Sie sind auf Seite 1von 19

# Calculations on Mole Concepts 1. What is the mass of 0.2 mole of calcium carbonate ? (R. a. m. : C = 12.0, O = 16.0, Ca = 40.

1) Calculate the number of gold atoms in 20g of gold atom. (R.a.m. : Au = 197.0) It is given that the molar mass of water is 18.0g mol-1. (a) What is the mass of 4 moles of water molecule? (b) How many molecules are there? (c) How many atoms are there? A magnesium chloride solution contains 10 g of magnesium chloride solid (a) Calculate the number of moles of magnesium chloride in the solution. (b) Calculate the number of magnesium ions in the solution. (c) Calculate the number of chloride ions in the solution. (d) Calculate the total number of ions in the solution. (R.a.m.: Mg = 24.3, Cl = 35.5) What is the mass of carbon dioxide molecule? (R.a.m. : C = 12.0, O = 16.0) (a) (b) (c) (d) Find the mass in grams of 0.01 mole of zinc sulphide. Find the number of ions in 5.61 g of calcium oxide. Find the number of atoms in 32.05g of sulphur dioxide. There is 4.80 g of ammonium carbonate. Find the (i) number of moles of the compound, (ii) number of moles of ammonium ions, (iii) number of moles of carbonic ions, and (v) number of hydrogen atoms. (R.a.m. : S = 32.1, Zn = 65.4, O = 16.0, Ca = 40.1) Find the volume occupied by 3.55 g of chlorine gas at room temperature and pressure (Molar volume of gas at R.T.P. = 24.0 dm3 mol-1; R.a.m. : Cl = 35.5) Find the number of molecules in 4.48 cm3 of carbon dioxide gas at standard temperature and pressure. (Molar volume of gas at S.T.P. = 22.4 dm3 mol-1; Avogrado constant = 6.02 1023 mol-1) The molar volume of nitrogen gas is found to be 24.0 dm3 mol-1 at room temperature and pressure. Find the density of nitrogen gas. (R.a.m. : N = 14.0)

2. 3.

4.

5. 6.

7.

8.

9.

10. 1.6 g of a gas occupies 1.2 dm3 at room temperature and pressure. What is the relative molecular mass of the gas? (Molar Volume of gas at R.T.P. = 24.0 dm3 mol-1) 11. (a) Find the volume of 0.6 g of hydrogen gas at room temperature and pressure. (b) Calculate the number of molecules in 4.48 dm3 of hydrogen at standard temperature and pressure.
P.1

(c) The molar volume of oxygen is 22.4 dm3 mol-1 at standard temperature and pressure. Find the density of oxygen in g cm-3 at S.T.P.. (d) What mass of oxygen has the same number of moles as that in 3.2 g of sulphur dioxide? (R.a.m. : H = 1.0; O = 16.0, S = 32.1, molar volume at R.T.P. = 24.0 dm3 mol-1, at S.T.P. = 22.4 dm3 mol-1) 12. A 500 cm3 sample of a gas in a sealed container at 700 mm Hg and 25oC is heated to 100oC. What is the final pressure of the gas? 13. A reaction vessel of 500 cm3 is filled with oxygen at 25oC and the final pressure exerted on it is 101 325 Nm-2. How many moles of oxygen are there? (Ideal gas constant = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1) 14. A 5 dm3 vessel can withstand a maximum internal pressure of 50 atm. If 2 moles of nitrogen gas is pumped into the vessel, what is the highest temperature it can be safely heated to? (1 atm = 101325 Nm-2, R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1) 15. (a) A reaction vessel is filled with a gas at 20oC and 5atm. If the vessel can withstand a maximum internal pressure of 10 atm, what is the highest temperature it can be safely heated to? (b) A balloon is filled with helium at 25oC. The pressure exerted and the volume of balloon are found to be 1.5 atm and 450 cm3 respectively. How many moles of helium have been introduced into the balloon? ( 1 atm = 101325 Nm-2; ideal gas constant = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1) (c) 25.8 cm3 sample of a gas has a pressure of 690 mm Hg and a temperature of 17oC. What is the volume if the pressure is changed to 1.85 atm and the temperature to 345 K? ( 1 atm = 760 mmHg) 16. A sample of gas occupying a volume of 50 cm3 at 1 atm and 25oC is found to a mass of 0.0286 g. Find the relative molecular mass of the gas. ( Ideal gas constant = 8.314 J K-1mol-1; 1 atm = 101 325 Nm-2) have

17. The density of a gas at 450 oC and 380 mmHg is 0.033 7 g dm-3. What is its relative molecular mass? ( 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 101 325 Nm-2 ; ideal gas constant = 8.314 J K-1mol-1) 18. 0.25 mole of nitrogen and 0.30 mole of oxygen are introduced into a vessel of 12 dm3 at 50oC. Calculate the partial pressures of nitrogen and oxygen and hence the total pressure exerted by the gases. ( 1 atm = 101325 Nm-2; ideal gas constant = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1) 19. 4.0 g oxygen and 6.0 g of nitrogen are introduced into a 5 dm3 vessel at 27oC. (a) What are the mole fractions of oxygen and nitrogen in the mixture? (b) What is the final pressure of the system? ( 1 atm = 101325 Nm-2; ideal gas constant = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1; R.a.m. : N = 14.0, O = 16.0)

