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Name: __________________________ Class: ___________________________ American History Midterm

Date: _______ Score: _______

Part I Answer all questions in this part. Directions (130): For each statement or question, record the answer on the test sheet that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Primary sources of information about the 4. American colonists showed their opposition colonial era would include a to the British taxation and trade restrictions of the 1760s primarily by (1) journal entry by a member of the Second Continental Congress (1) supporting the French against the British (2) textbook passage about the settlement of (2) boycotting products from Great Britain Pennsylvania (3) overthrowing the royal governors in most of (3) recent newspaper article commemorating the the colonies birth of Patrick Henry (4) purchasing additional products from Native (4) television program about the Declaration of American Indian tribes Independence 2. The Mayflower Compact is considered an important step in the development of American democracy because it (1) established the principle of separation of church and state (2) provided a basis for self-government in the Plymouth Colony (3) defined relations with local Native American Indians (4) outlawed slavery in the Massachusetts Bay Colony 3. Which heading best completes the partial outline below? I. _________________________________ A. Mayflower Compact B. House of Burgesses C. New England town meetings (1) Attempts to Overthrow British Rule (2) Development of Self-Government in the American Colonies (3) Establishment of British Parliamentary Control Over the Colonies (4) Social Reform Movements in the American Colonies 5. Which economic policy was based on the idea that the American colonies existed primarily to provide economic benefits for Great Britain? (1) mercantilism (2) socialism (3) free trade (4) laissez-faire capitalism

6. . . . Everything that is right or reasonable pleads for separation. The blood of the slain, the weeping voice of nature cries, TIS TIME TO PART. . . . Thomas Paine, Common Sense In this quotation, Thomas Paine is trying to convince the colonists to (1) accept the Proclamation of 1763 (2) break a treaty with Spain (3) declare their independence from England (4) dissolve their alliance with France

7. The Declaration of Independence (1776) has 11. Shays Rebellion (1786) became a concern had a major influence on peoples throughout the for many national leaders because it world because it (1) indicated there would be future conflicts (1) guarantees universal suffrage over the spread of slavery (2) establishes a basic set of laws for every (2) exposed fundamental weaknesses in nation government under the Articles of Confederation (3) provides justification for revolting against (3) pointed to the need for federal government unjust governments regulation of interstate commerce (4) describes the importance of a strong central (4) showed that frontier settlements were Government vulnerable to raids by Native American Indians

8. The main purpose for writing the Declaration of Independence was to (1) declare war on Great Britain (2) force France to support the Revolutionary War (3) convince Great Britain to abolish slavery (4) state the colonists reasons for separating from Great Britain 9. The authors of the Declaration of Independence used the phrase Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness to identify (1) natural rights (3) States rights (2) legal rights (4) economic rights 10. Why did the authors of the Articles of Confederation create a weak central government? (1) They lacked an understanding of state problems. (2) They anticipated the threat of foreign invasion. (3) They relied on advice from royal governors. (4) They feared the kind of rule experienced under the British monarchy

12. The main reason the Articles of Confederation were replaced as the basis of the United States government was that they (1) lacked provision for a national congress (2) declared that political protests were unconstitutional (3) placed too many restrictions on the activities of state governments (4) failed to give the central government enough power to govern effectively 13. The accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary, in the same hands, whether of one, a few, or many, and whether hereditary, self-appointed, or elective, may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny. James Madison Which feature of the United States Constitution was included to address the concern expressed by James Madison? (1) electoral college (2) checks and balances (3) Bill of Rights (4) amendment process

Base your answer to question 14 on the quotation below and on your knowledge of social studies. It is our true policy to steer
clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. I hold the maxim [principle] no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them.
President George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796

17. In the 1700s, the triangular trade led directly to the (1) middle colonies role as the chief importers of agricultural products (2) rapid industrialization of the southern colonies (3) decline of the New England economy (4) increased importation of enslaved Africans to the Western Hemisphere

