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Boosting Africa’s Rice Sector
A research for development strategy 2011–2020
Contents
Foreword 1
Executive summary 3
1. Africa's rice sector in a rapidly changing environment 10
2. Vision of success and objectives 25
3. Strategic choices 29
4. Priority Areas 39
PA 1: Conserving rice genetic resources and providing 39
smallholder farmers with climate-resilient rice varieties that are
better adapted to production environments and consumer preferences
PA 2: Ìmproving rural livelihoods by closing yield gaps and through 42
sustainable intensifcation and diversifcation of rice-based systems
PA 3: Achieving socially acceptable expansion of rice-producing areas, 45
while addressing environmental concerns
PA 4: Creating market opportunities for smallholder farmers 47
and processors by improving the quality and competitiveness
of locally produced rice and rice products
PA 5: Facilitating the development of the rice value chain through 50
improved technology targeting and evidence-based policy-making
PA 6: Mobilizing co-investments and linking with development 53
partners and the private sector to stimulate uptake of rice knowledge
and technologies
PA 7: Strengthening the capacities of national rice research and 57
extension agents and rice value-chain actors
5. New frontiers in science 60
6. Expected impact 62
7. End note 67
Appendix 1: Ex-ante assessment of the potential impact of rice research 69
on income and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa
Appendix 2: Gross annual benefts expected from research 71
Abbreviations 75
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Boosting Africa’s Rice Sector
A research for development strategy
2011–2020
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A r f caR ce
Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice)
01 BP 2031 Cotonou, Benin
Tel: (229) 21 35 01 88
Fax: (229) 21 35 05 56
Email: AfricaRice@cgiar.org
www.AfricaRice.org
2011
Boosting Africa's rice sector ii
© Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice) 2011
AfricaRice encourages fair use of this material. Proper citation is requested. The designations
used in the presentation of materials in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion
whatsoever by Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice) concerning the legal status of any country, territory,
city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers and boundaries.
Citation
Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice). 2011. Boosting Africa's Rice Sector: A research for development
strategy 2011÷2020. Cotonou, Benin: ii+77 pp.
ISBN
978-92-9113-355-0 (print)
978-92-9113-356-7 (pdf)
Printing:
Pragati Offset Pvt Ltd, Hyderabad, Ìndia.
Photo credits
All photos are by AfricaRice staff members, unless otherwise indicated.
1 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
Foreword
Rice has always been a common staple Ior some countries in AIrica.
However, it is now also the most rapidly growing Iood source
across the continent. The rate oI urbanization in AIrica is greater
than in any other region oI the world, and this means a shiIt toward
convenience Ioods like rice. In 2009, AIrica imported 10 million
tonnes oI milled rice, at a cost oI US$ 5 billion. With high Iood and
Iuel prices predicted to last well into the coming decade, relying on
imports is no longer a sustainable strategy.
We believe that rice sector development can become an engine Ior
economic growth across the continent and that this will contribute to
eliminating extreme poverty and Iood insecurity within AIrica and
raise the social well-being oI millions oI poor people. Development
oI the rice sector and related sectors will have considerable impact
on the competitiveness oI AIrican economies and reduce the need
to divert valuable Ioreign currency exchange to imports. In time,
the achievement oI Iood security in the continent`s major rice-
producing countries and their neighbors through regional trade in
surpluses may lead to global export earnings Ior AIrica`s rice sector.
Enhanced local production, processing and marketing will also
mean that AIrica`s cities will have access to aIIordable Iood. Rice
production will create employment along the value chain and in
related sectors, and lead to improved nutritional and health status oI
the rural agricultural poor. It will allow fnancing better education
that will give the next generation greater opportunities to break the
remaining shackles oI under-development.
This strategic plan is the result oI the Center`s analysis oI the rapid
changes taking place in the global and AIrican contexts since the last
plan was Iormulated in 2002. It is aligned with the Comprehensive
AIrica Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). It takes
account oI the consequences expected Irom climate change,
population expansion and urbanization in AIrica, the emergence
oI new and more dynamic agricultural markets in AIrica, the long-
term restructuring oI the global rice market, and the potential Ior the
rice sector to be a major driver oI economic development in many
sub-Saharan AIrican countries.
Boosting Africa's rice sector 2
The strategy presents a clear vision oI success and objectives linked to the Millennium Development
Goals and the system-level outcomes oI the CGIAR Consortium oI International Agricultural
Research Centers, and it Iormulates seven priority areas Ior action, with a specifc eIIort to boost
sustainable rice-sector development by mobilizing co-investments Irom national and regional
development initiatives.
As an association oI member states, recognized by the AIrican Union as the Center oI Excellence Ior
Rice Research in AIrica, AIricaRice is best placed to coordinate these rice research-Ior-development
eIIorts across the continent over the next decade, in close collaboration with partners.
For the most part, the strategy will be implemented under the umbrella oI the Global Rice Science
Partnership (GRiSP), led by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the frst CGIAR
Research Program (CRP) to become operational in 2011, with other CRPs contributing to specifc
priority areas. GRiSP eIIectively aligns rice research activities world-wide and its activities in
AIrica are led by AIricaRice.
We are grateIul to all those who have contributed to this document. This allowed an audit oI research
and development challenges, in particular during the Second AIrica Rice Congress, held in Bamako,
Mali in March 2010, and the development oI the new research agenda presented here, endorsed by
the AIricaRice Board oI Trustees and subsequently approved by the AIricaRice Council oI Ministers
during their 28th Ordinary Session held in The Gambia, 2223 September 2011.
To complement this vision oI AIrican rice research Ior development, AIricaRice has also prepared
a development plan that demonstrates the changes and resources that need to be put in place Ior
the Center to Iulfll this Strategic Plan. The Center Development Plan should be read alongside this
strategy.
This is a living document that will be updated as necessary on the basis oI fndings Irom well-
designed monitoring and evaluation systems, adoption studies and ex-post impact studies. We
believe this strategy is an important contribution to the many ongoing national, regional and
international eIIorts to boost AIrica`s rice sector and to achieve the rice revolution` the continent
so badly needs.
Cotonou, November 2011
Peter J. Matlon Papa A. Seck
Chairman, Board oI Trustees Director General
Peeter J. Matlo lllll n
3 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
Executive summary
Rice consumption in AIrica is increasing rapidly because oI
changes in consumer preIerences and urbanization. In 2009,
the continent imported one-third oI what is available on the
world market, costing an estimated US$ 5 billion. As witnessed
by the Iood crisis in 2008, this is a very risky, expensive and
unsustainable situation, and it may lead to severe Iood insecurity
and civil instability in some AIrican countries. Soaring and
highly volatile rice prices and relatively low levels oI global
rice stocks are predicted to remain the norm over the next 10
years. However, AIrica has the human, physical and economic
resources to produce enough rice to Ieed itselI. This document
presents a Rice Research Ior Development Strategy to realize
AIrica`s tremendous rice potential. It has been careIully designed
to contribute to the achievement oI the Millennium Development
Goals in AIrica notably MDG1 (halving poverty and hunger),
MDG3 (promoting gender equality and empowering women)
and MDG7 (greater environmental sustainability). The strategy is
aligned with the Comprehensive AIrica Agriculture Development
Programme (CAADP), in particular pillar IV which aims to
improve agricultural research and systems to ensure successIul
uptake oI appropriate new technologies.
The critical challenge Iacing the AIrican rice sector is to
enhance perIormance in production, processing and marketing
to respond to a major concern to be turned into an opportunity:
the growing demand Ior rice as a preIerred staple. The research-
Ior-development strategy presented here pursues the Iollowing
vision oI success refecting the CGIAR system-level outcomes.
Improving food security
By 2020, sub-Saharan AIrica`s (SSA`s) rice paddy production
will have increased Irom 18.4 million tonnes (Mt) (11.9 Mt oI
milled rice) in 2010 to 46.8 Mt (30.4 Mt oI milled rice), with
the productivity-enhancing research and development activities
described in this strategy. Without this productivity-enhancing
R&D, the baseline levels oI paddy production under the
baseline scenario` (projecting each country`s production on the
basis oI 19802010 growth rates) would be 32.3 Mt (21.0 Mt
milled equivalent) in 2020. Thus, the research and its associated
Boosting Africa's rice sector 4
technology dissemination activities proposed in this strategy will result in a rice production increase oI
14.5 Mt oI paddy (9.4 Mt oI milled rice), corresponding to a 44.9° increase over the baseline scenario.
Aggregated rice consumption is projected to rise Irom 19.8 Mt in 2010 to 35.0 Mt by 2020 under the
baseline scenario (using each country`s rice consumption growth rate Ior the period 19802010).
Thus, under the baseline scenario (i.e. no R&D), SSA would import roughly 14.0 Mt oI milled rice
in 2020 to fll the gap between projected consumption and projected production. However, with
the proposed productivity-enhancing R&D and the production increase it will generate, imports
will be only 4.6 Mt in 2020 corresponding to a reduction oI 67°. This should lead to an increase
in the continental rice selI-suIfciency ratio Irom the current level oI 60° to at least 87° in 2020
(compared to 60° in the baseline scenario).
In 2010, no SSA country was selI-suIfcient in rice, but as a result oI the R&D proposed in this
strategy, at least 10 countries will reach selI-suIfciency with surplus rice (Chad, DRC, Guinea,
Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Uganda). The selI-suIfciency ratio
will signifcantly increase Ior all other SSA countries by 2020. Furthermore, many more countries
should reach near rice selI-suIfciency (over 90°) by 2020.
Reducing rural and urban poverty
The estimated potential impact oI research targeted to reduce the yield gap and increase grain
quality through better crop management and postharvest practices, and to raising the yield potential
through higher-yielding varieties is an annual income beneft oI $1.09 billion Ior rice Iarmers,
corresponding to a global cumulative 5°-discounted beneft oI $6.8 billion over the 7-year period
20142020. As a consequence, at least 2.3 million people in rice-Iarming households will be liIted
above the $1.25 poverty line (in 2005 purchasing power parity, PPP) in 2014. This number will
grow to 4.2 million people liIted out oI poverty by the end oI 2020.
As a result oI increased rice supply, domestic prices in major rice-producing countries in SSA
are expected to be on average 7.2° lower than the baseline level.* Translating this price eIIect,
it is expected that annual expenditure on rice by non-rice-Iarming consumers under the $1.25
poverty line will be reduced by $650.6 million (PPP) by 2020 (holding consumption constant),
corresponding to a global cumulative 5°-discounted beneft oI $3.3 billion. This will equate to 6.8
million urban and rural rice consumers (excluding rice-producing Iarmers) being liIted above the
$1.25 poverty line in 2020.
By improving rice processing technologies and reducing losses, it is expected that the quality
oI locally produced rice will be increased, generating more revenue Ior rice processors and rice
traders. These benefts are estimated at $64.2 million annually (cumulative 5°-discounted, $323.7
million) Ior rice processors and $30.8 million annually (cumulative 5°-discounted, $155.3 million)
Ior rice traders.
* All beneft` fgures in this document are in comparison to the non-R&D baseline` level.
5 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
In total, the potential impact oI research across all value-chain actors (Iarmers, consumers, processors
and traders) will be $1.8 billion annually, with a global cumulative 5°-discounted beneft oI $10.6
billion over the 7-year period 20142020 Ior 38 SSA rice-producing countries. At least 11 million
people will be liIted out oI poverty in 2020 as a result oI these income benefts, thus reducing the
overall number oI poor by 4°.
The costs oI the R&D include the Global Rice Science Partnership budget Ior AIrica Ior the
period 20112015 and a Iorecasted value Ior 20162020 about $420 million (cumulative Ior
20112020). It also includes indirect costs oI dissemination oI the technologies (estimated Irom
various past projects at about $1.2 billion). The fnancial rate oI return Ior all research activities
within the period 20112020 is estimated at 84° and the economic rate oI return (assuming 20°
price distortion) is 60°, showing that rice research in AIrica is fnancially and economically
proftable. The share oI rice in the agricultural gross domestic product oI AIrican countries should
increase Irom the current 3.82° to 5.19° in 2020. This corresponds to a 26.5° increase Irom the
baseline scenario, which assumes that the agricultural GDP will maintain its current trend. With
R&D on rice in AIrica, it is expected that the agricultural GDP growth will increase Irom the
baseline scenario value oI 2.5° to 2.65°. Thus, R&D on rice in AIrica will contribute to achieving
the Comprehensive AIrica Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) target oI 6° per year
agricultural growth.
Reducing undernutrition
It is anticipated that the improved purchasing power generated by the uptake oI improved rice
technologies will help undernourished people in AIrica to be able to aIIord to reach caloric suIfciency
and more balanced diets. As a result oI increased availability and reduced prices, 5.6 million
undernourished people will reach caloric suIfciency in SSA (1.2 million in rice-Iarming households
and 4.4 million in non-rice-Iarming consumer households), reducing the number oI Iood-insecure by
6°. Sustainable diversifcation oI rice-based systems will provide greater access to more diversifed
agricultural products, with a positive infuence on human health and nutrition. Quantifcation oI these
benefts will rely on quality baseline data and well-designed impact studies.
Sustainable management of natural resources
By 2020, water, nutrient and labor eIfciencies will have been improved in high-input systems
through the introduction oI mechanization, precision crop management options and water-saving
and water-harvesting techniques, thereby reducing yield gaps. Uptake oI ecological intensifcation
and diversifcation options in currently low-input rainIed systems will have enhanced production
levels in a sustainable manner. New rice-based production systems ready Ior the Iuture` will
have been developed with Iarmers to respond to the challenge oI climate change and increasing
water scarcity across rice ecologies. AIrica`s contribution to the collection, preservation and
characterization oI the genetic diversity oI rice species will have substantially increased and been
made available to all. Quantifcation oI these benefts will rely on quality baseline data and well-
designed impact studies.
Boosting Africa's rice sector 6
Capacity development
By 2020, research capacity in AIrica will have increased through PhD and MSc Iellowships (at
least 30 per year, oI which at least one-third will be awarded to Iemale candidates, a percentage
that was already achieved by AIricaRice in 2010) and training in specifc areas through internships
and group training. Every year, a minimum oI 100 technicians Irom national agricultural research
systems (NARS), NGOs and development projects working on rice will be involved in 12 month
rice-production training courses. These trained technicians will act as trainers Ior Iarmers and other
rice value-chain stakeholders in their home countries. These capacity-building eIIorts will help
create a new generation oI rice research and extension proIessionals, at least 30° oI them women.
They will proft Irom conducive working environments and appropriate budgetary provisions
through increased government support and links with rice R&D projects and initiatives.
Through a priority-setting process involving consultation with stakeholders and rice experts,
and inIormation based on household surveys and national statistics that began in June 2008, the
Iollowing seven research-Ior-development (R4D) Priority Areas (PAs) were identifed:
1. Conserving rice genetic resources and providing smallholder Iarmers with climate-resilient rice
varieties that are better adapted to production environments and consumer preIerences
2. Improving rural livelihoods by closing yield gaps and through sustainable intensifcation and
diversifcation oI rice-based systems
3. Achieving socially acceptable expansion oI rice-producing areas, while addressing environmental
concerns
4. Creating market opportunities Ior smallholder Iarmers and processors by improving the quality
and the competitiveness oI locally produced rice and rice products
5. Facilitating the development oI the rice value chain through improved technology targeting and
evidence-based policy-making
6. Mobilizing co-investments and linking with development partners and the private sector to
stimulate uptake oI rice knowledge and technologies
7. Strengthening the capacities oI national rice research and extension agents and rice value-chain
actors.
Priority Areas 15 will result in new rice technologies that will make a positive, sustainable and
lasting diIIerence in the livelihoods oI Iarmers and other rice value-chain actors. Through PA6, links
will be established with large rice-sector development initiatives and the private sector to obtain
co-investments to stimulate uptake oI appropriate rice knowledge and technologies and to obtain
Ieedback on technology perIormance. PA7 addresses the desperate lack oI trained capacity across
the rice value chain and in rice R&D in AIrica. Across PAs, there is a need Ior working closely
with women Iarmers, researchers, extension agents and agribusiness women in order to maximize
eIfciency, eIIectiveness and impact.
7 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
This rice R4D agenda will be implemented through a range oI partnerships Irom strategic upstream
research to linking with development partners to achieve impact on the ground. As an association oI
currently (November 2011) 24 AIrican member states, and recognized by the AIrican Union as the
Center oI Excellence Ior Rice Research in AIrica, the AIrica Rice Center (AIricaRice) is best placed
to coordinate these rice R4D eIIorts across the continent over the next decade.
AIricaRice is positioning itselI within the wider development and innovation context Ior sub-
Saharan AIrica as advocated by the CAADP oI the New Partnership Ior AIrica`s Development
(NEPAD) and will be contributing to Pillar IV, led by the Forum Ior Agricultural Research in AIrica
(FARA). AIricaRice will strengthen its working relationships with FARA and the sub-regional
research organizations (CORAF/WECARD, ASARECA, CCARDESA) as the implementing
agency and catalyst Ior rice-based R4D in AIrica. This will be Iacilitated by the Iact that AIricaRice
is an association oI member states, and by nature a shared resource Ior member countries.
AIricaRice will act as both a developer and broker oI rice knowledge, and will tap sources Irom
within and outside the AIrican continent, with each partner contributing to the rice R4D agenda
according to its comparative advantage.
