Cloud computing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Cloud computing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a metered service over a network (typically the Internet). Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service. Also, it is a delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols, and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources.[1][2] It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet.[3] This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own computers.[4] Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet, which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps, while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. In some cases, legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology, while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data centre location; in other cases, entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX.

Cloud computing logical diagram

At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services.[5] This type of data centre environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.[6][7] Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data centres, which appear to consumers as a single point of access for their computing needs. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs), but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies.[8][9] The tremendous impact of cloud computing on business has prompted the United States federal government to look to the cloud as a means to reorganize its IT infrastructure and to decrease its IT budgets. With the advent of the top government officially mandating cloud adoption, many government agencies already have at least one or more cloud systems online.[10]

Contents
■ ■ ■ ■ 1 Comparison 2 Characteristics 3 History 4 Layers ■ 4.1 Client ■ 4.2 Application ■ 4.3 Platform ■ 4.4 Infrastructure ■ 4.5 Server ■ 5 Deployment models ■ 5.1 Public cloud ■ 5.2 Community cloud ■ 5.3 Hybrid cloud ■ 5.4 Private cloud ■ 6 Architecture ■ 6.1 The Intercloud ■ 6.2 Cloud engineering ■ 7 Issues ■ 7.1 Privacy ■ 7.2 Compliance ■ 7.3 Legal ■ 7.4 Open source ■ 7.5 Open standards ■ 7.6 Security ■ 7.7 Sustainability

Details are abstracted from end-users. History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. and financial transaction processing. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet.8 Abuse 8 Research 9 See also 10 References 11 External links Page 2 of 9 Comparison Cloud computing shares characteristics with: ■ Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management.. police and secret intelligence services. In addition. enterprise resource planning. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). or control over. PC. as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example) ■ Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources.[12] ■ Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing. ■ Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks.[22] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems." ■ Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organisations for critical applications. the free encyclopedia ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 7.[18] ■ Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: ■ Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control."[14] ■ Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination. as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. such as electricity. mobile phone).[25] Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualisation. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. etc. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. and the lack of security for stored kernels. ■ Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks.[16] ■ Device and location independence[17] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.[26] . in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. self-service basis near real-time.) ■ Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) ■ Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised. without users having to engineer for peak loads.[16] ■ Security could improve due to centralization of data. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.[15] This is purported to lower barriers to entry. with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model). autonomic. ■ Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. who no longer have need for expertise in.[16] ■ Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: ■ Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. etc. industry and consumer statistics.[13] ■ Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs.[23] However. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked.[20][21] ■ Performance is monitored. typically bulk data processing such as census. service-oriented architecture. and utility computing.[19] ■ Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data. such as computation and storage.[24] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. increased security-focused resources. electricity.g. users can connect from anywhere.Wikipedia.. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer.[11] ■ Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients).Cloud computing .

Cloud applications have the ability to scale out and in. and community forms. and flexible prices.[18][29] In early 2008. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. private. cloud architecture addresses many technical details that are environment specific. This makes cloud applications SOA applications." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision. This environment is characterized by horizontal scalability. Tasks can be cloned into multiple virtual machines.[30] In the same year. online. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. A cloud application meta-model is a SOA model that conforms to the SOA meta-model. While SOA is a business model that addresses the business process management. SOA is an umbrella that describes any kind of service. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. Examples include some computers (example: Chromebooks). In early 2008.Cloud computing . resulting to a real-time cloud environment. illusion of infinite supply). when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility. provided as a utility."[33] Layers Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers. and are accessible through application programmable interfaces (API). OpenNebula. A cloud application is software provided as a service. which. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. It consists of the following: a package of interrelated tasks. and for the federation of clouds. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits. The Challenge of the Computer Utility. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. A cloud application is a SOA application that runs under a specific environment. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloudbased infrastructures. There is no need to stop the running application or redeploy it in order to modify or change the information in this file [38]. Eucalyptus became the first open-source. the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 9 The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time. those who use IT services and those who sell them"[32] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . government. which contain dynamic information about tasks at run-time.Wikipedia. Cloud tasks provide compute. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively. began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. operating systems (example: Google Chrome OS). and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit. storage. Configuration Data is where dynamic aspects of cloud application are determined at run-time.[27] The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies.. Client See also: Category:Cloud clients A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it. and tenancy metrics [37]. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity. and the configuration files. Platform See also: Category:Cloud platforms .[34][35][36] Application See also: Category:Cloud applications Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. the definition of these tasks. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers.. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project. However. and browsers. A cloud application is a service.[28] After the dot-com bubble. just to leave room for occasional spikes.[31] By mid-2008. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily. Cloud applications have a pricing model that is based on different compute and storage usage. This can be achieved by cloning tasks in to multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet the changing work demand. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers. ease of access. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. phones (example: Google Nexus series) and other devices. SOA applications are not necessary cloud applications. like most computer networks. which makes it more a technical model [37]. Cloud applications are a kind of utility computing that can scale out and in to match the workload demand. rapid provisioning. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. communication and management capabilities. which is the cloud computing environment (platform).

