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Aurora Pumps

Installation & Maintenance Tool Kit 101

Installation and Maintenance

To ensure proper operation of any pumping system, it is imperative that the pump should be installed to the pump manufacturers specifications, operated in the proper manner and maintained to ensure continued performance. Above all the pump should always be operated or worked on in a safe manner.

Maintenance Tool Kit

Safety Base Installation Coupling Alignment Piping Alignment Grouting Stuffing Boxes Packing Mechanical Seals Anti-Friction Bearings Sleeve Bearings Checking Rotation Starting of Pump Looking for Trouble Conclusion

When working on a pump or any piece of rotating equipment the following safeguards should be put in place:
Wear safety glasses. Wear a hard hat, (this is important to not only to protect

from falling items, but as a bump hat as well). Do not wear any loose fitting clothing or jewelry which can catch on the equipment. Long hair should always be tied back.

Safety Continued
System safeguards should also be put in place:
Lock out the electrical power to the pump if you are

going to be working on the pump or checking the alignment. Notify authorities or building operators that you are there to do maintenance or operate the pump. Only operate the pump with coupling guard in place and with all controller doors in the closed and secured position.

Base Installation
Alignment-Base mounted units come from the factory with pump and motors on a common base. These units were properly aligned at the factory but most likely have shifted during shipping. To ensure proper operation of the pumping units the base should be mounted on the foundation and leveled to allow for proper alignment.

Leveling the Base

The pump should be installed on the foundation with the pump/motor coupling halves disconnected. The coupling should not be reconnected until the alignment process has been completed. Wedge type shims should be used to level the base. These will left in place during the grouting procedure. A gap of .5 to .75 should be maintained between the base and foundation to allow grout to fill in under the base.

Typical Base/Foundation Installation

Typical Base/Foundation Installation

Coupling Alignment
Flexible couplings are not designed to compensate for misalignment of the pump and motor combination. Alignment must be checked for the following:
Axial Alignment-Spacing between coupling halves. Parallel Alignment-Proper side to side, up and down

alignment between coupling halves. Angular Alignment-Face to face alignment of the coupling halves.

Aligning the coupling

In all cases, the coupling should be aligned to the manufacturers specifications. Failure to comply will not only void the warranty, but can also create a hazardous situation.

Examples of coupling misalignment

Parallel Angular Axial

Methods of coupling alignment

In many cases, using a straight edge is the recommended procedure for aligning a coupling. This applies mainly to rough finished, closed coupled, elastomeric couplings.

Methods of coupling alignment

For angular alignment, and also axial alignment, calipers and feeler gages are the most popular methods of alignment. Again follow the manufacturers instructions.

Methods of coupling alignment

In many cases a dial indicator is used. This can be used to check both parallel and angular adjustment. This method is used commonly with all metallic couplings and spacer type couplings.

Methods of coupling alignment

Example of dial indicator and ID calipers or micrometers for spacer coupling alignment.

Methods of coupling alignment

Example of aligning a metal grid type coupling. Distance between the shafts is always a consideration when doing coupling alignment.

Coupling Alignment
After initial installation of the pump, several factors may disturb the coupling alignment:

Loose nuts or bolts on the pump or driver. Pipe strain on the pump. Temperature changes in high temperature applications. Settling, seasoning, or springing of the foundation. Shifting of the building or floor.

Alignment verification should be done periodically and especially when there is any work done on the pump or driver.

Piping Alignment
Piping alignment is often overlooked during the installation and maintenance of a pump unit. The pump is not designed to support the forces and moments of a piping system. In fact just the opposite. All piping, suction and discharge, should be supported and restrained near the pump. If an expansion joint is used there should a pipe anchor between the pump and the expansion joint.

Piping Alignment Contd

All connections should use proper mating. E.g. a flat

face flange should use a flat face companion flange and gasket. All connections should make up easily. If force is required to line up bolt holes etc than that force will be transferred to the pump. Pipe strain can cause the pump to bind as many of the tolerances are very close. All connections shall be secure to prevent leakage or the entrance of air into the system.

Once the base has been leveled, the coupling has been aligned, and the piping has been connected and supported, it is important to grout the base. The base should be entirely grouted with foundation bolts being tightened 48 hours after grouting.

