24 North-Holland
xpY = P +P x, (4)
tion remains as to whether the deviations from the
matched solutions are stable . To answer this concern, a
perturbation analysis is performed . which entails writ-
P2' = 2Px PP . (5)
ing the perturbed envelope equations obtained by first
Analogous equations apply in the (.y, p,) plane. Fol- order Taylor expansion for the rms beam sizes about
lowing Sacherer, we formally divide the force term the matched solutions . The eigenvalues of this system of
P --- F,/ß 2ymc 2 into a linear component - K(z )x due linear equations are then examined to see if they indi-
to the focusing elements and a part due to the space cate instability by moving off of the unit circle on the
charge self-force .F. eqs . (3)-(5) thus become complex plane. These instabilities occur when two ei-
genvalues collide cn the unit circle . If they collide at
x = 2xpx.
2'
(6)
180' (on the real axis) then this is a half-integer reso-
xpx= -K(z)x +x~, +p , (7) nance between the perturbed envelope mode and the
focusing structure . This case is a termed "parametric"
P2 '= -2K(z)xpx + 2p., 3Y . (8) resonance . If both pairs of eigenvalues collide off the
real axis, then this is a "confluent" resonance between
The term p, 3~, is related to emittance growth, and can
the two envelope frequencies .
be ignored if one assumes that the rms emittance
In the previously considered example of a symmetric
2 FODO lattice, the resonanes are mainly confluent [8] .
Erms = x 2pY - (XPY) Necessary conditions for envelope instability in this
is either a constant or that its z dependence is a known case are
function.bare
If, in addition, one assumed elliptical symme- (i) phase advance per cell ao > 90 °, and
try for the beam spatial density. the term x. depends (ii) depressed phase advance per cell a < 90' .
only on the rms beam dimensions .X= (x 2)1 2 and 03(=- In terms of design, therefore, it is advisable to choose a
)1/2 FODO lattice with rtJ <._ 90°, or failing that to make the
CV
phase advance much larger than 90' . In machines with
(10) small space charge tune depression, the only way to
invite trouble with the envelope instability is to design
where we redefine Q -i~ Q/4 = IMo ß3 y3 ). In this way for ao just above 90' . This conclusion, which was
the hierarchy of moment equations is closed . With the reached for symmetric FODO lattices in linear trans-
additional resealing of E - E/4 = Erms, the rms envelope purt lines, is found to be valid for most cases in circular
equations, derived by differentiation of eq. (6) and use accelerators we examined. In addition, however, we find
26 P. Zhou, J.B. Rosenzweig / Envelope instability in low-energy proton synchrotrons
that in some asymmetric focusing systems that the and as a direct result of eq. (15), the rms beam size is
envelope instability can occur with a > 90' . the root sum of squares of the betatron and dispersion
contributions
(18)
4. The envelope equation : circular machines
where ap = p/p
(0
The major changes to beam behavior in circular This approach is approximate in the presence of
machines which have relevance to deriving envelope space charge forces, which introduce coupling that pre-
equations are due to curvature focusing, which generally vents the simple decomposition of the description of the
serves to break the horizontal-vertical symmetry of motion shown in eqs . (15), (16). In this approximation
lattice, and to the presence of momentum dispersion, the horizontal emittance takes the functional form
which causes the horizontal beam profile to expand . 2]
The curvature effects on the horizontal motion merely 2=
1 + + ( .T,n~ _ d9Î )2 (19)
~ ~~
Ex EX aP
add to the horizontal focusing strength due to the
quadrupole fields while leaving the vertical focusing ,n2a 2
X2
P
1+
_ 2
strength unchanged, _ Ex X2_
712a
2
2,
P P
space charge tune shifts are most important in a circular The method of analysis proceeds by converting eqs .
accelerator chain . (22) and (23) to the equivalent system of first order
differential equations and solving them numerically sub
ject to the appropriate periodic boundary conditions. In
5. Envelope instability in circular machines our case we have employed a shooting method with a
Runge-Kutta integration scheme. With Lhe matched
The perturbed envelope equations that are used to solutions for the given lattice, emittances, beam energy
test for envelope instability are, expanding eqs . (22) and and peak current, we then solve for the eigenvalues of
(23) about the matched solutions for (X, OJ ), the first order system equivalent to eqs . (25) and (26).