P.2

20. (a) 204 g of phosphorus vapour occupies a volume of 81.0 cm3 at 327oC and 1 atm. Determine the relative molecular mass of phosphorus. ( 1 atm = 101325 Nm-2 ; ideal gas constant = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1) (b) A sample of gas has a mass of 12.0 g and occupies a volume of 4.16 dm3 measured at 97oC and 1.62 atm. Calculate the relative molecular mass of the gas. ( 1 atm = 101325 Nm-2; ideal gas constant = 8.314 JK-1 mol-1) (c) A sample of 0.037g magnesium reacted with hydrochloric acid to give 38.2 cm3 of hydrogen gas measured at 25oC and 740 mmHg. Use this information to calculate the relative atomic mass of magnesium. (1 atm = 760 mmHg = 101325 Nm-2; ideal gas constant = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1) 21. (a) The valve between a 6 dm3 vessel containing gas A at a pressure of 7 atm and an 8 dm3 vessel containing gas B at a pressure of 9 atm is opened. Assuming that the temperature of the system remains constant and there is no reaction between the gases, what is the final pressure of the system? ( 1 atm = 101325 Nm-2; ideal gas constant = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1) (b) 2 g of helium, 3 g of nitrogen and 4 g of argon are introduced into 15 dm3 vessel at 100 oC. (i) What are the mole fractions of helium, nitrogen and argon in the system? (ii) Calculate the total pressure of the system, and hence the partial pressures of helium, nitrogen and argon. (1 atm = 101325 Nm-2; R = 8.314 J K-1mol-1 ; R.a.m. : He = 4.0, N = 14.0, Ar = 39.9) 22. What is the mass of copper formed at the cathode when a current of 0.25 A is passed through a copper(II) sulphate solution for 1 hour ( R.a.m. : Cu = 63.5)? 23. Find the masses of products formed when a dilute sulphuric acid solution is electrolysed with a current of 0.6 A for 90 minutes. (R.a.m. : H = 1.0, O = 16.0) 24. What mass of copper would be desposited by the quantity of electricity that liberates 2.4 dm3 of oxygen measured at room temperature and pressure? (Molar volume of gas at R.T.P. = 24.0 dm3 mol-1; R.a.m. : O = 16.0, Cu = 63.5) 25. (a) What current in amperes is required to deposit 6.35 g of copper in 50 minutes from a copper(II) sulphate solution? (1 F = 96500 ; R.a.m. : Cu = 63.5) (b) What is the time required to pass 1 Faraday of electricity through an electrolyte with a current of 0.35A? ( 1F = 96 500C ) (c) Calculate the mass of aluminium that would be deposited during the electrolysis of a molten aluminum salt by a current of 10 A for 5 hours. ( 1F = 96500C ; R.a.m. : Al = 27.0) (d) A current of 0.37A flowing for 15 minutes through an electrolyte liberates 0.20 g of metal X. what mass of X would be liberated by a current of 0.30 A for minutes? 26. (a) 5 g of sulphur forms 10 g of an oxide on burning.What is the empirical formula of the oxide? (R.a.m. : O = 16.0, S = 32.1)
P.3

(b) 19.85 f of element M combines with 25.61 g of oxygen to form an oxide. If the relative atomic mass of M is 331.0, find the empirical formula of the oxide. (R.a.m. : O =16.0) (c) Determine the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide using the following results. Experimental results: Mass of test tube = 21.430 g Mass of test tube + Mass of copper(II) oxide = 23.321g Mass of test tube + Mass of copper = 22.940g (R.a.m. : Cu = 63.5, O = 16.0) 27. Compound A contains carbon and hydrogen only. It is found that the compound contains 75% carbon by mass. Determine its empirical formula. (Relative atomic masses: C=12, H=1 ) 28. The percentage by mass of phosphorus and chlorine in a sample of a phosphorus chloride are 22.55% and 77.45% respectively. Find the empirical formula of the chloride. (R.a.m. : P = 31.0, Cl = 35.5) 29. (a) Find the empirical formula of vitamin C if it consists of 40.9% carbon, 54.5% oxygen and 4.6% hydrogen by mass. ( R.a.m.: C = 12.0, H = 1.0, O = 16.0) (b) Each 325 mg tablet of aspirin consists of 195.0 mg carbon 14.6 mg hydrogen and 115.4mg oxygen. Determine the empirical formula of aspirin. (R.a.m. : C= 12.0, H = 1.0, O = 16.0) 30. A hydrogen was burnt completely in excess oxygen. It was found that 5.00 g of the hydrocarbon gives 14.6 g of carbon dioxide and 9.0 g of water. Given that the relative molecular mass of the hydrocarbon is 30.0, determine its molecular formula. hydrocarbon.? (R.a.m.* : H = 1.0, C = 12.0, O = 16.0) 31. Compound X is known to contain 44.44% carbon, 6.18% hydrogen and 49.38% oxygen by mass. A typical analysis shows that it has a relative molecular mass of 162.0. Find its molecular formula. (R.a.m.* : H = 1.0, C = 12.0, O = 16.0) 32. The chemical formula of hydrated copper(II) sulphate is known to be CuSO4.xH2O. It is found that the percentage of water by mass in the compound is 36%. Find x. (R.a.m. : H=1.0, O=16.0, S=32.1, Cu=63.5) 33. (a) Find Compound Z is the major component of a healthy drink. It contains 40.00% carbon, 6.67% hydrogen and 53.33% oxygen. (i) Find the empirical formula of compound Z. (ii) If the relative molecular mass of compound Z is 180, finds its molecular formula. (R.a.m. : C= 12.0, H = 1.0, O = 16.0) (b) (NH4)2Sx contains 72.72% sulphur by mass is water. Find the value of x. (R.a.m.: H = 1.0, N = 14.0, O = 16.0) (c) In the compound MgSO4 nH2O, 51.22% by mass is water. Find the value of n. (R.a.m.: H = 1.0, O = 16.0, Mg = 24.3, S = 32.1)