Most oI this strategy (with the exception oI PA3) will be implemented under the umbrella oI the
Global Rice Science Partnership (GRiSP), a CGIAR Research Program (CRP), with other CRPs
contributing to specifc PAs. AIricaRice is one oI the architects oI GRiSP, the frst CRP to be
approved by the Fund Council and the CGIAR Consortium Board (November 2010); it is led by
the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), based in the Philippines. AIricaRice is responsible
Ior implementing GRiSP in AIrica. Implementation will also occur through the CRP led by the
International Water Management Institute (IWMI) on Durable solutions Ior water scarcity and
land degradation` (PA3) and the CRP on Climate change, agriculture and Iood security` led by the
International Center Ior Tropical Agriculture (CIAT: PA2 and PA3). It is expected that links will be
established with the CRP on Policies, institutions, and markets to strengthen assets and agricultural
incomes Ior the poor` led by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI: PA5) and
the CRP on Integrated systems Ior the humid tropics` led by the International Institute oI Tropical
Agriculture (IITA: PA2).
Focusing on GRiSP, besides AIricaRice, IRRI, CIAT and the other co-architects Centre de
coopération international en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), Institut de
recherche pour le développement (IRD) and Japan International Research Center Ior Agricultural
Sciences (JIRCAS) collaboration will be established with emerging strong national research
systems, most notably those Irom Egypt (RTTC), China (CAAS), Brazil (EMBRAPA) and India.
Advanced research institutes and universities in developed countries will also play a key role, mostly
in conducting basic research that is beyond the capacities and comparative advantages oI CGIAR
centers and other partners. Collaboration will also be established with international organizations
and centers such as the Food and Agriculture Organization oI the United Nations (FAO), the United
Nations Development Programme (UNDP), CABI and the International Center Ior Development-
Boosting Africa's rice sector 8
oriented Research in Agriculture (ICRA) in PA6 and PA7. AIricaRice will ensure through its
active role in the CRPs that global knowledge is mobilized to respond to the challenges and
opportunities in the seven PAs that Iorm the rice R4D agenda Ior AIrica.
Key partners to implement this strategy will be the NARS in AIrica through their active involvement
in research priority setting and implementation oI R4D activities. Collaboration will be reinIorced
through the establishment oI Task Forces, responding to certain priority areas. Task Forces are
collective R4D eIIorts on critical thematic areas in the rice sector, based on the principles oI
sustainability and build up oI critical mass at the national and regional levels. AIricaRice will
Iacilitate these Task Forces. The Iollowing Task Forces have been or will be established:
· Rice Breeding Task Force (PA1)
· Rice Agronomy Task Force (PA2 and PA3)
· Rice Processing and Value Addition Task Force (PA4)
· Rice Mechanization Task Force (PA2, PA3, PA4)
· Rice Policy Task Force (PA5)
· Gender in Rice Research and Development Task Force (cross-cutting).
Collaboration will also be established with national rice centers oI excellence within the Iramework
oI the World Bank-Iunded West AIrica Agricultural Productivity Program (WAAPP) in Mali and the
East AIrica Agricultural Productivity Program (EAAPP) in Tanzania.
Task Force activities and much oI the work in the CRPs will be thematic in nature, contributing to
PAs 15, but research outputs will be integrated in Rice Sector Development Hubs` (good practice
areas`) to achieve development outcomes and impact. Rice Sector Development Hubs involve large
groups oI Iarmers (10005000) and other value-chain actors, such as rice millers, input dealers
and rice marketers. These partnerships will be testing grounds Ior new rice technologies and new
institutional arrangements (contracting) between value-chain actors, and will Iollow a reverse-
research approach`, i.e. starting Irom the market. Partners will pursue a prooI oI concept` approach
to rice value-chain development, productivity improvement and sustainable management oI natural
resources in rice-based systems.
The objective is to produce rice or rice-based products that respond to consumer preIerences in
urban and rural markets in quantities that are oI interest to rice traders, who would usually import
such products. Hubs will represent key rice ecologies and diIIerent market opportunities across sub-
Saharan AIrica and will be linked to major national or regional rice development eIIorts to Iacilitate
broader uptake oI rice knowledge and technologies. Care will be taken that women and youth are
not marginalized, but on the contrary strengthened in the process oI rice value-chain development.
At least 30 Rice Sector Development Hubs will be established across AIrica by 2020.
Civil society organizations (CSOs) such as Réseau des organisations paysannes & de producteurs
de l`AIrique de l`Ouest (ROPPA) and East AIrica Farmers` Federation (EAFF), and major NGOs
9 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
such as Catholic RelieI Services (CRS), Sasakawa Global 2000 (SG2000) and Songhai will
be involved in technology adaptation and wide-scale diIIusion in and beyond the Rice Sector
Development Hubs, and provide Ieedback to researchers and policy-makers on technology
perIormance, and research and investment priorities. CSOs have a comparative advantage in
operating at the grassroots level and are thus well placed to ensure Iull participation oI Iarmers and
other value-chain stakeholders.
Collaboration with the private sector may involve contributions to strategic and applied research
in one oI the PAs, or to prooI oI concept` work in the Rice Sector Development Hubs. This will
include companies involved in Iarm inputs (seeds, Iarm machinery), credit provision, processing
and marketing. Private companies will also serve as technology diIIusion channels. This will require
new Iormal research partnerships and contractual relationships between the public and private
sectors, and due consideration oI issues related to intellectual property rights.
Close collaboration will be established with regional Iorums and economic communities with a
major interest in development oI the rice sector. These include FARA at continental level, West
and Central AIrican Council Ior Agricultural Research and Development (CORAF/WECARD),
Association Ior Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central AIrica (ASARECA)
and Centre Ior Coordination oI Agricultural Research and Development Ior Southern AIrica
(CCARDESA) at sub-regional level, and higher-level political bodies and development initiatives
targeting Iood security and poverty, in particular the AIrican Union (AU). Active linkages will
be established with the regional economic communities (RECs) to assist with policy Iormulation
and building oI rice research and extension capacity, including the Economic Community oI West
AIrican States (ECOWAS), the Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest-AIricaine (UEMOA), the
East AIrican Community (EAC) and the Economic Community oI Central AIrican States (CEMAC).
Links will also be established with international and regional development Iunds and banks and
donors, in particular donors in the Coalition Ior AIrican Rice Development (CARD, i.e. AIDB,
IFAD, JICA and the World Bank), USAID, Banque Ouest AIricaine de Développement (BOAD)
and the World Food Programme (WFP). Many oI these directly contribute as donors to the R&D
activities that will be implemented under this strategy. Rice Sector Development Hubs will, as
much as possible, be established in regions that beneft Irom large-scale bilateral or multilateral
investments oI these agencies in rice-sector development to build capacity and to Iacilitate
transIorming research outputs into development outcomes and impact.
Well-designed monitoring and evaluation systems will accompany the implementation oI this
strategy. Models and tools used Ior priority setting will be continuously maintained and improved
using inIormation Irom monitoring and evaluation systems, adoption studies and ex-post impact
studies, enabling regular reviews oI strategic choices made and turning this strategic plan into a
living document.
Boosting Africa's rice sector 10
1. Africa’s rice sector
in a rapidly changing
environment
Increasing demand for rice
Rice is the most rapidly growing Iood commodity in sub-
Saharan AIrica (SSA), mainly driven by urbanization.
The opportunity cost oI women`s labor and the ease and
rapidity oI cooking rice become key attributes in urban
settings. Urbanization is oIten accompanied by increasing
consumption oI Iood away Irom home, which has spurred
rice consumption due to the convenience oI rice storage,
preparation and cooking. With the proportion oI AIricans
living in urban areas expected to increase Irom the current
38° to 48° by 2030, rice consumption in AIrica is expected
to continue growing in the Ioreseeable Iuture. Household
consumption surveys reveal that urban consumers on lower
incomes tend to spend a greater share oI their total budget
on rice than higher-income households. These developments
mean that rice is no longer a luxury Iood, but has become
the main source oI calories Ior low-income households,
particularly in West AIrica. Rice is also rapidly gaining
in importance in other parts oI the continent (Fig. 1, page
12). The increasing role oI rice in the Iood basket oI SSA
consumers has made rice a political crop, in the sense that its
price and accessibility directly infuence social stability.
11 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
Between 1970 and 2009, average annual rice consumption in SSA increased at a Iaster rate (4.0°)
than rice production (3.3°). The rapidly increasing demand Ior rice means that currently nearly
37° oI rice consumed in SSA is imported. In 2009, this translated into imports oI 9.68 million
tonnes, worth more than US$ 5 billion.
Rising rice prices
Increasing wealth in Asia has resulted in greater demand Ior meat, thereby drawing maize
increasingly into the animal Ieed market. This has resulted in steadily rising world cereal prices
(the upward trend in the rice price started in 2003) and the simultaneous emergence oI AIrica as
a major player in the world rice market. In 2008, AIrican imports accounted Ior 32° oI the rice
traded globally. Some infuences on world cereal prices may be transient, e.g. weather-related crop
Iailures, spikes in oil prices, and demand Ior ethanol Irom maize, but the long-term outlook Ior rice
production in AIrica is bolstered by the signs that Asia`s consumption will outstrip its capacity to
produce. Asia currently accounts Ior 90° oI rice consumption and 77° oI rice exports world-wide,
and it is Iacing increasing local demand with already high pressure on land and water resources.
Over the past two decades (i.e. since 1990), the growth rate oI global rice production has Iallen
below that oI consumption (1.26° compared to 1.29°). For three consecutive years (20022004),
absolute global production was below consumption, requiring use oI the world`s reserves to bridge
Despite rising prices, rice imports into Africa have continued to grow to keep pace with demand
Boosting Africa's rice sector 12
Figure 1: Contribution of various staple food crops in diets in West Africa (A) and sub-Saharan Africa
as a whole (B) for 1961÷2010 (source: FAOSTAT 2011; AfricaRice projection for 2008 onwards)
Figure 2: Africa's rice production and consumption 1970÷2010 (source: FAOSTAT 2011; AfricaRice
projection for consumption 2008÷2010; milled rice production = paddy × 0.65)
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13 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
the gap. This drawdown oI globally held rice stocks to compensate Ior production shortIalls resulted
in their gradual decline Irom 147.3 million tonnes (Mt) in 2001 to 74.1 Mt in 2008. HalI oI these
stocks, which represent just 2 months oI world consumption needs, were held in China. Although
global rice stocks have increased since 2008, they remain well below the levels oI the 1990s.
Rice is oIten considered one oI the most protected commodities in the world and only about 7° oI
global rice production is traded on the international market. In such a distorted market, the major
producing countries may close their borders to trade during periods oI perceived supply shortage as
happened in 2007 and 2008. In 2008, Vietnam, India, Cambodia and Egypt banned rice exports Ior
several months, pushing up rice prices, as predicted by AIricaRice in 2007.
1
The reliance oI SSA
on rice imports became painIully visible in 2008 during the Iood riots in major capitals. In AIrica,
these riots were mostly related to high rice prices. Prices are predicted to remain high because oI
declining production capacity in major rice-producing countries in Asia and growing demand.
Food security
Poverty is particularly acute among the AIrica Rice Center (AIricaRice) member countries. OI
the 10 poorest SSA countries, as measured by the Multidimensional Poverty Index, seven are
AIricaRice member states. Rice is playing a key role in providing Iood security Ior the poorest
categories oI rural and urban populations. Moreover, due to its ease oI preparation, low preparation
costs, low price and steady supplies (oIten through imports), rice has become a staple Iood Ior the
poorest sectors oI urban populations. Rice is the leading provider oI Iood calories in West AIrica
and in Madagascar, and it is now the second largest source oI Iood energy in SSA as a whole
(Fig. 1). Erratic rainIall and poor soils are oIten associated with extreme poverty in rural AIrica.
Due to its great genetic diversity, rice can oIIer solutions Ior such conditions, allowing Iarmers to
produce Iood in adverse environments.
Rice production: constraints and opportunities
AIrica`s rice sector depends primarily on the eIIorts oI small-scale resource-poor Iarmers,
particularly women, who oIten grow rice under rainIed conditions. Rice is highly versatile and
can be cultivated in diIIerent ecosystems (i.e. irrigated, rainIed upland and lowland, mangrove and
deep-water ecosystems). There are large diIIerences in the distribution oI rice-production ecologies
among countries (Fig. 3, page 14). In contrast to Asia, most rice in SSA is grown under rainIed
conditions. From the about 10 million ha oI land under rice cultivation in SSA, about 40° is located
in the upland ecology (contributing 19° oI total rice production), 37° in the rainIed lowland
ecology (contributing 48° oI total production) and 14° in the irrigated ecology (contributing 33°
oI total production). The remaining 9° is covered by deep-water and mangrove rice. Numerous
commonalities and interlinkages exist among these ecosystems. They are oIten part oI a natural
(uplandlowland) continuum or oI a larger Iarming system (or both).
1. AIrica Rice Center (AIricaRice). 2011. Lessons From the Rice Crisis. Policies for fooa security in Africa. Cotonou, Benin:
ii¹26 pp.
Boosting Africa's rice sector 14
Figure 3: Paddy rice production in selected African countries in 2008 (source: NRDS and FAOSTAT)
Paddy production 2008
Mangrove/Other
Irrigated
Lowland
Upland
50,000 tonnes
500,000 tonnes
1,500,000 tonnes
5,000,000 tonnes
15 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
AIricaRice conducted Iarm-household surveys in 2007 and 2008 in 12 countries in SSA to identiIy
major abiotic and biotic stresses experienced in Iarmers` felds. The major stresses Iound across the
countries surveyed were weeds, birds, poor soil Iertility, fooding, drought, diseases and insects.
These constraints were reported by more than 90° oI the surveyed Iarmers. Across stresses, the
average yield loss was 22°. However, the average yield losses Ior drought and fooding, when
experienced, were 33°.
In general, upland rice production is aIIected
by drought, low soil Iertility (defciencies oI
nitrogen and phosphorus) and soil acidity,
and is reduced by a host oI biotic stresses
such as blast disease, stem borers, termites,
weeds (including parasitic weeds) and
birds. Socio-economic constraints include
limited capital, population pressure, poor
market access, labor shortage and poor
land management. Many oI the poorest rice
Iarmers depend on the upland ecosystem. However, slash-and-burn practices and shortening oI
Iallow periods have led to drastic declines in soil Iertility and increasing weed pressure, leading
Iarmers to expand into more marginal areas. Average rice yield in the upland ecology is about 1 t/ha.
External inputs are rarely used in these environments. These environments need rice varieties that
are robust and well adapted to local growing conditions, plus improved management practices. The
yield potential under upland conditions can be 24 t/ha.
Lowland rice cultivation oIIers great prospects Ior expansion, intensifcation and diversifcation.
However, there are also concerns that development may aIIect valuable ecosystem services oI
wetland areas. Estimates oI available rainIed lowland areas range Irom 138 million ha to 238
million ha. The lowland ecosystem tends to have low opportunity costs because Iew AIrican staple
crops are able to withstand the fooding conditions prevalent in this ecosystem, giving rice a clear
advantage in agronomic terms. Moreover, soils in lowland ecosystems are generally less Iragile
and foodwater conditions promote the growth oI nitrogen-fxing bacteria and blue-green algae`
(cyanobacteria) that produce enough nitrogen to sustain rice yields oI 3 t/ha year aIter year. The
The major rice ecologies in Africa (from left to right): upland, rainfed lowland and irrigated
Biotic constraints cause a lot of damage to rice in all
ecologies (insect infestation, Madjo, Doba, Chad)
Boosting Africa's rice sector 16
main constraints to rice production are water control, weed management and, to a lesser extent,
soil Iertility, iron toxicity, AIrican rice gall midge, and Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV). Socio-
economic constraints include limited capital and investment, health concerns related to working in
swampy areas, land tenure and lack oI mechanization. Attainable yields with Iull water control are
36 t/ha, while actual yields are typically 13 t/ha. RainIed lowlands also have the potential Ior
diversifcation, e.g. by growing vegetable crops aIter rice, or through combined ricefsh culture.
Irrigation systems Ior rice come in many Iorms in SSA, ranging Irom small (20 ha) stream-
diversion-based systems to large (~ 10,000 ha) gravity or pump-based systems. The development
oI large irrigated rice schemes in SSA over recent decades has been controversial. The associated
development costs are usually high and the growing scarcity oI water, especially in the Sahel,
hampers the expansion oI the area under irrigation.
Plot-level constraints include nitrogen defciency, iron toxicity, extreme temperatures and damage
due to birds, weeds, RYMV and AIrican rice gall midge. Organizational and management constraints
include lack oI access to inputs (including mechanization), sub-optimal crop management, labor
shortage and sub-optimal land and water management (leading to salinity and alkalinity problems
in the Sahel).
With the current high rice prices expected to last, many countries in SSA are considering the
rehabilitation oI existing inIrastructure and Iurther expansion oI irrigated rice production. Attainable
rice yields with Iull water control are in the range oI 615 t/ha depending on the agro-ecological
zone, while actual paddy yields on Iarmers` felds are 36 t/ha. With Iull water control, double
cropping (growing two crops oI rice per year on the same land) is oIten Ieasible.
From the above it Iollows that with good agricultural practices Irom seed to harvest rice
productivity can oIten be doubled or tripled depending on the ecology. There is also tremendous scope
Ior expanding the area under rice or augmenting cropping intensity. It will be oI great importance
to work with Iarmers to develop technologies and approaches that will help raise productivity and
reduce Iarmer risk in a sustainable manner across rice ecologies. Given the importance oI women in
rice Iarming, research activities need to specifcally address issues oI gender and marginalization.
