


of

You have
will keep

waste

wood

by you for this and simHold your knife upright on ilar experiments. the piece and draw it along, across the grain. You find, as you have found before, that you

which you

cannot cut very deep, because the wood at the


side of the knife
is

not removed, and thus the


let

cut

is

not wide enough to


it is

the knife enter;

but with the saw


knife
or

different.
its

When
cut, the

one
next

tooth

has

made

Wood - Working.
knife not only

23

makes another cut very near


first,

and
the

parallel to the
little

but

it

also

tears

off

piece of

wood between the


is

cuts.

The
little

third tooth, therefore,


deeper,

able

to

cut

and the fourth tooth tears off a little more, and so on. Thus the saw makes a clean cut with parallel sides, and wastes only a small amount of wood. We can now go on to the use of the crosscut saw. On your bench is a piece of pine
board about 4
feet 6

inches long, 6 inches wide,


(Hereafter
this

and f of an inch

thick.

we

will in-

dicate dimensions like

in

the following

way: 6^^x|^^-4^ &\ which will be read, ^^Six inches by three-quarters of an inch, by four
feet six inches). ''

The board
is,

is

what

is

called
is

'^mill-dressed," that

the roughness that

always found on boards that have been

saAvn

by a planingmachine, leaving a tolerably smooth surface. The piece on your bench has been cut from the end of the board, and you will very likely
from the log has been planed
off

observe that in the

first

place

it

is

not square
it is

on the end, and

in the

next place that

cracked or ''checked" at the end.

The

first

24

Manual
owing

Training,

is

to the fact that the log

the ax, as already explained.

was cut with In many cases

the logs are cross-cut with a saw, and then the

ends of the boards are square.


^^

The cracks

or

checks''

we

will explain in our next lesson.

Now
to first

lay the board on the bench, with


right,

the

checked end to the

mark
first

it

and we will proceed square, and then cut it square.

For the

purpose we will use the try-square.

Place the edge of the

wooden

part

of

the

square against the ectge of the board, letting


the steel blade
across
it.

lie flat

on the board and square


this will

Then, using the edge of the blade

as a ruler,

draw a pencil-mark;
this line

run

square across the board.


ful in

You must
will

be care-

drawing

not to vary the in-

clination of your pencil, or j^ou


line

make

which is not parallel to the edge of the square, and therefore not perpendicular to the
edge of the board.
far

Draw such

line to

just

enough from the imperfect end


all

leave

out
off*

the worst checks.

We

will

then cut
thus

with

the

saw the

imp^fect

piece

marked.
There are several ways in which the board

Wood - Working.

25

may
For

be held while
this

we
you

are

making
hold
vise

this
it

cut.

exercise

bench-vise.

Observe
it

may how the

in

the
7.

exercise

works.

Open

to

the width of cross-cutting

^^^^ ^^^ your board, lay the board in it, with the imperfect end to the left and the

and screw the vise up so as to hold the board firmly, the marked piece projecting beyond the end of the bench. Take the saw in your right hand. (If you are left-handed you will do well, nevertheless,
face up,
to

marked

learn to
still,

Avork
to

with the

right

hand,

or,

better

work equally well with both


sometimes a great advantage to
;

hands.

It is

be able to use either hand

and there are some things which can only be done with the right.) Set the saw to the left of the mark, just so far that when you cut you will cut exactly up to the mark, but not beyond it. Rest the fingers of tire left hand on the wood outside of the mark, holding the thumb up for a guide to steady the saw. Draw the saw backward, letting it rest very lightly on the wood, till you have made sure that the cut will be in the right place; then push it forward, still

26

Manual

Training,

bearing lightly on the wood.

Having
full

started

the cut thus with a few gentle strokes, con-

tinue

it

with long strokes, the

length of

the saw.

Avoid
at

short, jerky strokes.

Draw
hand
it

the saw back

each stroke

till

the

nearly touches the shoulder, and push

for-

ward

till

the handle nearly reaches the board.


cuts

long, steady stroke


is

smoother

as well

as faster,
aflPords

more agreeable movement, and

a pleasant exercise.

Be careful not to bear too hard on the saw; if you do, you will bend the saw, and it will make a crooked cut. While working, watch the saw, to see that you keep it perpendicular
to
is

the surface of the board.

When

the cut

nearly finished bear

still

more

lightly,

and

work with gentler strokes, at the same time holding up with the left hand the piece that you are cutting off, to prevent splintering

when

the saw comes through.


off

Having cut

one piece under the super-

vision of your instructor,

you may mark and


exactly an

cut off two or three more, each

inch

w^ide,

till

you

find
cut.

smooth and square

you can make a If you need more

Wood - Working,
practice
for

27

you must use a piece of waste wood


not reducing
the

the purpose,

length

of

your board

to less

than 45^^

The squareness
by applying the

of the cut should be tested


try-square, with the

wooden part first against the edge of the -board, and then against the The former test will show Avhether you face. have cut square across the board, and the latic^r whether you have cut square through.

Shrinking,

Checking,

and Warping

of

Timber.

WE
stand
begins

have already observed that our board


at tlie end.

was cracked
this
if
it is

We

can underto
is

we consider what happens


cut down.
are
full

timber after

growing
to

its

pores

While the tree of sap, which


is

is

mostly water.

After the tree

cut, the sap

evaporate,

and

the

wood
in

shrinks.
all

You

will

have no

difficulty

finding,

around you, proofs of


boards,

this shrinking.

Flooring-

panels
fit

of doors,

bottoms of drawers,
put in place,
all

which

well

when

first

leave

openings after a while by shrinking.


several ''dowels,''

which were

all

Here are cut from the


fitted

same
in

stick,

and yesterday they;

all

well

the corresponding holes

but half of them


over night, and
all.

have been soaked in water

now

they will not go into the holes at

The

shrinking
28

of

timber,

you

will

find,

Wood - Working,
takes place
length.

2^

only in

the width,

not

in

the

Examine
is

the floor, and you will find

that

it

only the joints between the edges

of the boards that have opened.

When two
beginning.

boards

have been put


is is

together end to end,


as

the joint

as

close

in

the

This fact

very

striking,

and

should

be

remembered.
endless

The shrinking of wood


in

causes

trouble

carpentry,

cabinet-work,

and building, and it cannot be entirely prevented; but, by taking advantage of the fact
just

mentioned,

it

can often

be

prevented

from doing mischief. We shall of these methods in Lesson 21.

study some

When
parts

the drying of timber goes on at


rapidity,

all

with equal
pieces

the piece shrinks


its

equally in
in
large

all parts,

and keeps
drying

shape

but

the

goes

on
in

more
inside,

rapidly

on the outside
causes

than on the
changes

and

this

important

the
shall

shape and condition of the wood.


look at
these

We

changes in detail by and by,


it

but for the present


note the following

will

be sufficient

to

facts.

First, as the outside

shrinks faster than the

30

Manual Training.
which begin on the
These

inside, cracks are formed,

outside and gradually

extend inward. drying

cracks are largest and most numerous at the

ends of the
rapid,

log,

where the
are

is

most

and

they

the cracks

which

we
if

have already noticed in our boards. Secondly, when timber has been cut up,

by any
side

means

one

side
as

of a piece
fast

is

pre-

vented from drying

as

another, the

which dries most rapidly, and therefore shrinks most rapidly, becomes hollow, or the
piece
'^

warps.''

Or, if one

side of a piece of
^^

wood which has been


exposed
to

dried or
that

seasoned''
swells

is

moisture,

side

and

becomes convex, and again the piece warps. Verify these statements by experiment, laying
several
pieces

of

board six or eight

inches

and of about the same length on the ground for some hours, or even on your bench if they have not been very well seasoned, setting up others on their edge so that
wide
both sides

may

be. equally exposed

to the air,

and noting carefully the results after several hours. In the same manner, if wood has been already warped, it may be straightened by
exposing
it

in the proper way.

Wood-lVorJcing.

31

(Samples of round timber stripped

of the

bark should be exhibited, showing the checks

on the
as well

surface,

and particularly

at

the ends,
cut

as

one sample of a short

log,

up

showing the cracks in the and the edges of the boards, and in the
into boards,

ends,

faces

of the outside

boards or

^^

slabs.''

The pupils
in
log.

should be made to observe for themselves the

and direction of these cracks boards cut from different parts of the
position

They should be made to observe how checking and warping continue after wood has been made up, if it is exposed, and how they
are prevented by painting or varnishing).

LiESSON^ VI.

Working

Sketches.
a box from the piece
exercise.

IT

is

proposed to

make

of

board
is

used in your seventh


to

The box

be made, not of any size and

shape that you

may happen
for,

to

give

it,

but This
is

exactly according to given dimensions.


is

extremely important,

when an
size

object

wanted
less if

for a given purpose, it is often worth-

not of just the right

and shape.

The shape and dimensions of this box, as of any other piece of work, can be shown in a working drawing or a working sketch. The
former
''

name

is

given to a drawing carefully

made to scale,'^ and the latter to a drawing made with less care, and which may be drawn
freehand, and only approximately to scale.
the
latter

In

case

the

dimensions

are

marked

on the corresponding parts of the drawing, and can be read off; in the former they are ascertained by measuring carefully the dimen32

Wood - Working,
sions of the drawing,

33

and making the proper


as will

allowance for the


stood presently.

'^

scale/'

be

under-

Here

is

a block of wood, of
first

make
is

a sketch

which we will and a drawing afterwards.


rule, w^e find
it

Measuring the block with the


thick, or
as

9 inches long, 5 inches wide, and 3^ inches

we have agreed to represent it, 5'' X Sy - 9'\ If we look directly at the front of the block, we see a rectangle 9^^ x 3^^\ which we indicate by drawing, freehand, a
rectangle

whose
sides

long
its

side

is

nearly

three

times as great as

short side, and

writing

on these
call

their dimensions, as in Fig. 9.

This figure we
the Elevation, or the

Front Elevation.

If

we
j^^.

look

straight

g
5^\
10,

down on
block,
Ave

the
see

a rectangle

9'^ x

This

we
call

represent in a similar way.

Fig.

and

the representation the Plan.

From

these two, even

if w^e

had never seen

34

Manual

Training.

the block,
rect

we should be able picture in the mind of its

to

form a corsize and shape, and a work-

man would
able
to

be

make

one just like


it.

Sometimes,
in

liowever, there
are
details

the

figure

of

the

object

which these two drawings fail to show. Thus, if there were a round hole in the right-hand end, neither of these would show it. In such
case

a third

figure
is

is

added, called the

End
if

Elevation.

This

the view that

we

get

we look

directly at the

end

of the object:

in
it

the case

of this block

would be
3^'^ x 5^\

another rectangle,
Fig.
11.

If Ave
hole,

wish

to
J^i^y. //.

show
and

the

we must
its

ascertain

exactly

size

position,

and show them properly


hole
is

in

the

drawing.

If the

V^ in diameter,

and

Wood - Working.
placed
3''

35

from one of the narrow


faces,

faces

and
per-

from one of the wide


Fig.
12,
little

we

indicate

this as in

making the drawing


than
r, i^

haps a
before,

larger
to

so

as

be able

to write all the necessary

dimensions.
ever, does not

This,

how-

show how
Suppose
2'^

deep the hole

is.

we

Fvg.JZ,

find

it

to be

deep.

Looking at the front of the block again, you will understand that, if we could look into the block, the hole would appear as at a b, Fig. 13. As the lines at a 6 are, however, hidden " ^ by the ma^
~~

^ ^
Tt^.
the
in

ct

^ r"" >sj

terial of the

|"

block,

we^

will indicate

13,

them by dotted lines. In

manner the hole may be shown the plan. The three figures being now
same
together
as

brought

in

Fig.

14,

they give

complete information as to the

size

and shape

36

Manual
block.

Training,

of the

This group of drawings thus


all

marked, with the dimensions of

the parts,

we
ing

will

call a ''Figured
It
is

Sketch''

or ''Workthat

Sketch."

not

necessary

the

lines be ruled, provided they are

drawn

toler-

"'

2"
1

"

Lcvcztion^.
9''

1 1

SJri/cl JElevciti vo?v

;^

J^lcvru,
1

"^'"
.'

ably straight, and

it is

not necessary that they

be exactly in true

proportion to each other,

though it is best to have them nearly so. Every dimension must be given in at least one of the drawings. If, for instance, the fig-

Wood 'Working
ure
3'^

37

in the plan were left out, the

workman
this

who should
sketch

try to

would not

make the block from know where to bore


were given in the

the

hole, unless this figure

End
is

Elevation.

dimension,

however, which
figure
9^'

given in one drawing


in

need not be repeated


in

another.

Thus the

the

Elevation need not be repeated in the Plan,

though

the repetition

does no harm, unless

the figures are too crowded.

Having made you may now,

figured sketches of the block,


for
exercise,

make

similar

sketches of a large nail or spike, a bolt with


a nut, a six-sided
lead-pencil, a try-square, or

other simple object.


will

In our next

lesson

we

undertake a working drawing.

Lessor TII.

Working Drawings.
IF,
instead of drawing the lines of our last
lesson freehand,

and writing the dimensions

of the object
lines

on the drawing,
care,

with

and

we make them

rule
all

the

bear

exactly the same ratio to the lines they repre-

Ficf> 15,
sent,

1Z3^56*/8
SoaZe
'
I

o_fj7iches.
I
.

'

we have
38

^^

Drawing
as

to

Scale,''

or

'^Working

Drawing,''

in

Fig.

15,

which

Wood - Working,

39

shows the plan, elevation, and side-elevation


of a box.

The

scale, or ratio

of the dimensions in the

drawing to the corresponding dimensions of

must be indicated on the drawing. This may be done in either of three ways. Suppose, for instance, the lines of the drawing
the object
to

be one quarter as long as the correspondFirst,


'\

ing lines of the object.

on the drawing

"

Scale \

we may write Or, secondly, we


''

may

write

''

Scale

y' =

V'

'\

or

Scale

3^^

= V

'\

Or thirdly, we may draw a straight line of any convenient length, divide it into parts,
of Avhich

each

represents

one

inch on the

object (or one foot, or one

meter),

and numof the

ber these parts

1,

2,

3,

etc.
is

In the case in
^,

question where the


parts

scale

each

must be actually one quarter of an inch long. If the drawing had been made to a smaller scale, as ^^2 ^^^ instance, which might
be written
^^

Scale j\'\ or ''r^ =

W'\

or " V'

r"

the

spaces

inch long,
of the

would have been each one and would have represented each
object.

one foot in the

In Fig. 15

all

three
are

modes

of

representing the

scale

shown.

40

Manual

Training,

The
the

scale

must be
to

workman
in

enough to enable determine from the drawing


large

the dimensions of every

part of the object.


to

Thus,
size

the

last

figure,

determine

the

of the

hole in the block, the

workman

would measure with the compasses its diameFinding this to be one ter on the drawing. quarter of an inch, he would know that the diameter of the hole was to be one inch.
Next, to determine Avhere to place the hole,

he would measure the distances on the drawing from two sides of the end elevation, and
finding these distances to be each one quarter
of an inch, he would
to be

know

that the hole was

one inch from each of the corresponding

and therefore the center of the hole one inch and a half from each of If the scale had been much these faces. smaller, say lV'''^l'^ it would have been difficult to measure exactly the dimensions on the drawing, and therefore difficult to determine exactly the dimensions of the object. When an object is large, or contains many
faces of the block,
details,
it

may

be

impossible
to

to

make

the

scale large

enough

show

all

the details in

Wood - Working.
such a way that the

41

workman can

get their
It is

true dimensions from the drawing.

then

necessary to add separate drawings of some of


the details.

These are only working draAvings


scale of these

on a larger scale. Of course the drawings must be indicated also.

W-EmlJEUvaZiow %'

JF-Cg. 16^

J^U TV,
In addition to the two elevations, plan, and

drawings of

details, there are

sometimes need-

ed other drawings, called


will be explained
to be needed.
hereafter,

^'sections,''

which when they come


the

You

will

now

be able to understand

42

Manual
Fig.

Training.

working sketch,

16,

of the

box which

make. The front elevation shows that the box is 13^'^ long and 6'^ high, and the end elevation, or the plan, shows that

we propose

to

it

is

%^" wide.

The dotted

lines in the front

show that the front and back pieces are fastened on over the ends of the end The same fact may be learned from pieces. an inspection of the end elevation and plan. The figure \" shows that the wood used is f ^^ thick. As there may be a doubt whether the figures 12^' and 8^^ in the two elevations are
elevation

the

inside

or the outside

measurements

of

the box,

it

is

best to

remove
be

this

ambiguity
in

in the following
indicates

way.

Let the figure which


written
to

any

dimension

the

middle of a line drawn parallel

the line

Wood - Working,
to

43

which

it

belongs,

and terminated by arrowthe ends of the


line.

heads exactly opposite


Thus, Fig.
of the box
17,
is

means that the inside length 12 inches, and Fig. 18, means

that the

outside

length
there

is

12 inches.

In

working

drawing
this.

would

be

no such

ambiguity as

Lessox YIII.
Making a Nailed Box.

Laying

out

the

VV^ork.