P.4

34. The chemical formula of ethanoic acid is CH3COOH. Calculate the percentages by mass of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen by mass respectively. (R.a.m. : C=12.0, H=1.0, O=16.0 ) 35. Calculate the mass of iron metal in a sample of 20g of hydrated iron (II) sulphate, FeSO4 7H2O. (R.a.m. : Fe = 55.8 , H=1.0, O=16.0 ) 36. (a) Calculate percentages by mass of potassium, chromium and oxygen in potassium chromate (VI), K2Cr2O7. (R.a.m. : K = 39.1 . Cr = 52.0, O = 16.0) (b) Find the mass of metal and water of crystallization in (i) 100 g of Na2SO410H2O; (ii) 70g of Fe2O38H2O. (R.a.m.: H = 1.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23, S = 32.1, Fe = 55.8) 37. Give the chemical equations for the following reactions: (a) Zinc + steam zinc oxide + hydrogen (b) Magnesium + silver nitrate silver + magnesium nitrate (c) Butane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water 38. Calculate the mass of copper formed when 12.45g of copper(II) oxide is completely reduced by hydrogen. (R.a.m. : H=1.0, O=16.0, Cu = 63.5 ) 39. Sodium hydrogencarbonate decomposes according to the following equation. 2NaHCO3(s) Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) In order to obtain 240 cm3 of CO2 at room temperature and pressure, what is the minimum amount of sodium hydrogencarbonate required? (R.a.m. : H = 1.0, C =12.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23.0; molar volume of gas at R.T.P. = 24.0 dm3mol-1) 40. Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide formed when 20 cm3 of ethane and 70 3 cm of oxygen are exploded, assuming all volumes are measured at room temperature and pressure. 41. 10 cm3 of a gaseous hydrocarbon was mixed with 80cm3 of oxygen which was in excess. The mixture was exploded and then cooled. The volume left was 70cm3. Upon passing the resulting gaseous mixture through concentrated sodium hydroxide solution ( to absorb carbon dioxide), the volume of the residual gas became 50 cm3. Find the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon. 42. (a) Find the volume of hydrogen produced at R.T.P. when 2.43 g of magnesium reacts with excess hydrochloric acid. (R.a.m. : Mg = 24.3; molar volume of gas at R.T.P. = 24.0 dm3mol-1. (b) Find the minimum mass of chlorine required to produced 100 g of phosphorus trichloride ( PCl3). (c) 20 cm3 of a gaseous hydrocarbon and 150 cm3 of oxygen were exploded in a closed vessel. After cooling, 110 cm3 of gases remained. After passing through a solution of concentrated sodium hydroxide, the volume left was 50 cm3 .
P.5

Determine the molecular of the hydrocarbon. (d) Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide formed when 5cm3 of methane burns in excess oxygen, assuming all volumes are measured at room temperature and pressure. 43. 25.0cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution was titrated against 0.067 M of sulphuric(VI) acid using methyl orange as indicator. The indicator changed colour from yellow to red when 22.5 cm3 of sulphuric(VI) acid had been added. Calculate the molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution. 44. 2.52 g of a pure dibasic acid with formula mass of 126.0 was dissolved in water and made up to 250.0 cm3 in a volumetric flask 25.0 cm3 of this solution was found to neutralize 28.5 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution. (a) Calculate the molarity of the acid solution. (b) If the dibasic acid is represented by H2X, write an equation for the reaction between the acid and sodium hydroxide. (c) Calculate the molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution 45. 0.186 g of sample of hydrate sodium carbonate, Na2CO3nH2O, was dissolved in 100 cm3 of distilled water in conical flask. 0.10 M by hydrochloric acid was added from a burette, 2 cm3 at a time. The pH value of the solution was measured by a pH meter. The result was recorded and shown in the following figure. Calculate the value of n in Na2CO3nH2O.

P.6

46. 5 cm3 of 0.5M sulphuric(VI) acid was added to 25.0 cm3 of potassium hydroxide solution. The mixture was then stirred and the highest temperature was recorded. The experiment was repeated with different volumes of the sulphuric(VI) acid. he laboratory set-up and the results were as follows: (a) Plot the graph of temperature against volume of sulphuric(VI) acid added. (b) Calculate the molarity of the potassium hydroxide solution. (c) Explain why the temperature rose to a maximum and the fell.

47. When excess potassium iodide solution (KI) is added to 25.0 cm 3 of acidified potassium iodate solution (KIO3) of unknown concentration, the solution turns brown. This brown solution requires 22.0 cm3 of 0.05 M sodium thiosulphate solution to react completely with the iodine formed, using starch solution as indicator. Find the molarity of the potassium iodate solution. 48. A piece of impure iron wire weighs 0.22 g. When it is dissolved in hydrochloric acid, it is oxidized to iron(II) ions. The solution requires 36.5 cm3 of 0.02 M acidified potassium manganate(VII) for complete reaction to form iron(III) ions. What is the percentage purity of the iron wire? 49. (a) 5g of anhydrous sodium carbonate is added to 100 cm3 of 2 M hydrochloric acid. What is the volume of gas evolved at room temperature and pressure ? ( R.a.m. : C = 12.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23.0; molar volume of gas at R.T.P. = 24.0 dm3 mol-1) (b) 8.54g of impure hydrated iron(II) sulphate (formula mass of 392.14) was dissolved in water and made up to 250 cm3. 25 cm3 of this solution required 20.76 cm3 of 0.0203 M acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution for complete reaction. Determine the percentage purity of the hydrated iron(II) ulphate.

P.7

Solutions : 1. The chemical formula of calcium carbonate is CaCO3. Molar mass of calcium carbonate = (40.1 + 12.0 + 3 x 16.0) g mol-1 = 100.1 g mol-1 Mass of calcium carbonate = Number of moles Molar mass = 0.2 mol 100.1 g mol-1 = 20.02 g Number of gold atoms in 20g of gold coin 20g 6.02 1023 mol-1 =
197.0 g m ol -1

2.