Climate change
AIrica is one oI the least-researched continents in terms oI the potential consequences oI global
warming. Trends suggest that the variability oI rainIall will increase and monsoon regions may
become drier, leading to increases in drought-prone areas in the Sahel and southern AIrica. Equatorial
zones oI AIrica may receive more intense rainIall. However, the overall spatial distribution oI Iuture
rainIall remains uncertain, particularly Ior the Sahel Ior which there are a number oI contrasting
predictions. Climate change is expected to lead to major changes in rainIall distribution, increased
Irequency oI extreme weather events and generally rising temperatures and CO
2
levels. Farmers
have great experience in dealing with climate risk, but the Iast pace oI change means that their local
knowledge and technologies may not be suIfcient as new conditions emerge.
17 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
We need to anticipate such changes and provide alternatives or measures Ior Iarmers to adapt to
lower and erratic rainIall, higher demand Ior water, changing river discharges, etc. New climate-
resilient varieties, crop- and resource-management technologies, and institutional innovations such
as insurance against crop Iailure may help them adapt to these rapidly changing environments.
Mitigation opportunities are also important. The impact oI the predicted enhanced use oI AIrica`s
lowlands Ior rice, slash-and-burn practices in upland environments and increased use oI nitrogen
Iertilizer needs more study to develop ways to limit additional release oI greenhouse gases into the
atmosphere. In short, a global eIIort is needed to develop targeted technological options to help
AIrican Iarmers to adapt to and mitigate the eIIects oI climate change.
Access to resources
Land tenure, access to appropriate credit, markets, knowledge, natural resources and inputs such
as seed all aIIect the perIormance oI the rice sector and remain major challenges. National seed
regulatory bodies need to be established or strengthened to map and meet rice seed demand Ior target
ecosystems and consumer preIerences. They should ensure eIfcient varietal release mechanisms,
link public- and private-sector seed producers, and establish Iunctional and decentralized seed
control systems. Small-scale enterprises will need support to help them create and sustain a
viable seed business. Private medium-sized and large seed companies should play an increasingly
important role in high-input systems, especially Ior hybrid rice seed. Farmers` capacity to upgrade
and maintain the quality and diversity oI seed produced on Iarm Ior their own use needs to be
enhanced. There is also a need Ior improving access to non-seed purchased inputs (e.g. Iertilizer,
equipment) through enhanced private input-market systems and enhancing access to working
capital and credit Ior small agribusinesses and Iarmers.
Most rice production systems in AIrica have a subsistence orientation with limited market integration.
However, market-oriented irrigated systems exist across agro-ecologies. Moreover, with improved
Although rainfall is expected to become increasingly unpredictable in space and time, the intensity
in individual 'events' is predicted to increase (Field visit to an Emergency Rice Initiative project site
in Liberia fnanced by the Government of Japan)
Boosting Africa's rice sector 18
Some brands of local rice from Burkina Faso, Senegal, Uganda and Ghana (top), and Senegal River
Valley rice being transported to the Coumba Nor Thiam mill, Rosso, northern Senegal (bottom)
©

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19 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
water control and market access, market-oriented systems are emerging in the lowlands. Integrated
with a large range oI other agricultural activities, rice development acts as an entry point Ior the
development oI the agricultural sector as a whole. Rice production development provides a leverage
point and catalyst Ior wider system development Ior instance, by enhancing household Iood
security, reducing production risk and enhancing income.
However, AIrican rice Iarmers are conIronted with great diIfculty in selling their rice due
to prevailing perceptions about the poor quality oI locally produced rice. Major Iactors behind
consumers` preIerence Ior imported rice are related to postharvest management operations. In
Nigeria, 71° oI consumers stated that cleanliness is among the three most important attributes
valued in imported rice relative to locally produced rice. In Senegal, the absence oI impurities and
the whiteness oI rice, both associated with postharvest handling, are signifcantly correlated with
high prices at the retail level. Experimental auctions show that consumers value careIully cleaned
and siIted Senegal River Valley rice more than imported rice.
Enhancing the market value and appeal oI locally produced rice necessitates improving the appearance
oI rice grains, their cleanness and homogeneity. This will require Iarmers to adopt better harvest and
postharvest paddy-handling practices. In general, a comprehensive quality approach is needed across
the value chain Irom seed to plate, to raise the competitiveness oI locally produced rice. There is a
need Ior a general winwin strategy among actors in the rice value chain. This could have an important
leverage eIIect on the rice sector, while enhancing equity and reducing poverty among stakeholders.
Access to rice knowledge
Challenges exist with regard to
knowledge management and creating
rural learning opportunities at the
regional, national and local levels.
Public- and private-sector agents
continually negotiate and renegotiate
their roles and build new sets oI skills
and expertise, either in-house or by
partnering with others. However, new
actors in the rice sector oIten work with
top-down mindsets, lacking awareness
oI gender, poverty and sustainability
issues. Strategic partnerships, and
learning alliances and methods may
help to increase awareness and increase
rice-sector perIormance in a sustainable
and equitable manner. Some promising
opportunities to strengthen learning and
Mobile-phone technology has opened new channels
for communication in rural Africa, in some places
completely bypassing landline telephone systems
Boosting Africa's rice sector 20
innovation systems include institutional innovations, such as: the establishment oI partnerships
with NGOs and producer organizations; the emergence oI brokers between the supply and demand
sides oI innovation; the use oI inIormation and communications technology (ICT) to enhance
rural learning and selI-diagnosis` oI problems and testable solutions; the development oI new
proIessionals` through institutional change in higher education; and new Iunding sources and
mechanisms to better address resource-poor and women Iarmers` needs.
The rapid development oI ICT in SSA (mobile phones, rural radio, internet) oIIers exciting new
opportunities Ior AIricaRice and partners to Iacilitate exchange oI inIormation and learning
modalities that are demand-driven and tailored to specifc needs. Given the high illiteracy rates in
SSA, there is a need Ior quality audio- and video-based learning content, and local capacities Ior
content creation and adaptation. This will be oI particular importance to rural women.
Renewed commitment to agriculture
There is greatly increased awareness that rice has become a strategic commodity to Iuel economic
growth and to contribute toward hunger and poverty reduction across the continent. Many AIrican
countries have embarked on ambitious programs to boost their rice production capacity, most
oI them as a response to the 2008 rice crisis, predicted by AIricaRice in 2007. AIricaRice has
provided technical support to 21 countries within the Iramework oI the Coalition Ior AIrican Rice
Development (CARD),
2
and other AIricaRice member states not members oI CARD, to assist with
the development oI national rice development strategies (NRDS). These strategies now need to be
turned into concrete action plans to boost the rice sector.
With the upward spikes in Iood prices (Fig. 4, page 22), many policy tools have been implemented
that were out oI vogue Iollowing the implementation oI market-oriented reIorms in the 1990s.
These include price controls, export bans, subsidies on retail prices (Benin, Burkina Faso and
Senegal), the release oI Iood security stock (Nigeria), subsidies on inputs such as seed and Iertilizer,
Iarm machinery and postharvest equipment (e.g. Nigeria, Senegal, Togo), and the establishment oI
a minimum producer price (Nigeria). Some oI these policy measures taken by AIrican governments
to alleviate the impact oI soaring staple prices on consumer welIare are well-Iounded given the
strategic importance oI rice. However, many untargeted subsidies and outlays will make it more
diIfcult to balance the public budget. Governments should also be cautious not to undermine
incentives Ior domestic rice production iI policy measures such as price controls and reduced taxes
on imports are introduced in a purely discretionary and unpredictable manner thereby increasing
market uncertainty or maintained Ior unnecessarily long periods. In short, policy interventions
need to be rules-based and predictable, and not discourage investment or undercut the emergence oI
a dynamic private rice sector by creating additional uncertainty.
2. The Coalition Ior AIrican Rice Development (CARD) is an initiative oI the Japan International Cooperation Agency
(JICA) and the Alliance Ior a Green Revolution in AIrica (AGRA). It aims to double rice production between 2008 and 2018.
CARD Steering committee members are AIDB, AIricaRice, AGRA, FAO, FARA, IFAD, IRRI, JICA, JIRCAS, NPCA and
the World Bank.
21 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
An important milestone has been the Maputo declaration, in which AIrican countries pledged
to invest 10° oI their national budgets in agriculture. The Comprehensive AIrica Agricultural
Development Programme (CAADP) Iramework, reinIorced by the 2008 Worla Development
Report, emphasizes that the largest impact on poverty reduction in AIrica comes Irom investments
in agriculture. However, the socio-political situation in some AIrican countries is unstable. Such
instability poses a serious challenge to development by undermining previous achievements and
disrupting the ability to work.
As stressed at the Second AIrica Rice Congress (Bamako, March 2010), national and Ioreign
investment is needed to unlock AIrica`s tremendous rice potential while ensuring that this leads
to winwin situations Ior all oI AIrica`s rice Iarmers and consumers. AIrica`s rice Iarmers need to
be involved in the defnition and implementation oI policies that modernize rice Iarming, lessen
the burden on women, and turn it into a viable agribusiness, attractive to young people. Regional
economic communities (RECs) should be strengthened to contribute in such areas as harmonizing
seed legislation, import tariIIs and regulating rice imports, in line with the CAADP Iramework.
Dependence on imports is a risky strategy for a continent that is increasingly turning to rice as a
staple food
Boosting Africa's rice sector 22
Figure 4: Rice prices (source: www.fao.org/es/esc/prices/PricesServlet.jsp?lang=en)
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Nominal retail price of rice in selected African countries
23 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
National governments need to take the lead in promoting publicprivate partnerships across the rice
value chain Ior adequate production, storage, processing, and distribution inIrastructure to produce
quality rice Ior the AIrican market.
Growing interest in Africa’s rice sector
AIrica has suIfcient land and water resources to produce enough rice to Ieed its own population and,
in the long term, generate export revenues. As a response to the global Iood crisis in 2008, AIrica
has become a target Ior direct Ioreign investment in agriculture. Major companies are acquiring
large tracts oI land Ior Iood production and bioIuel plantations. It is clear that AIrican countries need
to move cautiously with respect to this new situation because oI the complexity, political sensitivity
and context specifcity oI the land issue within and across countries. They need to ensure that these
investments lead to winwin situations Ior all involved, not least the resource-poor local Iarmers. In
some areas, such as in the Sahel, pressure on water will become intense and new ways oI growing
rice, with less water, will need to be considered.
With the current rapid development oI the rice sector, new actors and new publicprivate partnerships
are appearing. Many oI these actors are not used to working with each other, and opportunities Ior
co-learning and negotiation will need to be explored and evaluated. With more and more actors
entering the rice sector in AIrica, increased understanding oI the changing roles and patterns oI
interactions, and how these can be Iacilitated, will help improve overall system perIormance.
The recent interest oI banks, mobile-phone companies, Ioreign investors and philanthropists in
agricultural development in AIrica will require new types oI partnership, exploration oI mutual
interests, as well as building oI trust and joint learning opportunities.
Lack of rice research and development capacity
AIrica`s capacity in rice research is very limited and mainly conducted by national research
institutes, universities and international research institutes. The general disinterest in agriculture
in the 1990s has led to a desperate lack oI capacity at all levels in the rice value chain and gross
neglect oI AIrica`s agricultural research and extension capacity, which jeopardizes progress toward
developing AIrica`s rice sector. A survey conducted among AIricaRice`s then 22 member states in
2008 showed that approximately 250275 researchers (including about 15 women) were involved
to some extent in rice research. Most oI these worked on many other crops and only spent a Iraction
oI their time on rice. The average age oI researchers was 47. Egypt alone took the lion`s share oI this
research pool with 50 highly qualifed researchers working Iull time on rice, including 12 breeders.
In comparison, a country the size oI Nigeria had only two rice breeders.
There is an urgent need to rebuild AIrica`s research and extension capacity Ior agricultural crops
in general and rice in particular. There is also a clear lack oI appropriate technology-delivery and
inIormation-exchange mechanisms. The Second AIrica Rice Congress called Ior a Marshall plan`
by AIrican governments and their development partners to substantially strengthen the training
and retention oI new staII, while updating agricultural curricula in vocational training schools
Boosting Africa's rice sector 24
and universities, ensuring eIfcient spillover to actors in the rice value chain and strengthened
inIormation exchange. Conducive working environments and appropriate budgetary provisions are
needed to retain an eIIective capacity in agricultural research and extension.
Education in agriculture has been neglected in much of Africa for decades, with many lecturers
taking their knowledge with them as they retire. The recent re-emphasis on agricultural education
enables professors like Elsie K. Guwor to share their vast knowledge and experience with the next
generation (Williams R. Tolbert College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Liberia, Fendal)
25 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
2. Vision of success and
objectives
This document presents a rice research-Ior-development strategy to
boost AIrica`s rice sector and thereby contribute to the achievement
oI the Millennium Development Goals in AIrica by 2015 notably
MDG1 (halving poverty and hunger), MDG3 (promoting gender
equality and empowering women) and MDG7 (greater environmental
sustainability). AIricaRice and a range oI research and development
partners will work together to increase the production, value and
quality oI rice and rice products in AIrica, while ensuring a healthy
rice production environment Ior Iuture generations.
AIricaRice and partners will pursue the Iollowing vision oI success,
refecting the CGIAR system-level outcomes.
Improving food security
By 2020, SSA`s rice paddy production will have increased Irom
18.4 million tonnes (Mt) (11.9 Mt oI milled rice) in 2010 to 46.8 Mt
(30.4 Mt oI milled rice), with the productivity-enhancing research
and development (R&D) activities described in this strategy.
Without this productivity-enhancing R&D, the baseline levels oI
paddy production under the baseline scenario` (projecting each
country`s production on the basis oI 19802010 growth rates) would
be 32.3 Mt (21.0 Mt milled equivalent) in 2020. Thus, the research
and its associated technology dissemination activities proposed in
this strategy will result in a rice production increase oI 14.5 Mt oI
paddy (9.4 Mt oI milled rice), corresponding to a 44.9° increase
over the baseline scenario.
Aggregated rice consumption is projected to rise Irom 19.8 Mt in
2010 to 35.0 Mt by 2020 under the baseline scenario (using each
country`s rice consumption growth rate Ior the period 19802010).
Thus, under the baseline scenario (i.e. no R&D), SSA would import
Note that most of the figures relating to ‘benefits’ and ‘increases’ in this docu-
ment are the expected additional impacts as a result of the research and
development (R&D) described in this strategy over a ‘baseline’ projection
of what would happen without this R&D (see Appendix 1 for details). In
the few cases where absolute figures are given, this is clearly indicated.
Boosting Africa's rice sector 26
roughly 14.0 Mt oI milled rice in 2020 to fll the gap between projected consumption and projected
production. However, with the proposed productivity-enhancing R&D and the production increase
it will generate, imports will be only 4.6 Mt in 2020 corresponding to a reduction oI 67°. This
should lead to an increase in the continental rice selI-suIfciency ratio Irom the current level oI 60°
to at least 87° in 2020 (compared to 60° in the baseline scenario).
In 2010, no SSA country was selI-suIfcient in rice, but as a result oI the R&D proposed in this
strategy, at least 10 countries will reach selI-suIfciency with surplus rice (Chad, DRC, Guinea,
Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Uganda). The selI-suIfciency ratio
will signifcantly increase Ior all other SSA countries by 2020. Furthermore, many more countries
should reach near rice selI-suIfciency (over 90°) by 2020.
Reducing rural and urban poverty
The estimated potential impact oI research targeted to reduce the yield gap and increase grain
quality through better crop management and postharvest practices, and to raising the yield potential
through higher-yielding varieties is an annual income beneft oI $1.09 billion Ior rice Iarmers,
corresponding to a global cumulative 5°-discounted beneft oI $6.8 billion over the 7-year period
20142020. As a consequence, at least 2.3 million people in rice-Iarming households will be liIted
above the $1.25 poverty line (in 2005 purchasing power parity, PPP) in 2014. This number will
grow to 4.2 million people liIted out oI poverty by the end oI 2020.
As a result oI increased rice supply, domestic prices in major rice-producing countries in SSA are
expected to be on average 7.2° lower than the baseline level. Translating this price eIIect, it is expected
that annual expenditure on rice by non-rice-Iarming consumers under the $1.25 poverty line will be
reduced by $650.6 million (PPP) by 2020 (holding consumption constant), corresponding to a global
cumulative 5°-discounted beneft oI $3.3 billion. This will equate to 6.8 million urban and rural rice
consumers (excluding rice-producing Iarmers) being liIted above the $1.25 poverty line in 2020.
By improving rice processing technologies and reducing losses, it is expected that the quality oI locally
produced rice will be increased, generating more revenue Ior rice processors and rice traders. These
benefts are estimated to be $64.2 million annually (cumulative 5°-discounted, $343.3 million) Ior
rice processors and $30.8 million annually (cumulative 5°-discounted, $164.7 million) Ior traders.
In total, the potential impact oI research across all values-chain actors (Iarmers, consumers,
processors and traders) will be $1.8 billion annually, with a global cumulative 5°-discounted
beneft oI $10.6 billion over the 7-year period 20142020 Ior 38 SSA rice-producing countries. At
least 11 million people will be liIted out oI poverty in 2020 as a result oI these income benefts, thus
reducing the overall number oI poor by 4°.
Reducing undernutrition
It is anticipated that the improved purchasing power generated by the uptake oI improved rice
technologies will help undernourished people in AIrica achieve caloric suIfciency and more
27 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
balanced diets. As a result oI
increased availability and reduced
prices, 5.6 million undernourished
people will reach caloric suIfciency
in SSA (1.2 million in rice-Iarming
households and 4.4 million in non-
rice-Iarming consumer households),
reducing the number oI Iood-insecure
by 6°. Sustainable diversifcation
oI rice-based systems will provide
greater access to more diversifed
agricultural products with positive
infuence on human health and
nutrition. Quantifcation oI these
benefts will rely on quality baseline
data and well-designed impact
studies.