TAKING
that

dimensions from Fig.


shall

16,

we

see

we

need for our box two pieces

of f inch stuff 6'^ x 8^^ for the ends, and two pieces 6^^x13^^^ for the front and back. Later

we
will

shall

need two pieces each

9J'^

x 13^^^

for

the top and bottom, but for the present


leave

we
to

them

out

of

consideration,

simplify the drawings and the laying out of

our work.

Take the piece of board used in Lesson IV. If the work of that lesson was well done, the piece is now square on one end, and a little
longer than
is

necessary for the four pieces.


it

Furthermore,
If

if

has been properly exposed

to the air, it has dried Avell


it is

without warping.

not square on one end,


least

make
of
less

it

so

with

the

possible
if
it

waste
get

material,

remembering

that,

you

it

than

about 44 inches long

will be spoiled.

Wood - Working,
Now, with your
the squared
board.
end,
rule, lay off 8 inches

45

from
the

along the

best

edge

of

Mark

this edge

with your lead-pencil,


it

with a cross or other mark, to distinguish


as the edge

the
this

from which you will work. Place wooden handle of your square against edge, and draw a pencil-mark square
exactly 8

across the board,

inches

from the
off

squared end.
cut

You have now marked


it is

one

of the ends of the box, and might proceed to


it

off;

but

best to perform all opera-

tions of one
^'

kind
all

at once,

and we

will therefore

lay out

''

the pieces before

commencing
pencil-line

to cut

If

them off. you should

draw

another

just 8 inches
to

from the
pieces,

first,

cut out the

and then proceed they would turn out


of the
exercise
8.

too short by the

amount
;

thickness of the saw


in

and though comparison with some dimenthickness


is

Laying out a
^o^-

sions this

very small, in compariit is

son with some others

very considerable,

and it should, therefore, never be neglected. Allowance must always be made for the waste'' of a saw in cutting to a mark. As
^^

46

Manual

Training.

you do not know yet how much you niay, after having marked
just outside of the

this waste

is,

off

your

first

piece 8 inches long, begin a cut with the saw

mark, but quite

close to

it,

so as to leave the piece exactly 8 inches long.


Exercise
9.

Cross-cutting with saw.

As soon as you have cut a way iuto the piece, say an

little

inch,

make another mark with


parallel to

pencil

and square,
to
it

the

first,

and

so

near

marks just contain the cut between them, and no more, as in Fig. 19. From these you can learn, by measuring
that the two

Fva 19
or by observing carefully

^^^ distance

between them,

and

remembering,
Avill

how much
be
able
to
this waste

the

saw wastes.
the

You

soon
for

make

proper allowance

by the eye Avithout measuring. Now lay off 8 inches from the second mark, draw a third mark and a fourth parallel

to it for the waste.

Then
off

lay off 13^ inches,

mark
again

off the waste again, lay off Vi\

inches

and

mark

the

waste

again,

and

Wood - WorJcing,
the

47

work is completely laid out. Your piece of wood will now be marked as in Fig. 20, are the ends, 3 and 4 in which 1 and 2 are the front and back, and 5 is the waste.

^zy. ^.

After this lesson j^ou will not

marks
eye.

for

your saw-cuts,
allowance
for

make double but Avill make the


the

necessary

waste

by

the

In making pencil-marks, as in this exercise

you

must be
to

careful

to

apply
of

the

square
board,

always

the

same edge
this

your

distinguishing
out,
is

edge,

as

already pointed

by a cross or other mark. Indeed, this an important principle in all laying out of

work.
opposite

The reason
edges
are

of

it

is

that,

unless

the

parallel,

lines

drawn

perpendicular to

not be parallel
to

them with the square will but lines drawn perpendicular


provided
be
that

the

same
will

edge,

edge

is

straight,

always

parallel.

Try

this

48

Manual
waste-piece,

Training.

with your

are not quite parallel,

whose opposite sides drawing your two per-

pendiculars pretty close together.

In laying out your work you must see that


each
piece
cracks,
nails
is,

if

possible,
at

free

from

knots

and
the

particularly

the ends, where


If there

will

have to be driven.

should be a knot at any one of these places,

boundary between 3 and 4 for instance, you must try to throw the knot out, by shifting 4 to the right, and making the waste piece fall in the middle, where the knot is.
at the

Now
Exercise

place
7,

the

board

in

the vise, as in

and cut off the four pieces, being very careful to keep the saw between the double marks, to cut square, and to go gently towards the end of the cut, so as to avoid
splintering.

When

the four pieces are cut off

they should be compared with each other two

and

two,

measured,

and

tested

with

the

square.

Lesson IX.

Hammer and

Nails.

Putting
the
first

a Box

Together.
using the hammer, INlearn to swing with
is
it

thing

to

a free

movement

of

the

arm from the elbow

rather than from the

and the second is to strike squarely with the whole face of the hammer rather Begin by striking a than with one edge. moderately hard blow on your piece of Avaste
wrist,

wood, in one corner of the


the

piece.

Examine
it

mark made.
that

You

will

probably find

deeper on one side than on the other, show-

you have not struck exercise io. Strike again, by the striking with squarely. hammer, side of the first mark, and examine the result, and so on, over the whole face of your piece of wood, or until you can strike hard and square. Take a dozen four-penny nails and examing
ine them.

(Note that

^^

four-penny

''

probably
49

Manual

Training,

meant, originally, weighing four pounds to the

hundred, and thus four-penny, six-penny,


give

etc.

some indication of the


in

size of the nails.)

Observe that the nails have two sides


as

parallel,
21,
6,

shown
^

the

side-elevation,

Fig.

while
Oy

the
in
a,

other

two

sides,

as

shown

act as a wedge,

and

Sn?

will split the

wood

if it is

weak.

Uin
[J

The wedge, therefore, must be made to act in the direction in which the wood is strongest, that is, as we learned in Lesson III.,
the
direction

of the

length

of the fibers.

Tv^.Zt

Now, holding a nail between the fingers and thumb of the

left

hand, in the proper position to enter the

wood without splitting, drive it into your piece of waste wood f " from the end, till the point
Exercise
II.

j^st shows through


side.

on the other
it

Driving and

Now draw
claw
of

out

with

drawing a

nail,

the

the

hammer.
to

To

do
of

this place a block of

wood under the head


it
;

of the

hammer
head
of

to

lift

up

the height the

the

the

nail

catch

head

Wood - Working,
of

the

nail
rests

Avitli

the

claw,

and

while

the

hammer
up, swing
to
out.
raise

on the block with the handle


handle over so as
nail will

the end of the

the

claw,

and
is

the

come
the

If

the block the the


nail

not
be

used to raise
bent.

hammer,
nail

will

Drive the

in

times,

same way and draw it several always from the end of the piece,

but always

in

the

first

position,

or

so
it

as

not to

split the piece.

Afterwards, drive

sev-

eral times in the

second position, at the same

and observe that you will nearly always split the piece. Note well these tw^o positions. Observe that you can distinguish the one from the other by the shape of the head or by the way the nail feels between the fingers, and you should never hereafter split a piece of wood by carelessly driving a nail in the wrong way. Now, taking the long sides of your box, draw a light pencil-mark across each end, f^^ from the edge, and make on this exercise 12. line two dots, each an inch from Nailing a box. the end of the line, and a third half-way between them, for the places where the nails
distance from the end,

52

Manual
to

Training,

are

be driven^ as in

Fig.

22.

Drive six

nails nearly

through

at these places.

Then,

set-

ting one of the short sides upright in the vise,


lay the

end of the long piece on

it,

exactly

as it is to

go
to-

when
is

the box

put

^~^J
holding the long piece in the
let

gether,

being

careful, while
left

hand, to

the fore-finger

reach round the edge, so

as to feel

whether the edge of the upper piece


face

and the
even.

of the

lower piece are exactly


nail

Drive the middle

through
its

into

the
quite

end

piece,

but

do

not

drive

head
piece

down.

This will

now hold
nails

the

firmly enough, while allowing you to adjust


it

and drive the other two same distance. The heads


left

down
the
it

to the

of

nails

are

projecting

little,

so

that

may

be

easy to draw

them

if

necessary.

corner

may

be nailed in
"

The second the same way, and


is,

the six nails driven

home,'' that

till

the

heads are even with the surface of the wood,


taking care not to bruise the wood with
tlie

Wood - Working,
hammer.
lay

53

For the third and


nailed
short
piece
pieces

fourth

corners

the

down on
holding
it

the

bench,

with
the

the

standing up, lay the


as

fourth side in place,


first,

you did
the

and drive the other

nails with

same precautions as before. If the pieces have been properly cut and properly nailed, the box will now be square
at
all
its

corners,

the

diagonals will
it is set

be

of

equal lengths, and


all

when

the

corners will
will

rest

on the bench on the bench and


to
it.

the sides

be

perpendicular

You

should

test

your work

as to these particulars

with rule and square.

LESSON" X.

The same Continued.

THERE
last

will

now no doubt
The
first

be two classes

of boxes in the class, as the result of the


exercise.

will

be

smaller or

larger than they were intended to be, or they


will

be

not

quite square at

the corners,
is,

or
set

they will

be " winding,''
surface

that

when

on a
will will

flat

like that of the

bench they

touch at three corners onlv.


be true
^^

to

The second dimensions and shape, and


"
is

will be

out of winding/'
for
'^

The

test

winding
several

important, and

may
bench
itself

be

made

in

ways.

We

cannot

always depend on the


as

by laying on the already described, since the bench


test

may
to

be in winding, or the object

may

be too large to be tested in this way, or too

small

show the
size,

defect.

second, and

more

common way
54

of

testing

an

object

of
is

moderate

such as one of your boxes,

Wood - WorJmig,
to

55

hold

it

up

before one

eye,

keeping

the

other

closed,

and
the

look

across
If

one
there

of the

edges at the other edge.


exactly
covers
;

the front edge


is

hind

edge,

no

but if one end of the hind edge winding stands up above the front edge when the other end is exactly covered, the object is
winding.
is

When

the object
to detect

is

very

small

it

sometimes hard

the fault in this

way.
ated
"

In this case the error

may

be exagger-

and winding
or

made
sticks.''

perceptible

by means of These are two straight


''

edges''

strips

of

wood with
Supsay
across
strips,

exercise

13.

straight aiid parcdld edges.

^est for wind^"s-

pose
2//

two \'' 24

such
;

to

be
If

laid

your

box

at

winding be too small to be noticed when you look across the box itself, you may yet be able to detect it when it is exaggerated by these long sticks. In this way, even the winding in the edge of
opposite
ends.

the

a board

may

be detected.
tests

This and the other


will

being applied, we
divided
into

suppose your
as

boxes

two
the

classes,

already described.

Those

of

56

Manual
class,

Training,

second

being
up,

perfect, or

nearly

so,

we

by furnishing them with bottoms of the same material, fastened, like the sides, with nails. These boxes, being all of the same size, might be piled up in a set

might

finish

or

^^nest,''

screws,

and used for the stowing of nails, glue, and other materials used in the
this,

shop.

Instead of doing
the

however, we will
apart,
set

take

boxes of
material
in

both

classes

and
of

use the

making another

boxes of better finish than these, and requiring the use of other tools and more practiced

hands.

To knock your box apart without


it,

splitting

hold

it
14.

by one
C)f

of

the

long sides and

Exercise

strike the Other long side, inside

Taking apart nailed work.

the

comcr, with a hammer.


strike

D^

^^^

directly

on the
split

wood, in which case you will probably


it,

and certainly bruise

it,

but on a strip laid


If there
face
is

in the corner to receive the blow.

room to strike with hammer, strike with the


not

the
side.

of

the
in

Striking

one corner and the other alternately, you will probably separate the box at tAvo corners, and

Wood - Working,
so take off

57

one of the long


short
sides

sides, after

which,

holding
operation

the

and

repeating the
as before,

with

the

same care
side.

you

will take off the


nails

other

Drive out the

by striking them on the points, and straighten them by striking them gently with the hammer on the convex side while holding not on the bench, them on a block of wood, as you would thus mar the bench. For the new box that we propose to make,

we

will

reduce a

little

the

thickness of our
finer surface

pieces of wood,

and give them a


surface

than

the

mill-dressed

that

they

received

from

the

planing-machine.

Your

exercises with the hatchet

and the knife have


if

shown you the


bility,

difficulty,

not the impossi-

of finishing a piece smooth with either


tools.

of these

You

Avill

be ready, therefore,

to appreciate the value of the plane.

IjEssois'

XI.

The Jack-Plane.
seen YOU havetends hatchet

how
to

the

knife

or

the

follow the grain of the

wood, and,
rather

if

the grain happens to run inward

than

outward,
of

splits

off

large

pieces,

thus making fine work impossible.


or
''

The knife
from

iron "
this,

the

plane

is

prevented

and so, with this tool, work may be finished up very smooth. The plane-iron, as you see, is set in a block of wood through which it projects only a short distance, and as the block rests on the surface of the wood, the iron cannot penetrate beyond this distance. If you set the plane down on the surface of a board, and press down on it, the iron will cut into the wood until the block comes in contact with the board, and then it can go If now we push the plane no further. forward, the edge of the iron moves say from a to 6, Fig. 23 but, instead of following
doing
;

58

Wood - Working,
the grain, and
is

59

cutting

deeper and deeper^


at

it

same distance below the surface. It thus lifts up the thin shaving," bending it upwards as it layer or
forced
to

remain

the

''

Fig^^ ^^^

advances, and delivering


of the plane.

it

out of the ''mouth"


is

The

tool

thus described

the

plane with a single iron.

When we
the iron

use this tool, however, although

itself
is

cannot penetrate
possible
that,

far

into

the

wood,
of the
iron,

it

still

while the end


the

shaving slides up the surface of


the
split,

once commenced,
the wood.

may
stop

run
case,

some distance
the

into

In this

strong
or,

splinter

torn
off,

up

may
leave

the

plane,
surface.

breaking

may
a

rough
or

To prevent
is

this

second iron
secured

"cap"
with

introduced, thus
iron.

making the plane


is

double

The cap

to

60

Manual
cutting
iron

Training,

by a screw as in Fig. 24, and the two are put together into the block,
the

and

held

in

place

by a

wedge, as you will readily

examining the plane on your bench. Figures 23 and 24 should be carefully compared with your plane, by way of furunderstand

on

-F^y. ^^.

ther illustration
principles

of

the

of

mechanical

drawing explained in Lesson VI.

With
the
iron,

this

instrument
a

it

is

impossible

for

end of the shaving to

slide far

up the

and
the

cause

deep
is

split

in

the wood,

because

shaving

caught by the back

and bent forward. If the cap is thick enough, and set near enough to the edge of the cutting-iron, it will bend the shaving so abruptly as to break it. As long as the shaving was a strong stick or splinter,
iron or cap
as at
a,

b,

Fig.

25, the

forward
to
lift

movement
this

of

the cutting-iron tended

stick

up
split

without

breaking

it,

and

extend

the

Wood - Worlcing.

61

down
at
c

into the
is

wood;

but

when

the

end of
off,

the splinter
d,

turned up and broken

as

the

cutting-iron cuts

partly through

the base of the remaining short piece, turning

up a longer
off,

splinter,

which
e f.

is

again broken

and
^'

so

on^

till

the splinter curls up as

a thin

shaving," as ^t

When you examine

one of the thin

shav-

62

Manual
taken
it is

Training.

ings

off

by such
or

plane,

you

find

that

cracked

broken across
it
is

at equal

short

distances.

Thus

so

much weaklift
it

ened that the cutting-iron cannot

up
into

by the end and continue the


the Avood.

split

down

With
the

this partial

view of the mode of action

of the plane

way

of

we can now go on to consider using it. The discussion of the


them and
of adjusting

several

kinds of planes, and of the methods

of

sharpening

them

for different

kinds of work, will come


first

later.

For your
called

exercise in planing, the tool


''

^^

jack-plane
coarse

will

be

used.

It

is

designed

for

work, such as removing


or

the rough outside of a plank,


considerable
quantities

cutting off

of material.

As
edge

it

is

intended
cap
is

to
set

cut

pretty

thick

shavings,

the
of

well

back

from

the

the cutting-iron
is

(^^ to

i\^0, the

cutting-iron

allowed to project

considerably
is

from

the
will

block,
notice,
farther,

and
so

its

edge
the

curved,
of

as
it

you

that

middle
cuts
has.

projects

and therefore

deeper

than the
already

corners.

Your jack-plane

been

Wood - Working.
sharpened and adjusted
for the
is
;

63

kind of work
will be well,

you are going to do. It up the sides of your box


another piece of

intended to plane
but
it

before undertaking this, to try your

hand on wood of about the same size.


simple as
possible,
is

To make the

exercise as

pick out a piece which

not winding.

You
stop

find at the left


'^

end of your bench a


prevent the piece

or

bench-hook/' to
are

that

you

planing

from sliding forward.

Examine
Observe
fastened

the construction of this bench-hook.

how
in

it

is

raised

and

lowered,

and

that
little

it

any desired position. Set it so shall stand up above your bench a


than the thickness
^^ ''

less

of

the

piece

you are going to plane. If your bench has a wooden bench-pin instead of the bench-hook the mode of adjusting this is obvious. Lay your piece of wood on the bench, with the end against the bench-hook. Hold the plane by the handle with the right hand. Take hold of the front of the
that

plane

with the
side

left

hand,

the

thumb being
and
the

on

the

nearest

your
side.

body,

fingers

on

the

other

This throws the

64

Manual

Training,

left

elbow up, and enables you to press down


It is not,

on the front of the plane.


generally necessary to press
if

however,
adjusted
this.

down very hard


properly

the

plane
15.

is
it

sharp and
will
^^

Exercise

take
t^^^

hold
^^^^^

without
AoQ^.