= 6.11 1023 3. (a) Mass of water = Number of moles Molar mass = 4 mol 18.0 g mol-1 = 72.0 g (b) There are 4 moles of water molecules. Number of water molecules = Number of moles Avogadro constant = 4 mol 6.02 1023 mol-1 = 2.408 1024 (c) 1 water molecule has 3 atoms (including 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atoms). 1 mole of water molecule has 3 moles of atoms. Thus, 4 moles of water molecules have 12 moles of atoms. Number of atoms = 12 mol 6.02 1023 mol-1 = 7.224 1024 (a) The chemical formula of magnesium chloride is MgCl2. Molar mass of MgCl2 = (24.3 + 35.5 2) g mol-1 = 95.3 g mol-1 10g Number of moles of MgCl2 = = 0.105 mol 95.3 g mol 1 (b) 1 mole of MgCl2 contains 1 mole of Mg2+ and 2 moles of Cl- . Therefore, 0.105 mole of MgCl2 contains 0.105 mol 6.02 1023 mol-1. Number of Mg2+ ions = Number of moles of Mg2+ Avogadro constant = 0.105 mol 6.02 1023 mol-1 = 6.321 1022 (c) 0.105 mole of MgCl2 contains 0.21 mole of Cl- . Number of Cl- ions = Number of moles of Cl- Avogadro constant = 0.21 mol 6.02 1023 mol-1 = 1.264 1023 (d) Total number of ions = 6.321 1022 + 1.264 1023 = 1.896 1023 The chemical formula of carbon dioxide is CO2. Molar mass of CO2 = (12.0 + 16.0 x 2) g mol-1 = 44.0 g mol-1 Mass Number of molecules Number of mole = =
Molar Mass

4.

5.

1 6.02 10 23

## Mass of a CO2 molecule = 7.31 10-23 g

P.8

6.

(a) Mass = No. of moles Molar mass Mass of ZnS = 0.01 mol (65.0 + 32.1) g mol-1 = 0.01 mol 95.7 g mol-1 = 0.975g (b) No. of moles of CaO = 5.61g / (40.1 + 16.0)g = 0.1 mol 1 CaO formula unit contains 1 Ca2+ ion and 1 O2- ion. No. of moles of ions = 0.1 mole 2 = 0.2 mol No of ions = 0.2 mol x 6.02 1023 mol-1 = 1.204 1023 (c) No. of moles of SO2 = 32.05 g / (32.1 + 16.0 2)g mol-1 = 0.5 mol 1 SO2 molecule contains 1 S atom and 2O atoms. No. of mole of atoms = 0.5 mole 3 = 1.5 mol No of atoms = 1.5 mol 6.02 1023 mol-1 = 9.03 1023 (d) Molar mass of (NH4)2CO3 = 96.0 g mol-1 (i) No. of mole of (NH4)2CO3 = 4.80 g / 96.0 g mol-1 (ii) 1 mole (NH4)2CO3 gives 2 moles NH4+. No. of moles of (NH4)2CO3 = 0.05 mol 2 = 0.1 mol (iii) 1 mole (NH4)2CO3 gives 1 mole CO32- . No. of moles of CO32- = 0.05 mol (iv) 1 (NH4)2CO3 formula unit contains 8H atoms. No. of moles of H atoms = 0.05 mol 8 = 0.4 mol No. of H atoms = 0.4 mol 6.02 1023 mol-1 = 2.408 1023 Molar mass of chloride gas (Cl2) = 35.5 2 g mol-1 = 71.0 g mol-1 Number of moles of Cl2 =3.55g / 71 g mol-1 = 0.05 mol Volume of Cl2 = Number of moles of Cl2 Molar volume = 0.05 mol 24.0 dm3mol-1=1.2 dm3 Molar volume of carbon dioxide gas at S.T.P. = 22.4 dm3 mol-1 Number of moles of CO2 = 4.48 cm3 / 22400 cm3 mol-1 = 2 104 mol Number of CO2 molecules = 2 10-4 mol 6.02 x 1023 mol-1=1.204 1020 Molar mass of nitrogen gas (N2) = (14.0 + 14.0) g mol-1= 28.0 g mol-1 Density = mass /volume = molar mass / molar volume Density of N2 = 28 g mol-1 / 24 dm3 mol-1 = 1.167 g dm-3

7.

8.

9.

10. Number of moles of the gas = 1.2 dm3 / 24 dm3 mol-1 = 0.05 mol Molar mass of the gas = 1.6 g / 0.05 mol = 32 g mol-1 Relative molecular mass of the gas = 32 (no unit) 11. (a) No. of moles of H2 = 0.6 g / 1.0 2 g mol-1 = 0.3 mol Volume = No. of moles Molar volume = 0.3 mol 24.0 dm3 mol-1 = 7.2 dm3 (b) No. of moles of H2 = 4.48 g / 22.4 dm3 mol-1 = 0.2 mol No of H2 molecules = 0.2 mol 6.02 1023 mol-1 = 1.204 1023 (c) Density = mass / volume = molar mass / molar volume Molar mass of O2 = 16.0 2 g mol-1 =32.0 g mol-1 Molar volume of O2 = 22.4 dm3 mol-1 = 22 400 cm3 mol-1 Density = 32.0 g mol-1 / 22400 cm3 mol-1 = 1.43 10-3 g cm-3 (d) No. of moles of SO2 = 3.2 g / ( 32.1 + 16.0 2 ) g mol-1 = 0.05 mol No of moles of O2 = 0.05 mol
P.9

Mass = No. of moles Molar mass Mass of O2 = 0.05 mol 16.0g mol-1 = 1.6 g 12. As the number of moles of the gas is fixed, PV/T should be a constant P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 700 mmHg 500 cm3 / (273 + 25) K = P2 500 cm3 / (273 + 100) K P2 = 876.17 mmHg. Note: All temperature values used in gas laws are on the Kelvin scale. 13. PV = nRT 101 325 Nm-2 500 10-6 m3 = n 8.314 J K-1 mol-1 (273 + 25) K n = 0.02 mol There is 0.02 mole of oxygen in the reaction vessel. 14. T = PV/nR = 50 101325 Nm-2 5 10-3 / 2 mol 8.314JK-1mol-1 = 1523.4 K The highest temperature it can be safely heated to is 1250.4oC.