Sustainable management of natural resources
By 2020, water, nutrient and labor eIfciencies will have been improved in high-input systems
through the introduction oI mechanization, precision crop-management options, and water-saving
and water-harvesting techniques, thereby reducing yield gaps. Uptake oI ecological intensifcation
and diversifcation options in currently low-input rainIed systems will have enhanced production
Rice is a valuable component of the diet of millions of poor
Africans, and the numbers of consumers are continuing
to increase. Increasing productivity puts more food on the
plates of producers and consumers alike
Boosting Africa's rice sector 28
levels in a sustainable manner. New rice-based production systems ready Ior the Iuture` will
have been developed with Iarmers to respond to the challenges oI climate change and increasing
water scarcity across rice ecologies. AIrica`s contribution to the collection, preservation and
characterization oI the genetic diversity oI rice species will have substantially increased and been
made available to all. Quantifcation oI these benefts will rely on quality baseline data and well-
designed impact studies.
Capacity development
By 2020, research capacity in AIrica will have been increased through PhD and MSc Iellowships
(at least 30 per year, oI which at least one-third will be awarded to Iemale candidates, a percentage
that was already achieved by AIricaRice in 2010) and training in specifc areas through internships
and group training. Every year, a minimum oI 100 technicians Irom national agricultural research
systems (NARS), NGOs and development projects working on rice will be involved in 12 month
rice-production training courses. These trained technicians will act as trainers Ior Iarmers and other
rice value-chain stakeholders in their home countries. These capacity-building eIIorts will allow the
emergence oI a new generation oI rice research and extension proIessionals, at least 30° oI them
women. Through increased national government support and links with rice R&D projects and
initiatives, these proIessionals will proft Irom conducive working environments and appropriate
budgetary provisions.
29 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
3. Strategic choices
AIricaRice and partners have made, and will continue to make, well-
inIormed choices with respect to the thematic and geographical Iocus
oI research-Ior-development (R4D) interventions and the partner-
ships and approaches required to realize the vision oI success outlined
in the previous section.
Thematic focus of research-for-development
interventions
Thematic priorities were discussed Ior the frst time during a meeting
oI AIricaRice`s National Experts Committee
3
in June 2008 and
subsequently in a range oI workshops dedicated to the development
oI the Global Rice Science Partnership (GRiSP). During the Second
AIrica Rice Congress held in Bamako in March 2010, consensus
among participants was obtained on the Iollowing seven Priority
Areas (PAs):
1. Conserving rice genetic resources and providing smallholder
Iarmers with climate-resilient rice varieties that are better adapted
to production environments and consumer preIerences
2. Improving rural livelihoods by closing yield gaps and through
sustainable intensifcation and diversifcation oI rice-based systems
3. Achieving socially acceptable expansion oI rice-producing areas,
while addressing environmental concerns
4. Creating market opportunities Ior smallholder Iarmers and
processors by improving the quality and competitiveness oI
locally produced rice and rice products
5. Facilitating the development oI the rice value chain through
improved technology targeting and evidence-based policy-making
6. Mobilizing co-investments and linking with development partners
and the private sector to stimulate uptake oI rice knowledge and
technologies
7. Strengthening the capacities oI national rice research and
extension agents and rice value-chain actors.
3. The National Experts Committee (NEC) is composed oI the directors general oI
the NARS oI AIricaRice`s member states; the NEC meets once a year at AIricaRice
headquarters to discuss research progress and new directions.
Boosting Africa's rice sector 30
Priority Areas 1 to 5 will result in new rice technologies that will make a positive, sustainable and
lasting diIIerence to the livelihoods oI Iarmers and other rice value-chain actors. Through PA6, links
will be established with large rice-sector development initiatives and the private sector to obtain
co-investments to stimulate uptake oI appropriate rice knowledge and technologies and to obtain
Ieedback on technology perIormance. PA7 addresses the desperate lack oI trained capacity across
the rice value chain and in rice R&D in AIrica. (The rationale, broad activities and impact pathways
oI these PAs are explained in the next section.)
The potential beneft oI research conducted within PAs 1 to 5 and its expected poverty impacts Ior
rice-producing Iarmers, rice consumers, rice processors and traders in SSA were assessed through
a research priority-setting exercise Iocusing on 38 rice-producing countries. Econometric models
and data Irom Iarm-household and community surveys conducted in 2009 in 21 SSA countries
were used (see section 6). This ex-ante impact assessment Ior Iarmers showed that, in terms oI
disciplinary nature oI research, breeding (captured in PA1) comes in frst position (38.8° oI the
total annual income gain), Iollowed by agronomy (captured mainly in PA2, contributing 27.7° oI
the total income gain) and post-harvest (captured mainly in PA4, contributing 15.1° oI the total
income gain). All other types oI research (including multidisciplinary research) are expected to
generate an average annual income beneft oI 18.4° oI the total income gain (captured mainly in
PA5). In addition, postharvest research will yield signifcant beneft oI $95.1 million annually to
processors and traders by adding quality and increasing the competitiveness oI locally produced
rice. These analyses show the importance oI PA1 and PA2 in the research agenda and the need to
strengthen PA4, which has been neglected in the past.
AfricaRice National Experts Committee, with AfricaRice DG Papa Seck (center) and DDG Marco
Wopereis (left)
31 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
Partnerships and approaches
This rice R4D agenda will be implemented through a range oI partnerships Irom strategic upstream
research to linking with development partners to achieve impact on the ground (Fig. 5). AIricaRice
will act as both a developer and broker oI rice knowledge, and will tap sources Irom within and
outside the AIrican continent, with each partner contributing to the rice R4D agenda according to
its comparative advantage.
Most oI this strategy (with the exception oI PA3) will be implemented under the umbrella oI
GRiSP, a CGIAR Research Program (CRP), with other CRPs contributing to specifc PAs.
AIricaRice is one oI the architects oI GRiSP, which was the frst CRP to be approved by the Fund
Council and the CGIAR Consortium Board (in November 2010). It is led by the International Rice
Research Institute (IRRI), based in the Philippines. AIricaRice is responsible Ior implementing
GRiSP in AIrica. Implementation will also occur through the CRP led by the International Water
Management Institute (IWMI) on Durable solutions Ior water scarcity and land degradation` (PA3)
Product
development
PA1 – PA5
Product
adaptation and
dissemination
PA6 – PA7
E
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-
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a
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New frontiers
research
R
Direct research partners
Development partners
D
Figure 5: Overall research-for-development strategy and the interlinked roles of research and
development partners in product development and dissemination (PA = Priority Area in the rice
R4D agenda)
Boosting Africa's rice sector 32
and the CRP on Climate change, agriculture and Iood security` led by the International Center
Ior Tropical Agriculture (CIAT: PA2 and PA3). It is expected that links will be established with
the CRP on Policies, institutions, and markets to strengthen assets and agricultural incomes Ior
the poor` led by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI: PA5) and the CRP on
Integrated systems Ior the humid tropics` led by the International Institute oI Tropical Agriculture
(IITA: PA2). Focusing on GRiSP, besides AIricaRice, IRRI, CIAT and the other co-architects
Centre de coopération international en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD),
Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD) and Japan International Research Center Ior
Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS) collaboration will be established with emerging strong national
research systems, notably those Irom Egypt (RTTC), China (CAAS), Brazil (EMBRAPA) and
India. Advanced research institutes and universities in developed countries will also play a key
role, mostly in conducting basic research that is beyond the capacities and comparative advantages
oI CGIAR centers and other partners. Collaboration will also be established with international
organizations and centers such as the Food and Agriculture Organization oI the United Nations
(FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), CABI and the International Center
Ior Development-oriented Research in Agriculture (ICRA) in PA6 and PA7. Through its active role
in the CRPs, AIricaRice will ensure that global knowledge is mobilized to respond to the challenges
and opportunities in the seven PAs that Iorm the rice R4D agenda Ior AIrica.
Key partners to implement this strategy will be the NARS in AIrica through their active involvement
in research priority setting and implementation oI R4D activities. Collaboration will be reinIorced
through the establishment oI Task Forces (see Box 1), responding to certain PAs. Task Forces
33 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
Box 1: Africa Rice Task Forces
The Task Force concept was introduced by AfricaRice (then WARDA) in the 1990s to achieve critical mass in
thematic areas in the rice sector, based on principles of sustainability, build-up of critical mass, and ownership
by the national systems. Due to lack of funding, this system ceased to function in 2003. This has severely
disrupted the ability to collaborate and plan activities with NARS partners.
The Second Africa Rice Congress strongly endorsed the Task Force concept and asked AfricaRice to facilitate
and re-animate these Task Forces. Task Forces will focus on specific Priority Areas in the R4D agenda,
thereby providing synergy to rice research efforts across the continent and building critical mass. Task Forces
also have an important function in (re-)building capacity in rice research at NARS level. Capacity-building
efforts will be linked to universities. Links may also be established with universities from the North, but (where
possible) in partnership with local universities. Sustainability of the Task Force mechanism will be achieved by
obtaining long-term funding commitments from donors and, were necessary, pooling resources. The first Task
Force, launched in 2010, was the Africa Rice Breeding Task Force; it is financed by the Government of Japan
for an initial phase of 5 years.
are collective R4D eIIorts on critical thematic areas in the rice sector, based on the principles oI
sustainability and build-up oI critical mass at the national and regional levels. AIricaRice will
Iacilitate these Task Forces. The Iollowing Task Forces have been or are about to be established:
· Rice Breeding Task Force (PA1)
· Rice Agronomy Task Force (PA2 and PA3)
· Rice Processing and Value Addition Task Force (PA4)
· Rice Mechanization Task Force (PA2, PA3, PA4)
· Rice Policy Task Force (PA5)
· Gender in Rice Research and Development Task Force (cross-cutting).
Participatory varietal selection (PVS) methodology was promoted through the earlier Task Force
mechanism and will form an important aspect of the ongoing work of the new Rice Breeding Task
Force
Boosting Africa's rice sector 34
Collaboration will also be established with national rice centers oI excellence within the Iramework
oI the World Bank-Iunded West AIrica Agricultural Productivity Program (WAAPP) in Mali and the
East AIrica Agricultural Productivity Program (EAAPP) in Tanzania.
Task Force activities and much oI the work in the CRPs will be thematic in nature, contributing to
PAs 1 to 5, but research outputs will be integrated in Rice Sector Development Hubs` (good practice
areas`) to achieve development outcomes and impact (PAs 6 and 7). Rice Sector Development Hubs
involve large groups oI Iarmers (10005000) and other value-chain actors, such as rice millers, input
dealers and rice marketers. These partnerships will be testing grounds Ior new rice technologies and
new institutional arrangements (contracting) between value-chain actors, and will Iollow a reverse-
research approach`, i.e. starting Irom the market. Partners will pursue a prooI oI concept` approach
to rice value-chain development, productivity improvement and sustainable management oI natural
resources in rice-based systems, based on innovative approaches to collective action and governance.
The objective is to produce rice or rice-based products that respond to consumer preIerences in urban
and rural markets in quantities that are oI interest to rice traders, who would usually import such
products. Hubs will represent key rice ecologies and diIIerent market opportunities across SSA and
will be linked to major national or regional rice development eIIorts to Iacilitate broader uptake oI
rice knowledge and technologies. Care will be taken that women and youths are not marginalized,
but on the contrary strengthened in the process oI rice value-chain development. At least 30 Rice
Sector Development Hubs will be established across AIrica by 2020.
Civil society organizations (CSOs) such as Réseau des organisations paysannes & de producteurs
de l`AIrique de l`Ouest (ROPPA) and Eastern AIrica Farmers` Federation (EAFF), and major
NGOs such as Catholic RelieI Services (CRS), Sasakawa Global 2000 (SG2000) and Songhai
will be involved in technology adaptation and wide-scale diIIusion in and beyond the Rice Sector
Development Hubs, and provide Ieedback to researchers and policy-makers on technology
perIormance and research and investment priorities. CSOs have a comparative advantage in
operating at the grassroots level and are thus well placed to ensure Iull participation oI Iarmers and
other value-chain stakeholders.
Collaboration with the private sector may involve contributions to strategic and applied research
in one oI the PAs, or to prooI oI concept` work in the Rice Sector Development Hubs. This will
include companies involved in Iarm inputs (seeds, Iarm machinery), credit provision, processing
and marketing. Private companies will also serve as technology diIIusion channels. This will require
new Iormal research partnerships, contractual relationships between the public and private sectors,
and due consideration oI issues related to intellectual property rights.
Close collaboration will be established with regional Iorums and economic communities with a
major interest in development oI the rice sector. These include the Forum Ior Agricultural Research in
AIrica (FARA) at continental level, the West and Central AIrican Council Ior Agricultural Research
and Development (CORAF/WECARD), the Association Ior Strengthening Agricultural Research in
Eastern and Central AIrica (ASARECA) and the Centre Ior Coordination oI Agricultural Research
35 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
and Development in Southern AIrica (CCARDESA) at sub-regional level, and higher-level political
bodies and development initiatives targeting Iood security and poverty, in particular the AIrican
Union (AU). Active linkages will be established with RECs to assist with policy Iormulation and
building oI rice research and extension capacity, including the Economic Community oI West
AIrican States (ECOWAS), Union économique et monétaire ouest-aIricaine (UEMOA), the East
AIrican Community (EAC) and the Economic Community oI Central AIrican States (CEMAC).
Links will also be established with international and regional development Iunds and banks and
donors, in particular donors in CARD (i.e. AIDB, IFAD, JICA and the World Bank), USAID,
Banque ouest aIricaine de développement (BOAD), and the World Food Programme (WFP).
Many oI these contribute directly as donors to the R&D activities that will be implemented under
this strategy. Rice Sector Development Hubs will, as much as possible, be established in regions
that beneft Irom large-scale bilateral or multilateral investments oI these agencies in rice-sector
development to build capacity and to Iacilitate transIorming research outputs into development
outcomes and impact.
Across PAs, there is a need Ior working closely with women Iarmers, researchers, extension agents
and agribusiness women in order to maximize eIfciency, eIIectiveness and impact. This will
involve, Ior example, Iull Iemale participation in the evaluation oI promising new breeding lines
through participatory varietal selection trials to understand women`s criteria Ior varietal selection,
and clear consideration oI women`s access to rice production Iactors and output markets in rice
value-chain development. The Gender in Rice Research and Development Task Force will develop
methodologies and build capacity among partners to address gender issues in R4D in all projects,
starting Irom the concept-note and proposal development phase. Consideration oI gender issues
across the entire research agenda will greatly enhance the eIfciency and impact oI research, as well
as reduce gender inequalities in access to technologies.
Geographical and ecological focus of research-for-development
interventions
The ex-ante impact work (section 6) showed that potential benefts would be highest in the West
AIrica region (about 62.2° oI total annual income gain, 6.8 million people liIted above the $1.25
PPP poverty line and 3.6 million oI people no longer undernourished by 2020), Iollowed by Eastern
AIrica (including Madagascar, about 26.4° oI total annual income gain, 2.7 million people liIted
out oI poverty and 1.4 million people no longer undernourished by 2020), Central AIrica (about
10.2° oI total income gain, 1.0 million people liIted out oI poverty and 0.5 million people no longer
undernourished by 2020) and Southern AIrica (about 1.2° oI total annual income gain, 0.5 million
people liIted out oI poverty and 0.1 million people no longer undernourished by 2020). These
fndings justiIy a continued strong Iocus on West AIrica, while building up a stronger presence in,
especially, Eastern AIrica and, to a lesser extent, Central AIrica. The Southern AIrica region will not
be considered Ior research activities.
Boosting Africa's rice sector 36
In terms oI ecological distribution oI the income gains Ior rice Iarmers, the lowland ecosystem
is in frst position (about 44.2° oI the total annual income gain and 1.9 million people liIted out
oI poverty by 2020), mainly driven by Nigeria. The upland ecology comes in second position
(about 39.5° oI the total gain, 1.4 million people), Iollowed by the irrigated ecosystem (about
13.1° oI the total gain, 0.7 million people) and the mangrove ecosystem (about 3.2° oI total gain,
0.1 million people). This justifes a strong Iocus on rainIed lowland and upland ecologies in the
research agenda; however, priorities Ior countries show strong diIIerences, and this will be taken
into account in implementing this R4D agenda (Fig. 6). AIricaRice does not have the comparative
advantage to pursue work on mangrove-swamp rice. In the past, the Rokupr rice research station in
Sierra Leone has taken the lead in this area on behalI oI the Association, with interaction provided
through the Task Forces. With the Rokupr station again Iully Iunctional, AIricaRice will assist the
Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) to again Iulfll this important role.
Rokupr rice research station: the Sierra Leonian NARS has led the continent in mangrove rice
research for decades
37 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
Projected rice production 2018
Figure 6: Projected rice production in selected African countries in 2018 (source: NRDS)
Upland
Lowland
Irrigated
Not disaggregated
200,000 tonnes
1,500,000 tonnes
4,000,000 tonnes
12,000,000 tonnes
Boosting Africa's rice sector 38
AIricaRice will also take into account the extent and perIormance oI rice production systems in
diIIerent countries and their importance Ior Iood security and poverty alleviation. Other Iactors
that will be considered include the country`s priorities to develop the rice sector as refected in their
NRDS (Fig. 6), the importance oI rice as a Iood staple Ior urban consumers, and the presence oI
major rice-development projects in the country that can serve as co-investments and ways to adapt,
adopt and scale-out research results.