Stuffing Boxes
Stuffing boxes are designed to be used with packing, with or without a lantern ring. The lantern ring assists in lubricating the packing. Make sure that the lantern ring is placed where it receives the maximum fluid. In externally flushed pumps at the flush line connection, and at the internal groove on internally flushed pumps. If the liquid being pump is gritty or dirty, it is usually recommended that a outside source of clean liquid is used to flush the stuffing box.

Packing should be the type recommended by the pump manufacturer. Packing rings are split and should be installed at 90 degree intervals so that they do not provide a channel for the water to pass through the stuffing box. Packing should not be overly compressed as this can cause damage to the shaft sleeve. Packing should only be compressed with the packing gland, and only when the pump is filled with fluid. A slight adjustment should be made at that time to stop the flow of water. In some cases with high suction pressure this may not be possible.

When the pump is started the packing gland should be adjusted to reduce the flow to about 1 drop per second. Tightening of the gland should be done equally to avoid binding or uneven pressure of the packing on the sleeve. Packing when replaced should always be replaced as a set. Never add more than specified amount of rings to a pump. When working on older pumps take caution when changing out the packing as older pumps may have asbestos packing in them. Always make sure that any packing in stock is the non-asbestos type.

Mechanical Seals
Mechanical seals are the most typical and efficient way of sealing a pump. Mechanical seals require no adjustment, but should be checked periodically for leaks, to prevent a catastrophic seal failure. In the event of the pump running dry it is recommended that the seals be changed, as they are lubricated by the fluid being pumped in most cases and will more than likely be damaged. Take great care in keeping the seal faces clean during installation to prevent seal failure.

Sleeve Bearings
Sleeve bearings are typically used in vertical pumps. These pumps are lubricated either by:
Product Grease Outside Source, (water or oil)

It is imperative that the bearings are always lubricated. Greasing the bearings should only be done when the pump is idle, never while the pump is operating.

Anti-Friction Bearings
In most cases of failures with anti-friction bearings, it is too much oil or grease that causes most failures. Oil and grease should be checked at installation and checked periodically thereafter. For grease lubricated bearings a high grade antifriction grease should be used and in no cases should a graphite grease be used. Oil lubricated bearings should be used in a method and amount as recommended by the manufacturer. Record keeping of lubrication of the pump is a good practice.

Checking Rotation
With all electric motor driven pumps it is imperative to check rotation of the motor driver. This should be done at start up and anytime that the motor or controller is re-connected. This should always be done with the coupling disconnected. On a close coupled pump a mark should be made on any visible shafting. A qualified electrician should make the changes to the wiring to ensure proper rotation.

Starting a Pump
The pump should only be started with the pump fully primed. If an automatic air release valve is not furnished the air should be bled out of the pump manually. In a negative suction application the pump should be primed manually from an outside source or with a vacuum pump. The position of all suction and discharge valves in the system should be noted. It is imperative that the suction valve be in the fully open position.

Starting a Pump Contd

When starting a pump good record keeping should be maintained. It is a good practice to record all of the following, where possible, for future reference:
Flow Pressure Temperature of fluids Temperature of bearings Pump vibration levels Pump noise levels

Looking for Trouble

No discharge:
Pump not primed or suction closed. Speed too low. System head too high. Wrong rotation or impeller on backwards. Air leak on the suction or through stuffing box. Broken shaft. Insufficient minimum submergence, (vertical pumps) Blockage in impeller.

Looking for Trouble

Insufficient Discharge:

Wear rings or impeller wear. Insufficient NPSH. Impeller installed backwards or wrong rotation. Suction valve not opened completely. System head is too high. Speed too low. Blockage in impeller.

Looking for Trouble

Insufficient Pressure:
Speed too low. System head less than anticipated. Worn impellers or wear rings. Impeller diameter smaller than specified. Wrong rotation or impeller installed backwards. Blockage in impeller.

Looking for Trouble

Cavitation can be caused by many things. It is the point of operation where entrained air is in the pump casing and air can damage the innards of a pump. Examples of causes:
Insufficient NPSH Open system like a cooling tower with high

suction losses allowing a vortex or suction of air into the pump. Blockage in a closed loop system.

Proper installation and maintenance will ensure long life performance of your pump operating system. Proper record keeping will help you maintain your pump and measure your pumps performance. Proper safety and maintenance are keys to your pumps overall successful operation.