15. (a) P1/T1 = P2/T2 5 atm / (273 + 50) K= 10 atm / T2 T2 = 586 K (b) PV= nRT 1.5 101 325 Nm-2 450 10-6 m3 = n 8.314 J K-1 mol-1 (273+25) K n = 0.0276 mol (c ) (690/760)atm 25.8cm3 / (273 + 17) K = 1.85 atm V2 / 345 K V = 15.06cm3 16. PV = m/M RT 101 325 Nm-2 50 10-6 m3 = ( 0.0286 g / M ) 8.314 JK-1 mol-1 (273 + 25) K M = 13.99 g mol-1 Therefore, the relative molecular mass of the gas is 13. 99. 17. The unit of density of the gas has to be converted to g m-3 for the calculation. 0.0337 g dm-3 = 0.0337 103 gm-3 = 33.7 g m-3 PM = RT M = RT/ P = 33.7 g cm-3 8.314 JK-1 mol-1 (273 + 450)K (380/760) 101325Nm-2 = 4.0 g mol-1 Therefore, the relative molecular mass of the gas is 4.0. 18. Let the partial pressure of nitrogen be PA. Using the ideal gas equation PV = nRT, PA 12 10-3 m3 = 0.25 mol x 8.314 JK-1 mol-1 (273 + 50) K PA = 55 946 Nm-2 ( or 0.552 atm) Let the partial pressure of oxygen be PB.Using the ideal gas equation PV = nRT, PB = 0.30 mol 8.314 JK-1 mol-1 (273 + 50) K PB = 67 136 Nm-2 ( or 0.663 atm) Total pressure = (55 946 + 67 136) Nm-2 = 123 082 Nm-2
P.10

Hence, the partial pressures of nitrogen and oxygen are 0.552 atm and 0.663 atm respectively, and the total pressure of the mixture is 1.215 atm. 19. (a) Number of moles of oxygen = 0.125 mol Number of moles of nitrogen = 0.214 mol Total number of moles of gases = ( 0.125 + 0.214) mol = 0.339 mol Mole fraction of oxygen = 0.15 mol / 0.339 mol = 0.369 Mole fraction of nitrogen = 0.214 mol / 0.339 mol = 0.631 (b) Let P be the total pressure of the system. By ideal gas equation PV = nRT, P 5 10-3 m3 = 0.339 mol 8.314 JK-1mol-1 (273 + 27)K P = 169 107 Nm-2 ( or 1.67 atm) 20. (a) PV = m/M RT 101325 Nm-2 81.0 10-6m3 = (0.204g / M) 8.314J K-1mol-1 (273 + 327) K M = 123.99 g mol-1 The relative molecular mass of phosphorus is 123.99. (b) PV= (m/M)RT 1.62 101325 Nm-2 4.16 x 10-3m3 = 12.0g/ M 8.314 J K-1mol-1 x (273+97)K M = 54.06 g mol-1 The relative molecular mass of the gas is 54.06. (c) Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) PV = nRT 740/760 101 325 Nm-2 38.2 10-6m3 = n 8.314 J K-1 mol-1 (273 + 25) K n = 1.52 10-3 mol No. of moles of H2 produced = 1.52 10-3. No. of mole of Mg reacted = No. of moles of H2 produced = 1.52 10-3 mol Molar mass of Mg = Mass / No. of moles = 0.037g / 1.52 10-3 mol-1= 24.3 g mol-1 The relative atomic mass of Mg is 24.3. 21. (a) By Boyles law: P1V1 = P2V2 Partial pressure of gas A = 7 atm Partial pressure of gas B = 9 atm
6 dm 3 = 3.00 atm (6 + 8) dm 3
8 dm 3 = 5.14 atm (6 + 8) dm 3

Final pressure = 3.00 atm + 5.14 atm = 8.14 atm (b) (i) No. of moles of He = 2g / 4.0 g mol-1 = 0.05 mol No. of moles of N2 = 3g / 14 2 g = 0.11 mol No. of moles of Ar = 4g / 39.9 g mol-1 = 0.10 mol Total no. of moles of gases = 0.05 mol + 0.11 mol + 0.10 mol = 0.71 mol Mole faction of He = 0.05 mol / 0.71 mol = 0.704 Mole fraction of N2 = 0.11 mol / 0.71 mol = 0.155 Mole fraction of Ar = 0.1 mol / 0.71 mol = 0.141

P.11

(ii) Let the total pressure of the system be P. PV = nRT P 15 10-3m3 = 0.71 mol 8.314 JK-1mol-1 ( 273 + 100 ) K P = 146 786 Nm-2 Partial pressure of He = 146 786 Nm-2 0.704 = 103 337 Nm-2 Partial pressure of N2 = 146 786 Nm-2 0.155 = 22 752 Nm-2 Partial pressure of Ar = 146 786 Nm-2 0.141 = 20 697 Nm-2 22. Cu2+(aq) + 2eCu(s) To discharge 1 mole of Cu2+, 2 moles of electrons (i.e. 2F) are required. Number of moles of Cu formed = It/nF =
0.25 A x (60x60)s 2 x 96 500 C mol 1

= 4.66 10-3 mol Mass of Cu formed = 4.66 10-3 mol 63.5g mol-1 = 0.296 g 23. When a dilute sulphuric acid is electrolysed, hydrogen is formed at the cathode and oxygen is formed at the anode of the electrolytic cell. At cathode: 2H(aq) + 2eH2(g) To give 1 mole of hydrogen gas, 2 moles of electrons (i.e. 2F) are required. Number of moles of H2 (g) formed= It / nF =
0.6 A x (90x60)s = 0.016 8 mol 2x96500 C mol 1

Mass of H2(g) formed = 0.016 8 mol 1.0 2 g mol-1 = 0.033 6g At anode: 4OH-(aq) O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 4eTo give 1 mole of oxygen gas, 4 moles of electrons (i.e. 4F) are given out by the hydroxide ions. Number of moles of O2 (g) formed= It / nF =
0.6 A x (90x60)s = 8.394 x 10-3 mol 4x96500 C mol 1