Q2 2
The rms phase advance per cell is calculated for each
SX~~+ K(z) + +~ +3E4 case by evaluating the phase integral over the length of
P2
P X2
X the cell, L,
-QS0,l /'Ldz dz
(25) /'L
Ox EX
Jo P = E-KJo (27)
= X2 - (,,(F)2
P
and
with an analogous expression holding for a, In the
absence of space charge, this integral gives . the bare
betatron phase advance of the cell. On the other hard,
in the absence of momentum spread, eq. (27) gives the
(26)
rms betatron phase advance per cell. If both momentum
Note that. in the spirit of Sarherer's treatment, we do spread and space charge are present, there is no obvious
not perturb the terms inside the emittance expression . interpretation of eq. (27), as it contains some informa-
a
94 ._
94
9',
92
90 . _
90
88
88 ~
É \ - erl~c' l
é
L
86
T
L
n.
84 ; _
84
1
0 500 000 1500 2000
0 500 :!00 1500 2000
Peak Beam Current (mA)
Peak Beam Current (mA)
Fig. 1. (a) Phase advance and growth rate per cell plotted against peak current at injection energy SSC LEB . no momentum spread.
(b) Phase advance and growth rate per cell plotted against peak current at injection energy, SSC LEB, Qr = 9 .3 x 10-4.
28 P. Zhou, J. B. Rosenzweig / Envelope instability in low-energy proton synchrotrons
tion about the off-momentum orbits coupled to the for the worse. This case is shown in fig . l b. The onset of
betatron orbits through space charge forces . the instability occurs at about 400 mA, which is quite
We now move on to the analysis of several low-en- close to the design value. This result can be explained
ergy synchrotron lattices, which will illustrate some by examining the space charge force term in the en-
interesting aspects of the envelope instability in these velope equations . If ao < 90 ° and there is no momen-
machines. The first example we take is that of the SSC tum spread, the quantity .X+ 9 is nearly constant, and
low-energy booster (LEB) FODO lattice [9], which has the space charge force has little modulation . The in-
an injection energy of 600 MeV, 360 mA peak current, crease in severity of the instability with momentum
and normalized rms emittance 0.75 mm mrad. The max- spread is due to the larger modulation of the space
imum ß function is 11.9 m and the maximum disper- charge force brought about by the periodicity of the
sion is ~1= 84 cm. The bare phase advances per cell are dispersion. The dispersion contribution to the beam
aXo = 93.6 ° and ayo = 90.0 °, and we can anticipate that width adds approximately in phase with the horizontal
this lattice may be susceptible to beam envelope insta- betatron contribution, introducing a strong periodic
bility. The instability growth rate is plotted along with driving term to the envelope equations .
the phase advances as a function of peak beam current In the Fermilab booster [10], one can expect that the
in fig. l a for the case of no momentum spread. We see large bare tunes (ayo = 102'* and axo = 100.5 °) would
that the instability can occur, somewhat surprisingly, keep the machine far from conditions which would
without both ax and ay being depressed to less than result in envelope instability . This is indeed true for the
90' . The onset of (confluent) envelope instability (ax = case with no momentum spread, shown in fig . 2a. The
90.6") occurs at 1120 mA, or approximately three times normalized rms emittance is taken to be 1.661T mm mrad
the design current, which is a comfortable margin . (10îr "Fermilab" emittance) in both dimensions, and
Inclusion of the design energy spread of up = 9.3 x the peak operating current is 560 mA, assuming N = 2.5
10-4 , however, causes the picture to change somewhat x 10 12 protons/batch and the bunching factor B = 0.25
a b
at 200 MeV injection energy. Instability onset occurs at advance per cell is 93° . On the other hand, the horizon-
approximately twice this current, assuming constant tal phase advance is far smaller, at 9to = 78.4 °. This
emittance . The calculation for momentum spread up = large tune splitting makes the machine relatively insen-
1.5 X 10 -3, displayed in fig . 2b, is again more pessimis- sitive to the envelope instability . Also, the horizontal
tic . The space charge force modulation lowers the insta- betatron width is larger than the vertical width due to
bility threshold current to less than 600 mA, which is tune and emittance differences (normalized rms c,0 = 23
right on the assumed maximum operating current. This mm mrad and c,ro =10.3 mm mrad), and is much larger
parametric resonance has a large growth rate ( - than the width due to dispersion. The cases without and
15%/cell), which peaks at 1.2 A and then is joined by with momentum spread in this machine are shown in
the other unstable mode above 1.45 A, generating a new figs . 3a and 3b, respectively. The momentum spread
large confluent resonant band at higher currents. actually has a small stabilizing effect in the TRIUMF
It should be noted that the envelope equations can machine. The envelope instability in both cases has a
all be recast in a dimensionless form which explicitly threshold current at 14 A, which is well above the
shows that the calculations presented here are depen- design peak current of about 2 A.
dent only on the ratio Q/E . Thus if the injection energy
is raised while keeping the number of protons per batch
and normalized emittance constant the threshold cur- 6. Conclusions
rent rises as ßy2. For the linac upgrade this factor is
1 .75, which raises the threshold to over 1 A. This treatment of the envelope instability in circular
The case of the TRIUMF Kaon Factory low-energy machines has pointed to the possibility of problems
booster [111 looks interesting on the surface, as peak near the nominal operating point of the Fermilab and
currents are very high and the initial vertical phase SSC low-energy synchrotrons at injection. There is good
go .-_
Vertical
v
85 I ._ N5 . _
NO
75 '~ 75
0 5 10 15 20
Peak Beam Current (A) Peak Beam Current (A)
3 3
0
U y
CL
0
U.