Use

of the

j^^*

In this

Jack-plane,

position, pusli the plane forward

from end to end of the piece, trying to take off a shaving the whole length. If the first shaving is taken from the left-hand edge, let
the next be just to the right of
on,
till

this,

and

so

you have gone over the entire breadth of the piece, not missing any portion of the
surface.

You

Avill

of course have

to

change
plane

the position of the piece from


so

time to time,
the
is

that the

portion on

which

working

shall be opposite the bench-hook.

In the management of the jack-plane the


chief points to be attended to are these:

During the first part of the stroke press down most with the left hand, to prevent the rear end of the plane from dropping, and so cutting off* too much of the rear end
1.

of the piece.
2.

In the same manner, bear down, during

Wood - Working.

65

the last part of the stroke, on the liandle of

the plane, to prevent the


If these

front

from

falling.

two points

be neglected, the
planed,

piece

will

present,

when

the

appearance

J
shown
3.

in

Fig. 26

a straight-edge

laid

upon

the surface will not touch at the ends.

Do

not continue to plane any particular


it

spot merely because

happens to work
plane away the

easily

you

will thus get


after
all,

the surface uneven, and be


to
rest

obliged,

of

the piece to the same level with the soft part

on which you have been working.


4.

Do

not, as a general rule,

work
a
c

''

against
as

the

grain,"

that
(/,

is,

in

such
or

direction
to

from a to

Fig.

25,

from

in

the

same
is

figure.

When you work


little
it is

thus, each fiber

torn

some

distance
off,

down

into
result

the
is

wood before number of


end
tlian

cut

and the
leaving

small, shallow pits, deeper at one

at

the

other,

the

surface

rough, as in Fig. 27, in Avhich the appearance

66

Manual
exaggerated, to

Training.

is

show the character of the


tool, as it

effect.

Planing with the grain, the

cuts off each fiber


split

and bends

it

up,

makes

which runs outward, across the shaving, instead of inward into the piece, and thus

leaves the surface smooth.

As the grain
parts

often

runs
piece
will

differently
(as
it

in

different

of

the
it

does, for

example, in Fig. 25)

be

necessary,

in
to

such
time,

cases,

to

turn

the piece

from time
parts.

as
is

you work
not
best

on
in

different

While

it

work against the grain, it is often allowable, and even preferable, to do so when a considerable thickness of wood is
general
to
to

be removed, as

the

plane, if not set

too

coarse, Avorks freer

and more rapidly against


it.

the grain

than with
will

In this case

also,

however,
desired
to turn
5.

it

be necessary,
of

when nearly

the
off,

amount
the

wood has been taken


you
can,

piece,

Work,

and whenever

finish with the grain.

with

the

Wood - Working.
plane as with
strokes.

67

other tools, with


are

long,

steady
the

When you
is

obliged to

turn

piece

frequently,

because of the crookedness


of course impracticable.

of the grain, this

Bearing these points in mind, and having


first

practiced on the

extra

piece

of

wood,

you may now plane up one surface of each of your pieces with the jack-plane, provided if any surface is the surface is not winding winding we Avill reserve its treatment for another exercise. When you have done this, you will find that the marks made by the saw (^^ saw-kerfs they are called), as well as any stains or rough spots, have been removed; but the general surface, though clean, is now marked with a series of broad and shallow furrows or valleys separated by low ridges which are due to the curved form of the iron, and which will appear very conspicuous if you lay a straight-edge crosswise on your
:

^'

piece.

In our next lesson we will endeavor


sur-

to

remove these furrows and make the

face smootho

Lesson XII.
The Smoothing-Plane.

TO
next
this

cut the ridges

left

by the jack-plane
is

clown to the level of the valleys


operation.
It

the

may

be

performed,

imperfectly,

with
shall

the

the
that

cutting-iron
it

To do must be drawn back


jack-plane.
far

so

not project so
as

through
is

the

block,

and

this

adjustment

fre-

quently needed for

the

purpose of adapting

the jack-plane, or any other plane, to hard or

crooked-grained wood,
Exercise
16.

it

may
If

be learned and

Practiced here.

you

strike the

Adjustment
of cuttingiron.

upper surface
hard
will

of the plane near

the front, two or three moderately

blows
be

with

the

hammer,
the
iron

the
will

wedge
careful

loosened

and

move up out
not
first

of the block.
strike

You must
you

be

to

too

hard, or

will,,

in the

place bruise the plane-block,

and in

the

second place

loosen

the

wedge

Wood - Working.

69

and iron too much. By turning the plane sole from front up and looking down the how much the iron to rear you can see projects, and judge whether you have it right. If you get it back too far, you can drive it forward again to the right amount by gentle blows of the hammer on its upper edge. When you have it just right, you must drive
'' ''

the Avedge tight again.

For the purpose


very
the
iron
little,
*^

for

which you

are

now
it.

going to use the plane the iron should project

and the cap should


close

exercise

come very
iron.
is

to

As the
curved,
to
it

the edge of ^ edge of the


will

Smoothing
with jackplane,

not
surface

be
of

possible

make
ones,

the

the

wood
as

plane: you can only replace the deep valleys

by

shallower

and

to

make them
precaution,

shallow as possible the iron must project as


little

as

possible.

With

this

go

over again the sides that you

have

already

planed

and make them as smooth as you can, remembering the warning concerning planing against the grain. The operation you have just performed can be better done, par-

70

Manual
on large

Training.

ticularly

surfaces,

with another plane,


is

called

the

fore-plane.

This

longer

and

heavier than the jack-plane, and has an iron

which,

as

shown

in

Fig.

28,

6,

is

broader
a,

than that of the jack-plane. Fig.


has an edge which
is

28,

and

straight,

except just at
It is easy

the corner.

to see that this plane,


if

properly

used,

is

capable of

making

large surface even, or


'^

plane.'' It is

in

managed the same way as


jack-plane,
little

o
FC^. 2S.
cc

o
\-j
b
tool

the

only

requiring a

more

care to prevent either

end from dropping at beginning or end of


the
stroke.
It

will to
this

not
use
this

be

necessary
of

on

the

small
finish

pieces

exercise,

but we will

up these
This

pieces
is

with

the

smoothing-plane.

plane

usually
is

employed after the fore-plane. short and light, and specially adapted

It

for

Wood - Working,

71

making
(or

short and quick strokes.

It is there-

fore exactly fitted for following the fore-plane

the

jack-plane
to

when
the

used
small

as
pits

in

this

exercise)
result

remove

which

from the former plane's having worked, in some places, against the grain. Observing
the same precautions as with the
jack-plane,
exercise
is.

and

in

particular

reversing the

direction

of

your

xjse^oTthe smoothing-

plane, work as often as the grain of the wood requires it, go over your pieces

with the smoothing-plane

till

the ridges

left

by the jack-plane are


first

all

cut down, and the


is

surface

of

each

piece

made
with

quite

straight

and

smooth.

Test

this

the

straight-edge.

We
If
it

supposed, a

little

while
pieces

ago, that

the

surface of

one of your
so, it is

was
so

winding.

was not

very likely that one of


exercise
I9.

the surfaces

may have become


pieces

during the operation of planing


it.

Removing
winding,

Test

these

and pick
or

out any that

are

Avinding,

make one
one

so

by planing ofi* a little Suppose A B C D, Fig. 29,

from

corner.

to be the piece,

and

72

Manual

Training.

suppose that,

when you hold

it

up, with the

edge
hides
.

C towards

you, so that the end

just

B, the end

stands

above
_,

i).

This

indicates
that some-

thing

has

D
either

to be
F-isf,29.

taken

C
it.
(7,

off

from

or

C,

Place a bit of shaving under


to support

the corner

Then, applying
take
first

the jack-plane near


stroke at
0,

D
D,

a short

then a

little

longer one, and so

on, ending with a stroke nearly but not quite

the whole length of

board

near

is

G now

The portion of the lower, and when tested


less

as before

the piece will be


off too

Avinding.

If

you have taken


will

even
too

be

reversed,

much, the winding and C and A will


of too high.

appear

low
this

instead
result

You
piece

must avoid
get
first

by testing the

frequently while Avorking,

otherwise you will

winding and then the other, and will plane your piece too thin before you get it true. Having at length made one surface of each of your pieces quite free from
one

Wood - Working.
winding

73

and perfectly straight and smooth, mark this with your pencil as the standard surface from which all the others are to be
formed.

Having
all

now
proper

finished

the

first

faces

of

your
the

pieces, these pieces

to

thickness,

must be reduced and the second


to

surfaces

must

be

made

parallel

the

first,

and smooth. The proper thickness is first to be marked round the edge of each piece If you have not wasted with the gauge.
material
in

making the
to

first

surface

true,

you ought
of

to be able

finish

up the

pieces

your

last

exercise

to

thickness of half

an inch.

Loosen the screw of your gauge, and, holding your rule in the left hand, set the gauge by it to half an inch, and
.

Exercise 20.

tighten

the

screw
rule,

moderately.

Try, with the

whether the
right.
^

^tauging.

gauge
or the

is

set

exactly

If not,

move

it

the necessary

amount by
of

striking

one end

other

the handle a few times on

the bench,
fasten

and when it is exactly right the head in position with the screw,

74

Manual
so

Training,

but not

tightly

us
tlie

to

bruise

the

handle

with the point of

screw.
it

To mark

a piece, hold

in

the

left

hand

with the edge up and resting on the bench,


the finished side towards the right.

Place the
finished

head
side,

of

the

gauge

against

tlie

and push it from you along the edge of the piece from end to end, not with a series
of
short
jerks,

but

with

one
a

long,

steady

stroke.

The
to

point, resting lightly

on the edge

of

the

piece,

will

make
of

straight
piece.

mark
The
is

parallel

the

face

the

commonest
ing
it

fault in the use of the

gauge

to

bear too heavily on


to sink

the

marking-point, causthe wood.


Avitli

too deeply into

It

then moves along, not smoothly, but


series

of

jumps,

marking

deeply

in

some

and sometimes following the grain of the wood, and thus making a crooked mark, instead of being directed by the face of the piece and making To avoid this f\mlt proceed a straight mark. as follows When you set the head of the gauge against the side of the board, if you
places
at all,
:

and in others not

hold

it

so that the

marking-point shall stand

Wood - Working.
perpendicular to the edge of the board, as in
Fig. 30,
full
a,
it

can penetrate the wood to


If

its

length.

you incline the


as

toj)

of the
6,

marking-point forward,

in Fig.

30,

the

corner

of

the
4)

handle will bear

upon the board and lift the point up so that it


will penetrate to

OU

a less

depth or
all.
it

not at

Now,
first

hold
shall

at

JL\
J' ^.30.

so that the point

only just

touch,

this

and in position
a

make

very light

mark

the

whole length
to

of the piece.

Then returning
deeper,

the begin-

ning, hold the gauge so that the

point

may

and again mark the Avhole length of the piece, and so on until a It is sufficiently plain mark has been made. seldom necessary to make a deep mark. All
penetrate a
little

that

is

required

is

mark

that

can

be

76

Manual
and the
is

Training,

readily seen,

lightest
best.

mark

that will

serve this

purpose
this

Mark
your

in

way

the

four

edges

of all

pieces.

Then, with the jack-plane, plane


just
to the

them down
Exercise
21.

marks,
to go

being

very
little

careful

not
If

even

Planing to
thickness,

^00

far.

you go beyond the


piece
is

mark

the

spoiled.
If the
faces

Finish up with the smoothing-plane.

work has been well done, each of the


and quite smooth, and the

should be perfectly plane, free from winding,


pieces should

be

everywhere exactly half an inch thick. After planing the sides of your
Exercise 22. ^^^^

pieces,
vise,

plane one edge, holding the piece in the

being very careful


off too

not

to

Squaring the edge of a


board.

cut

much

at either end.

and not
either

to let the plane tip over

to

the

right

or

the

left.

Test for the

first fault

with the corner of the

jack-plane

used

as

a straight-edge,

and

for

the second with the try-square.

In applying
the side
first

the square
finished
straight

always apply

it

to

and marked. One edge being finished and square, set the gauge to 5|

Wood - Working.
inches,

77

and mark
the
finished
this,

the
edge.
it is

pieces to

this

width
is

from
set so

When
it.

the gauge

wide as
to

even more necessary


It is

than before to bear lightly on^


difficult

more

control
^

the

gauge
if

exercise 23.
'.

when

so

wide open, ^

and
it

the ^

, Gauging and

point enters too deep


ing marked
plane
the

will

jump
Havto

and make a crooked mark.


all

planing to width,

the pieces to the proper width,

second edges
it.

down

the

mark,

but not beyond

Lesson XIII.
Back-savsT

and Bench-dog.
have been working on are

THE now
are
still

pieces yoii

of the uniform thickness of half an

inch and of the breadth of 5| inches.

They
are

marred, however,

by the nail-holes

made in them now to be cut


before,

in a former exercise.

They

off square, a little shorter


at

than

and

smoother

the

ends than

we

were able to make them with the


cross-cut-saw.
^^

ordinary

For
or

this

work we

will use the

saw is shorter and thinner than the one you have used before, and has more teeth to the inch.
back-saw''
^Henon-saw.''

This

Its teeth also are

not bent sideways or


of the
cross-cut-saw.

^^

set

'^

Examine the two saws carefully, and compare The back-saw them in these particulars. being thinner than other saws is more likely to bend. To prevent bending it is provided with a stiflF back, which gives it its name.
as
as those
78

much

Wood - Working,

79

While this allows the saw to be made thinner, and therefore fits it for finer work, it limits,
of course, the depth of the

cut

that
still

can be
smaller,

made
3^ou

Avith

it.

back-saw

thinner,

and finer than the tenon-saw that have, and with no set to its teeth, is
a
^^

called

dove-tail

''

saw.

In

working
the

with
case

small
a

back-saws,

it

is

generally

that

number

of

pieces

are to be cut in quick succession.

Too much

time would be wasted


besides, the firm
sary.

if

these were all to be

fastened in the vise before cutting them, and

grip of the vise

is

not neces-

Small pieces are most conveniently cut


^^

on your bench^ and which is shown, in elevation and plan, in Fig. 31. Lay the dog on your bench,

on the

bench-dog

'^

which you

find

one of the
piece that
resting

cross-strips being

downward and

rest-

ing against the front of the bench.


is

to

Laying the be cross-cut on the dog and


other cross-strip, with the

against the

end that is to be cut off projecting a little beyond the right-hand edge of the dog, you can easily hold it with the left hand, and
cut
off"

the

piece

required.

In the

case

of

80

Manual
pieces

Training,

the

you have been using we will cut Half an off enough to remove the nail-holes. inch at each end of the long pieces will suffice
for
this.

This will reduce the long pieces to

^
k
>x

/f'L

3"

Ft^. 3J
11 J

inches,

and,
of

to

keep
to

nearly

the
as

same
before,

proportion

length
off f of
pieces,

breadth

we
of

will take

an inch from each end


reducing

the

short

them

to

7i

inches.

Wood - Worhing.

Having
ing
witli
all

made

the

necessary pencil-marks

with the square, as in Lesson VIII., rememberthe cautions there given as to working

your square always from the same edge

and side, allowing for the waste of the saw, and so on, you will proceed to cut off the narrow pieces from the ends, making first a few trial cuts on another piece, to get the
necessary steadiness of hand.

In cutting with
exercise 24.

the back-saw, hold the saw with


its

edge nearly

parallel

to
let

surface of the
tip of the

piece,

but

the cross-cutting the ^^^^ back-saw.


at
first,

saw drop a

little

so as to

begin the cut at the farther edge of the board.

Remember
first,

the injunctions

to

cut

slowly at

to keep the to

and

cut

saw upright, not to force it, gently when the saw is nearly

through.

you have carried the pencilmarks all round the pieces, there will always be one of the marks on the faces and one of those on the edges in view to guide you. The pieces being now, if your work has been
If

well done, exactly


to be

alike

in

pairs,

are

ready
will

formed into a box of


first

much

better finish

than the one

made with

nails.

We

82

Manual
it

Training,

put

togotlier

with

''

dove-tail
it

"

joints

but

before this can be done


to acquire

will

be necessary

some

skill in the use of the chisel.

Two

other pieces

may

be cut out and planed

up for tlie top and bottom. You may determine the proper size for these, and lay them out and get them ready yourself. In cutting out these pieces you will have to saw lengthwise of the grain, and will use
the
'^

rip-saw

''

for

this

purpose.

You

will

observe that

this

has

larger

teeth than

the

cross-cut -saw, that the front faces of the teeth

are square instead of having sharp edges,

and

that the

angle of the tooth

is

smaller.
little

On
you
ac-

considering a
h

will

see

that
are

these
in

Vvv^vV^V^^
^

differences

cordance with what we

have learned about the

VVVVVVW
e

different

strength

of

wood
edge

in

different di-

TtaSZ, ^9
the rip-saw, at
a.

rections.