[51] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms.[42] Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services.[40][41] Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry. so only some of the benefits of cloud computing are realized. deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud.[47] Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization. jurisdiction.[43][44][45][46] Deployment models Public cloud A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model. etc. software. in which a service provider makes resources.[48] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue.Wikipedia. Regardless of the nomenclature.Cloud computing . also known as platform as a service (PaaS). clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service.). such as applications and storage. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. or Cloud 9. or even use services provided by the cloud. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud). along with raw (block) storage and networking. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management. The Intercloud Main article: Intercloud The Intercloud[52] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[53][54] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS).[55][56][57] . including multi-core processors. compliance. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model. community. build. and when development teams create applications for the cloud. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform.[49][50] Architecture Cloud architecture.[39] It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. Infrastructure See also: Category:Cloud infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings..[47] Cloud computing types Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. [47] They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 9 Cloud platform services. available to the general public over the Internet.[16] Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. Rather than purchasing servers. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another. each must build its own cloud platform. they all have great potential in developing. data-center space or network equipment.

It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems. risk. HIPAA.[67] Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing. web. Open source See also: Category:Open source cloud computing Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. performance. security. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[61][62] and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance.[65][66] Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. under non-disclosure agreement. everything from trademark infringement. and SOX in the United States.Wikipedia.[71] Security Main article: Cloud computing security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity. platform.[64] Providers typically make this information available on request.[60] Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. private or public.[68] In November 2007. Instances such as the secret NSA program. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. thus. can monitor at will. working with AT&T. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model. information."[59] Cloud computing poses privacy concerns basically. may access the data that is on the cloud. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. software. because the service provider at any point in time. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity.[74] Security issues have been categorised into . They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info. security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits.[69] Open standards See also: Category:Cloud standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[70]) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable.[73] Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security-based services.Cloud computing . The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures. the free encyclopedia Page 5 of 9 Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. certain legal issues arise. Issues Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control. that promote external management of provided services. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services. lawfully or unlawfully. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates.[58] While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal environment. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. developing. standardisation. and quality engineering. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework.[72] The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. and governance in conceiving. and Verizon. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS.[63] Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification.

account control. particularly public key infrastructure (PKI).gartner.com/Pathto-the-Cloud/) . there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. 7.com/content/converged-infrastructure-0. standardisation of APIs.com/content/converged-infrastructure-0) .[77] Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing.economist. (The same holds true for "traditional" data centers.com/channels/cloudstorage/articles/211183-rising-cloud-storage-market-opportunity-strengthens-vendors. The Economist. 9. ^ "Cloud Computing: Clash of the clouds" (http://www. Solutions to various cloud security issues vary.irishtimes. August 24.gridBus. Retrieved 2011-12-02.com/business-services/cloud-computing-ireland/getting-clear-about-cloudcomputing/) .com/d/cloud-computing/what-cloud-computing-really-means-031) . data-centric approaches[89] encapsulated in a five-layer TrustCloud Framework. 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