L
J
t]
0 5 10 15 20 0 10 15
Peak Beam Current (A) Peak Beam Current (A)
Factory booster .
Fig. 3. (a) Phase advance and growth rate per cell plotted against peak current at injection energy, TRIUMF Kaon
plotted against peak current at ir. zction energy, TRIUMF Kaon
no momentum spread . (b) Phase advance and growth rate per cell 10-3 .
Factory booster, up =1 .7 x
30 P. Zhot4 J.B . Rosenzweig / Envelope instability in low-energy proton synchrotrons
news for each case : at Fermilab, the linac upgrade takes References
the threshold current up to an acceptably high level,
and at the SSC the LEB is currently under redesign, [11 L.J. Laslett, Proc . 1963 Summer Study on Storage Rings,
with phase advance per cell near 113° [121 . This design Accelerators, and Experimentation at Super-High Ener-
should provide for a larger threshold current, although gies (Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1963) BBL 7534,
calculations should be performed to check this conclu- p. 324.
sion. [21 Y. Chao, J. Crisp, S. Holmes, J. Lackey and W. Merz,
In order to understand the potential harm that en- Proc. 1988 Europ. Particle Accelerator Conf. (World Sci-
velope instability can pose to circular machines better, entific, London, 1989) p. 663.
it would be instructive to run some multiparticle track- [31 M.G. Tiefenback and D. Keefe, IEEE Trans. Nucl . Sci.
ing codes which include space charge self-consistently . NS-32 (1985) 2483 ;
Also M.G. Tiefenback, LBL-22465, PhD thesis, UC-
These codes would be able to better include the effects
Berkeley (1986) .
of chromaticity (which may provide damping) and the [4] I. Hoffman, L.J . Laslett, L. Smith and I . Haber, Particle
effect of space charge on the dispersion function . Multi- Accelerators 13 (1983) 145 .
particle tracking has been done by Machida [131, for a [51 F. Mills and J. MacLachlan, private communication; and
variety of machines. These simulations display some C. Celata and L.J . Lasslet, Envelope Instability Status
unexplained emittance growth in the case of the SSC Report, unpublished .
LEB. This effect could not have been due to an accurate [61 I.M . Kapchinskij and V.V . Vladimirskij, Proc. 2nd Int.
calculation of envelope instability, however, as that Conf. on High Energy Accelerators and Instrumentation,
would entail evaluating the space charge kick many CERN (1959) p. 274.
times per focusing cell . This scheme could be easily [7] F.J. Sacherer, IEEE Trans . Nucl . Sci. NS-18 (1971) 1105 .
[81 M. Reiser, Theory and Design of Particle Beams, 1989 US
implemented to observe the instability computationally,
Particle Accelerator Summer School notes, unpublished
as the growth rate is high enough that one would only
book draft.
need track through a few tens of cells to see an effect. [9] M.A . Furman and L.K . Chen, Proc . 1989 IEEE Particle
If one becomes convinced that the envelope instabil- Accelerator Conf . (IEEE, New York, 1989) p. 1331 .
ity may be a problem in a machine, then observation of [10] E.L . Hubbard, ed ., Booster Synchrotron, Fermilab Pub-
the instability becomes an important issue . This could lication FN-405 (Fermilab, 1973).
be accomplished using the turn-by-turn beam profile [11] KAON Factory Proposal, TRIUMF, Vancouver (1985) .
f-nonitor currently under development for use in the [12] M. Syphers, private communication.
Fermilab booster [141. A beam which is envelope unsta- [131 S. Machida, Proc. 1989 IEEE Particle Accelerator Conf.
ble, where the growth rate is smaller than a turn period, (IEEE, New York, 1989) p. 1061 .
should display a growing oscillation in beam size when [141 V. Bharadwaj and J. Rosenzweig, private communication,
observed turn-by-turn . These oscillations should damp and
J. Krider, Nucl . Instr. and Meth . A278 (1989) 660.
as the emittance grows due to phase space filamentation
induced by the beam's nonlinear self-fields. As the
emittance growth the beam will become larger and the
space charge tune shift will diminish, taking the system
below the instability threshold.