The
cut

lower
of

of the tooth

Fig. 32,

has to

across

the

fibers,

and must therefore be sharp.

The

Wood - Working,
front

83

a
is

has only to
blunt.
is

push the pieces

out,

and
cuts

therefore

In the case of the


c

cross-cut

saw,

it

the front edge

d that

across

the

grain,

sharp,

and the
c.

pieces

and is therefore filed are pushed out by the


c

point
cut
falls

Furthermore, as the edge


fibers,
it

is

to
it

the

will

work

best

when

on them not quite perpendicularly, but obliquely, which is the reason why c cZ is not
perpendicular to the edge of the saw, as a
6
is.

On
best

the other hand, the corner a of the tooth


rip-saw,

of the

being a sort of chisel, works


obliquely across
the fibres.
33,

when driven

In ripping the piece

/) E, therefore. Fig.

the saw should be held as shown, rather than

perpendicular to the length of the board.

84

Manual

Training,

In making a long cut Avith the rip-saw, you


will

sometimes be hindered by the springing


of

together

the

parts
''

that
''

are

already

cut,
resist

causing them to
its

pinch
a

the

saw and
is

motion.

The remedy
such
as

for this

to insert

wedge,

chisel,

screw-driver,

or a piece of wood, in

the cut near the saw. the


cut care

Towards the
taken
board.
that

end
this

of

must be
split

wedge
are

does

not
be

the

The

six

pieces

now

to
is

put away

while the use of the chisel

being learned,

by which time they will be thoroughly seaThey must be set up on edge with a soned. space of at least an inch betAveen them for
circulation of
air,

so that they

may

not warp.

You may mark on each piece its exact dimensions, and note, when you take it up again, how much it has shrunk in each direction.

LiESSOis^

XIY.

The

Chisel.

OBSERVE
and
flat.

the form of the inch chisel on


Its

your bench.
Its

back

is

perfectly straight

makes with its back an angle of twenty-five degrees, and just at the edge is a short face which makes with the back a somewhat larger angle, namely, 35.
face

This form
ing
till

is

given to the chisel in the followit

way
the

First,

is

held on the grindstone


is

face

B, Fig. 34,

formed, making

with the back the angle 25^ Then the


part

A^----^

~\

near

J)^^-^^

r
^7-

^ is rubbed
on the
stone,
oil-

o/

in

presently,
face
is

manner which will be explained making the narrow face A D. This


a

exaggerated in

the

figure, to

make
85

it

86

Manual
;

Training,

clear
is

it

should be
If

less

than half as wide as

it

you examine the chisel on your bench, which is in good condition, you easily detect on D B the scratches made by the grindstone, wdiile A D, which was finished on the fine-grained oil-stone, is smooth and bright, and the edge at A is very keen. This is the condition in which the chisel and all similar
there shown.

cutting

tools

should
is

be

constantly

kept.
fine

When

the tool

dull

you cannot do

work with it; and, moreover, in trying to force it you are very apt to make it slip and cut yourself, so that a dull tool is really more dangerous than a sharp one. The chisel and the plane have the same form of cutting edge and require the same
treatment.

Other cutting tools resemble these


in
respect
to

in general, but differ

the

size

of

the

cutting
It will
is

angle,

and some

other

parif
it

ticulars.

be readily understood that

the tool

to

be used

on hard material,
its

must be
"

stronger, to
''

prevent

breaking or

on the edge, and therefore the angle must be larger. As we become acquainted with various tools for cutting wood and metals
nicking

Wood - Working.

87

we

shall find that this angle has very differ-

ent values,

reaching

even

to

90

in

some

lathe-tools for cutting metals.

There are several different ways of holding


the chisel, according to the kind of

work

to

be done and the force required.


1.

In paring off thin shavings the chisel

is
it

intermediate, as to the quality of the

work

can do, between the knife and the plane.


of pine or of

We

will take, for an exercise of this kind, a piece

whitewood with a rough or crooked edge, which we will make straight and smooth as in Exercise 4, but with the chisel instead of the knife. We will cut from a li'^ or 1^ plank a piece 9 inches long, and will split from this, with the hatchet,
pieces about
2'^

wide.

We

will select for

the

purpose a plank which, though of good quality,


is

not very straight-grained, so as to give


little

us

some

difficulty

in dealing with the

grain.

Holding one of these pieces in the vise, with one of the crooked edges upward, take the end of the handle of the chisel in the
hollow of the right hand, the thumb and
first

88

Manual

Training.

finger

lying forward on the handle, and the


fingers

other

curved under and grasping

it.

Exercise 25.
Paring with
chisei.

Lay the back


face

of the chisel
flat

(not

^^^ bcveled sidc)


of

on the surhold
left
it

the

wood, and

down with two


lying on the
the edge.

or three fingers of the


blade, a
little

hand
will
as
is

way back from


it

Pushing the
off*

chisel forward

now

cut

projecting masses very


(If the

much
to

the plane does.

edge of the piece

very crooked, so that

removed, as in Fig.

4,

much wood has p. 10, it may be


This

be

scored

and

split,

exactly, as in the exercise Avith the

knife

or
is

the

hatchet.)

operation

of
is

paring

very simple so long as the grain

quite straight, or even

when
can

it

is

moderately
with the
along the

crooked, provided
grain
:

you

work

it

is

only necessary to push the chisel


lengtliAvise
chisel, like the sole

with a steady movement


piece,

and the back of the


prevents
is

of the plane,

its

entering too deep.

But when the grain


as the tool advances

very irregular, so that


find
it

you

working now
it

with the grain and


succession,
it

now

against

in

quick

will be

found best to work with

Wood - Working.
a sliding rather than a

89

pushing movement,
along
in the

obliquely, across the grain rather than


it.

Thus,

if

the grain runs as

shown

elevation A, Fig. 35, then, in paring the upper

edge,

shown

in plan at B, if the chisel


left,
it

moves
g, etc., c
it

from right to

will

work
c,

against the

grain in going over the spaces b

e,

and with the grain over the spaces a 6, e /, etc. It will be found best, then, as

d,
is

not practicable to reverse the direction of the

work
I

so often, to lay the chisel

on the work,

not as shown in Fig. 36, but obliquely, as in


Fig.
37,

and

in

moving the

chisel,

not only

90

Manual
push
it
it,

Training,

to

in

tlio

direction of the arrow

a,

but

same time, a sliding motion towards the right or loft. The tirst movement alone would make the chisel come out
to give
at the

at

the

second

would bring

it

out at P;

the two movements together


at
Q.

This sliding

make it come out movement of the chisel,


spoken
of (see

like that of the knife already


p. 4)
is

very important, and you should take

With it Avood can be pared smooth which would be quite unmanageable Avithout it. The reason of this can now be easily understood. The edge of a knife, chisel, or plane, however keenly it is sharpened, is ahvays more or less jagged like a saw. On some tools you can feel the inequalities or teeth with the finger, and even
pains to get
of
it.

command

Wood - Working,
when, as
not
feel

91

in a

well-sharpened

razor,

you canunder
a

them, you

can
the

see

them

microscope.

When

tool

has the sliding

movement
while, if
itself

that has been described, these teeth


crosswise

catch the fibers


it is

and cut them


it

off,

pushed straight forward,


the
fibers,

forces

between

as

wedge,

and

splits

them apart along the

grain.

Paying attention to the points just menmay now, drawing a straight tioned, you line on your piece of wood about a quarter of an inch back from the edge, pare the edge down to the mark, making it straight, square, and smooth. Test your work carefully with respect to all these requirements, and do not be satisfied till you have produced a really good result. When you have worked with the chisel or other cutting tool some time, it becomes dull, and does not cut well. If you examine its cutting edge you will find that instead of
being quite invisible, as
visible
as a bright
it

was

at

first,

it

is

shining edge, and instead

of feeling very keen to the end of the finger,


it is

smooth and rounded.

Under

a glass

it

92

Manila I

Training.

would appear as at a, Fig. 38, rather than as The keen edge must be restored by at h. sharpening on the oil-stone. A plane-iron and a chisel are Exercise 26. sharpened in the same way, and Sharpening a chisel. it is of the utmost importance that this should be done properly. Having
put a few drops
cc

of

oil

on
take

the
the

stone,

chisel in the right

j^

^^.^^

Fi.g.SS.

hand, place

the

beveled

face

on

the
press

stone
it

and

down

with two or three fingers of the


near the edge of the blade.
tool

left
first

hand held
place the
face

At
a.

on the stone so that the beveled


all

touches
right

over. Fig. 39,


little,

Then

raise

the

hand a

so

that
h.
:

only the small


careful

bevel shall touch, as at


raise the

Be
it is

not to
If the

hand too high

only necessary

to just miss rubbing

the

large bevel.

hand is raised too high, the edge will be worn away too much, and the angle of the

Wood - Working,
chisel will be too large.

93

Until the right


it

way
be

of holding

has

become habitual,

may

a^

noted

that

the

height

of

the

end of the

handle above the surface of the stone should


be about six-tenths of the length of the tool

and handle.
the
chisel
is

Thus,
10

if

the

entire

length

of

inches,

the

middle of

the

circular

above

end of the handle should be 6 inches the stone. In rubbing the tool on
the

the stone,

hand must be pushed to and fro parallel to the stone, not rising and falling a little, which would make the edge of the
tool round.
If

the
it

chisel

has

not been

neglected
it

too

long

will not be necessary to rub

much

94
It is

Manual Training.
only necessary to remove the roundness

just described.
will begin

When

this

is

done, the metal

to turn

up a

little

on the back,
This wireflat

making
edge
is

a roughness called a ^'wire-edge/' as


Fig.
40.

shown, exaggerated, in

removed by laying the

on the stone and


side

^_

/
J^ly.^O.

giving the tool


a

few

light

strokes.

It
this

must not be
operation,

at

all

tipped

up during
and
the

nor the operation continued long,


tool

or the
spoiled.

back will be rounded

or twice,

The operations being repeated once more and more lightly, a fine keen
tool, it

edge will appear.

In using any cutting

will
it

be found
frequently.

much
If this

the best plan


is

to

sharpen

done,

it

will

require only

a slight
of

rubbing each time, and the best quality

work can be done with a


order.

tool

thus kept in

When
often

the

tool

has
bevel

been
near

sharpened
the

very
be-

the

short

edge
is

comes

wide,

and

much

work

then

Wood - Working,
required
to

95

sharpen
be

it

on the

oil-stone.

It

ground on the grind-stone. the smaller long bevel, which makes angle with the back {D B, Fig. 34) is to be held on the stone, until it is ground away so

must The

then

far that

it

runs quite out to the edge at A,


care.

In doing this take


1.

To hold the

tool

steady at the proper

inclination.

To keep plenty of water on the stone, Heat would so as not to heat the tool. soften and spoil it. 3. To turn the stone towards the chisel,
2.

particularly

near the

end
chisel

of

the

grinding.
a

Turning
^^

it

from the
to
let

will

turn up

wire-edge," as in Fig. 40.


4.

Never

the stone touch

the back

of the tool.

When

the bevel

B, Fig.

34,

has

been

which will make the latter rough, a moderate rubbing on the oilstone will give it a smooth, keen edge. Having now pared one edge of your piece of wood straight and smooth, each of you may exchange pieces with his next
carried out to the edge,

96

Manual
and
edge.

Train/i/ng,

neighbor,
opposite

repeat

tlie

operation
is

on

the
for

This

exchange

made

the
to

purpose of giving

examine and the two kinds of wood that have been distributed through the class. The pine is called Avhite-pine. It is soft of the kind and straight-grained, and planes to a smooth, glossy surface if the piece is a good one. The tree is a fine evergreen which grows to a height of one hundred to one hundred and fifty feet in the woods of the Northern States and Canada, and sometimes has a trunk six feet in diameter. Its leaves are long slender needles '( ^^g- ^1)? growing

you an opportunity become acquainted with

FvaAt
in

groups

of

five,

each

group
find

making,
small

if

the several parts are pressed


plete

together, a

comspeci-

cylinder.

You
tree

can
in

mens

of

the

woods

and

parks

Wood - Working.
almost
to

97

everywhere,
seen

but
in

the

large

ones

are

be

only

the
are

wild

Northern
scarce.

woods,
It
is

and

even

there
its

getting
of

very different in

mode
of
its

growth,

the
the

shape

and
the

grouping
its

leaves,
tlie

and

character of

wood

from

yellow-

pine and

pitch-pine,

and

endeavor, as opportunity offers

you ought to in the workyourself


species
ac-

shop
their

and
uses.

elsewhere,

to

make
is

quainted
the

with

these

different

and
of

The white-wood tulip-tree, which is also


tree,

the

wood

large,

hand-

some
with
42.
It

with
not
that

fine

straight
leaves,

trunk,
as

and
Fig.

curious,
is

square-cut

in

an
is,

evergreen,
it

but a deciduleaves
in the

ous tree;
fall.

loses

its

It bears, in

June, a coarse, tulip-shaped,

yellow
Its

flower,
as

from

which
see,
is
is

it

is

named.
but

wood,

you
It

not

white,

greenish-yellow.
free

very

straight-grained,
easily

from
is

knots,

soft

and

worked,

and
in

much

used

in

house-carpentry, and

furniture

and pattern-making.

98

Manual

Training.

IjEsso:n"

XV.
Continued.

The

Cliisel

WHEN
the

greater

force has to be applied to

the chisel, as in paring across the grain,

handle

is

held
of
it

in

the

closed

right

hand, the end


the upper or

standing out a
side,

little

on
of

thumb
the

and the
towards
of

flat side

the

chisel

being

turned
the

the

body.
the

Leaning
shoulder
the tool

over

work and
handle

bringing
the the

against
is

chisel,

forced

downward
the

by

press-

ure of the hand and

the shoulder together.


oblique
or
sliding

In

this

case,

also,

movement makes the tool cut easier. As an exercise in this method of using
chisel,

the
last
^'

one end of the piece used in the


exercise
^'

Exercise 27.

may
"

be

'^

chamfered
edge.

or

Chamfering end-wood,
out, as

bevclcd

ou

the

work
Fig.

in

must be first 43 which shows

The marked
The

elevation,

plan,

and end elevation of the

piece.


100

Manual

Training.

line

F E

is

to

be drawn lightly, on one end,

with the gauge, in the middle of the thickness of the piece


face,

drawn on one with lead-pencil and square, at the same


;

(7

is

to be

J?
r-"

c
distance

from the corner that

E F
A

is;

A B
the

may

be ruled

with the lead-pencil and

edge of the square.

The
is

line

B, being on

the top of the piece,

visible in the
is

plan
dotted

C D, being on
elevation,

the

back,

dotted

on the

and

for

a like

reason,

is

end elevation. Holding the piece in the left-hand, by one end, rest the edge, at the other end, on a clean piece of
in the right-hand

on the bench. The bench may have dust on it, which would dull the chisel; and besides, chiseling on the bench destroys
wood,
the smooth
surface

not

that

it

ought always to

Wood - Working.
have.
that
is

101

The
to

piece should be held with the side

be

beveled

turned

from

you

leaning over, you will then have a good view


of the part

you

are cutting.

Setting the edge


a.

of the chisel near the corner, as at


press
it

Fig. 44,

down
off a
i^'

and cut
small

\
Fiq.^^,

chip.
setting
little,

Then
it

back a
to

as at

6,

cut off another,

and

so on.

As the

harder
will

become wider it will be drive the chisel down, and you


cuts

have to take thinner shavings.

Do

not

forget, particularly

when making
easier
if,

the last cuts,

that

it

will

work

while pushing the


(7,

chisel in

the direction

you

also

slide it

in the direction

A.

be a very light one,

The last cut should and made very carefully


as to

and

with

keen

chisel, so

leave the

surface quite plane

and smooth.
side of

After

chamfering one
the

the end
side

A,
the

mark and chamfer

other

of

same end, working the end to a sharp edge. Then chamfer the other two edges of the same end, working it to a point. As the

102

Manual
of

Training,

quantity
part

wood

to
is

be

removed
the

in

this

of the
easier,

exercise

less,

chisel

will

work
in

and the pressure of the shoulder

will not be needed.

You may hold


that
is

the piece

your

vise,

the end

to

be

beveled
bench, so

projecting

only a

little

above the
chisel being

as to be firm,

and the
25.

managed

as in

Exercise

Finally,

make
\,

a drawing

in plan, elevation,

and end

elevation of the

finished piece, to a scale of


3.

In the exercise just finished, the cut was


the grain.
is

made obliquely across made square across it


this
case,
off*

Wh^n
difficult.

it

is

more

In

be cut

and particularly when the piece to is so situated that the sliding movewell be used, a mallet
is

ment cannot
drive

used to
chisel
is

the

chisel.
left

In

this

case

the

held in

the
to

hand, nearly

or quite

per-

pendicular

the surface of the wood, and


last exercise,

with the same grip as in the

but

not bearing against the shoulder.

The ham-

mer must not be used


as

instead of the mallet,

this will deface

the handle of the chisel,


it.

and

after a while split

When

the position

of the

cut

will

allow

it,

some of the wood

Wood - Working,

103

may
saw,

be

removed by the

brace

and

bit,

or

a portion of the cut


before
chisel.

may

be
to

made with
use

the

beginning

^^^^^,3^ 28.
^^^^^'

the
a
''

The next
plan,

exercise,
illus^

through-mortise,''

will

trate
cise,

the

first

and the following exerthe second.

an

''

end
is

dove-tail,''

working sketch of one form of a ''mortise and tenon" joint. A and ^ are
Figure 45
a

A
1

"I
1

K
1

^cnv
1

n
T
^crrv.