Well-designed monitoring and evaluation systems will accompany the implementation oI this
strategy. Models and tools used Ior the priority setting reported here will be continually maintained
and improved using inIormation Irom monitoring and evaluation systems, adoption studies and ex-
post impact studies, enabling regular reviews oI strategic choices made and turning this strategic
plan into a living document.
Nigeria is a powerhouse of sub-Saharan African rice production, and has the potential to do even
more
39 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
4. Priority Areas
In this section, the rationale and broad activities and impact
pathways are described Ior each oI the seven Priority Areas (PAs).
Priority Area 1: Conserving rice genetic resources
and providing smallholder farmers with climate-
resilient rice varieties that are better adapted
to production environments and consumer
preferences
Farmer access to rice varieties, best-ht to her or his growth
environment, is the backbone of rice-sector aevelopment in
Africa. Many farmers in Africa ao not have access to improvea
rice varieties that coula make a huge aifference to their lives.
Current rice breeaing capacity in Africa is very weak. Evaluation
of rice germplasm neeas to be conauctea in a coherent, systematic
manner across the continent to enable genotype-by-environment
(G·E) analyses to iaentify target populations of environments for
promising entries. Rice breeaing efforts neea to be acceleratea
ana become more focusea through sharea aehnition of breeaing
proaucts ana methoaologies, ana implementation of foint breeaing
programs. Knowleage of the genetic aiversity that exists within the
genus Oryza is funaamental to effective conservation ana use in
rice-improvement programs to meet both current ana future neeas
in Africa ana beyona. To aate, only a small fraction of this aiversity
has been usea in breeaing. A much better link neeas to be maae
between rice varietal aevelopment ana testing, ana seea systems
ana seea legislation at national ana regional levels to enable
farmers to rapialy access improvea varieties.
The AIrica Rice Breeding Task Force will provide a continent-
wide platIorm Ior variety evaluation and accelerated varietal
release and seed production. It will adopt a systematic collaborative
approach to evaluation oI rice germplasm that will build much-
needed rice breeding capacity, Iacilitate access oI AIrican rice
breeders to new materials, and generally shorten the time needed
to deploy new climate-resilient and stress-resistant rice varieties
Ior major production systems in AIrica. The Breeding Task Force
will primarily cover the three mega-environments in SSA the
rainIed lowland, irrigated, and upland ecologies. A rejuvenated
Boosting Africa's rice sector 40
International Network Ior Genetic Evaluation oI Rice Ior AIrica (INGER-AIrica) will ensure
multiplication and distribution oI seed. AIricaRice will be responsible Ior the introduction oI
standardized protocols, central data acquisition and G×E analyses across the continent. To ensure
that rice varieties developed and released will meet the preIerences and specifc needs oI women
who do most oI the work in rice Iarming, all participatory varietal selection (PVS) trials will include
at least 30° women.
Breeders will work through shuttle breeding and a more precise targeting oI rice breeding to key
environments and grain-quality requirements Ior major market segments and climate change
scenarios. This will result in new breeding populations and fxed lines, building on past achievements,
such as the Sahel, WAB, NERICA and NERICA-L series in the case oI AIricaRice. This will
include: (i) new nutrient-use eIfcient inbred varieties with high yield potential, good grain quality
and resistance to multiple stresses (in particular, cold, heat, salinity, blast, bacterial leaI blight,
RYMV) Ior irrigated systems; (ii) new inbred varieties with good perIormance under conditions
oI variable water control, good grain quality and resistance to multiple stresses (in particular, iron
The AfricaRice genebank carries an unrivalled collection of African rice germplasm, which has
enormous potential for breeding work
41 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
toxicity, submergence, RYMV, bacterial leaI blight, AIrican rice gall midge) Ior rainIed lowlands;
(iii) new short-duration inbred varieties with good perIormance across low- and high-input systems,
good grain quality and resistance to multiple stresses (in particular, drought, phosphorus defciency,
blast) Ior upland systems; and (iv) rice hybrids adapted to irrigated and rainIed systems, with at least
20° yield advantage over local inbred checks and comparable grain quality.
Marker-assisted breeding (MAB) will be used as a routine breeding technique at AIricaRice and
increasingly by national partners, because it oIIers precision screening Ior target traits and allows
breeders to design new varieties, and improve existing ones, with better resistance to AIrica`s major
biotic and abiotic stresses. As much as possible, existing markers will be used. Gene discovery at
AIricaRice will be done in collaboration with advanced research centers and will be mainly limited
to abiotic and biotic stresses where the Center has a comparative advantage, such as AIrican rice
gall midge, iron toxicity and RYMV.
Systematic eIIorts will be pursued to conserve and expand the current collection oI traditional Ory:a
glaberrima and O. sativa accessions and wild rices Irom AIrica. Combined use oI biotechnology and
New material based on out-crosses to Oryza barthii should be ready for release during the frst half
of the decade
Boosting Africa's rice sector 42
bio-inIormatics will allow discovery oI new genes and their Iunctions. Germplasm characterization
and evaluation will strengthen pre-breeding activities and incorporation oI valuable traits through
MAB. New pools oI interspecifc hybrids, based on O. glaberrima and O. barthii (which are good
sources oI genes Ior characters such as weed competitiveness, drought tolerance and slow digestion)
will be developed. Activities will capitalize on the rapid advances in DNA sequencing technologies
to reveal rice diversity in a comprehensive manner and will also include capacity development Ior
NARS collaborators in new molecular-biology approaches.
,PSDFWSDWKZD\V
Expected immediate users oI pre-breeding research products, such as well-characterized genes, and
breeding populations, will be scientists involved in genetic improvement eIIorts in NARS, advanced
research institutes, and the private sector, who will use genes Ior introgression into varieties and
parental lines. Final users oI research products, such as climate-change-resilient, input-use-eIfcient
varieties will be the rice Iarmers in the major rice ecosystems in AIrica. New varieties will become
available to Iarmers at an accelerated pace through the AIrica Rice Breeding Task Force, and active
promotion oI national and regional varietal release systems and Iormal and inIormal seed production
systems. This will be backed by the introduction or strengthening oI seed legislation and quality-
control mechanisms across the continent. Links will also be established with major development
projects and development partners, such as NGOs, to accelerate varietal diIIusion, starting Irom
Rice Sector Development Hubs. Links with PA2 will ensure that the potential oI new varieties is
realized as much as possible through good and sustainable agronomic practices. Interaction with
PA4 will allow genetic improvement to take into account traits oI importance to grain quality and
market demands. Linkage with PA6 will ensure that varieties are linked with local seed-production
systems, both Iormal and inIormal (community-based seed production systems, CBSS), enabling
eIfcient and widespread adoption.
Priority Area 2: Improving rural livelihoods by closing yield gaps and
through sustainable intensification and diversification of rice-based
systems
Yielas in farmers helas are still far below what woula be possible with improvea management
(gooa agricultural practices, GAP) in high-input systems ana with improvea management ana
enhancea use of inputs in low-input systems. The aifference between farmers yielas ana attainable
yielas is commonly referrea to as the yiela gap. For high-input systems, yiela-gap closure
will require enhancing the efhciency with which inputs are usea, in particular labor, water ana
nutrients. Enhancing input-use efhciency ana sustainable intensihcation ana aiversihcation of rice-
basea systems will leaa to enhancea ana alternative income generation for farmers ana, therefore,
improvea livelihooas. Greater access to more aiversihea agricultural proaucts through proauction
or traae is expectea to have a positive inßuence on human health ana nutrition in both rural ana
urban areas. Enhancing input-use efhciency ana sustainable intensihcation ana aiversihcation of
rice-basea systems will necessitate the aevelopment of component technologies, focusing on factors
43 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
that limit ana reauce proauctivity, ana
their step-wise integration into the farmers
cropping calenaar. A thorough unaerstanaing
of future challenges, especially in terms of
climate change ana water scarcity, is neeaea
for aeveloping robust rice-basea systems,
resilient to environ mental changes ana
preparea for the future.
The Rice Agronomy Task Force will serve
as a platIorm Ior enhancing productivity in
rice-based systems through the introduction
oI good agricultural practices (GAP), as
much as possible Iocusing on Rice Sector
Development Hubs to ensure that these
practices are introduced Irom a rice value-
chain perspective, taking into account input
and output markets. The Task Force will conduct surveys in these Hubs to identiIy yield-limiting
and yield-reducing Iactors and establish baskets oI good agricultural principles and practices.
Surveys and testing oI GAP baskets will Iollow standard protocols to enable cross-site comparisons
and sound statistical analyses oI results obtained.
Farmer strategies and options Ior intensifcation and diversifcation will be analyzed using
participatory learning and action-research (PLAR) approaches and system-analysis tools to
assess the Ieasibility oI new rice-based cropping systems and crop-management options and their
implications in terms soil Iertility, climate risk and
Iood security. For example, with the introduction oI
the NERICA rice varieties in 2008, maize, peanut
and cotton Iarmers in central and southern Senegal
allocated part oI their land to grow rice (which they
previously bought). Farmers are also increasingly
using ricemaize rotations. Research is needed to
determine best-ft diversifcation strategies in space
and time to develop sustainable rice-based Iarming
systems across ecologies. These diversifcation
options will be developed and fne-tuned with
Iarmers through action-research approaches, such
as PLAR. Spatial analysis oI biophysical and socio-
economic parameters using geographic inIormation
systems (GIS) and remote sensing will identiIy target
areas and priority areas Ior successIul introduction
oI component or combined technologies.
GIS helps target technologies where they
will be most useful
PLAR promoted planting in rows rather than
scattering seed in the feld ÷ this makes the
job of weeding easier, opening up the option of
mechanized weeding
Boosting Africa's rice sector 44
Research on component tech nologies will Iocus on increasing labor, nutrient and water productivities
to close yield gaps and reduce risk in Iarmers` felds. New technologies will be introduced and
tested through the Rice Agronomy Task Force in the Rice Sector Development Hubs. These will
include appropriately scaled mechanization to improve timing oI crop-management interven tions,
water-control and water-harvesting techniques, and improved soil-Iertility and weed-management
options. Activities will also include adaptive and participatory crop-, water- and soil-management
research to accompany the introduction oI stress-resistant varieties in well-defned target areas that
specifcally suIIer Irom drought, submergence, iron toxicity or salinity.
Component technologies will be integrated step-wise into the Iarmers` cropping calendars, Iocusing
on Iarm-level improvements by testing component technologies on Iarm. Women participate in the
cultivation oI rice to various degrees and oIten have specifc tasks such as transplanting, weeding and
harvesting. Economic development and technological response options aIIect women in diIIerent
ways. Water scarcity and response options such as alternate wetting and drying may promote weed
growth and increase the need Ior manual weeding. Thus, it is important to include a clear gender
perspective in the development oI alternative response options or technologies.
At careIully selected and strategically located research sites that are representative oI major rice-
based systems, new interdisciplinary experimental platIorms` will be established to develop
cropping systems oI the Iuture` that respond to the major drivers oI change. Models will be used
to predict the trade-oIIs associated with crop and system improvements, and to design appropriate
combinations oI component technologies that are resilient to climate change and water scarcity.
Adaptive research trials will be established in Iarmers` felds and will deliver concrete management
recommendations and cropping-system practices that both mitigate global warming and adapt to the
impacts oI climate change.
Research will be conducted on major
rice pests and diseases to elucidate
the relationships among rice plants,
diseases and their vectors, crop-
management practices, and the natural
environment as determined by weather
and hydrology. Weed species shiIts
in response to changes in hydrology
(as induced by water scarcity) and
crop management (e.g. shiIts Irom
transplanting to direct seeding) will be
studied to identiIy intervention points
Ior weed control. This research will
contribute to a better understanding oI
how pest, disease and weed species will
shiIt with climate change.
Rice infested with stem borer (larvae of stalk-eyed fy
Diopsis spp.), a major biotic constraint in rainfed upland
and lowland rice
45 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
,PSDFWSDWKZD\V
GAP baskets will be developed with partners in Rice Sector Development Hubs. The Rice Agronomy
Task Force will test and adapt new component technologies in the Rice Sector Development Hubs and
gradually update GAP baskets. Links with PA1 will ensure that best-ft varieties and accompanying
agronomic practices are used. GAP knowledge, component technologies and combined technologies
Irom this research will be packaged into Iormats that can be diIIused on a wide scale (e.g. through
video or radio scripts, mobile-phone technology), and will be disseminated through development
partners, such as NGOs, extension systems and with support Irom private-sector companies (link
with PA6). These outcomes will lead to impacts Ior Iarmers in terms oI improved income, reduced
vulnerability to disturbances, increased Iood availability Ior selI-consumption, reduced pesticide
exposure, improved micronutrient intake, and sustained Iuture productivity. Farmers will thus
be enabled to invest more in environmental stewardship, education, healthcare, and other social
development. More productive rice land and more valuable rice products will also enable Iarmers
to set aside land Ior growing other crops, and Iurther raise their incomes through diversifcation oI
Iarming systems, which also results in reduced risk.
Priority Area 3: Achieving socially acceptable expansion of rice-producing
areas, while addressing environmental concerns
The value of environmental services of lana ana water resources ana how they woula be affectea
by aevelopment for rice-basea systems is not well unaerstooa ana quantihea. Such unaerstanaing
ana who woula potentially beneht or lose from lana ana water aevelopment for rice-basea systems
is extremely important, even more so in the light of a changing climate ana the growing interest
in Africa s natural resources. Policies, e.g. on lana tenure, that facilitate socially acceptable ana
environmentally souna expansion of rice-proaucing areas are neeaea.
GIS- and remote-sensing-based inventories oI actual and potential land and water resources suited
Ior rice will be conducted at diIIerent scales national, regional and continental and Ior various
river basins. Existing climate scenarios will be downscaled to determine where climate changes are
occurring, and spatial hydrological models will allow analysis oI the impacts on spatio-temporal
availability and demand Ior water.
Due to climate change, conditions Ior specifc rice pests and diseases may become more Iavorable and
their distribution domain may change. This will be spatially modeled in a GIS using a range oI specifc
simulation models. Abiotic stresses, such as salinity and iron toxicity, will be mapped using feld
surveys, simulation models and remote sensing. Regional strategies Ior the deployment oI resistance
genes against pests and diseases will be pursued to increase the durability oI varietal resistance.
The outputs oI these models will be linked in a GIS with spatial socio-economic inIormation
such as market access, and inIrastructure Ior rice production and processing to determine best-ft
national and regional strategies Ior rice-sector development. Using smart web-mapping technology,
Boosting Africa's rice sector 46
this spatial thematic inIormation will be made available and visualized so that it can be used to
defne, Ior example, priority areas Ior investment in the rice sector. The target audience will include
rural planners, policy-makers, environmentalists, NGOs, scientists and the private sector.
Environmental systems analysis` assigns Iunctions and values to ecosystems and models the impact
oI changes to those systems due, Ior example, to a change in land use. Spatial hydrological models
will allow analysis oI hydrology and nutrient cycles. Using scenario analysis, the impact oI proposed
new rice-based systems or proposed rice policies will be evaluated in terms oI environmental
services, most notably water availability, while accounting Ior eIIects oI climate change. Results
will be visualized in an online mapping tool, thus promoting transparency in governance.
These systems approaches can be applied at diIIerent scales, such as Ior communities, provinces,
toposequences oI inland valleys, river basins, countries and regions, and can help to ensure
equitable and socially acceptable development oI land and water resources Ior rice-based systems.
Such quantitative knowledge will be used to Iacilitate collective action and governance to develop
rice-based systems, most notably inland valley systems and new irrigated systems, in a socially
acceptable manner. This includes the establishment oI multistakeholder platIorms to Iacilitate
institutional change and development and capacity strengthening Irom village to district and national
levels. A special Iocus will be on land-tenure issues and ensuring continued or enhanced access to
land and water resources by women. These approaches will lead to a defnition oI recommendation
domains Ior component technology targeting and Ior priority areas Ior investment in the rice sector.
Inland valleys are ideal for rice cultivation and are signifcantly underutilized
47 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
,PSDFWSDWKZD\V
Research products will include systems approaches to characterize land and water resources that
are potentially suitable Ior rice development and to determine the impact oI land use changes on
environmental services. End-users will include rural planners, policy-makers, environmentalists,
NGOs, scientists and the private sector. Open-access web-mapping applications will allow
transparent use oI these systems tools across the continent and in-depth debates in multistakeholder
platIorms in Rice Sector Development Hubs through linkage with PA6. EIIective use oI these
systems approaches will beneft smallholder Iarmers and rice consumers through sustainable and
community-supported development. SuccessIul multistakeholder approaches in the Rice Sector
Development Hubs will be captured on video and diIIused through AIricaRice`s and other networks,
such as the Inland Valley Community oI practice (IVC), to other regions and countries.
Priority Area 4: Creating market opportunities for smallholder farmers
and processors by improving the quality and competitiveness of locally
produced rice and rice products
Present processing practices in Africa cause arouna 1525º physical loss ana, because of poor
quality, an aaaitional hnancial loss at the market of 2030º. Improvement to both loss ana quality
is hamperea by the separation of the three segments of the sector proauction, processing ana
marketing. New organi:ational arrangements ana partnerships, ana capacity builaing across the
value chain will be requirea to raise the competitiveness of Africas rice sector, taking into account
the special role of women involvea in postharvest activities such as parboiling ana milling. Farmers
woula beneht from better information ßows ana linkages with processors ana retailers in general
ana emerging market trenas ana opportunities that coula inßuence their choice of varieties ana crop-
management practices, as well as a better unaerstanaing of the causes of ana solutions to postharvest
losses. Innovative uses of husks ana straw insteaa of burning will proviae local business opportunities
ana extra income sources for farmers, ana simultaneously mitigate climate change. Opportunities
to aaa value to lower-graae rice ana rice by-proaucts incluae the aevelopment of proaucts such as
high-value oil from bran, ana high-energy biscuits from broken rice for malnourishea chilaren.