14. President Washington was offering this advice because he believed (1) the destiny of the United States was to rule other countries (2) the United States should seek alliances with other nations (3) alliances could draw the United States into wars (4) the United States should break its agreements with France 15. Which heading best completes the partial outline below? I. __________________________ A. Magna Carta B. House of Burgesses C. Town meetings D. John Locke (1) Ideas of Social Darwinism (2) Basis of British Mercantilism (3) Contributions to American Literature (4) Influences on United States Constitutional Government 16. An example of the use of the unwritten constitution is the creation of the (1) presidential veto (2) United States Navy (3) federal postal system (4) presidents cabinet

18. The Three-fifths Compromise was included in the Constitution to resolve a conflict over the (1) counting of enslaved persons in relation to taxation and representation (2) reimbursement of plantation owners for runaway slaves (3) number of votes needed to approve a treaty in the Senate (4) number of states needed to ratify a proposed Amendment 19. Federalism is best defined as a principle of government that (1) divides power between the central government and state governments (2) includes a system of checks and balances (3) allows the states to nullify national laws (4) places the most power in the hands of the legislative branch

20. A major purpose of the presidents cabinet is to (1) offer advice on important issues (2) nominate ambassadors (3) conduct impeachment trials (4) regulate the amount of money in circulation

21. The elastic clause of the United States Constitution gives Congress the power to (1) make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces; (2) regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes; (3) lay and collect taxes, duties, imports and excises, (4) make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, 22. The Great Compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention resulted in the (1) formation of the Supreme Court (2) creation of a bicameral legislature (3) development of a two-party system (4) ban on the importation of enslaved Africans

25. What was a significant effect of Supreme Court decisions under Chief Justice John Marshall (18011835)? (1) The powers of the federal government were increased. (2) The extension of slavery was limited. (3) The presidents use of the veto power was restricted. (4) The states were given more control over interstate commerce.

26. Which power did the United States Supreme Court gain through the Courts decision in Marbury v. Madison? (1) judicial review (2) hearing appeals from lower federal courts (3) deciding cases involving two or more states (4) judicial independence through lifetime Appointments 27. Manifest Destiny was used to justify an American desire to (1) limit the number of immigrants entering the country (2) control the area located east of the Appalachian Mountains (3) expand the United States to the Pacific Ocean (4) warn European countries against colonizing Latin America 28. The main purpose of the Monroe Doctrine (1823) was to (1) stake a claim to Mexican territory (2) limit European influence in the Americas (3) force the British out of the Oregon Territory (4) establish full control over Canada 30. Compromise Enables Maine and Missouri

23. Alexander Hamiltons proposal to create a national bank and Thomas Jeffersons proposal to purchase the Louisiana Territory were criticized because both actions would (1) place too much power in the hands of Congress (2) violate protections in the Bill of Rights (3) increase foreign influence in the United States (4) require a loose interpretation of the Constitution 24. One reason President Thomas Jefferson supported the Louisiana Purchase was that he wanted to (1) gain full control of the Mississippi River (2) establish a base for controlling the Caribbean (3) maintain control of the slave trade (4) acquire an established manufacturing region 29. Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott v.

Sanford (1857) because it (1) granted citizenship to all enslaved persons (2) upheld the principle of popular sovereignty (3) supported the right of a state to secede from the Union (4) protected the property rights of slave owners in the territories

to Enter the Union California Joins the Union As Part of Compromise of 1850 Kansas-Nebraska Act Establishes Popular Sovereignty in the Territories Which issue is most closely associated with these headlines? (1) status of slavery in new states (2) negotiation of the Oregon Treaty (3) expansion of land for reservations (4) influence of political parties on economic Development

Document-Based Question Directions: The task below is based on documents 1 through 8. It will test your ability to work with historical information as well as your knowledge of social studies. Study each document and answer the questions that follow. They will help you organize your essay. Historical Background The Civil War was costly in terms of human and economic loss. During this period the map of the United States changed radically, and new social patterns emerged. Task: Part A is made up of short answer questions. After reading the task below, answer each question fully. Use the information in the documents and your knowledge of social studies for your answers. Your answers to the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to:

Describe the positive and negative consequences of the Civil War. Did the outcome justify the sacrifices made?