^
/^crrv.

cv

4
J^t^^

7^

^
J)

^S

elevation and plan of the mortise and


I)

C and
are

of

the

tenon.

No end

elevations

needed.

The

dimensions are given in

centimeters,

104

Manual
is,

Training,

that

may
as
is

hundredths of a meter, that the eye become accustomed to Metric measures

well as English measures.

centimeter
(0'^39),

little

less

than

half

an

inch

meter

being a

little

more

than

a yard

(39 inches, or 3.28

feet).

An
that,

examination of

the drawing will show


pieces
piece,

when

E
or
in

and
"

are cut

out,

two the remaining


the
cut,
fit

tenon, '^

will, if

properly
G,

closely

the

hole or

mortise

and the

pieces will be firmly joined

togethef^ perpen-

dicular to each other.

To make
be

this

joint, the

pieces

planed
First

up

exactly

square

must and to
if

first

the

true dimensions.
sary.

Sharpen the plane


it

neces-

plane one surface of each piece


thus
x.

Next plane one adjacent surface on each piece true, and pertrue

and mark
to

pendicular
the
square.

the

first

surface, testing

with
the

Next,

mark

the

pieces

to

proper breadth and thickness with the gauge,

measuring
piece should

from

these finished

surfaces,

and

plane to the marks.

All four surfaces of each

now

be of the proper dimensions,


square.

and the

pieces

Set

the

smoothing-

Wood - Working.
plane
off

105

and finish only enough wood


fine

the
to

surfaces,

talking

make
joint,

the surfaces

smooth.

Now mark
lines
ful
a,
b,
c,

out

the

drawing
deep

the

d with

the

gauge,
too

being care-

not

to

mark
too

them
far,

nor

to

and draw the other lines with the square and a sharp lead-penBoth sides of the pieces must be cil. marked, and also the end of the tenonextend
piece,

them

C
use

D.
out
the
the
brace,

To
first

cut

wood

from the mortise,


three

with a center-bit
millimeter
a

or of of

four

millimeters smaller than the width

the

mortise

(a

is

tenth

a centimeter, or a thousandth of
is

a meter,

and
rule)

the

smallest division

on your metric
the
center-bit

Notice

the

way

in

which

The revolving knife-point or " cutter" first makes a circular cut, exercise 29. and then the revolving chisel, Boring with
works.
following
chip.
If

the
the
it

knife,

removes
is

center-bit.

cutter
will

not

sharp
a

on

the
cut.

front

edge

not

make

cleau

J 06

Mamial
it is

Training.

If

too short,

the

chisel will

cut before
for
it,

the cutter has prepared the


will
tear out

way

and

the

wood beyond the intended


the
cutter

circle.

Hence,
with

though
a
file

must be
the

sharpened
edge,

when

necessary,

sharpening must be done only on the inside

and
is

very carefully, for

if

the outside

edge

filed

the circle cut will be too small,


is

and
is

if

the cutter

made

too short the bit

spoiled.

With the
through
mortise.
It

center-bit

a hole

is

to

be bored
of

the

piece
is

near

each
that

end

the

necessary
quite

this

hole
or
it

should
will
cut.

go

through

squarely,

cut

away wood
other

which ought not

to be
first

A
the
of

few experiments

may

be

made
or

on

end

of

the

piece,

on

piece

waste

wood.

Mark

point

near

the

end, as

at

P, Fig.

46,

and

then

with

the gauge and square find the point exactly

Wood - Working.
opposite
J\

107

Hold

the

piece

in

the

vise,

the

end
the

standing

up
the

above

the bench.

Place

handle of

brace against the

breast, set

the point of

the bit on P, hold


to

the

bit

perpendicular
bore
brace.

the

surface,

and
the
soft,

begin
of

to

without altering the position

the

No hard
needed,
if

pressure

on
is

brace
as

will

be

the

wood
P"^,

pine or white-wood, and the bit in order.

When
aside,

you
holding

have

bored
of

about

stand

the end
altering

the brace in the


its

hand
side,

without
both
it

position,

and
the

examine,
face

from
is

above
If

and
is

from

whether
of

perpendicular to the surit

the

block.

not,

make
as
if

it

so

and go
of

on.

before

boring
the
at

Examine again once through. As soon


bit

or twice

the
it

point

begins

to

show,
or

comes out
one
or
pretty

the

marked

point,

within

two

millimeters,

you

have
to
as the

bored
the

well

and

may

venture

bore

holes for the

mortise.

As soon
side,

point

makes

its

appearance reverse the


other

block and
the vise,

bore from the

or clamp another

piece tightly against your piece in

108

Mamial

Training,

and bore through against


take one or the
the
bit

that.

Unless

you
it

other of
the
first

these

precautions

will

splinter

wood
a

when
series

comes through.
been
holes
bored,
as

The
in

two holes having


of

the

Figure,

may

be

each other,

made between them, touching and removing most of the wood


is

from the mortise.

The mortise
its

now
the

to

be
Avith

trimmed
the
a
piece

to

exact

size

and
on
the

shape
block

chisel.

To do
clean

this,

lay

on
set

of

wood

bench,

the

chisel

must be a mortise) upright on


(which
the
of

little
it

narrower than the

end

about \ inch inside mark, the fiat side towards the


it

by a smart stroke of the mallet. Pare away the wood at the the mortise with a wide chisel sides of drive the narrow chisel in again, and so on
drive
in
till

mark, and

the

mortise

is

cut

about
piece

half-way
over
other
is

through.
cut
in
little

Then
the same

turn

the

and
side.

way from
pared

the

A
to

wood has been


carefully

left,

which

now
the
in

be very

off,

holding

chisel

against

the shoulder as explained

Wood - Working,
the previous lesson, and

109

not to cut
also

beyond
be
sides

taking especial pains the marks. This paring


half-way
properly

should
of

continued
in

through

from opposite
sides

succession.
if

The four
finished,
to

the

mortise,

will
faces,

now
and

be

smooth,

perpendicular
pairs, to

the

parallel, in
is

each other.

The tenon
saw.''

to

be cut with the ''backseen, finer

This

is,

as

you have

than

the cross-cut-saw heretofore used, and


fully

if skill-

handled will leave the surfaces smooth enough without the use of the chisel. To avoid
the
risk,
it

however,

of cutting the tenon

too

small,

will be best, until


skill,

considerable

to

you have acquired saw not quite up to the

marks, leaving a very small amount to be pared


off

with the

chisel.^

If the mortise
cut,

they will

and tenon have been properly now fit closely together. The
tight.

tenon must not go in too


particularly sideways,
piece.
^

If

it

does,

it

will split the mortise-

If

it

does not enter


the
of

when driven with


of
this

Some particulars in when cutting lengthwise

management
grain
are

saw
the

the

given

in

next lesson (page 115), and

may

be noticed here.

110

Manual

Training,

must be withdrawn. The bruises on the surfaces will show where it fits too tight, and either it or the mortise must be pared down carefully till a good
gentle blows of the mallet,
it
fit

is

obtained.

liESSOis^

XVT.

The Chisel Continued.

End.

Dove -Tail.

two pieces that were put together in your last lesson can be pulled apart in one direction. The piece A, Fig. 47, can be drawn out from B towards the right, but the part o{ B which
projects above

THE

in

the figure prevents


the tenon from be-

1
Fi^.^7.

ing removed by a
pull upward, or in

the direction of the


arrow.
ed,

If we wish-

however, to get
of the
as

rid

projecting piece

above the tenon,

have a smooth corner, we should lose this advantage, and unless the tenon were narrowed, A would not be able to resist either
so
to

force

toAvard the right or an

upward
111

force,

but would

yield

in

either

direction.

If

we

112

Manual

T)^aining.

wish, in this case, to have

held

fast so that
it

there shall be one direction in which

can

be pulled without being withdrawn,


give the joint another
called

we must
is

shape.

This shape
its

the

''dove-tail,"

from
is

resemblance
48.
if

to the spreading tail of a

dove. Fig!

It

evident that

the
is

A
2r,.

>
.o

dove-tailed
fitted

piece

into

hole
it

of

the same shape,

can-

not be withdrawn by pulling in the direction


of
will in

the

arrow.

With
which

this

explanation

you

now
and

be able to understand the sketches

Fig. 49, in

and

represent the

plan

elevation

of the

mortise-piece,

and

those

of the tenon-piece, and

and

those of the two pieces put together.

The
planed

tAvo

pieces

are

to

be
as

first

carefully

true

and

smooth

in

the

last

The work is then to End dove-tail, be laid out. The thickness of A B {1^^^) i^ to be marked with a sharp
exercise.

Exe rcise 30.

on the upper side shown at (7, then, by means of the square, on the front side D, and then, from these
pencil

on

C D,

first

Wood - Working.
two
sides,
sides.

113

with
In

the

square,

on

the

other

two
ness

the
is

of

right-hand

face

same manner, the thickto be marked, first on the of A B, then on the front
J?

^
^f'/z-

face

shown

at

5, and

then

from

these

on

the other two.

Next the two inclined

lines

marking out the dove-tail are to be drawn on the upper face of 6^, then on the lower face, and then their ends are to be joined by lines drawn across the end of the
piece.

Lastly,

similar

inclined

lines

are

to

be drawn on the end of


extremities
right
lines
left

A, and from their

are
faces

to

be drawn

down
the

the

and

of

^ 5

to

cross-

114

Manual

Th^aining.

mark.

Mark with

a cross

x^

as in Fig.

54,

to prevent mistakes, the pieces of

wood

that

are to be cut
cut,

away, and

before

beginning to

put the pieces together and

make

sure

marks are right. The lines are all to be drawn with a very sharp pencil, so that if you cut exactly up to the center
that your

of each

line,

but not beyond, the dove-tail or

tenon and

the

hollow or mortise

shall

fit

perfectly together.

The cutting of the marked


the tenon-piece

portions
It

from
is

is

very simple.

all
is

done with the back-saw, and if the tool handled with skill, nothing will remain
the chisel.
quire
to

for
re-

To
skill

do
yet,

this,

however, would

more

than you can be expected

you may therefore cut not quite up to the marks with the saw, leaving a little wood to be trimmed off with the chisel. Be very careful, when trimming this off, to have your chisel as keen as possible, and to use the sliding
possess
as

and

movement
piece
also,

already described.
the
first

In removing
the

wood from the


part of

mortise-

the

work

is

Wood - Working.
done
right

115

with
in

the

saw.

Hold

the

piece

up-

the vise, place the saw just within

marks on the end of A, but very near them, and cut down to the crossmark. In making these cuts on ^, as well corresponding cuts on (7, and any as the others which go lengthwise of the grain, be careful not to hold the saw quite horizontally, or with the tip inclining downward, as in cross-cutting, but with the handle downward
the
inclined
as

in

ripping, as

in

Fig. 50.

Otherwise the

Ftg.50.

teeth

will

stick

too

firmly

in

the

wood,
In
in
cuts

and
C,

the

saw

will

jump, or
as
is

''chatter.''

making
this

cross-cuts,

the two short

precaution

not necessary.

116

Manual

Training.

When
cut

the two saw-cuts in the mortise-piece

have been
out
to

made,
piece

the
of

next

operation

is

to

the the

wood

between
as

them
in

down
last

cross-mark.

Here,

the

exercise,

the

work

of cutting

with the

chisel

may

be

lessened

by the use of the brace and bit


but
for

we
the

will,

sake

of variety in
exercise,

use

different
cut-

method,
tise

ting the mor-

with the
alone.

chisel

Lay the piece on the bench, with the dove-tail end from you and the right side (Fig. 49, B) up: this is the side on which the two cuts come nearest together (1^^.
I^i^.Si
Set the

edge of your one-inch

chisel

at

the

dotted line, Fig. 51, about

inside

of

H,

the

flat side

of the

chisel

being towards you.


mallet, driving

Strike a smart blow with the

Wood - Working,
the chisel in about a quarter of an inch.

117

Do

not strike a series of

feeble,

uncertain blows,
if

but one vigorous one.

You may,
it

you choose,

after placing the chisel, give it

one gentle tap

to
is

make

sure of starting

right (though this

not necessary), but


right, strike it

it is

when you are sure that boldly. Having driven the


an inch,
Set

chisel

in

about a quarter of
penetrate

you
it

have now compressed the wood so that


difficult

is

to

any

farther.

the

chisel

about a quarter of an inch nearer to


shall

the end, but tipped forward, as at b in the


Figure, so that
it

work towards the cut


It will

you have already made.


the
Set
little

thus throw out


in the Figure.
at
it

triangular chip
chisel
at

shown
again
drive

the
as
it

upright

the
in

same

point

first,

and

farther.

Move
again,

nearer

to

the end,

tipped

forward

and cut out another chip. Advance thus, till you have got half-way through the piece; then turn it over and proceed in the same way from the other side. Be careful not to let the chisel go through and strike the bench. If you cannot check it, place a piece of clean board under your work. As

Mann a
piece
to

Trainina.

the

be

cut

out

is

wider on

the
in-

second face than on the


cline

first,

you must

your

chisel right

under a
face

little

and left, so as to cut while working from the first


the second.

and

to

avoid cutting into the sides of


cut out, the three sides

the mortise

when working from


is

When
of the

the piece

mortise are to

be carefully

pared so

that the tenon will go in, fitting closely, but

not so tightly as to split the mortise-piece.

Lessoist

XVTI.

The

Chisel
will
left

Continued.

Dove-Tailing.
we

WE
We

now

return to the box which

unfinished in our thirteenth Lesson.

had got out the required material, cut it to the proper shape, and put it away to dry
thoroughly.

Examine the
them
to

pieces carefully for


if neces-

shrinking, warping, and winding, and


sary reduce
their

proper shape and

dimensions.

If they

have shrunk or twisted

much, it may be necessary to make them somewhat smaller than originally proposed, s^y tV^ ^ ^tV^12^'' for the long pieces, and
iV'xSii''^^
to be
7f'' for

the short pieces; but

it

is

hoped that

this will not be necessary.

The
which which

four pieces for the sides are

now

to be
52,

put together with dove-tail joints as in Fig.


is

a working drawing showing five dove-

tailed tenons
fit

on each end of the long pieces A,

into five corresponding mortises in

the ends of the short pieces B.

The
n9

pieces

e
--I
>

cv

cu

D D D
I I

3 3

I I

D D
I

3
f
I

]^[

<-

nvz

/?//."'-

B
Sactle
'/s

B
07-

6"=

}-l

{c?

a d
:

\n

D
!

d
T-t^, 5Z.

which stand out between the mortises in B^ and which might themselves be regarded as tenons
fitting

into mortises in A^ are called

^^pins/'

The

show end-views of the The interrupted pieces A and B respectively. lines at A and B have the meaning already exfigures

C and

plained on page

2.

These drawings should be carefully studied If they till they are thoroughly understood.
cannot
be

understood

otherwise,

you
121

may

122

Manual

Training,

examine a finished box and compare them After this the work is to be laid with it.
out in the following
First,

way

the lines a h are to be

drawn with
of A,

square and pencil on both sides


careful, as

being

before

explained, in

similar cases,

work from one edge and one face of the Then the lines c d are to be drawn on piece. the pieces B. Next set out on a 6 the eleven distances, of which those numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 are equal, those numbered 6, 7, 8, 9 are also equal, and the two end spaces are half as long as 6 and 7.
to

When

these

spaces

have
bevel,''

been

laid

out

exactly, the oblique lines

from a

be drawn with the


quite straight
first set

'^

f can provided e f is
h to e

to

The bevel must be the proper angle. Take a smooth


and square.
six

piece of board five or

inches wide,
face.

with

one straight edge and one smooth


piece that

The

you have used in previous exercises to place under your work to protect your bench will do very well. Near one end draw
a fine pencil-line across
it

Avith

your square.
along
the

Measure

from

this

line

an inch

Wood - Working.
edge
of

123

the

board,

and

four

inches

along

the line.

Place your bevel with the handle


exercise
3I.

against the edge of the board, set

the blade so that the edge of


shall pass exactly

it

Layi^out

through the two dove-taiis. points thus determined, and clamp it. With the bevel thus set, placing it against the end
of the piece A^ you
lines

can

mark

first

all

the

which slope
it

in one direction,
all

and then,
in

turning

over,

those that
will will

slope

the

other direction.

They

appear as in Fig.
be a
little

52 A,
at

The
is

dove-tails

wider

the ends and will


set
1,

hold a

little

tighter, if

the bevel

even of 3 to
ever, will
tails

with a slope of 3^ to 1, or This, howinstead of 4 to 1.


the acute angles of the dove-

make

and pins weaker, and

they
is

may

break off at

wood is soft the edges. The work


if

the

sometimes laid out with smaller pins and


dove-tails,

wider
lessens

as

in

Fig.

53
to be
If

A,

This
the
in

the

amount of work
rather
dove-tails

done, but

leaves

the pins

weak.
are

both

pins

and the

widened, as

Fig. 53 B, the

work has the appearanc

of too

much

sparing of labor.