The Rice Processing and Value Addition Task Force will serve as a platIorm to develop good
agricultural practices (GAP) Ior harvest and postharvest stages, as much as possible Iocusing on
Rice Sector Development Hubs to ensure that these practices are introduced Irom a rice value-chain
perspective, taking into account input and output markets. The Task Force will conduct surveys
to identiIy constraints and opportunities related to harvest and postharvest practices, and establish
baskets oI good agricultural principles and practices. Surveys and testing oI harvest and postharvest
GAP baskets will Iollow standard protocols to enable cross-site comparisons and sound statistical
analyses oI results obtained.
Innovative ways will be developed to process broken grain to add value and generate employment
opportunities, especially Ior women Iarmers and Iood processors in AIrica. Grain-quality specialists
Boosting Africa's rice sector 48
will contribute to the development
oI varieties Ior specifc end-users,
including high-value specialty
markets, and provide advice on GAP
Ior maintaining grain quality. Broken
and chalky grains that Ietch low
prices on the market will be ground
into four to develop products that
add value, such as high-energy
biscuits. Food processors, especially
women, will be trained to make
and market these products. A range
oI concepts Ior the production oI
biomaterials and bioIuels using rice
husks or straw will be evaluated and
the commercial viability oI these
products will be evaluated in SSA.
Through the Mechanization Task Force and enhanced SouthSouth collaboration, small-scale
machinery will be imported Irom Asia, Latin America and within AIrica to be tested, adapted and
produced locally. The types oI machines will be identifed through thorough needs analyses. This
will concern, Ior example, harvesters, dryers, threshers, parboilers, mills, storage systems, village-
level quality-assessment tools, and postharvest management options.
To develop winwin options Ior collective action and governance in rice value chains linking
Iarmers, processors and markets an enhanced understanding oI constraints and opportunities
across rice value chains Ior contrasting rice demand and supply environments is needed. Research
will Iocus on institutional and organizational innovations enabling greater access to input and
output markets Ior smallholder
Iarmers, value addition, equitable
sharing oI gains, innovative rice
labeling, marketing and generic
promotion strategies. This will
include making output markets
more eIfcient and competitive
by providing price and product-
availability inIormation in diIIerent
markets and Iacilitating linkages
between prospective buyers and
suppliers. Special emphasis will
be placed on the development oI
risk-management strategies and
Medium-scale dedicated processing plants produce rice of
improved and uniform quality
Poor-quality small-scale processing
49 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
tools across the value chain (e.g. communication, contracts, social saIety nets, insurance). Activities
will enable the development oI a multidisciplinary Iramework to derive an optimal investment strategy
Ior rice value chains and to assess the returns to marketing as a potential catalyst oI rice value chains in
SSA. AIricaRice and partners will also contribute to the development oI market inIormation systems
and networks Ior exchanging and disseminating market inIormation more eIfciently.
,PSDFWSDWKZD\V
GAP baskets Ior harvest and postharvest practices will be developed with partners in Rice Sector
Development Hubs. The Rice Processing and Value Addition Task Force will test and adapt new
component technologies in the Rice Sector Development Hubs and gradually update GAP baskets.
GAP knowledge, component technologies and combined technologies Irom this research will be
packaged into Iormats that can be diIIused on a wide scale (e.g. through video or radio scripts,
mobile-phone technology) and will be disseminated through development partners, such as NGOs,
extension systems and with support Irom private-sector companies (link with PA6).
Equipment will be tested and, where possible, built with local artisans, enabling local production
and maintenance. Millers and processors will buy and operate new equipment, thereby reducing
losses, increasing rice availability in local markets, and creating new job opportunities in machinery
and processing chains. Increased rice availability will reduce prices, thus benefting poor consumers,
while the use oI waste products Ior energy will create new avenues oI employment and reduce
greenhouse-gas emissions as impacts.
These outcomes will lead to impacts
Ior Iarmers in terms oI improved
income, reduced vulnerability
to disturbances, increased Iood
availability Ior selI-consumption,
reduced pesticide exposure,
improved micronutrient intake,
and sustained Iuture productivity.
Farmers will thus also be enabled
to invest more in environmental
stewardship, education, healthcare,
and other social development.
More productive rice land and more
valuable rice products will also
enable Iarmers to set aside land
Ior growing other crops, and thus
Iurther raise their income through
diversifcation oI Iarming systems,
which also reduces risk.
Successful feld trials with small combine-harvesters
designed for smallholders' plots should see the machines
rolled out on a wide scale in the frst half of the decade
Boosting Africa's rice sector 50
Priority Area 5: Facilitating the development of the rice value chain through
improved technology targeting and evidence-based policy-making
It is of prime importance to establish a formal framework for policy aialogue between stakeholaers
along the rice value chain at country ana regional levels. However, countries generally lack the
aata, tools ana human capacity to conauct scenario analyses ana make informea choices with
respect to policy-making ana investment priorities. Policy-makers, aonors ana research managers
neea more accurate eviaence-basea information on specihc constraints, research neeas ana the
impact of research ana aevelopment investments to aate, so as to generate political support ana
target continuea investment in rice research. In aaaition, in the absence of market feeaback,
publicly funaea rice research requires systematic analysis of expectea impacts on the poor to target
future investments, ana establish metrics for monitoring ana evaluation. This priority area seeks
to rearess the situation aescribea above through a greatly expanaea effort to proviae the necessary
information using new technologies.
The Rice Policy and Gender in Rice Research and Development Task Forces will serve as
platIorms to generate the knowledge and inIormation needed Ior designing technologies and
sustainable crop management and diversifcation options suited to the needs oI Iarmers, and Ior
identiIying institutional and policy options to promote rapid adoption and diIIusion oI improved
technologies and cropping systems. Gender roles in rice-based Iarming systems will be assessed to
improve research targeting and eIfciency, taking into account women`s priorities, preIerences and
perceptions. The data generated will be geo-reIerenced and will be analyzed with various qualitative
and quantitative tools to derive the required Ieedback Ior researchers, research managers and policy-
Experimental auctions in several countries have clearly demonstrated consumers' willingness to
pay a premium for quality domestic rice
51 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
makers. Decision-support systems will be made available to guide public and private investment
in the rice sector. Data and decision-support systems will enable the provision oI guidance with
respect to policy-making, such as seed policies, policies to enhance Iarmers` access to input and
output markets, policies to enhance Iarmers` access to land and water resources, and policies to
stimulate the general growth oI the domestic rice sector.
An important component oI the research will be a comprehensive econometric model to analyze
supply and demand changes over time on the AIrican continent as infuenced by the world rice
market and its linkage with agricultural and non-agricultural inputs and products, and development
oI regional demand and production capacity.
This model will be used to analyze the impact oI national and regional policies on production,
consumption, trade and rice price at country level. It will also be used Ior ex-ante and ex-post
impact assessment oI technology interventions. Other quantitative approaches, including spatial
econometrics and time-series analysis, will be used in assessing the eIIects oI policies. This work
will be linked to more general worldwide models developed by IFPRI and IRRI.
The Council of Ministers has been an invaluable platform for promoting rice policy among
AfricaRice member states
Boosting Africa's rice sector 52
Working with the NARS and the national agricultural statistical services (as done in 2009), national
and sub-national rice statistical data will be updated on a regular basis and all existing household
data sets will be digitized and uploaded on the internet Ior public access and used Ior priority
setting. Ex-post impact assessment will be used when research products are near their peak level oI
adoption. A special eIIort will be made to analyze the impact oI integrated rice management (GAP`)
in SSA. To enable more accurate Iuture adoption estimates at lower cost, remote-sensing methods
will be tested Ior tracking the diIIusion oI varietal and crop management practices (see also PA3).
A comprehensive rice inIormation gateway (RIGA) is being developed that synthesizes and makes
available rice knowledge Ior AIrica and provides accurate science-based inIormation to policy-
makers, donors, scientists, agricultural proIessionals, Iarmers and the general public. The inIormation
gateway will also include general inIormation on all aspects oI rice production, policies, statistics,
studies and projects, global market inIormation (such as on seed, Iertilizer and equipment), best
management practices, and even prominent persons in the sector. RIGA will be part oI a global rice
inIormation gateway convened by IRRI. The data will Ieed into new predictive tools to identiIy
which research opportunities oIIer the greatest expected benefts Ior the poor and the environment.
On-the-ground economic, environmental and social impacts oI technology adoption will be assessed
Local rice for sale in the market
53 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
when research products are near their peak level oI adoption, while more immediate Ieedback to
scientists will be provided through qualitative evaluation approaches Iocused on early adoption.
Through the gateway, up-to-date reliable and relevant inIormation on rice-sector trends will be
available. The gateway will represent a cost-eIIective mechanism Ior diIIusion and exchange oI
rice-related inIormation.
,PSDFWSDWKZD\V
Research priority setting and targeting derived Irom RIGA will be used by research managers
and partners to help Iocus research portIolios on areas that oIIer the greatest impact potential,
thereby improving long-term fows oI benefts to the poor and the environment Irom research
investments. RIGA content will be made available through diIIerent uptake pathways (e.g. mobile
phone, video, radio) with support Irom major rice-development stakeholders and partners at both
national and regional levels. Adoption studies provide Ieedback to improve the Iocus oI research
and dissemination eIIorts by actors in the global rice research system.
Real-time data on the rice market and instruments to contain rice-price volatility can help national
policy-makers to Iorecast and mitigate problems in the sector eIIectively. In particular, policies with
high deadweight losses, such as government procurements or export bans, are oIten unnecessary and
costly, and can be avoided without detriment to national Iood security. Moreover, these responses
can come with real harm to the poor Ior example, inappropriate rice market responses contributed
signifcantly to the global rice price spike in 2008. This research will help to avoid this pattern in the
Iuture by engaging rice traders and government agencies to advocate Ior more appropriate market
responses to Iorecasts.
Priority Area 6: Mobilizing co-investments and linking with development
partners and the private sector to stimulate uptake of rice knowledge and
technologies
Links between research ana aevelopment investments are often weak. As a result, opportunities for
large-scale exposure of farming ana agribusiness communities to new rice technologies ana crop
ana natural-resources management principles are often lacking. The obfective of this priority area
is to support the growth of Africa s rice sector through better linkages (feea-forwara ana feeaback
loops) between research networks ana aevelopment initiatives in the public sector, civil society ana
private sector. This priority area is catalytic ana seeks to leverage effort for the growth of the rice
sector. There is a strong emphasis on mobili:ing partners to use their own resources ana seek their
own funas, through public-sector commitment, private-sector investment, or civil society profects.
This priority area promotes a proactive approach linking research networks and activities with
national and regional rice-development eIIorts. The AIrican Rice Initiative (Box 2) is an example oI
the impact that can be achieved through such an approach. Activities on rice-sector development by
the CARD community oI donors (AIDB, IFAD, JICA, World Bank) and with USAID, BOAD and
others will be mapped, and links will be established where possible. Links will also be established
Boosting Africa's rice sector 54
with major NGOs and CSOs to speed up technology diIIusion in a transparent and equitable manner.
AIricaRice will actively contribute to institutional and policy development through Irequent
interaction with AIrica`s regional economic communities, the sub-regional research organizations,
FARA, the AU, and its own National Experts Committee and Council oI Ministers.
Rice Sector Development Hubs will be established to enhance the productivity, competitiveness and
sustainability oI rice-based value systems, involving large groups oI Iarmers and other value-chain
actors, such as rice millers, input dealers and rice traders. Women`s groups (Iarmers, parboilers,
women laborers in on-Iarm postharvest activities, traders and Iood processors) will be specially
targeted and interventions designed to compensate Ior their lack oI access to land. Hubs will be
located in the key rice systems and in countries where rice is important Ior Iood security and poverty
alleviation to ensure representativeness, ease oI diIIusion oI results, products and approaches, and
rapid impact. The Rice Sector Development Hubs will be linked to major national, regional or donor-
Iunded rice-development eIIorts to Iacilitate technology testing, adaptation and out-scaling. Thus,
we will work at a totally diIIerent scale and in an integrated approach (i.e. value-chain development
reaching thousands oI Iarmers through the Rice Sector Development Hubs, out-scaling to millions in
due course) rather than Iocusing on components (e.g. seed, Iertilizer management) as done in the past.
Box 2a: Impact example: Out-scaling of new rice varieties in Africa
Rice genetic improvement efforts by AfricaRice and its NARES partners during the past two decades have
led to the development and diffusion of high-yielding and short-duration rice varieties for irrigated, upland and
lowland ecologies. Three improved varieties (Sahel 108, 201 and 202) were selected in 1994 for the Sahelian
irrigated environments. The Sahel varieties have rapidly gained producers’ acceptance and are currently
cultivated on about 70% of the rice area in the Senegal River Valley. A further five new irrigated rice varieties
(Sahel 134, 159, 208, 209 and 210) were released in 2007. A range of new interspecific rice varieties named
NERICA (New Rice for Africa) was also developed by AfricaRice and its NARES partners in the mid-1990s
for upland and lowland growing conditions. There are now 18 NERICA varieties suited for upland growing
conditions (NERICA 1 to NERICA 18) and 60 varieties suited for lowland growing conditions (NERICA-L 1 to
NERICA-L 60). AfricaRice and its partners joined forces to create a mechanism to scale up the dissemination
of NERICA and other improved rice varieties throughout SSA in March 2002 — the African Rice Initiative
(ARI). ARI uses participatory varietal selection (PVS) and community-based seed systems (CBSS) to expose
farmers to improved varieties and help them access quality seed. Through PVS, 17 upland NERICA varieties
have been adopted/released in 19 SSA countries and 20 NERICA-L varieties have been adopted/released
in 12 countries. ARI has also facilitated the production of large quantities of breeder, foundation and certified
seed of NERICA and other improved varieties. Between 2005 and 2009, some 275 tonnes of breeder and
foundation seeds were distributed. During the same period, 30 technicians were trained as trainers in seed
production.
NERICA varieties have affected the livelihoods of rural populations across Africa. Currently, about one million
hectares are under improved varieties, including 700,000 ha of NERICAs (2009). Partnership with NARES,
JICA, NGOs and farmer organizations, with donor support (Japan, The Rockefeller Foundation, AfDB,
IFAD, UNDP, CFC, World Bank, IDRC, USAID), is the key to ARI success. ARI has also become involved in
emergency and post-conflict situations to restore old varieties and expose rice farmers to new material (Sierra
Leone, Liberia and DRC).
55 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
High yield potential
varieties with
resistance to
drought, weed,
various pests and
diseases, iron
toxicity, salinity, heat/
cold:
· Ìmproved sativas
(WAB, Sahel,
WÌTA, etc.)
· NERÌCA and
new-generation
interspecifcs
· Ìmproved
glaberrimas
· Hybrids
· NARES
· Farmer
organizations
· AGRA, ÌFDC
· NGOs (SG2000,
CRS, Castor, etc.)
· Projects (AfDB,
CFC, ÌFAD, USAÌD,
Japan, PAFÌSEM,
OHVN, PADER,
PUASA, etc.)
· Private sector
(Tunde SA, etc.)
Benin, Burkina Faso,
Burundi, Cameroon,
Central African
Republic, Chad,
Congo, Côte d'Ìvoire,
DRC, Egypt, Ethiopia,
Gabon, Gambia,
Ghana, Guinea,
Kenya, Liberia,
Madagascar, Malawi,
Mali, Mauritania,
Mozambique, Niger,
Nigeria, Rwanda,
Senegal, Sierra
Leone, Sudan,
Tanzania, Togo,
Uganda, Zambia
· Demonstration
plots
· Dissemination of
good practices in
quality seed
selection and
agronomy
· Training of certifed
and foundation
seed producers
· Linkages with the
private sector
(seed, other inputs
and microfnance)
· Linkage with
investment projects
for scaling out and
public Ìnfrastructure
(AfDB, ÌFAD,
BOAD, etc.)
· Participatory
varietal selection
with farmers
· Multilocation trials
with varietal
release bodies
Research
Yield
O
u
t
c
o
m
e
I
m
p
a
c
t
Extension
Income
Partners
Poverty, food security
Countries
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 2015
300 350 500 700 900 >1000 Adoption
(1000 hectares)
· >2 t yield increase in
Senegal (Sahel
varieties)
· 0.7~1.5 t/ha yield
increase in Benin,
Uganda and Nigeria
(NERÌCA)
NERÌCA per-capita
income gain:
· Uganda ($20)
· Guinea ($7)
· Benin ($21)
· Nigeria ($42)
· The Gambia ($0.10)
· NERÌCA reduced poverty
(head count) by 5% in
Uganda and 13% in Benin
· NERÌCA increased
household food
expenditures in Benin
by $180
Box 2b: Rice genetic improvement and dissemination processes of the African Rice Initiative (ARI)
Boosting Africa's rice sector 56
Where quality can be guaranteed, branding helps raise its image, market presence and value
AIricaRice will play a Iacilitating role in the development oI viable seed systems across the
continent. This will include training oI staII Irom national agricultural research and extension
systems (NARES), NGOs and the private sector in both conventional and inIormal seed-production
systems. The conventional seed system destined to produce certifed seed will be pursued where
possible. In parallel, AIricaRice will advocate Ior the production oI quality seed through community-
based seed production systems, appropriate quality-control mechanisms and the development oI
small-scale rural enterprises. With increasing market access, this more or less inIormal process
may gradually move to the conventional seed system. In addition, Iarmers` capacity to upgrade and
maintain the quality and the diversity oI seed produced on Iarm Ior their own use will be enhanced.