Document 1

America has no north, no south, no east, no west. The sun rises over the hills and sets over the mountains, the compass just points up and down, and we can laugh at the absurd notion of there being a north and a south. We are one and undivided. Sam Watkins- 1st Tennessee

1. According to these documents, what was one benefit achieved by the Civil War? __________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___

Document 2 13 amendment AMENDMENT XIII SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. SECTION 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

2. How did African Americans benefit from the 13th amendment?

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ __________________________________________

Document 3a A city of ruins, of desolation, of vacant houses, of widowed women, of rotting wharves, of deserted warehouses, of weed-wild gardens, of miles of grass-grown streets, of acres of pitiful and voiceful barrenness, --that is Charleston, where Rebellion loftily reared its head five years ago, on whose promenade the fairest of cultured women gathered with passionate hearts to applaud the assault of ten thousand upon the little garrison of Fort Sumpter! -Sidney Andrews (September 1865) Document 3b The countryside looked for miles like a broad black streak of ruin and desolation the fences all gone; lonesome smoke stacks, surrounded by dark heaps of ashes and cinders, marking the spots where human habitation had stood; the fields along the road wildly overgrown by weeds, with here or there a sickly patch of cotton or corn cultivated by Negro squatters. The war has not only defeated their political aspirations, but it has broken up their whole social organization. When the rebellion was put down they found themselves not only conquered in a political and military sense, but economically ruined. -Carl Schurz, Report on the Condition of the South (19December1865) 3a. What did the war do to the economies of cities like Charleston, South Carolina? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

3b. How was rural life affected in the South affected? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

Document 4a

Document 4b.

4a. What was the human cost of the Civil War compared with other U.S. wars? What made it different from every other war in this graph?

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ____________________________________________


4b. What did most of the soldiers die of? Why do you think this was so?

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________

Document 5a 14 amendment All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Document 5b 15 amendment The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

5. How did the 14th and 15th Amendments both protect and empower African Americans?

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _________________________________________

Document 6

In 1862, as the Civil War raged, Congress approved the construction of a transcontinental railroad. 6a. In what ways did the transcontinental railroad accelerate the growth of the United States?

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ____________________________________________


6b. How was the transcontinental important to the economy of the nation?

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___

Document 7 The Homestead Act awarded 160 acres of land to more than 60,000 families including many freedmen and immigrants. It stated: Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in assembled, That any person who is the head of a family, or who has arrived at the age of twenty-one years, and is a citizen of the United States, as required by naturalization laws of the United States -Thirty-Seventh Congress Sess. II Ch. 75 1862

7. Based on the document above, how did the Homestead Act help minorities?

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________

Document 8 Newspaper report from the Shelby County Guide (Columbiana), December 3, 1868, of Klan activities in central Alabama: Movements of the Mystic Klan

About a week ago Saturday night the Ku Klux came into town to regulate matters. They were here from eleven p.m. to three o'clock a.m five hundred in all. They shot one very bad negro, putting six balls through his head. Many heard the noise, but did not know what was going on. They also hung three or four negroes nearly dead, and whipped others severely in order to make them tell them about their nightly meetings, and what their object was in holding the same; also, as to who their leaders were They went to several stores and knocked; the doors were opened at once. They then called for rope, and at each place a coil was rolled out to them. They cut it in suitable length to hang a man with. No one asked for money and they offered none. They did not disturb any one else, nor did they take any thing except some few Enfield rifles which were found in possession of some very bad negroes. They called on the revenue officer and passed a few remarks with him. What transpired is not known, but it has made a great improvement in his conversation. The visitants advent has been productive of much good and benefit to the community, though all regret such steps should have to be resorted to, every one says "give us peace," and really I believe them to be truly sincere.

8. Did black Americans achieve the equality promised by the Civil War? Explain.

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

_______________________________________________ ___________________________________________
Part B-Essay Directions: Review the documents in Part A and your answers. Write a wellorganized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion. Use evidence from at least five documents in the body of the essay. Support your response with relevant facts, examples, and details include additional outside information. Historical Background The Civil War was costly in terms of human and economic loss. During this period, the map of the United States changed radically and new social patterns emerged. Task: Use the documents in Part A, your answers, and your knowledge of social studies to write the essay below. Describe the positive and negative consequences of the Civil War. Did the outcome justify the sacrifices made?