Mass of O2(g) formed = 8.394 10-3 mol 16.0 2 g mol-1 = 0.2686g 24. 4OH-(aq) O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 4eTo give 1 mole of oxygen gas, 4 mole of electrons (i.e. 4 F)are given out by the hydroxide ions.
2.4 dm 3 Number of moles of O2 given outm = = 0.1 mol 24.0dm 3 mol 1 Number of moles of electrons given out = 0.1 mol 4 = 0.4 mol

Cu2+(aq) + 2eCu(s) To discharge 1 mole of Cu2+, 2 moles of electrons (i.e. 2F) are required. Number of moles of Cu formed = 0.4 mol / 2 = 0.2 mol Mass of Cu deposited = 0.2 mol 63.5 g mol-1 = 12.7 g

P.12

25. (a) Q = It 96 500 C = 0.35 A t = 275 714 s (b) Cu2+(aq) + 2eCu(s) No. of moles of Cu formed = It / 2F
6.35 g 63.5 g mol
1

## I = 6.43 A (c) Al3+(l) + 3eAl(s) No. of moles of Al(s) formed = It / 3F =

10A x 5 x 60 x 60s = 0.622 mol 3 x 96 500Cmol 1

Mass of Al formed = 0.622 mol 27.0g mol-1 = 16.794 (d) No. of moles of X formed = It / nF Mass of X = 0.324 g Since molar mass, n and F are constants, It /( Mass of X) is a constant.
0.37 A x 15 x 60s 0.30 A x 30 x 60s = 0.20 g Mass of X

## 26. (a) Mass of sulphur = 5 g

; Mass of oxygen = (10 5) g Sulphur Oxygen Mass (g) 5 5 Number of moles 5 / 32.1 = 0.156 5 / 16.0 = 0.313 Divided by the smallest 0.156 / 0.156 = 1 0.313 / 0.156 = 2 Simplest ratio 1 2 The empirical formula of the sulphur oxide is SO2. O 25.61 25.61 / 16.0 = 1.6 1.6 / 0.64 = 2.5 5

(b) M Mass (g) 19.85 Number of moles 19.85 / 31.0 = 0.64 Divided by the smallest 0.64 / 0.64 = 1 Simplest ratio 2 The empirical formula of the oxide is M2O5. (c) Mass of Cu = (22.940 - 21.430) = 1.51g Mass of O = (23.321 - 22.940) = 0.381 g Cu Mass (g) 1.51 Number of moles 1.51/63.5 = 0.0238 Divided by the smallest 0.0238/0.0238 =1 Simplest ratio 1 The empirical formula of the oxide is CuO.

## O 0.381 0.381/16.0 = 0.0238 0.0238/0.0238 =1 1

27. Let the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon be CxHy, and the mass of the compound be 100 g. Mass of carbon in the compound = 75 g Mass of hydrogen in the compound=(100 75) g = 25 g Carbon Hydrogen Mass (g) 75 25
P.13

Number of moles 75/12.0 = 6.25 25/1.0 = 25 Divided by the smallest 6.25/6.25 = 1 25/6.25 = 4 Simplest ratio 1 4 Therefore, the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon is CH4. 28. Let the mass of phosphorus chloride be 100g. Then, Mass of phosphorus in the compound = 22.55g Mass of chloride in the compound = 77.45g Phosphorus Chloride Mass (g) 22.55 77.45 Number of mole (mol) 22.55/31.0 = 0.727 77.45/35.5 = 2.182 Divided by the smallest 0.727/0.727 = 1 2.182/0.727 = 3 Simplest ratio 1 3 Therefore, the empirical formula of the phosphorus chloride is PCl3. 29. (a) Let the mass of vitamin C analyzed be 100g. Carbon Hydrogen Mass (g) Number of moles Divided by the smallest Simplest ratio 40.9 40.9/12.0 = 3.41 3.41/3.41 = 1 3 4.6 4.6/1.0 = 4.60 4.61/3.41 =1.35 4

## Oxygen 54.5 54.5/16.0 = 3.41 3.41/3.41 = 1 3

The empirical formula of vitamin C is C3H4O3. (b) In order to facilitate calculation, the masses of the elements are multiplied by 1000 first. Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Mass (g) 195.0 14.6 115.4 Number of moles (mol) 195.0/12.0 =16.25 14.6/7.21 = 2.02 Divided by the smallest 16.25/7.21 = 2.25 14.6/7.21 = 2.02 Simplest ratio 9 8 The empirical formula of aspirin is C9H8O4. 7.21/7.21 = 1 7.21/7.21 = 1 4

30. Let the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon be CxHy. Mass of carbon in the hydrocarbon = 14.6g 12.0 / 44.0 = 4.0g Mass of hydrogen in the hydrocarbon = 9.0g 2.0 / 18.0 = 1.0g Carbon Hydrogen Mass (g) 4.0 1.0 Number of moles 4.0 / 12.0 = 0.333 1.0 / 1.0 = 1 Divided by the smallest 0.333 / 0.333 = 1 1 / 0.333 = 3 Simplest ratio 1 3 Therefore, the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon is CH3. The molecular formula of the hydrocarbon is (CH3)n. Relative molecular mass of (CH3)n = 30.0 n (12.0 + 1.0 3) = 30.0 ; n= 2 Therefore, the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon is C2H6. 31. Let the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon be CxHyOz. Mass of carbon in the compound = 44.44g Mass of hydrogen in the compound = 6.18g Mass of oxygen in the compound = 49.38g
P.14

## Oxygen 49.38 49.38/16.0 = 3.09 3.09/3.09 = 1 5

Divided by the smallest 3.70/3.09 = 1.2 6.18/3.09 = 2 Simplest ratio 6 10 The empirical formula of compound X is C6H10O5. The molecular formula of compound X is (C6H10O5)n. Relative molecular mass of (C6H10O5)n = 162.0 n (12.0 6 + 1.0 10 + 16.0 5) = 162.0 ; n=1 Therefore, the molecular formula of compound is C6H10O5.