You may

lay out, on

124

Manual

Training.

the edges
sets

and ends of your piece of board of dove-tails with different angles and

r-J"

rJ

^
M

t]
"-1
jF'i^^.

S3

compare them as to appearance and strength, and may select one for your work if you prefer to do so. Having marked out the dove-tails on one
spaces,

and

of the faces of A^ set the piece upright in the


vise,

and from the ends of the oblique

lines

Wood - Working.
draw
fine

125

lines

with

your square across the


If the

end is rough, you can make these lines clearer by first rubbing some chalk into the end-wood. After these lines are made, draw with the bevel, dovetails on the other face, to correspond with those already drawn on the first.
ends of the pieces.

Next
drawing,
outside

mark out
Fig.

the

pin-pieces

B,

The

52 B, shows that side of


the piece
in

B
is

on
the

which the pins are narrowest, which

when

is

its

place in the

box.

Lay the ends

the other side,


c

on your bench with or inside, up, and lay out on

d the same distances that you have already


h.

marked on a
distances

Be very

careful to have these


b.

exactly equal to those on a

Ap-

plying the square to the end of B, draw lines

through the points thus found, perpendicular to the end. Holding the piece upright in the
vise,

draw, with the bevel, lines on the end of


exactly
Fig.

B,
face

corresponding
of A,
as

with those on the


D.
Lastly,
face

in

52

with
of

the square, draw on the

opposite

the lines perpendicular to the ends as in 52 B,

When you

have marked out

all

the pieces.

126

Manual
the

Training.

hold

end-piece

upright

in

the

vise,

the face

being turned towards you.

Set

Exercise 32.
Dove-taiied box.

on B, the end IV turned from 7^^. ^ud assurc yoursclf, by care^^\ inspection, that the hnes on
exactly

the one piece correspond

with those
In-

on the
take
spect

other,

so

that there shall be no misto

when you begin


the

cut the pieces.


in

other

corners

the

same way.
I,

Mark
I
;

the corners that are to go together,


II
;

II,

III,

III

IV, IV.
as

Mark
in
Fig.

the parts
54.

that are
Ob

to

be cut out

This

Fi^. ^6h.
will

prevent the mistake, very


cutting out the
fine
all

common
''

with

beginners, of

wrong
called

pieces.

With
saw,''

the

back-saw,
cuts

dove-tail
pieces,

make
all

the

on

the

pin

and then

the cuts on the dove-tail pieces,


cut
close

being careful in both cases to

up

Wood - Working,
to

127

the mark, but not beyond

it.

If this
fit

is

skillfully

done
board

the

pieces

will

together

without paring.
a

Then, laying the pieces on

clean

on your bench, cut out the


to are

waste-pieces as in the last exercise.

The Not Not Not


Not

points to be specially attended


to cut a

to

wrong piece. cut beyond the mark.


the chisel too far perpendicucut
(Fig. 51)
side,

to drive

larly before
to

making an oblique
quite

cut

through
corners
of

from one

but to work from both alternately.

Not Not
if

to

let

the

the chisel cut

into the sides of the pins.


to drive
fit

the

pieces

violently together

they

tight.

"When
joint

the

pieces

are

put

together,

every
'^

should
the

be

perfectly

close,

the

ends of
^^

each piece should come just even or

flush

with

surface

of the

next,

and the box


all
its

should be perfectly square at


perfectly
free
'

corners,

from winding, and exactly of

the proposed dimensions.


[The glue requii'ed
for

the next lesson should be partly

prepared during this lesson.]

LiESSOis^

XYIII.

Gluing.

A
;

BOX

properly dove-tailed together would


its

preserve

shape without glue

or

any

other joining material, unless subjected to con-

To hold it in proper shape in spite of strains it must be fastened with and when properly glued it is imposglue
siderable strain.
sible

to get

it

apart without breaking, except


in water.

by soaking

it

To prepare glue, soak it over-night in enough cold water to cover it, and in the morning cook it gently for an hour or two
in

the inner bowl of the glue-pot, stirring

it

from time to time, and taking care that the


water
in

the

outer pot

does

not

boil

away
flow

and allow the glue


use,

to burn.

When
hot,

ready for
will

the

glue,

if

thoroughly
freely,

from a running
It
is

stick
ofl"

or

brush in a smooth thread,


but not
it

pretty

in

drops.

very
128

important that

should

be

of

Wood - Working.
just

129

the

right
into
If too

consistency.

If

too

thin,

it

will soak

the

wood without
and

acting as a

cement.
it

thick,

especially if cold,

will

make

a jelly-like layer over the wood,

preventing the pieces from coming in contact.


It is

not easy to describe the proper condition


glue, but

of

the

when you have


will

seen

it

few

times

you
it.

recognizing

It

no difficulty in may be remarked that the


have
to use
it

beginner

is

in

general disposed
;

too

thick rather than too thin


it

at
if

the same time


it

is

unmistakably too thin,

falls

from

the brush in drops with the sound of dripping


water.

After getting the glue of the proper consist-

have it thoroughly hot when used. It is worse than useless to allow yourself to be led by impait is

ency

equally

important

to

tience
right.

into

using

the glue before

it

is

just

Not only must the glue be hot, but the pieces to which it is to be applied must
be

heated

till

they

are

hot

to

the

touch

and the room in which the gluing is done must be warm, and free from draughts. No open window must be allowed near work

130

Manual Training,
is

that

being glued

(except

in

the

case

of

when heat is supplied in another way). Lastly, the work of gluing must be done quickly, so that the wood and the glue
veneering,
shall

have no time to
pieces

chill,

and

as

much

of

the glue as possible must be driven out from

between the
together.

by forcing

them

close

Bearing these particulars in mind you

may
First

now
put

proceed to glue your box together.


it

together without glue.

Set

two hand-

Exercise 33.
Setting hand-screws,

screws

to a width

equal to the

width of the box.

The proper
closc

way
it

to

Open

Or

a handis

screw,

when

requires

much

change,

to

take one of the screw-handles in

each hand,
face,

hold

it

with the open jaws towards your

and then revolve one hand round the

other,

making the jaws turn quickly between your


arms, and being careful of course that they do

not hit your face as they turn.


practice this

After a

little

becomes very
screws.

easy,

even

with
thus

rather

large

After

you

have

turned the screw to about


place
it,

the right width,

points downward, on the box, which

Wood - Working.
is

131

resting

on the bench, move

it

along

near

to

one end, but not so near as to rest on the dove-tails, and turn the front screw A, Fig. 55,

till

the jaws touch at the edge


till

C D.
is

Then turn
required in

the back screw B^


at

they take a firm hold

both edges.

Considerable care
to,

this operation,

avoid putting too

much

press-

132

Manual

Training.

ure on one part and too

little

yon tighten the front screw A pressure on the back edge will be excessive when you come to screw up the hinder one. If you do not tighten it enough, the screw will bite at the point and not at the back. If you find your first attempt unsuccessful, you must always loosen the back screw before
trying to readjust the front one.

on another. If too much, the

When
are

the

adjustment
exactly
tightened,

is

right,

the

jaws should appear


the
screws
well

parallel

when

and should
sssQlUZD

press equally

on point
ascin:)

and
is

heel.

Either of the positions in Fig. 56

faulty,

and tends
set

to break

some of the doveend so that


the joints
shape, loosen

tails,

while leaving others open at the joints.

Having
it

one screw

at each

shall

press properly, closing all

and leaving the box in good

Wood - Working,
the
still

133

back screws a little and the front screws only just enough to allow the less,
easily,

hand-screws to be taken off

and lay
See that

them on the bench ready


the
corners
of

for

use.

the

numbered so that them together again Place them in front


or on top of a stove.
if

box are conspicuously you can quickly place


in
their
fire,

proper

order.

of a

or in an oven,

If the last, they must,


hot,

the

stove

is

very

be

raised a little

from the
prevent
case

top

on small

pieces

of wood,
in

to

them from burning, and


be turned

either

from time to time. When they are well warmed, lay them one on top of another on your bench, in the order in which they are numbered, and, with
should
the least possible loss of time apply the glue.

This
size,

may
in

be applied with a brush of suitable


following way.
First

the

pass

the

brush

crosswise

over

the

wide sides of the

pins, not letting

the glue run over the ends


will

or backs;

enough glue
faces

run in on the
a
little

inclined

of

the

pins, or

may
the

be

rubbed

in

there

with

the

end

of

brush.

Next pass the brush crosswise over the

134
inside faces

Manual Training.
of the dove-tails, allowing a
little

to

run

inside,

but none on the ends or the


side
faces.

^^ Exercise 34.
^'

out

When

the two

pieces are driven together, every

surface of contact will have glue

on

it,

clean.

and all the outside surfaces will be Put them together quickly, driving

them

close with the mallet or

hammer

(strik-

ing on a strip of

wood

so as

not to bruise

them),
of

apply
as

the

hand-screws,

them up
glue

they were before.


be
forced

and tighten A good deal


the
joints.

will

out

of
to

This

must not be
it is

allowed

dry on
it

the

wood, as
it is

very hard to get


it

off

when
chisel,

dry.

Scrape off most of

with a

and wash off the rest with a piece of clean rag or a bunch of shavings wet with hot water.
without scratching the wood,

As
tions,

success in

this,

as in

all

gluing operait

depends greatly on quickness,

will be

well, the first time, to

rehearse all the move-

ments with a dry brush without glue, and not apply the glue till you are sure you can rapidly perform all and the movements
without confusion.

Wood - Working,
If the joints are

135

good and the screws propwill

erly applied, the

box
best

preserve

its

shape.

As

there

is

always, however, some risk of disit is

examine it carefully as soon as it is screwed up. The hand-screws will prevent you from applying a square, outside, and you will only be able to apply a small one inside, or to test the squareness by the eye, or by measuring the two diagonals, which ought to be equal. The winding may be tested by setting the box on your bench. Any error in squareness or winding must be corrected by loosening the screws, and applytorting
it,

to

ing a suitable glue


sets.

pressure

at

once,

before
are
to

the

After this the

screws

be

carefully

tightened

again,

and

must not be

disturbed for three or four hours,

when the

glue will be quite dry.

Lessois^

XIX.

Finishing a Dove-Tailed Box.


being glued together THE boxthe bottom glued have
fastened
finished
is

now
the

to

on,

top
all

on with hinges, and the surfaces

up true and smooth. To put on the bottom you must plane up the bottom edges square, smooth, and free from winding. Use the square and the smoothing-plane, and be very careful not to
splinter

the edges.
this at

There
ends,

is

much danger
The
that,

of

doing

the
the

corners.

front

and
in

back

overlap

so

while

running the plane along the edge of the front or back you will be planing lengthwise of
the grain, at
stroke
pieces,

the beginning

and end of the


to

you and
at

will will

run crosswise over the endbe very


likely
splinter

them

same way, in planing along the end-pieces you Avill be The likely to splinter the front and back.
the
edge.

In

the

136

Wood - Working,

137

way

to

avoid

this

is,

in

the

first

place,

to

have the plane


so
as

set fine,

and

in

the next, to

change the course of the plane


to

at the corners,

work

obliquely

instead

of

going

square across the grain of either piece.

When you true you may

have planed
as in

the

lower edges

glue the bottom on, taking the

same precautions
surfaces, the

the last exercise as to

the condition of the glue, the heating of the

proper manner of applying the

hand-screw, and the cleaning off of the glue


that flows out.
is

In cases like

this,

where
it

it

not easy to get at the glue to clean

off,

it

may

be prevented from sticking by rubbing

the

surface

with

soap

or

wax,

being

very

none on the surfaces which are to be glued together. Moreover, as you cannot easily get at the inside of the box to finish it up after it is put together, all the surfaces must be made smooth and clean
careful to get

before

it

is

glued.
is

When

the glue
as

dry you

may

finish

the

upper edges
lower ones,
height
already.
all

jou have already finished the and make the box of the same
if
it

round,

is

not

exactly

so

138

Manual

Training,
sides,

Next, finish up the


a sharp the
first

using as before
in
off

smoothing-plane.

vise,

Hold the box with one end up, and plane


''

the ends of the bottom.


are planing

In doing this

you
the

end-wood,'' or cutting across


fibers,

ends

of the

careful

not to

of the stroke.
Exercise 35.
pianing

must be very splinter the wood at the end To avoid this you must let
and
stroke
across

the

extend
the end,

only

half-

way
yQ^
the

and when

end-wood.

havc
in

thus
nearly

cut

dowu One
turn

corner
the

of

bottom
never

enough,

box

round

the vise
letting

other corner,
clear out

and plane the your plane run

to the edge.

Plane down the other


in

same way. As this work is rather hard, you had better, if there is much more than about an eighth of an inch to take off, cut off most of it
end
of

the

bottom

the

with the back-saw.


ends of the bottom,

After

planing

off

the
the

plane off the

sides of

same.
first

care,

The reason for not planing the sides is, that if you should, in spite of your splinter them a little while planing the

ends, the defects thus caused could be planed

Wood - Working.
out.

139
to be taken off

If there

is

mnch wood
first,

here, use the jack-plane

the smoothing-plane.
careful to

and finish with Here also you must be


bottom,
Lastly, plane

avoid splintering, not the

but the pins of the end-pieces.

up the four sides with the smoothing-plane, working from the corners inwards, and never
letting

the

plane

run

out.

Test for squareas

ness, straightness,

and

set

you work, the plane very sharp and fine for


is

and winding

the finishing strokes.

any glue on the inside, it can be best removed with a chisel when it has got quite hard, provided you have soaped or waxed the surface so that it cannot stick.
If there

IjESSOis'

XX.

Fitting Hinges.

YOU box.
elevation

are

now ready
Fig. 57

to put hinges

on your
to

shows a plan and an end

of a hinge.

When

applied

the

box the
is

upper half of the hinge

(^

to

be

sunk into
half into

the top, the edge


are
to

and
of

the the

lower
back,

and

both

be

fastened

two box

on with screws. Lay the hinges on the edge of the


intend
58,

where you
in

to

fasten
at

them, as

Fig.

not

the

ends, nor yet too near the middle.


i^^'y.

JK
fine

Mark
the

the length of the hinges on


edge,

and

with

the

square

draw
This

pencil-lines

across.

Next mark on

the edge the width the hinges are to occupy.


is

not the

full

width of the hinges, but

only the distance from the center of the pin


to the

edge of the hinge, because,


140

when

the

Wood - Working.
hinge
is

141

fastened

on,
59,

it

and the box should


center of the pin

appear as in Fig.
falling

the

exactly at the
of

corners

the

pieces.

With
set

two the
this

gauge

to

width,
width
scratch,

mark the
the
a
hinge,
light
b
I

of

loo

making only
and
hinge.

extend-

ing
of

it

only the length

the

Hold
the
58,

Fvg,J&.

the

top

against
Fig.

back, as in
transfer

without the hinges, and


cross-marks
to

the

four

the

top,

and then, with


square,

the
the

mark

length of the hinges,

and with the gauge

mark
Tvg. 59.
just
as

their

width,

on the edge.

Next,

mark
top

the

depth to which
In
order that
properly, they

the hinges are to be

sunk.
close

they ma}'

let
let

the
in

must be

exactly

half

142
their
If

Manual
thickness
into

Training.

each part

of

the box.
against

you place your gauge, the face A B, Fig. 57, and


point reaches
pin, this will

therefore,

set it so that the

exactly

to

the middle of

the

show how deep the hinge is to be let in. With the gauge thus set mark the back, and the edge of the top. All being properly marked out, lay the top on your bench, and cut out the pieces to This Exercise 36. make room for the hinges. operation is exactly the same as Fitting
hinges.

that of cutting a mortise, except

that

the
will

cut

is

very

shallow

one,

and

you
deep.

have to be careful not to go too

Place the chisel near one end of the cut

and drive

it

in,

nearly to the depth marked.


similar cuts about

Make

a series of

^ apart

along the length of the hinge.

This breaks

up the wood so that, holding the box in the vise, you can easily, by cutting across the grain, pare away the wood down to the mark.
Then, laying the piece on the bench again,
finish
left

cutting

away the
sides of

little

that has been


till

on the three

the spaces,

the

Wood - Working.
hinges exactly
the same way.
fit.

143

Fit

them

into the top in

Now
lay
in

put the hinges in place, without screws,


on,

the top

and
If

see

whether they are


cut

let

deep enough.

not, carefully

away

enough wood to let them into their proper places. If you should happen to cut away too much (which you ought not to do) you must glue a piece of card-board or shaving under the hinge to bring it up. Also, open
the top, put the hinges in place, as in Fig. 58,

whether the back edge of the top just touches the edge of the back all along.
see

and
If

all

these

adjustments are correctly made,

you may make a small hole with an awl exactly in the middle of each of the holes in the hinges, and put in the screws with your small screw-driver, being careful, before using any screw on the top, to assure yourself
that
it is

not so long as to go through.


the care you can take in putting
faults are likely to occur.

With
1.

all

on hinges, several

If the hinges are not let in deep

enough

the top will not shut close -at the back.


2.

If they are let in too deep, the top will

144

Manual

Training.

not close at the front,

or, if it is

forced shut,

a strain will be thrown on the hinges, and the

screws will be pulled out.


3.

If the space cut out

is

too narrow, the

hinges will stand out too


appearance, and
leaving

far,

giving an ugly

an

unnecessary

gap

between the top and the back when the box


is

opened.
4.