Too many technologies have not reached potential benefciaries because oI problems with last-
mile` delivery. Technologies have not been translated into knowledge and Iormats that can be used
by rice Iarmers and other rice-development stakeholders, and insuIfcient eIIort is made to diIIuse
such knowledge in eIIective and cost-eIfcient ways. AIricaRice and partners will conduct research
to establish ways oI packaging` research results in Iormats that can be readily and rapidly diIIused
in an equitable manner across Iarming communities. AIricaRice already has good experience with
the use oI videos, but use oI mobile-phone technology will be explored as well. Knowledge will be
stored` in knowledge banks accessible in local languages and linked to rice inIormation gateways
that are dynamic and up to date. Both technologies and decision-support tools will be targeted.
Research will Iocus on strengths and weaknesses oI technology-mediated learning Ior diIIerent
purposes and user groups in diIIerent contexts. The provision oI coherent, up-to-date inIormation
in Iormats suited to extension specialists and Iarmers will underpin delivery initiatives. This will
involve innovative use oI multiple ICT Iormats, such as video, radio, internet and mobile-phone
©

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57 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
technology. The Rice InIormation Gateway Ior AIrica (RIGA) will be the principal platIorm. These
resources will include inIormation on specialist topics, as well as extension training materials.
Studies will be conducted to identiIy viable publicprivate partnerships and case studies describing
negotiation and implementation processes. New interaction mechanisms will be explored between
content providers, ICT, knowledge brokers and end-users that are socially inclusive. We will also
develop strategies and policy recommendations to boost learning opportunities Ior rural people,
women and youth in particular.
,PSDFWSDWKZD\V
Ex-ante impact analyses and technology targeting will guide out-scaling oI rice knowledge and
technologies Irom research network nodes to a much larger number oI benefciaries. Prototype
technologies and rice knowledge will be Iurther tested and fne-tuned to local settings by applied
research partners in the Rice Sector Development Hubs. Ready-to-go technologies and knowledge
will be out-scaled through development partners, such as investment projects (e.g. AIDB and IFAD
projects) and major NGOs such as CRS, promoting large-scale adoption oI agronomic, postharvest
and processing innovations. The latter will provide valuable Ieedback to research on the perIormance
oI the research products and local adaptations made. A special eIIort will be made to support the
development oI seed multiplication and delivery systems, linking public- and private-sector, and
civil society partners. This PA will maintain strong linkages to product development under PAs
1 to 5 and with research networks such as IVC and the Task Force mechanism.
Priority Area 7: Strengthening the capacities of national rice research and
extension agents and rice value-chain actors
Years of neglect have eroaea Africas rice research ana extension capacity. Skills are lacking in all
mafor aisciplines of relevance to rice science, from plant breeaing to policy economics. Extension
services in Africa are for the most part unaerstaffea ana starvea of access to consistent ana relevant
rice information ana improvea extension tools. Public ana private extension services often focus
on high-value export commoaities ana less on staple fooa crops such as rice. This is seriously
hampering rice-sector aevelopment, which will aepena to a large extent on the aevelopment of
rice technologies aaaptea to local settings ana their aissemination to actors in the rice value
chain. There is a clear neea for improvea accessibility to rice-relatea information ana functional
infrastructure for R&D ana the aevelopment of a critical mass of trainea scientists ana public, NGO
ana private-sector extension agents.
Currently, about 6070 students are working at AIricaRice at any one time across the continent,
Irom both AIrican and non-AIrican countries. This number is expected to increase to about 100
per year. The post-Masters program permits young university graduates to gain experience during
2 years at AIricaRice or a partner institution. About 50° oI these Iellows continue on to do a
PhD in their area oI specialization. The number oI post-Masters Iellows at AIricaRice and partner
institutions will be increased to about 20 per year.
Boosting Africa's rice sector 58
Formal training with both laboratory and feld elements is an essential ingredient of the AfricaRice
capacity-building strategy
59 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
The newly Iormed AIricaRiceNARS Gender in Rice Research and Development Task Force will
implement a gender-mainstreaming capacity-building program Ior NARS gender Iocal points and
relevant rice value-chains stakeholders, to reinIorce their capacity to eIIectively address gender
concerns in rice R&D activities. More opportunities will be targeted to promising young women
scientists to pursue their careers in rice science (visiting scientists, visiting Iellows, MSc and PhD
scholarships).
AIricaRice will strengthen its capacity to organize group training on highly specifc topics, such
as molecular breeding Ior researchers, but also on, Ior example, seed production and GAP Ior
technical staII Irom R&D institutions, NGOs, etc. This will be Iacilitated through the establishment
oI a Iully equipped rice training center in Saint-Louis, Senegal, near AIricaRice`s Sahel regional
research station. Through this new Iacility, season-long, hands-on training courses will be organized
Ior extension staII and research technicians, dealing with all aspects oI rice cropping Irom land
preparation to harvest and postharvest issues. Training Iacilities oI partner institutions in GRiSP,
in Egypt (RTTC), Tanzania and Uganda (JICA), France (CIRAD, IRD) and the Philippines (IRRI)
will also be mobilized as needed to accommodate training courses on specialized topics. Through
specifc projects, Iarmers, extension staII and other rice-development stakeholders will continue to
be trained in all aspects oI rice production, processing and marketing.
AIricaRice will join other partners, notably IRRI, to develop e-learning modules related to rice-
sector development. The Rice InIormation Gateway Ior AIrica (RIGA) and derived products
(videos, radio scripts, SMS) will provide knowledge and strengthen innovation capacity Ior actors
across the rice value chain.
,PSDFWSDWKZD\V
StaII trained at AIricaRice or partner centers will become part oI rice alumni networks, encouraging
them to stay in touch with AIricaRice and partners. This will allow them to ask questions and get
rapid Ieedback in case they encounter problems in applying what they have learned. It will also allow
AIricaRice and other partners to improve their training curricula. Where possible, training will be
linked to existing research and development projects to allow trainees to have suIfcient resources
to apply what they learn. AIricaRice will urge governments through its Council oI Ministers and
National Experts Committee meetings to invest in national rice research and extension capacity and
inIrastructure.
Boosting Africa's rice sector 60
5. New frontiers in science
AIricaRice and partners will continue to look Ior
opportunities to open new Irontiers in rice science. Some
possibilities are listed below, but the list is by no means
exclusive or exhaustive.
Unraveling the genesis of rea rice ana mitigation using next
generation sequencing technologies. Weedy rice (widely
reIerred to as red rice`) is an invasive and nonspecifc
relative to cultivated rice, distinguishable by the key
weedy traits oI rapid vegetative growth, grain shattering
and variable dormancy. Its ability to invade agricultural
felds in a wide range oI agro-ecologies costs millions oI
dollars in yield decrease and weed management eIIorts
world-wide. Recently, some NERICA varieties, derived
Irom interspecifc hybridization between O. sativa and
O. glaberrima, were reported to give typical red rice plants
during the process oI seed production year aIter year. The
objective is to use the O. sativa · O. glaberrima model
and NERICA varieties to identiIy the underlying causes oI
such a reversal toward wild` phenotypes. We propose to
use the next-generation genome-sequencing technologies
to extensively characterize genomic and transcription
changes introduced aIter interspecifc hybridization.
With this complete` catalogue oI data, we will be able to
propose alternative pre-breeding strategies to reduce the
risk oI a reversal toward wild phenotypes in Iuture varieties
developed through interspecifc hybridization.
Wiae aaaptability to rice ecologies. The large diversity oI
rice ecologies in AIrica and unpredictable weather patterns
due to climate variability and change pose great challenges
to AIrica`s rice Iarmers. Rice varieties robust enough to grow
well in diIIerent rice ecologies (e.g. along a toposequence
Irom upland to lowland) and withstand drought or fooding
spells would greatly reduce the risk Ior rice producers.
Identifcation oI genes conIerring such wide adaptability
would be extremely benefcial.
Future rice-basea systems. Increasing water scarcity and
climate change will require the development oI rice-based
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61 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
systems ready Ior the Iuture` in AIrica. This is especially true Ior regions where the pressure on
water is increasing due to expansion oI the area under irrigated agriculture or due to competition with
other users. The challenge will be to simultaneously raise water, land and labor productivities. This
will require detailed feld and modeling studies Irom feld to water-basin level, and the development
and validation oI options with Iarmers and irrigation authorities.
Slower-aigesting rice varieties a healthier option. Starches that are digested slowly lower the
body`s insulin response, thus helping people with diabetes to normalize their blood sugar levels.
Currently, 285 million people, mostly in developing countries, have Type II diabetes and another
344 million are at risk oI developing it due to impaired glucose tolerance. II diabetes is undiagnosed,
it becomes a chronic condition and can lead to death. Consumption oI cereals is not necessarily a
cause oI Type II diabetes, but cereals containing particular structures oI starch oIIer a solution Ior
prevention and management oI the condition. In the late 1990s, scientists developed a collection oI
new non-genetically modifed barley grains and assessed them Ior their potential to improve health
by delivering high levels oI slow-digesting starch and other dietary fber components. One particular
gem emerged Irom this research: a new type oI barley grain that went on to capture a signifcant
proportion oI the breakIast cereal market because oI its visible clinical eIIect. Preliminary work at
IRRI suggests that the rate oI digestibility oI rice starch is highly variable, so it may be possible to
develop new products that can be used to manage blood glucose and could assist in managing the
global pandemic oI Type II diabetes.
Biotech will be key in unravelling the mystery of 'red rice' in NERICA
Boosting Africa's rice sector 62
6. Expected impact
The potential beneft oI the $420 million total investment
in rice research Ior the period 20112020 (an average oI
$42 million per year) and its expected poverty impacts Ior
rice-producing Iarmers in SSA were assessed Ior 38 rice-
producing countries using econometric models and data
Irom Iarm household and community surveys conducted in
2009 (in 21 SSA countries). The 38 countries are: Angola,
Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central AIrican
Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic oI Congo,
Congo Republic, Côte d`Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, The
Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia,
Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique,
Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia,
South AIrica, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda,
Zambia and Zimbabwe. The total rice area harvested in these
countries in 2009 was about 9.9 million ha, which represents
99.3° oI the total harvested rice area oI SSA. Their total
paddy production Ior the same year was 19.1 Mt, with a share
oI 99.1° oI the total SSA production. Thus, the results oI this
analysis can be considered to be applicable Ior all oI SSA.
The data collected in the household and community surveys
included inIormation on the biotic and abiotic stresses
and socio-economic constraints in rice production, as well
as variety knowledge and adoption and other relevant
household socio-economic data. The data were combined
with data Irom a survey oI rice experts who were asked
to propose technological options Ior each major rice
production constraint and ecology along with estimates oI
the associated research cost, probability oI success and time
to deliver these options. The essential Ieatures oI the data
and models used are summarized in Appendix 1.
Results Irom the analysis oI the community and household-
level data showed that the magnitudes oI the eIIects oI
constraints are relatively high and vary across countries
and ecologies. Across all ecologies, drought was the most
Irequently cited constraint, Iollowed by fooding, other soil-
related stresses, weeds and birds. In terms oI yield loss,
drought and fooding each cause 33° yield loss, soil nutrient
63 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
problems cause 29° yield loss, weeds cause 23° yield
loss, and birds cause 22° yield loss.
The analysis oI the data Irom the survey oI rice experts
reveals a wide variety oI proposed technological options
across research disciplines (breeding, agronomy, IPM,
post-harvest, etc.) and ecologies. The average yield
loss reduction expected Irom technological options
mitigating the eIIects oI various biotic and abiotic stresses
is 0.6 t/ha in irrigated, 0.5 t/ha in lowland and 0.45 t/ha
in upland. The average yield potential increases Ior
technological options raising yield potential are 1.5 t/ha
Ior irrigated, 1.4 t/ha Ior lowland and 1 t/ha Ior upland
ecosystems. Estimates oI yield gains Irom technological
options reIer to conditions in researcher-managed trials.
The average time to delivery oI proposed technological
options was slightly more than 4 years and the average
probability oI success was slightly above 60°.
The estimation oI the potential impact oI research targeted to reduce yield loss due to the major
production constraints identifed by Iarmers, to raising the yield potential and to adding quality to
rice on annual beneft and poverty alleviation resulted in a global cumulative 5°-discounted beneft
oI $10.6 billion over the 7-year period 20142020 Ior the 38 SSA rice-producing countries included
in the analysis, with an average annual beneft oI $1.8 billion.
The costs oI the R&D include the Global Rice Science Partnership budget Ior AIrica Ior the period
20112015 and a Iorecasted value Ior 20162020 a total oI about $420 million. It also includes
indirect costs oI dissemination oI the technologies (estimated Irom various past projects at about
$1.2 billion). The benefts and costs were aggregated and discounted to derive the rate oI return
and the beneftcost ratio indicators. The fnancial rate oI return Ior all research activities within
the period 20112020 is estimated at 84° and the economic rate oI return (assuming 20° price
distortion) is 60°, showing that rice research in AIrica within GRiSP is fnancially and economically
proftable. The share oI rice in agricultural gross domestic product oI AIrican countries should
increase Irom the current 3.82° to 5.19° in 2010. This corresponds to a 26.5° increase Irom
the baseline scenario, which assumes that the agricultural GDP will maintain its current trend.
Thus, R&D on rice in AIrica will contribute to achieving the Comprehensive AIrica Agriculture
Development Program (CAADP) target oI 6° per year agricultural growth.
The disaggregation oI the income gain across the value-chain actors gives potential impact oI $6.8
billion (5° discounted 20142020; nominal $1.1 billion annually) Ior rice Iarmers, $3.3 billion
(5° discounted 20142020; nominal $650.6 million annually) Ior rice consumers, $323.7 million
(5° discounted 20142020; nominal $64.2 million annually) Ior rice processors and $155.3 million
(5° discounted 20132020; nominal $30.8 million annually) Ior rice traders. In terms oI poverty
Boosting Africa's rice sector 64
reduction (Iarmers and consumers only), it is estimated that the benefts generated by research
will liIt 11.0 million oI people living under the PPP $1.25 poverty line out oI poverty in 2020
4.2 million people living in rice-Iarming households and 6.8 non-rice-Iarming consumers. In
terms oI Iood security (Iarmers and consumers only), it is estimated that with the increased rice
availability and reduced prices, 5.6 million undernourished people will be able to aIIord to reach
caloric suIfciency by 2020 (1.2 million in rice-Iarming households and 4.4 million in non-rice-
Iarming consumer households).
In terms oI regional distribution on income gain (Appendix 2, Fig. A), West AIrica would have
the highest impact (annually $1.143 billion, about 62.2° oI total annual income gain $705.6
million Ior Iarmers, $384.1 million Ior consumers, $36.3 million Ior processors and $17.3 million
Ior traders). Eastern AIrica would come in second position (annually $485.0 million, about 26.4°
oI total $274.3 million Ior Iarmers, $183.1 million Ior consumers, $18.7 million Ior processors
and $9.0 million Ior traders). Central AIrica would be the third region ($187.5 million, about 10.2°
oI total $109.4 million Ior Iarmers, $66.6 million Ior consumers, $7.7 million Ior processors and
$3.8 million Ior traders). Southern AIrica comes last with only $21.7 million annually (1.2° oI
total annual income gain $2.6 million Ior Iarmers, $16.8 million Ior consumers, $1.5 million Ior
processors and $0.8 million Ior traders).
65 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
In terms oI regional distribution oI poverty reduction, it is expected that by 2020 some 6.8 million
people will be liIted out oI poverty in West AIrica (2.9 million in rice-Iarming households and 4.0
million in non-rice-Iarming consumer households), 2.7 million in Eastern AIrica (1.0 million in
rice-Iarming households and 1.7 million in non-rice-Iarming consumer households), 1.0 million
in Central AIrica (0.3 million in rice-Iarming households and 0.7 million in non-rice-Iarming
consumer households), and 0.5 million in Southern AIrica (just 7500 in rice-Iarming households
and 0.5 million in non-rice-Iarming consumer households).
In terms oI regional distribution oI reduction oI undernourished people, it is expected that by
2020 some 3.6 million undernourished people will be able to aIIord to reach caloric suIfciency in
West AIrica (0.7 million in rice-Iarming households and 2.9 million in non-rice-Iarming consumer
households), 1.4 million in Eastern AIrica (0.4 million in rice-Iarming households and 1.0 million in
non-rice-Iarming consumer households), 0.5 million in Central AIrica (0.1 million in rice-Iarming
households and 0.4 million in non-rice-Iarming consumer households), and 0.1 million in Southern
AIrica (just 4000 in rice-Iarming households and 90,000 in non-rice-Iarming consumer households).