32. Let formular mass of CuSO4 xH2O = 63.5 + 32.1 + 16.0 x 4 + (1.0 2 + 16.0)x = 159.6 + 18x Relative mass of water of crystallization = 18x / (159.6 + 18x) = 36 / 100 1800x = 5745.6 + 648x x = 4.99 5 Therefore, the chemical formula of hydrated copper(II) sulphate is CuSO4 5H2O 33. (a) (i) Let the mass of compound Z be 100g. Carbon Hydrogen 6.67 6.67/1.0 = 6.67 6.67/3.33 =2 2

## Oxygen 53.33 53.33/16.0=3.33 3.33/3.33 =1 1

Mass (g) 40.00 Number of moles 40.00/12.0 = 3.33 Divided by the smallest 3.33/3.33 =1 Simplest ratio 1

The empirical formula of compound Z is CH2O. (ii) Let the molecular formula of compound Z be (CH2O)n. n (12.0 + 1.0 2 + 16.0) = 180 30n = 180 ; n = 6 The molecular formula of Z is C6H12O6. (b) NH4+ unit Mass (g) Number of moles Divided by the smallest Simplest ratio 27.28 27.28 / 18.0 = 1.52 1.52 / 1.52 = 1 2 S 72.72 72.72 / 32.1 = 2.27 2.27 / 1.52 = 1.49 3

## Since the chemical formula of (NH4)2Sx is (NH4)2S3, the value of x is 3.

(c) MgSO4 Mass (g) Number of moles Divided by the smallest Simplest mole ratio 48.78 48.78 / 120.4 = 0.405 1.52 / 1.52 = 1 1 H2O 51.22 51.22 / 18.0 = 2.846 2.846 / 0.405 = 7 7

Since the chemical formula of MgSO4 nH2O is MgSO4 7H2O , the value of x is 7.

P.15

34. Relative molecular mass of CH3COOH = 12.0 2 + 1.0 4 + 16.0 2 = 60.0 % by mass of C = 12.0 2 / 60.0 100%= 40.00% % by mass of H = 1.0 4 / 60.0 100% = 6.67% % by mass of O = 16.0 2 / 60.0 100% = 53.33% The percentage by mass of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are 40.00%, 6.67% and 53.33% respectively. 35. Relative molecular mass of FeSO47H2O = 55.8 + 32.1 + 16.0 4 + (1.0 2 + 16.0) 7 = 277.9 % by mass of Fe = 55.8 / 277.9 100% = 20.08 % Mass of Fe = 20 g 20.08 % = 4.02 g 36. (a) Molar mass of K2Cr2O7 = (39.1 2 + 52.0 + 16.0 7) g mol-1 = 294.2 g mol-1 % by mass of K = 39.1 2 g mol-1 / 294.2 g mol-1 100% = 26.58 % % by mass of Cr = 52.0 2 g mol-1 / 294.2g mol-1 100% =35.25 % % by mass of O = 16.0 7 g mol-1 / 294.2g mol-1 100% = 38.07 % (b) (i) Molar mass of Na2SO410H2O = 322.1 g mol-1 Mass of Na = 23.0 2 g mol-1 / 322.1 g mol-1 100 g = 14.28 g Mass of H2O = 18.0 10 g mol-1 / 322.1 g mol-1 100 g = 14.28 g (ii) Molar mass of Fe2O38H2O = 303.6 g mol-1 Mass of Fe = 55.8 2 g mol-1 / 303.6g mol-1 70g = 25.73 g Mass of H2O = 18.0 8 g mol-1 / 303.6g mol-1 70g = 33.20 g

37. (a) Zn(s) + H2O(g) ZnO(s) + H2(g) (b) Mg(s) + 2 AgNO3(aq) 2 Ag(s) + Mg(NO3)2(aq) (c) 2 C4H10(g) + 13 O2(g) 8 CO2(g) + 10 H2O(l) 38. CuO(s) + H2(g) Cu(s) + H2O(l) As the mole ratio of Cu : CuO is 1 : 1, the number of moles of Cu formed is the same as the number of moles of CuO reduced. Number of moles of CuO reduced = 12.45 / (63.5 + 13.0) g mol-1 = 0.157 mol Number of mole of Cu formed = 0.157 mol Mass of Cu / 63.5 g mol-1 = 0.157 Mass of Cu = 0.157 mol 63.5 g mol-1= 9.97 g Therefore, the mass of copper formed in the reaction is 9.97 g.

39. Number of moles of CO2 formed = 240 cm3/ 24000 cm3 mol-1 = 0.01 mol From the equation, 2 moles of NaHCO3(s) will form 1 mole of CO2(g). Number of moles of NaHCO3 required = 0.01 2 = 0.02 mol Mass of NaHCO3 required = 0.02 mol (23.0 + 1.0 + 16.0 3) g mol-1 = 0.02 mol 84.0g mol-1 = 1.68 g Therefore, the minimum amount of sodium hydrogencarbonate required is 1.68 g. 40. Number of moles of CO2 formed : C2H6(g) + 7O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) 2 mol : 7 mol : 4 mol : 6 mol
P.16

2 volumes : 7 volumes : 4 volumes : liquid (by Avogadros law) It can be judged from the equation that the mole ratio of CO2 : C2H6 is 4 :2, and the volume ratio of CO2 : C2H6 should also be 4:2. Let x be the volume of CO2(g) formed : x / 20cm3 = 4 / 2 ; x = 40 cm3 Therefore, the volume of CO2 formed is 40 cm3. 41. Let the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon be CxHy. Volume of hydrogen reacted = 10 cm3 Volume of O2(g) unreacted = 50 cm3 Volume of O2(g) reacted = 30 cm3 Volume of CO2(g) formed = 20 cm3 CxHy + (x + y/4) O2 CO2 + y/2 H2O 1 volume : (x + y/4) volumes : x volumes Volume of CO2 (g) / volume of CxHy(g) = 20 cm3 / 10cm3 = 2 Volume of O2(g) / volume of CxHy(g) = (x + y/4) / 1 = 30/ 10 (2 + y/4) = 3 ; y = 2 Molecular formula is C2H4.