If

too

wide a space
top
will

is

cut

out, letting

the hinges

in

beyond the center of the


press

pin,

the corner of the

against the

corner of the back as soon as the top begins


to
rise,

and opening the top


the

will

force

off

the hinges.
5.

If

width allowed

for for

one hinge

is

greater

than that allowed


not shut

the other, the

top will

down

square over the box,

but will stand out, at the front, more on one


side

than on the other.


cause
it

The
Taking

of
is

any of
easy to
screws,

these

faults

being
the

understood,

apply

the remedy.
set

out

the

you

must

hinges deeper, or put something under them,


or set one or both
farther in or farther out.

Either of the above changes will oblige you

Wood - Working.

145

make new holes for the they may push tlie hinges
to

screws, so
in

that

the
old

proper
holes

direction.

Before

doing

this,

the

must be plugged up with small sticks whittled to the proper size and fastened in with
glue.

After the

top

is

hinged at one edge, the


front,

other three edges are to be finished, the ends


first

and then the


that

with the same prein

cautions

were

used

finishing

the

bottom.

A
on, to
will

small

brass

hook-and-eye

may

be

put

keep

the

box

shut.

This

operation

need no explanation.

LiESSOX XXI.

Making a paneled Door.


Dra^wing.
Lesson INyour boxXIII you and put

Isometric

planed up the sides of

them away; and when you took them out again you found that they had shrunk in width though not in length, and you measured the amount of the shrinkage. You found also that some of the pieces had checked, and some had warped. When large pieces of wood are used,
shrinkage, warping, and checking give rise to
serious
trouble.

Thus, in

door

30 inches

wide shrinkage
or more,

may amount
to

to half

an inch
appear.

and warping

an inch, and long


to

and wide cracks are almost sure


once for
all,

Moreover, the shrinking does not take

place

and then come to an end, but the wood having once shrunk may swell again, and shrink again, and so on repeatedly. Doors that are exposed to the dry air of
146

Wood - Working,
houses

147

which are heated in winter become very loose, but sometimes swell up in summer The shrinkage will be so much as to stick.
the

less if

wood has been thoroughly

seasoned,

but the swelling in


be prevented.

damp weather can hardly


never

Doors
piece,

are

therefore

made

one

but are always


as

constructed of parts,
so

arranged
as

to
as

reduce

much

possible the bad effects of these There are changes. two principal methods
of

construction
this
is

by which
is

ac

complished.

The first

the battened door


the

and

second the
door.
is

paneled
of

The

battened door
strips.

made
.

JFi,y.60.

Fig

60,

running
together

lengthwise

of

the door
or

and

held

by

cross-strips

battens^ fastened

148

Manual

Training.

on with screws or nails. As the wood shrinks only in width and not in length, the shrinking
of the
strips

will

only

cause

the edges to
little,

separate a

and
the

will produce scarcely

any
I^lof.61.

change
of

in

width
this

the

door.

The warping,
case,

also, in

will

be

While a piece the whole width of the door might warp, as at a, Fig. 61, a battened door would appear as at h. The separating of the strips, leaving cracks in the door, is prevented by using matched boards, or ''tongue and groove" joints, as shown in the plan Fig. 60, or on a larger
small in amount.
^^
''

scale in Fig.
62.

In

this

case
tongues

the
slip

Fv^.62.

partly
of

out

the

grooves

when
the

the

wood

shrinks,

but

do

not used

leave
is

joints

open.

This

construction

simple

much

where

and effective, and is workmanship and fine

Wood - Working,
handsome
as

149

appearance
doors
of

are

not

important,
outhouses.

in

the

barns

and
is

For dwelling-houses and in cabinet-work the


paneled door
is

used.
<

This

frame-work

mortised

to/>?"
r

gether at the

corners, and

grooved

'^ L

all

round on the
inner edge to
receive a thin
a^

...2

piececalledthe
pariel,as shown

in Fig. 63.

The
o
f

shrinking

the panel only

causes
slip

it

to

"'L

r-::i

the groove. As the


in
cross-pieces at

the top and bottom undergo no chang in length, the only alteration in width that the door will suffer is the slight one due to the shrinking in the

150

Manual

Training,

width of the two upright


proceed
to

pieces.

We
from

will

make

such

door

the

figured sketch, in
tion,

B
a h.

which A shows the elevathe plan, and C a section on the


step
is

line

The
called
stiles,

first

to

get out

the material.

This consists of the


the
rails,

top and

bottom
sides,

pieces,

the

upright
of

called

and the thin


the

central

piece

or panel.

Take

dimensions

these

from

the
of

drawing, and

mark them out on boards


and
for the material

the proper thickness,


for the saw-kerf

being careful to allow

which

will

be wasted in planing up the pieces to

the true shape and dimensions.


as

Furthermore,

the mortises will the


stiles,

of

the
the

be very near the ends latter may be cut 1^


so
as

longer
project

than
%" at

door,

that
in

they
the

may

each

end,

Figure,

and the tenon-pieces, or rails, may be made longer than the width of the door, so that the tenons may project ' beyond the the stiles till all is finished, after which The rails, projecting parts can be cut off. long and therefore, will be cut out

the stiles

2\' long.

Wood - Working.
In laying out the frame,
VIII. to avoid
try, as

151

in

Lesson

knots and cracks, and at the

same time The four

to waste as httle

wood
laid to

as possible.

pieces

may

be

out
the

in

one
be
at
off

way
of
cut.

or another, according

character
to

the
If

wood from which they


the

are

board
in
Fig.

were
64,

much checked
you should cut

the end, as

just

enough might then


cracks

to

remove the short


remain

cracks,

and
the
in

lay

out the work so

that
lie

long
^_^

which

should

11^7/
CO
'~
N
|_

/
<
-^~
*"

"Zi

|_

<
III

"

the waste-wood
pieces.

left

at the

ends of the short


a.

If there

were a bad knot at


to fall

Fig,

65,

this

might be made

in the waste-

152

Manual Training.
rails

wood between the


on,

and the
position

stiles

and

so

according to the

and character

of the defects.

The
to

frame-pieces

being

cut out, they are

be finished to exact dimensions and true


as

surfaces

in
to

previous
be

lessons.

The

joints

marked out with gauge, square, and pencil, making all gauge and square marks from the front surface and inner edge of the pieces, which must be marked to distinguish them. The laying out of the joint in this exerare

then

cise

is

complicated
of
of
these
less
is

by

two
the

circumstances.

The
be
of

first

that

tenon
full

must
width

made
the

width than the


the
of
is

rail,

in

order that

mortise
the
to

may
stile.

not run out quite to the end

The second
in
this

is,

that

groove

be cut

the

inner

edge of the

four

groove, unless a special


to

and arrangement is
pieces,

made
of

prevent

it,

will
stile

leave

hole

be-

tween the end of the


the
mortise, as
at
a,

and the shoulder


in

shown
66.

the sketch of
this,

one joint

Fig.

To prevent
is

a projecting

stud,

or

tooth,

left

on

the

Wood - Working,
tenon-piece, as
at

153

shown
67.

in

plan and elevation

a and

b,

Fig.

This construction, and the method of laying


it

out,

may

be

better

understood by the help


of another kind of draw-

...c:

<^

ing called Isometric Projection, the

J^vff.66.

elements of

which can be easily understood. The elevations and plans that we have on planes projections hitherto used are
parallel to the
front,

bottom,
sides

and
is

of

the object; that


to say, they

are views taken

from

point

at a great dis-

jj

tance in front
a,

of

the

object,
it,

Tt^.e/.

above

or to
it.

one side of

The eye being


the object,
if

at a

very great distance from


be placed parallel
to

a plane

154

Manual

Training,

the face of the object, the lines


all

drawn from
are

points

of
to

the object

to

the eye are perlines

pendicular

the
all

plane.

If

thus

drawn
in
is

from

points

on

the

edges

and

other lines of the object, they cut the plane


a

number
the

of

lines

which make up what


of the
object.

called

projection

The

elevations

and plan already drawn are such projections, and are called
right
projections.
If

we take

our point of view not exactly


in

front
to

of

the object, but a


side,

little
is

one

or

if,

which
turn
front

the

same thing,
so

Ave
its

the
is

object

that
to

not

parallel

the

plane

of projection,
of the
object

the
is

appearance
called

changed, and
is

the

projection

an
nar-

oblique projection.
Tz^,e<9.

The

front

of

the

object

appears

rower, and the side, which was


invisible
before,

comes
68.

into

view.

Suppose,

for instance, the object

were a cube, of which


Then, on the plane

the

plan

is

A, Fig.

Wood - Working.
of
projection,

155

the

front

of

it

appears as a
side
if
C,

square, in the elevation B,

and the

is

not seen at
69, the

all in this elevation.

But,

the
Fig.

cube be turned round to the position


front
face

will

appear
''

narrowed, or
''

foreshortened
be,

to the

width

hand

face

and the rightwill come into

view and will have the

apparent breadth c cL The elevation, therefore, will now present the appearance shown in D, Fig. 69, where b cf g
represents

one

of

the
!

J?

visible faces of the cube,


c

d
i

hf

another, and
b e i

and

g the two
rear
faces.

d
Tv^.
right,

invisible
If

or

69.

we take
still

the point of
farther
to

view
object

the
the

or

turn

the

becomes apparently narrower, the right face wider, and the two appear presently of equal width.
farther

round,

front

156

Manual

Training.

This happens

when

the square
its

C,

Fig. 69, has


is

been turned so that


ular to the plane of

diagonal

perpendicE, Fig.

projection, as at
70.

The elevation then


as
b

appears

at
c

F,

in

which a
resent

and

d repof

the

faces

the cube, and


of

appear
If,

equal

width.

now, we take our point


of view

not only
higher,
will

to

the right of the object,

but

also

the

vertical

lines

be

foreshortened also, the

upper surface will come


into view,

and the cube


point
of
still

will appear as in Fig.


71.

If

the

I'igJO.
will
as

view
to appear of

be

taken

higher, the edge

P Q

be

made
and
are

the

same length
dimensions
are

P R

S,

Fig. to

72.

All

which
equally

parallel

either

edge
the

then
is

foreshortened,

and

drawing

Wood - Working,
called an isometric
jection.

157

drawing or isometric prolines

The dotted
of

in

Fig.

72

show

the

edges

the

cube

that

are

concealed.

The drawing of a cube


on
this

system

is

thus

seen to be extremely

simple that of a body


:

with unequal dimensions


is

not
its

difficult,

provided
other.

faces are

perpendicular to each

J^i ^.Yt i
a

Thus,
to

if it

is

required

represent

body of this shape whose length, breadth, and thickness are respectively 3^', 2^', and V\ we have only to draw three lines F Q, P R, and P 8, Fig. 73,

making equal
to lay off

angles

with each other, and

on the one

three units of length,

on the second two equal units, and on the third one of the same units, and complete

158

Manual

Training,

the drawing as in the figure.


of

The drawing
''

the

three
is

lines,

or

''

axes

Q,

R.

and

PS

easily accomplished, as in Fig. 74.

J^7>^ 73,

Q
radius.

Draw

circle

with an}^

From

the

highest

point

the radius six


points

on the circumference lay off times, and through the alternate


axes.

draw the three

To

secure accuracy
least

the radius should be taken

at

as

long

as the longest line in the drawing.

now, to make a few isometric drawings of simple objects, such as the


It

will

be

well,

box of Lesson XX., the through mortise of Lesson XV, and the end dove-tail of Lesson

XVL,

to

accustom the eye to the ''reading'' of

Wood - Working.
such drawings.
those
It

159

will

be readily seen

by

who understand
draw-

ordinary

perspective

drawings, that
isometric
ings
differ

from
in
true

these
giving

only
the

dimensions of the

remote
as

as

well
of
parts,

of

those

the

near

while perspective

drawings

make
rz^^. r^.
scale

the parts that are farther away


be applied to them.

appear smaller, and therefore a

cannot

Lessor XXII.
Paneled Door Continued.

FIG.

75

is

an isometric drawing of a part


a

of one of the stiles of the door, showing

the mortise and the groove, and Fig. 76

is

1^1^.7^.

n^. 76.

similar drawing of the end of the rail or tenonpiece,


is

turned round so that the shoulder

A B
will

towards you, and the tenon


are visible.
160

C and

the stud

From

these drawings

you

Wood - Working,
be able
to

161

understand the

way

of

marking

out this joint.

As the tenons are to project half an inch beyond the stiles, and as these are 2^ wide,

Tt^.YZ
a

mark
3^'

is

to be

made
end,

first,

all

around each

and a second mark 10^' from this, which will be 3'^ from the other end. These are the marks at A B, Fig. 76, which show the shoulder of the tenon.
rail

from

the

162

Manual Traming.

They should be interrupted on the outer edge


at tlie middle, as at
Exercise 37.

D, so as to prevent
of
cutting
across
to

tlie

mistake
^tud

tlie

The paneled
Door.

whcu you begin

saw.

Next the thickness of the tenon is to be marked with the gauge on the edges and ends of the rails as at E, always working from the front face. Then the breadth of the tenon is to be marked by drawing, with the gauge, lines ^ and 2^' from the inner edge, being careful not to extend them beyond the cross lines at D and F, Lastly, the length of the stud D is to be marked with the square, and its breadth with the gauge. The marking will then appear as in Fig. 77. The marking out of the mortise is simpler, and is shown in Fig. 78. Light marks P Q may be made 3i'' from the ends of tlie stiles, which will be 15^^ apart, and will indicate
the positions of the inner edges of the
or the
inside
rails,

length of the frame.


these
will

Marks

S 2' from
length of

indicate

the

outside

the

frame.

These should both be

drawn

light, as

either of them.

no cutting is to be done on They may indeed be omitted,

Wood - Working,
though they serve
vent mistakes in
laying
rest.

16;

as a

useful check

to

pre-

out

the

Marks on the inner and


outer
edges,
i^^

and
will

2^'

from
of

PQ
the the

show

length

mortise;

gauge
with
the

and marks
gauge
B,

set exactly as in

drawing A
Fig. 77, and

measwill

ured
front

from the
face,

show the width


of

the

mortise.

^1^.76".
78,

The marking will


appear as in
lines

which the dotted The groove for are on the rear faces.
Fig.

in

the
It

panel
appears
it

is

not

shown
;

in

these

figures.

in

Fig. 75

and the method of


it

marking

out and cutting

will

be shown

in the next Lesson.

164

Manual

Training,

The marking being now


ting out proceeds as follows
:

finished,

the cut-

With the backFig.


77,

saw cut
the lines

first

the

lines

B,

then

and
stud

F, observing that

must not be cut


to

so

deep as

F,

in

order

leave

the

make
pieces

the cross-cuts

L B uninjured. Next G H, I J, I K, and / K,


The
side
ofi*,

being careful not to cut too deep.


will

then

fall

leaving the

tenon

complete, except the stud


still

B,

of the same thickness as

The stud is the tenon, and

must be pared down to the proper thickness with the chisel, by taking off 8^' from its back face, as shown in Fig. 77 and in Fig. 67 a. The tenon, also, will need some paring, if you have not cut exactly to the marks with the saw but you must not in any case cut beyond the middle of the mark. The mortise may be cut with the centerbit and chisel in the same way as in Lesson XV., page 89, or with the chisel alone. The breadth of the mortise being small and its
;

depth considerable, the bit will be apt to mar


the sides of the cut, unless
it
is

held exactly

perpendicular

to

the face of the piece

and

Wood - Working.
kept very steady.
cut

165

and for the sake of practicing the other method, we


this

For

reason,

will
alone.

out

this

mortise

with

the

chisel

Lay

the

edge up.

your bench, with the To steady it, you may first lay a
piece

on

To^. 79.

hand-screw on the bench, then


in
it

set

the piece
Fig. 79.

and

tighten

the screw, as in

With

alternate

perpendicular

and

oblique

166

Manual Training.
described on page 116, cut the mor-

cuts, as
tise

half-way through the piece.


piece

the

over
other
four

and
side.

cut

in

Then turn the same way


the

from

the

When

two cuts

meet, the

surfaces

are to

be pared to

the marks, using a wide chisel for the sides,

and being more than


If the

careful

not to cut away anywhere


the

half

width of

each

mark.
in

paring of both pieces has been propfit

erly

done, the tenon will


If
it
fits

closely

the
is

mortise.

so

tightly that there


it

danger of splitting the mortise-piece,


be carefully pared away a
little
''

must more. The

tenon cannot be driven quite


stopped
for

home,'' being

this

by the stud. Room will be made by cutting the groove, which is

the next operation.

Lesson XXIII.
The
Plovs^.

Fitting
for

a Panel.
purpose
plow.
Its
is

THE kind
tion

tool

used

this

of plane called

mode
of

of action will be understood after an examinaof

the
itself.

accompanying

Figure

and

the tool

The
^'

iron
b

d,

Fig. 80, cuts the groove.

The
the

fence''

determines

the

distance
piece.

of
It

groove
be
set

from the face of the at any distance from


c.

can

the

iron

means of the screws


can
be
raised

or

The stop a, lowered by the screw


of
set

by which
e,

regulates
exercise
it

the

depth
so

the
at
^^\

cut.