In terms oI ecological distribution oI the income gains Ior Iarmers (Appendix 2, Fig. B), the lowland
ecosystem is in top position, with an average annual income gain oI $482.2 million across the 38
Boosting Africa's rice sector 66
countries (about 44.2° oI the total annual income gain). This position Ior the lowland ecology is
mainly driven by Nigeria where it is the dominant rice ecology (70° oI rice Iarmers). The upland
ecology comes in second position with average annual income gain oI $431.4 million (about 39.5°
oI the total), Iollowed by the irrigated ecosystem with an average annual income gain oI $143.1
million (about 13.1° oI the total) and the mangrove and other ecosystems with an average annual
beneft oI $35.2 million (about 3.2 ° oI the total). As a consequence oI these income gains, by
2020, some 1.9 million people living in rice-Iarming households will be liIted out oI poverty in
the lowland ecology, 1.4 million in the upland ecology, 0.7 million in the irrigated ecology, and 0.1
million in the mangrove and other ecologies.
In terms oI disciplinary research (Appendix 2, Fig. C), breeding comes in frst position with a
generated average annual income beneft Ior Iarmers oI $423.8 million (38.8° oI the total annual
income gain), Iollowed by agronomy with $302.4 million generated average annual income gain
Ior Iarmers (27.7° oI the total income gain) and postharvest with $164.5 million generated average
annual income gain Ior Iarmers (15.1° oI the total income gain). All other types oI research
(including multidisciplinary research) are expected to generate an average annual income beneft
oI $201.3 million (18.4° oI the total income gain). The number oI people living in rice-Iarming
households liIted out oI poverty by the year 2020 will be 4.42 million Ior breeding research, 3.89
million Ior agronomy research, 1.44 million Ior postharvest research and 1.37 million Ior other
types oI research. In addition, postharvest research would yield signifcant beneft oI $53.8 million
annually to processors and traders by adding quality and increasing the competitiveness oI locally
produced rice and rice products showing the importance oI this type oI research.
67 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
7. End note
Well-designed monitoring and evaluation systems will
accompany the implementation oI this strategy. Models
and tools used Ior the priority setting reported here will
be maintained and improved using inIormation Irom
monitoring and evaluation systems, adoption studies
and ex-post impact studies, enabling regular reviews oI
strategic choices made and turning this strategic plan
into a living document.
Boosting Africa's rice sector 68 Boo Boo Boo Boo BBoo Boo oo oo Boo BBBoo o Boo BBo Bo Boo Boooo Bo BBBoo Boo Bo Bo Bo Bo Bo BBBo BBooo Boooooooosti st sti st sti ti ti sti sti ti ti ti s i sti sti s ng ng ng ng ng ngggggg ngg ng ng ng nnng ng nnngg ng ng g nnnggg ng ng ggg ng g n Afr Af Afr AAfr Afr Af AAAffr fr AAAfr fr f Afr Afr AAfr Affr fr AAAfrr AAAAfr AAfr AAAAAf Afr Af AAAAAffr AAAffrr Af AAfr f iica ica ca icaaa iica icaa c ica ca ica iic ica ica ica ica ca ic icaa icca iic iica ica cccaaa iccca cccca''''s 's ''s ss ''s ssss 's 's ssss ric ric ric ric ic cc ric icc rric ric i ri ric rrric rrrric rrii ric ri ic ric rrri rrrrrric iiiccc ric rrrrric cc ric ric ric riccc ric ric ric r cccccccc ric ccccc r cccc ric ccccce s e s e s e s e s e s e s e s e s e s ee s ee ss ee s e s eeeee eeee ect ect eect ct ctt ect ect eect ectt ec ec ec eec cct ct cttt ec ecct ct ct ccccct eec ect cct ct ccttt c ec ect tt eeect ect tttor or ooor or oorr or oooor oor or ooooor ooor oor oooorr oooooor ooorrrr ooooooor oor oooooor oooorrrr 688
69 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
Appendix 1
Ex-ante assessment of the potential impact of rice research on income and
poverty in sub-Saharan Africa
The data used to estimate the potential impact oI rice research on income and poverty in sub-Saharan
AIrica Ior the next 10 years are Irom nationally representative Iarm-level household and community
surveys conducted in 21 CARD member countries in 20092010 by AIricaRice in collaboration with
NARS. The data and methodology used in the ex-ante assessment are summarized in this appendix.
A more detailed description can be Iound in the working paper produced to accompany this strategy
(Diagne A et al. 2012. Setting priority Ior rice research in sub-Saharan AIrica: Methodology Ior
estimating potential impacts on income and poverty reduction. (Boosting AIrica`s Rice Sector:
A research Ior development strategy 20112020. Companion document.) AfricaRice Working
Document), which also contains more disaggregated results. The survey data were combined with
data Irom a survey oI rice experts conducted during a 2-day priority-setting workshop held during
the 2010 AIricaRice Research Days. The household and community surveys collected data on
biotic and abiotic stresses and socio-economic constraints in rice production, as well as variety
knowledge and adoption, varietal characteristics evaluation, household demographics, access to
seed, production, income, assets, access to inIrastructures, etc. The sample sizes ranged between
370 (Ior The Gambia) and 10,500 (Nigeria) rice-Iarming households per country in the household
surveys. The survey oI the rice experts resulted in proposed technological options Ior each major
rice production constraint and ecology. The expected impact in terms oI yield loss reduction,
narrowing oI the yield gap or increase in the yield potential under researcher-managed conditions
was provided by the experts Ior each proposed technological option. Experts were also asked to
indicate associated research costs, probability oI success and the year oI expected delivery oI the
technological option (see Diagne and Alia 2011 Ior more details).
The household and community survey data were used to estimate Iour types oI econometric models
(see Diagne and Alia 2011 Ior more details): (1) a model oI variety adoption, as determined by the
traits oI the varieties, which was used to estimate demand Ior variety traits; (2) a model oI the eIIects
oI the various rice production constraints experienced by Iarmers on the quantity oI rice produced;
(3) a set oI models that estimates the impact oI improvement oI the traits oI the Iarmer portIolio
oI adopted varieties on household income and quantity oI rice produced, on village poverty head-
count and on village-level price oI milled rice; and (4) a set oI models that estimates the impact on
household income and quantity oI rice produced, on village poverty head-count and on village-level
price oI milled rice oI the reduction in yield and postharvest loss caused by the various production
constraints experienced by Iarmers. The estimated models were then used with the data Irom the
rice-experts survey to estimate the potential impact oI the various technological options proposed
by the experts to reduce yield losses, narrow the yield gap and raise the genetic yield potential.
The models are based on 16 countries where data are complete and have been harmonized, but
estimations are extrapolated to the 38 AIrican countries assessed (Ior list, see section 6, page 62).
Boosting Africa's rice sector 70
The household- and village-level income and poverty impacts oI the diIIerent proposed research
solutions estimated Irom the model are summarized as Iollows.
1. Research resulting in technological options alleviating biotic stresses will induce an average
annual income increase oI $8.1 per rice-Iarming household and an average reduction in the
village poverty head-count oI 2.9° in 2014 (the average starting year oI delivery oI the options).
These income gains grow to reach $96.8 per year per rice-Iarming household in 2020.
2. Research resulting in technological options alleviating soil-related stresses will induce an
average annual income increase oI $6.2 per rice-Iarming household in 2015 (starting date oI
delivery), reaching $61.2 in 2020. The corresponding reductions in the village poverty head-
count are 0.8° and 3.9°, respectively.
3. Research resulting in technological options alleviating climate and water stresses will start
increasing annual household total income by $8.8 in 2015, reaching $78.1 in 2020. The average
reductions in the village poverty head-counts are 1.9° in 2015 and 4.5° in 2020.
4. Research that raises the genetic yield potential will increase household total income by an
average oI $9.7 starting in 2015, reaching $101.1 in 2020, with respective average reductions in
the village poverty head-counts oI 1° and 5.1°.
5. Research resulting in technological options alleviating postharvest-related stresses will increase
total household income by an average oI $5.0 in 2014 and $48.9 in 2020, with village poverty
head-count reductions oI 0.4° and 1.7°, respectively.
The income and poverty impact estimates were aggregated at the national level Ior each country
using estimates oI the total number oI rice-Iarming households in each country. The total number
oI rice-Iarming households in each oI the 38 countries included in our analysis was estimated by
taking the ratio oI the country`s total rice harvested area (obtained Irom FAOSTAT) and the average
rice areas per household (estimated Irom the Iarm-household surveys); this was then multiplied
the country`s average annual rural population growth (Irom the World Development indicators).
We then aggregated across countries and used a 5° discount rate to discount the annual nominal
benefts beIore summing across years to get the net present value oI the aggregated economic
beneft in 2010.
71 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
Appendix 2
Gross annual benefits expected from research
Figures AC: Attributable gross annual benefts expected Irom research targeted to reduce yield and
postharvest losses due to the major production constraints identifed by Iarmers and to raising the
yield potential in sub-Saharan AIrica. A: Benefts per region; B: Benefts per ecology; C: Benefts
per research discipline.
Values shown in Fig. A include beneft Ior all actors and disaggregated results by actors. Values
shown in Fig. B and C represent benefts accruing to rice-producing Iarmers only (not including the
benefts accruing to rice processors, traders and consumers).
Central Africa Eastern Africa Southern Africa West Africa
1143.4
187.5
485.5
21.7
6.8
1.0
2.7
0.5
A.1. Gross annual beneft of research on value-
chain actors' income by region (US$ million
discounted at 5%)
A.2. Number of people lifted above the
PPP $1.25 poverty line among farmers and
consumers by region (millions)
3.6
0.5
1.4
0.1
A.3. Number of people no longer under nourished
among farmers and consumers by region (millions)
Boosting Africa's rice sector 72
A.4. Gross annual beneft of research on
farmers' income by region in 2020 (US$ million
discounted at 5%)
705.6
109.4
274.3
2.6
A.5. Number of people lifted above the PPP
$1.25 poverty line among farmers by region in
2020 (millions)
2.86
0.3
1.0
0.0
A.6. Number of people no longer under nourished
among farmers by region in 2020 (millions)
0.7
0.1
0.4
0.0
Central Africa Eastern Africa Southern Africa West Africa
73 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
Central Africa Eastern Africa Southern Africa West Africa
384.1
66.6
183.1
16.8
4.0
0.7
1.6
0.5
2.9
0.4
1.0
0.1
A.9. Number of people no longer under nourished
among consumers by region in 2020 (millions)
A.7. Gross annual beneft of research on poor
rice consumers' expenditure by region in 2020
(US$ million discounted at 5%)
A.8. Number of people lifted above the PPP
$1.25 poverty line among consumers by region
in 2020 (millions)
36.3
7.7
18.7
1.5
17.34
3.75
8.97
0.77
A.10. Gross annual beneft of research on rice
processors' income by region in 2020 (US$
million discounted at 5%)
A.11. Gross annual beneft of research on rice
traders' income by region in 2020 (US$ million
discounted at 5%)
Boosting Africa's rice sector 74
Ìrrigated Lowland Mangrove Upland
143.1
482.2
431.4
35.2
B.1. Gross annual beneft of research on
farmer income by ecology in 2020 (US$ million
discounted at 5%)
C.1. Gross annual beneft of research on farmer
income by research discipline (US$ million
discounted at 5%)
C.2. Number of people in rice-farming
households lifted above the PPP $1.25 poverty
line by research discipline (millions)
B.2. Number of people in rice-farming
households lifted above PPP $1.25 poverty line
by ecology in 2020 (millions)
0.7
1.9
1.4
0.1
164.5
302.4
201.3
423.8
4.42
3.89
1.44
1.37
4.42
3.89
1.44
1.37
8reed|rç
8reed|rç
0
1
2
3
1
5
Posl-|arvesl
Posl-|arvesl
0l|er
0l|er
Açrorory/
lPV
Açrorory/
lPV
75 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
Abbreviations
AIDB AIrican Development Bank
AIricaRice AIrica Rice Center
AGRA Alliance Ior a Green Revolution in AIrica
ARI AIrican Rice Initiative
ASARECA Association Ior Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central
AIrica
AU AIrican Union
BOAD Banque Ouest AIricaine de Développement (West AIrican Bank Ior
Development)
CAADP Comprehensive AIrica Agricultural Development Programme
CAAS China Academy oI Agricultural Sciences
CARD Coalition Ior AIrican Rice Development
CBSS community-based seed production system(s)
CCARDESA Centre Ior Coordination oI Agricultural Research and Development Ior
Southern AIrica
CEMAC Economic Community oI Central AIrican States
CFC Common Fund Ior Commodities
CIAT International Center Ior Tropical Agriculture
CIRAD Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le
développement
CO
2
carbon dioxide
CORAF/WECARD West and Central AIrican Council Ior Agricultural Research and
Development (Conseil Ouest et Centre AIricain pour la Recherche et le
Développement Agricole)
CRP CGIAR Research Program
CRS Catholic RelieI Services
CSO civil society organization
DDG Deputy Director General
DG Director General
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DRC Democratic Republic oI Congo
EAAPP East AIrica Agricultural Productivity Program (World Bank)
EAC East AIrican Community
Boosting Africa's rice sector 76
EAFF Eastern AIrica Farmers` Federation
ECOWAS Economic Community oI West AIrican States
EMBRAPA Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization oI the United Nations
FARA Forum Ior Agricultural Research in AIrica
G × E genotype by environment (interaction)
GAP good agricultural practice
GDP gross domestic product
GIS geographic inIormation system(s)
GRiSP Global Rice Science Partnership
ICRA International Center Ior Development-oriented Research in Agriculture
ICT inIormation and communications technology
IDRC International Development Research Centre
IFAD International Fund Ior Agricultural Development
IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute
IITA International Institute oI Tropical Agriculture
INGER-AIrica International Network Ior Genetic Evaluation oI Rice Ior AIrica
IPM integrated pest management
IRD Institut de recherche pour le développement
IRRI International Rice Research Institute
IVC Inland Valley Community oI practice
IWMI International Water Management Institute
JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency
JIRCAS Japan International Research Center Ior Agricultural Sciences
MAB marker-assisted breeding
MDG Millennium Development Goal
MSc Master oI Science (postgraduate degree)
Mt Megatonnes (million tonnes)
NARES national agricultural research and extension system(s)
NARS national agricultural research system(s)
NEC National Experts Committee
NEPAD New Partnership Ior AIrica`s Development
NERICA New Rice Ior AIrica
NGO non-governmental organization
77 A research for development strategy 2011÷2020
NPCA NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency
NRDS national rice development strategy (strategies)
OHVM OIfce de la Haute Vallée du Niger
PA Priority Area
PADER Programme d`Appui au Développement Rural
PAFISEM Projet d`Appui aux Filieres Semencieres
PhD Doctor oI Philosophy (doctoral degree)
PLAR participatory learning and action-research
PPP purchasing power parity
PUASA Programme d`Urgence d`Appui a la Sécurité Alimentaire
PVS participatory varietal selection
R&D research and development
R4D research Ior development
REC regional economic community
RIGA Rice InIormation Gateway Ior AIrica
RKB Rice Knowledge Bank
ROPPA Réseau des organisations paysannes & de producteurs de l`AIrique de
l`Ouest (Network oI Farmers` and Agricultural Producers` Organizations oI
West AIrica)
RTTC Rice Technology Training Center (Egypt)
RYMV Rice yellow mottle virus
SG2000 Sakakawa Global 2000
SLARI Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute
SMS short message service(s)
SSA sub-Saharan AIrica(n)
UEMOA Union Economique et Monetaire Ouest AIricaine (West AIrican Economic
and Monetary Union)
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
US United States (oI America)
USAID United States Agency Ior International Development
WAAPP West AIrica Agricultural Production Program (World Bank)
WARDA West AIrica Rice Development Association (old name oI AIricaRice)
WFP World Food Programme
Boosting Africa's rice sector 78
The CGIAR is a global partnership that unites organizations engaged in research for
sustainable development with the funders of this work. The funders include developing
and industrialized country governments, foundations, and international and regional
organizations. The work they support is carried out by 15 Centers, in close collaboration
with hundreds of partner organizations, including national and regional research institutes,
civil society organizations, academia, and the private sector.
The Centers
AfricaRice Africa Rice Center (Cotonou, Benin)
Bioversity Bioversity International (Rome, Italy)
CIAT International Center for Tropical Agriculture (Cali, Colombia)
CIFOR Center for International Forestry Research (Bogor, Indonesia)
CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Mexico, DF, Mexico)
CIP International Potato Center (Lima, Peru)
ICARDA International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (Aleppo,
Syria)
ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
(Patancheru, India)
IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute (Washington, DC, USA)
IITA International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (Ibadan, Nigeria)
ILRI International Livestock Research Institute (Nairobi, Kenya)
IRRI International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, Philippines)
IWMI International Water Management Institute (Colombo, Sri Lanka)
World Agroforestry World Agroforestry Centre (Nairobi, Kenya)
WorldFish WorldFish Center (Penang, Malaysia)
About the CGIAR
Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice)
01 B.P. 2031 Cotonou, Benin
Tel: (229) 21 35 01 88
Fax: (229) 21 35 05 56
Email: AfricaRice@cgiar.org
www.AfricaRice.org
About Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice)
The Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice) is a leading pan-African research organization working
to contribute to poverty alleviation and food security in Africa through research, development
and partnership activities. It is one of the 15 members of the Consortium of International
Agricultural Research Centers (CGIAR). It is also an autonomous intergovernmental
research association of African member countries.
The Center was created in 1971 by 11 African countries. Today its membership comprises
24 countries, covering West, Central, East and North African regions, namely Benin,
Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic
Republic of Congo, Egypt, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia,
Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of Congo, Senegal, Sierra Leone,
Togo and Uganda.
AfricaRice temporary headquarters is based in Cotonou, Benin. Research staff are also
based in Senegal, Nigeria, Tanzania and Côte d’Ivoire.
For more information, visit www.AfricaRice.org
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