; x =2

42. (a) No. of moles of H2 = No. of moles of Mg Volume of H2/ 24.0 dm3 mol-1 = 2.43 g / 24.3 g mol-1 Volume of H2 = 2.4 dm3 (b) 1/3 no. of moles of Cl2 = 1/2 no. of moles of PCl3 1/3 mass of Cl2 / (35.5 2) g mol-1 = 1/2 100g / (31.0 + 35.5 + 3 ) g mol-1 Mass of Cl2 = 77.45 g (c) Volume of CxHy used = 20 cm3 Volume of CO2 formed = 60 cm3 Volume of O2 used = 100 cm3 Volume of CxHy : volume of CO2 = 1 : x = 20 : 60 ; x = 3 Volume of CxHy : volume of O2 = 1 : x + y/4 = 20 : 100 3 + y/4 = 5 ; y = 8 (d) Volume of CxHy used = 20 cm3 It can be judged from the equation that the mole ratio of CO2 : CH4 is 1:1, the volume ratio of CO2 : CH4 should also be 1:1. x / 5 = 1/1 ; x = 5 The volume of carbon dioxide gas is 5 cm3.

43. Number of moles of NaOH(aq) / Number of moles of H2SO4(aq) = 2 / 1 Number of moles of NaOH(aq) = Number of moles of H2SO4 (aq) = 0.067 mol dm-3 22.5 x 10-3 dm3 = 1.508 10-3 mol Number of moles of NaOH(aq) = 2 1.508 10-3 mol = 3.016 10-3 mol Molarity of NaOH(aq) = 3.012 10-3 mol / 25.0 10-3 mol = 0.1221 mol dm-3 The molarity of NaOH is 0.121M 44.. (a) Number of moles of acid = 2.52 g / 126.0 g mol-1 = 0.02 mol Molarity of acid solution = 0.02 mol / 250 10-3 dm3 = 0.08M (b) H2X(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2X(aq) + 2NaOH(l)
P.17

(c) Number of moles of H2X = number of moles of NaOH Molarity of NaOH = 0.14M 45. There is a sudden drop in the pH value of the solution (from pH 3 to pH 8) with the end point at 30.0 cm3. Na2CO3nH2O(s) + 2 HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + (n+1)H2O(l) Number of moles of Na2CO3nH2O = 0.1 mol dm-3 30 10-3 dm3 106.0 + 18.0n = 124.0 ; n = 1 The formula is Na2CO3H2O 46. (a)

(b) From the graph, it is found that the end point of the titration is reached when 20 cm3 of H2SO4 is added. Number of moles of = 0.5 mol dm-3 20 / 1000 dm3 = 0.01 mol 2KOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) 2 mol 1 mol Mole of KOH(aq) : H2SO4 = 2 : 1 Number of moles of KOH(aq) = 2 0.01 mol = 0.02 mol Molarity of KOH(aq) = 0.02 mol / (25 10-3 dm3) = 0.8 M (c) Neutralization is an exothermic reaction. When more and more sulphuric(VI) acid was added and reacted with potassium hydroxide, the temperature rose. The temperature rose to a maximum value at which the equivalence point of the reaction was reached. After that, any excess sulphuric (VI) acid added cooled down the reacting solution, causing the temperature to drop. 47. IO3-(aq) + 5I- + 6H+(aq) 3I2(aq) + 3H2O(l) (1) 22I2(aq) + 2S2O3 (aq) 2I (aq) + S4O6 (aq) (2) From (1), Number of moles of IO3-(aq) = 1/3 number of moles of I2(aq) From(2), Number of moles of I2(aq) = 1/2 number of moles of S2O32-(aq) Number of moles of IO3-(aq) = 1/6 number of moles of S2O32-(aq) Molarity of IO3-(aq) 25.0 / 1000 dm3 = 1/6 0.05 mol dm-3 22.0 / 1000 dm3 Molarity of IO3-(aq) = 7.33 10-3 M 48. MnO4-(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5Fe2+(aq) Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l) + 5Fe3+(aq) Number of moles of Fe2+(aq) = 5 number of moles of MnO4-(aq) =
P.18

5 0.02 mol dm-3 36.5 x 10-3 dm3 = 3.65 10-3 mol Number of moles of Fe dissolved = number of mole of Fe2+ formed = 3.65 10-3 mol Mass of Fe = 3.65 10-3 mol 55.8 g mol-1 = 0.204 g Percentage purity of Fe = 0.204g / 0.22g 100 % = 92.73 % 49. (a) Na2CO3 (s) + 2 HCl (aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) No. of moles of Na2CO3 used = 5g / (23.0 2 +12 +16.0 3)g mol-1 = 0.0472 mol No. of moles of HCl used = 2M 100/ 1000 dm3 = 0.2 mol Since HCl is in excess, Na2CO3 is the limiting agent. No. of moles of CO2 produced = no. of moles of Na2CO3 used = 0.0472 mol Volume of CO2 produced = 0.0472 mol 24.0 dm3 mol-1= 1.133 dm3 (b) No. of moles of MnO4- = 0.0203M 20.76 / 1000 dm3 = 4.214 x 10-4 mol No. of moles of Fe2+ = 5 no. of moles of MnO4- = 2.107 10-3 mol No. of mole of Fe2+ in 25.0 cm3 solution = 2.107 10-3 mol No. of mole of Fe2+ in 250.0 cm3 solution = 0.02107 mol Molar mass of hydrated FeSO4 = 392.14 g mol 1 Mass of hydrated FeSO4 = 0.02107 mol 392.14 g mol1= 8.26 g 5 purity of FeSO4 = 8.26 g / 8.54 g 100 % = 96.72 %

P.19