For

this

must be

and the fence


shall be
^''

must be

set

that the groove

from the face of the frame. Before venturing to use the plow on your frame, you should try it on a waste-piece, and assure yourself
that

the

you can cut a smooth, clean groove at proper distance from the face of the
167

168

Manual

Training.

frame and to the required depth. has an assortment of irons, or

The plow
"bits,"

of

J^i.^. 80.

different sizes

for cutting

grooves of different
that

widths.
Exe rcise

For
38.

this exercise the l" iron will be

used.
fg

Remember
If
this

the plow

Grooving,

to be

placed against the front

surface of

each piece.

precaution

is

neglected, the grooves in the several pieces will

probably not match at the corners, and the panel cannot be got in. The grooves must not be planed beyond the depth indicated.

Wood - Working,
for
if

169

cut

too

deep

they

will

weaken

the

much. The grooves being cut, the which have been left to fill them studs will go into their places, and all the joints
pieces too

should

fit

quite
left

close.

If
it

too

much wood
be carefully

has been

anywhere
if

may
has

pared away;
there
is

too

much
panel,

been
plane
it

cut off

no remedy.
the
first
it

To prepare

to

the proper thickness, and

finish

with the
edges
other,

smoothing-plane.
straight

Then

plane
to

two
each

and

perpendicular
in

being

careful,

planing the end, to avoid


Lesson XIX., page
to

splintering, as
138.

directed in

Then

cut

the

piece

the

proper
the in-

length and breadth, remembering that these


are
side

not the length and


of

breadth of

the panel,

but V^ more, on account


be
the
of

of the

depth of the groove.


panel
is

The

next

to

fitted

to

groove by

chamfering.
(V^)
all

Mark

the

width

the chamfer

round the
lightly

face

with a
gauge,

lead -pencil, or very

with

the

and the depth (^'') on the edge in the same way. Lay the piece on the bench, its edge

170

Manual

Training.

being just even with


fasten
it

tlie

edge of the bench,

down with
again

hand-screw, and plane

the chamfer carefully to the


Exercise 39.
Fitting a panel,

mark
is

all

round,
avoid

being

careful
If this

to

splintering.

properly
''^

done, the panel will have a thickness of f at a distance of half an inch from the edge, and
will

just

fit

in

groove as shown in Fig. 81.


the
In
this

Figure,
ScaZe
^/i

the
which
before
fine

shading,
has

been

introduced
in

once
Fig. 63,
lines
c,

indicates

cross-section,

ruled

being

generally

used

for

metal, and
for
fits

somewhat

coarser

free-hand

lines
if
it

wood.
tight,

Do

not drive the panel in


it

but ease

carefully

till

it

enters
is

freely

without looseness.
of
it

The

flat

side

to

be turned towards the front of the frame.

The frame
thicker than
the

the

door
the

has

been

made

ought to

be, in
stiles

order to lessen

risk of splitting
It

while making

the mortises.

may now

be taken apart and

Wood - Working.
finished to

171

proper thickness.

This

is

not
take,

the course that a skilled

workman would

nor that which you will follow


such
cases.

hereafter in

Setting your gauge at i^\

make
at
it

mark on both
distance
ljQ^\

edges of
front.

each

piece

that
at

from the
a
front.

Then, setting
at

make

second

mark

this

distance
to

from the

Plane the

faces

exactly

The thickness of the frame will then be reduced to 1jq^\ and the groove will be l^\ from the front, and y\^' from the back,
these marks.

the latter the

distance

being

left

larger

because

chamfer brings the back surface of the

panel nearer to the surface of the frame than


the front, as

shown

in Fig. 81.

LiESSOx

XXIV.

Chamfering.

Sand-Paper. Shellac.
be glued together and

THE door may now afterwards


ing-plane,

finished front

up with the snioothinner


first.

or

the

edges
Fig. 82

of

the

frame

may
is

be chamfered
is

shows
line

how

the chamfer

to be laid out.

The

^ ^

drawn with a sharp pencil on the


and the line C D on this the same distance from the front.
used in preference to the gauge,
is

front of each piece, at a distance of j\^^ from

the inner edge,

inner edge at

The
and

pencil

is

because, unless the latter


skillfully, its

used very lightly

mark

is

apt to

show on the
at

finished work.

The chamfer may be terminated


end by a simple inclined cut, Fig. 82, or by an ogee, as at
as at

each

and 0, B and D, For the former, mark the point a from the inner corner of the frame, A and C one inch from 0, and corresponding points at the

172

Wood - Working.
other end of the piece.

173

For the

latter,

mark
0.

as

before,

and

and

1^"

from

To cut the chamfer. First with the beveled end. Hold the piece in your vice; set
the
chisel near
a,

the

flat

side

Exercise 40.

towards 0, and cut extending


the

make an
nearly

inclined chamfering a

down

to

frame,

ruled

line,

and

throwing
it

up a
about

chip.

Turning the

chisel round, set

be-

174

Manual

Training.

yond
a,

or

(7,

and cut out the


clean
a cut
as
let

chip, leaving
close to

a notch.

Cut again, with the


as

chisel

making
very
a

you

can,

and
B,
left

being

careful

not to
the
a

the chisel go
line

even

little
it

beyond
does
so,

ruled

because, if

mark
such

will

be

on the chamfered surface which you cannot


remove.

Having

made

notch

at

each end of the chamfer, you edge not quite

may

score the

down to the two marks, and pare it down, making a plane surface inclined to the face. You will find tliat it is not easy perfectly true. to make this surface The
points
to

be

attended

to

in

order to secure

good
1.

results are:

To keep

the chisel very


it

sharp,

and

in

particular, not to let

get in the least degree

round on the back.

To give it constantly the sliding movement which prevents it from following the
2.

grain of the wood.


3.

As you
chisel
it

get nearly

down
flat

to the required

depth of
the
that

the chamfer, to

keep the back of

lying quite
act
as

on the

surftice,

so
all

shall

plane,

removing

irregularities.

Wood - Working.
4.

171

To take
end
to

care,

while

cutting
or

either

the

inclined

of

the

chamfer,

the

long

plane surface, to
surface, but

make no mark on the other make the two surfaces meet


and smooth
\

in a perfectly sharp

line,

perpen-

dicular to the edge.

You

see

that

it

is

impossible
it

from

the

nature of the chamfer, to finish


the plane, and that
cellent
fer
is
it

up

with

requires, therefore, exchisel.

work with the


several
feet

If

the

cham-

long, the

smoothing-plane
it,

can

be

used

in

the middle of

but even

then the ends have to be finished with the


chisel.

Fine

sand-paper

is

sometimes

used
4I.

in finishing

up such a

surface, a

exercise

piece of

it

being held on a block


to

Sand-papering.

of

wood and rubbed


to allow

and

fro,

taking great

care not

block, as this

any rocking motion of the would give a rounded surface


in

instead of a plane one, nor to leave the paper


loose

on

the block,

which

case

it

will

wrap round the corner of the work and produce the same result. Even with the utmost
care

that

can>

be

taken,

the

sand-paper

is

almost certain to take off the sharp corners

176

Manual Training.
characterize

that

good work, and should not


a very
off
fine

be used, unless, as in this case,

shaving
to

can

afterwards

be

taken

with
face,

the smoothing-plane
restore

from the adjacent


edge.

the sharpness of the

The ogee end of the chamfer is more difficult than the plane end. The curved surface to be formed is concave at a. Fig. 83, and convex The part at h.
a should be cut
first.

The

chisel

is
JF'iyg.SS,

set

with
in

the

handle towards
the
left

the

Figure,
hevel side towards

and the
the
it

the wood, a
cut

little to

left
is

of

a,

and

small
the

made.
towards
the

Then
the

turned
the

with

handle
towards

right,

bevel

still

wood, and

the

chip cut out.

These operations are repeated,


the cut,
till

gradually

widening
proper
size.

the hollow
cut
is

most inclined at the beginning of the hollow and level at the bottom, the handle of the chisel must be depressed as you approach the bothas
the

As the

Wood - Working.
torn,

177

and care must be taken


from
of

to

prevent the
the
opposite
surface
b

tool

making
hollow.

mark on
The
the

side
is

the

convex
the

cut with

the back of
as

chisel

towards
surface,

the

wood,
is

in

cutting

plane
to

and
entire

comparatively

easy
like

form.

The
sur-

curved

surface,

the

plane

face of the chamfer,

ought to be formed with


If

the

chisel

alone.

smooth with the


of very
fine

chisel,

you fail to get it you may use a piece


0)

sand-paper (No.

in
x

the
^^^

fol-

lowing way:

Prepare
flat

stick, J''

5^\

Cut one of the or your chisel,


it

faces

with
a

your

knife
that
at

to
fit

such
the

curvature

will

nearly

hollow,
at

touching
sides.

the

bottom,

but

not
the

the

Glue
it

a piece of sand-paper on this, and use


a
file

as

to

smooth
is

hollow.

Even
rounding

with
the

this

there

danger of your

and particularly of spoiling the sharp point of junction at c, between the ogee and the straight edge of your piece. You will do best, therefore, to endeavor to avoid
surface,

the use of sand^paper in such cases as

this, re-

garding

it

as

the resource of

an

unskillful

178

Manual
This,

Training.

workman.
derstood as
it

however,

is

not

to

be unuse
of

condemning
are

the

proper

on broad surfaces
there

to give a

smooth

finish,

when
to

no corners that are


it.

likely

be injured by

The chamfered edges being now you may pass the smoothing-plane,
fine,

finished,
set

very

once over the inner edge of the pieces of


gkiing

the frame, and over the surfaces of the panel,


before

them
is

together.

The

other

surfaces can be finished afterwards.

The panel
groove, but

not

to

be

glued
it

into

its

left

free, so

that

can be

shrink
best
to

without

splitting.

It

will

even
the

rub

some
its

soap

or

wax on

corners, to

prevent

being accidentally stuck

by

the

glue which will squeeze out of


If

the joints.
large

you have no hand-screws

to

span the width of the


of

enough frame, you may


follows

proceed, in this and similar cases, as

and B, Fig. 84, three or four inches wide, and as long as the inside of your frame. Fasten them down on your bench parallel to each other
Provide two
strips

board,

with hand-screws, so that

the door

will

lie

Wood - Working,

179

between them, with about an inch to spare. Lay two pairs of wedges in the open space,

and d. By driving the inner wedges outward you can force the stiles exercise 42. up close against the shoulders of Giving up a
as at c

the tenons.

In putting the frame


first

panel frame,
stile

together, insert

two tenons into one

TCq,6^.

d
\
[
]

and drive them home then put in the panel, and lastly put on the other stile and drive it up tight. Put no glue on the inner edge of the tenon, as whatever is put on here will be
;

180

Manual

Training.

driven out into the grooves and will tend to


fasten
ness,

the

panel.

Test the frame for square-

and correct any error, before allowing the glue to set, by gentle strokes of the hammer on the proper corners, protecting the edge with a block of wood when you strike it.

When

all is dry,

cut off the projecting ends


careful

with the back-saw, being


too close, or

not to cut
outer edge

you

will

deface

the

of the frame.

Finish up with the smoothingthe

plane, observing

precautions indicated in

Lesson XIX., page 138, to avoid splintering.

The
shellac
tect
it

surfaces

of the

door

may

be

finished

with shellac varnish, which consists of white


dissolved
in

in

alcohol.

This will

pro-

part

from the
will

effects
it

of moisture.

Exercise 43.
Finishing with
shellac.

and

allow
to

to be cleaned

^^^
all

^imc
a

time.

Sand-paper

broad surfaces and wipe them

clear

of

dust

with
free

clean

rag.

Then, in
with a
let
it

warm room,
brush,

from

dust, apply

flat

one coat of varnish, and


necessary to spread
it

dry.

Do

not pass the brush over the varnish


is

oftener than

smooth.
is

Passing the

brush

over

it

when

it

begin-

Wood - Working.
ing
to ^^set/' or dry,

181

breaks

up
if

the
left

smooth
to
itself.
it

surface

that

it

would form
too

Do
flow
it
is

not put on

much

at a time;
''runs/'
first

will

down

the sides and

form

which
coat
is

hard to remove.
hour,

When
be

the

thoroughly dry, which should be in a quarter


of

an

it

may

rubbed

down with

on a block, taking great care to do no injury to the corners, and a second


fine sand-paper,

coat applied.
If
finish

you
the

have

determined

in

advance

to

work with shellac, it will be best to finish the panel and the inner edges of In this case, howthe frame before gluing. ever, you must be careful to clean off* with warm water any glue that may get on the
finished
it
it.

surfaces,
it

before

it

hardens,

as,

after

is

hard

will

take off the varnish

with

All the other surfaces should be finished


gluing.

after

ALPHABETICAL INDEX,

Accidents with

tools,

prevention of

....
.

PAGE

Ax

See

Hatchet
143

Awl
Back-saw, use of in cross-cutting and ripping

.115
147

Battened door

Bench-dog

79 63
123 105

Bench-hook
Bevel

Boring

Box, nailing together


Box, dove-tailed
Brace

62
119
105

Brad-awl

Broken

lines in drawings,

meaning of

...

143
2

Cap

of plane

60
105
101, 169, 172

Center-bit

Chamfering
Checks
Chisel,
;

See Cracking

form of
grinding
paring with

"
"

.......

.85
94
88

183

184

Manual

Training.
PAGB

Chisel,

"
"

manner of holding sliding movement of


sharpening

87, 88, 92, 95


.

90 92
29, 31

Cracking of timber
Cross-cutting with hatchet

6
.

"

"

" "

knife

saw

23
.

Door, battened
" "

147 149

paneled
prevention of effect of shrinkage
.

146
111

Dove-tail,

end
.

Dove-tailed box
Dove-tailing, points to be attended to in
.
.

119
127

Dowels
Drawings, scale of; working
"
details
.

28 38
34, 41

"

isometric projection

153
lines
.

"
"

meaning of broken
working sketches
sections
. .

2 36

"
"

'

41,150
170
.

shading to indicate sections

End-wood, planing
Fibers of

138
15

wood
.

Gauge, use of
" "

...
. .
'

74
128
137

Glue, cleaning off

134, 135
.

preparation of
to prevent

from sticking
.

Gluing
Gluing,

128

warming the work

for

133

Index.

185
PAGE

Grain of wood, working against the

Grinding chisels and planes

Hammer,

striking with

Hand-screws, adjustment and use of

Hatchet or ax, cross-cutting with


" " "

hewing with
splitting

.... .... ....


.
.

66 95 49

130, 132

6 13

"

with

8 13

Hewing with hatchet


Hinges,
"
fitting of
.

140
143

points to be attended to in

Hook and

screw-eye for box


.
-

145

Isometric drawing

153
>

Knife, cross-cutting with


^'

splitting

with
.
.

7
11

"

whittling or paring with

Laying out dove-tails


" " " "
"

end dove-tails
paneled door

"
"

mortise and tenon

.... ....
. . .
.

123
,

112
105
.

162

"

work

avoiding knots and cracks


,

48. 151
,

Mallet

102

Marking with square


"
"

24
.

gauge
. .

74
vii

Materials required

Metric measures
Mortise-cutting with center-bit
" "
.

104

106
116, 164 103, 160

without center-bit

"

and tenon

Nailed box

52

186

Manual

Training.
PAGE

Nails,

drawing

56
.

"

form of
right

50
49
51

Nails, four-penny, etc

"

and wrong driving of

Ogee end of chamfer


Oil-stone

176

86,92
146
.

Paneled door Paneled door, chamfering the frame of


"

172
169 164
178

panel of

"

cutting mortises
finishing

and tenons
.
.

for
.

" " "


"

up

gluing

177

grooving for
laying out

168
.

162
101
'

Paring with chisel across the grain


"
" " "

with the grain

87
11

knife

Pine-wood
Plane, fore
"
" "

.......
of holding

96

70
.

jack

manner

....

58
63

mode

of action of

59,61
64
.

" "

principal points in using

smoothing

69

Planing an edge
Planing end-wood
"

76
138, 139

to thickness

76

Plane-irons
Plane-iron, adjustment of

...

59 60

Index.

187
PAGE

Plow
Sand-paper
Saw, back
.

167

175, 177
78, 115

Saw, cross-cut
"

21
79, 126
.

dove-tail

Saw-kerf, allowance for

45
.

Saw, rip
"

83
78
38
11

tenon
.

Scale of drawings

Scoring with knife or hatchet


Screw-driver

Sharpening tools
Shellac varnish
.

....
.

143

92
.

180 146

Shrinkage and warping, Shrinkage of wood


Sliding
Splitting with hatchet
"
.

effect of,
.

on doors
.

28

movements of cutting
.

tools
.

4
.
,

knife

....

8
7
.

Square
Standard edge or surface
Straight-edge

24

45,72 55
18

Testing-machine

Timber

See

Wood
list

Tools required,

of

vii

Warping of wood White-wood


Whittling
;

30 69

See Paring

Winding
Winding, removal of

55
71

188

Manual

Training.
PAGE

Winding-sticks

......
and warping of
.

55
15

Wood,
" "

fibers of

shrinking, cracking

29,

30
18

strength of
.

Wood, structure of Working drawings


"

15, 16

38
36

sketches

"

Date
.

Due

m''

ii^7n

'^nn? cUU/

'

173024

173024

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