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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a metered service over a network (typically the Internet). Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service. Also, it is a delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols, and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources. It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own computers. Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet, which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps, while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. In some cases, legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology, while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data centre location; in other cases, entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX.
Cloud computing logical diagram
At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services. This type of data centre environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand. Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data centres, which appear to consumers as a single point of access for their computing needs. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs), but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies. The tremendous impact of cloud computing on business has prompted the United States federal government to look to the cloud as a means to reorganize its IT infrastructure and to decrease its IT budgets. With the advent of the top government officially mandating cloud adoption, many government agencies already have at least one or more cloud systems online.
■ ■ ■ ■ 1 Comparison 2 Characteristics 3 History 4 Layers ■ 4.1 Client ■ 4.2 Application ■ 4.3 Platform ■ 4.4 Infrastructure ■ 4.5 Server ■ 5 Deployment models ■ 5.1 Public cloud ■ 5.2 Community cloud ■ 5.3 Hybrid cloud ■ 5.4 Private cloud ■ 6 Architecture ■ 6.1 The Intercloud ■ 6.2 Cloud engineering ■ 7 Issues ■ 7.1 Privacy ■ 7.2 Compliance ■ 7.3 Legal ■ 7.4 Open source ■ 7.5 Open standards ■ 7.6 Security ■ 7.7 Sustainability
with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model). Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: ■ Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control. enterprise resource planning. History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. and utility computing. and the lack of security for stored kernels. ■ Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. without users having to engineer for peak loads. Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualisation. users can connect from anywhere.Wikipedia. mobile phone). ■ Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: ■ Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. and financial transaction processing. In addition. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. etc.8 Abuse 8 Research 9 See also 10 References 11 External links Page 2 of 9 Comparison Cloud computing shares characteristics with: ■ Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management.) ■ Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) ■ Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised. ■ Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. ■ Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked. ■ Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). ■ Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. such as electricity. ■ Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. ■ Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. who no longer have need for expertise in. the free encyclopedia ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 7.g. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data.. such as computation and storage. . electricity. ■ Security could improve due to centralization of data. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. self-service basis near real-time. This is purported to lower barriers to entry. as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. ■ Performance is monitored. service-oriented architecture. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). Details are abstracted from end-users. police and secret intelligence services. etc. Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. autonomic." ■ Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organisations for critical applications. industry and consumer statistics. or control over. However. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. ■ Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. increased security-focused resources. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. typically bulk data processing such as census. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example) ■ Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources. ■ Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing. PC." ■ Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination.. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet.Cloud computing . Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security.
and the configuration files. SOA is an umbrella that describes any kind of service. Cloud applications are a kind of utility computing that can scale out and in to match the workload demand. which is the cloud computing environment (platform). and flexible prices. There is no need to stop the running application or redeploy it in order to modify or change the information in this file . eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. and browsers." Layers Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers. operating systems (example: Google Chrome OS). when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility. OpenNebula. In the same year. which makes it more a technical model . After the dot-com bubble. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. Configuration Data is where dynamic aspects of cloud application are determined at run-time. Cloud tasks provide compute. In early 2008.. This makes cloud applications SOA applications. Cloud applications have a pricing model that is based on different compute and storage usage. began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 9 The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. phones (example: Google Nexus series) and other devices. However. This can be achieved by cloning tasks in to multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet the changing work demand. ease of access. This environment is characterized by horizontal scalability. resulting to a real-time cloud environment. Eucalyptus became the first open-source.. The Challenge of the Computer Utility. and are accessible through application programmable interfaces (API). and tenancy metrics . just to leave room for occasional spikes. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits.Wikipedia. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. While SOA is a business model that addresses the business process management. private. and for the federation of clouds. which. It consists of the following: a package of interrelated tasks. A cloud application is a service. they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively. Examples include some computers (example: Chromebooks). the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. A cloud application meta-model is a SOA model that conforms to the SOA meta-model. Platform See also: Category:Cloud platforms . The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. communication and management capabilities. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time. SOA applications are not necessary cloud applications. provided as a utility. Cloud applications have the ability to scale out and in. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. government. A cloud application is a SOA application that runs under a specific environment. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. illusion of infinite supply). fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily. Client See also: Category:Cloud clients A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers.Cloud computing . like most computer networks. the definition of these tasks. A cloud application is software provided as a service. What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity. and community forms. rapid provisioning. Application See also: Category:Cloud applications Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. cloud architecture addresses many technical details that are environment specific. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. storage. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit. those who use IT services and those who sell them" and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . By mid-2008. In early 2008. which contain dynamic information about tasks at run-time. online. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloudbased infrastructures. Tasks can be cloned into multiple virtual machines.
 Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. Infrastructure See also: Category:Cloud infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services. also known as platform as a service (PaaS). Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms. also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS).  They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. jurisdiction. Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry.. or Cloud 9. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. Deployment models Public cloud A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model. community. The Intercloud Main article: Intercloud The Intercloud is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds" and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model. and when development teams create applications for the cloud. available to the general public over the Internet. Rather than purchasing servers. such as applications and storage. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform. each must build its own cloud platform. Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. data-center space or network equipment. Regardless of the nomenclature. essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". etc. they all have great potential in developing.). software. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud).Wikipedia. the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. along with raw (block) storage and networking. in which a service provider makes resources. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another. or even use services provided by the cloud. Cloud computing types Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. . deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. Architecture Cloud architecture. build. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management. including multi-core processors. Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization. so only some of the benefits of cloud computing are realized. the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity.Cloud computing . compliance. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 9 Cloud platform services.
 Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates.Wikipedia. Security issues have been categorised into . web. Issues Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control. platform. may access the data that is on the cloud. Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation. Security Main article: Cloud computing security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. and Verizon. performance. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services. that promote external management of provided services. risk. can monitor at will. security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources. lawfully or unlawfully. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity.Cloud computing . This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA" and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. HIPAA. everything from trademark infringement. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. working with AT&T. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework. and governance in conceiving. because the service provider at any point in time. Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security-based services. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures. certain legal issues arise. Open standards See also: Category:Cloud standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info. developing. standardisation. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability. software. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems. information. While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal environment." Cloud computing poses privacy concerns basically. thus. Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. and quality engineering. In November 2007. Instances such as the secret NSA program. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. security. Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. Providers typically make this information available on request. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. private or public. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. under non-disclosure agreement. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development. the free encyclopedia Page 5 of 9 Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. Open source See also: Category:Open source cloud computing Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. and SOX in the United States. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model.
accountability.cfm?story_id=14637206.com/displaystory.com/d/cloud-computing/what-cloud-computing-really-means-031.gartner. In 2009. "What cloud computing really means" (http://www. The team identified the need for monitoring data life cycles and transfers in the cloud . a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs that were infected by the malware. July 2011 . This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services. Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing". ^ "Kerravala. Retrieved 2010-08-22. management console security. 2011-08-24. 2010" (http://www.tmcnet. leading to the tackling of key cloud computing security issues such as cloud data leakages. Data & Analysis Centre for Software. Sweden and Switzerland. 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