Cloud computing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Cloud computing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a metered service over a network (typically the Internet). Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service. Also, it is a delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols, and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources.[1][2] It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet.[3] This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own computers.[4] Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet, which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps, while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. In some cases, legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology, while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data centre location; in other cases, entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX.

Cloud computing logical diagram

At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services.[5] This type of data centre environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.[6][7] Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data centres, which appear to consumers as a single point of access for their computing needs. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs), but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies.[8][9] The tremendous impact of cloud computing on business has prompted the United States federal government to look to the cloud as a means to reorganize its IT infrastructure and to decrease its IT budgets. With the advent of the top government officially mandating cloud adoption, many government agencies already have at least one or more cloud systems online.[10]

■ ■ ■ ■ 1 Comparison 2 Characteristics 3 History 4 Layers ■ 4.1 Client ■ 4.2 Application ■ 4.3 Platform ■ 4.4 Infrastructure ■ 4.5 Server ■ 5 Deployment models ■ 5.1 Public cloud ■ 5.2 Community cloud ■ 5.3 Hybrid cloud ■ 5.4 Private cloud ■ 6 Architecture ■ 6.1 The Intercloud ■ 6.2 Cloud engineering ■ 7 Issues ■ 7.1 Privacy ■ 7.2 Compliance ■ 7.3 Legal ■ 7.4 Open source ■ 7.5 Open standards ■ 7.6 Security ■ 7.7 Sustainability

Wikipedia.[13] ■ Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. ■ Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. enterprise resource planning. increased security-focused resources. ■ Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers.[22] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems.. PC. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data.[16] ■ Security could improve due to centralization of data. or control over.[12] ■ Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing.g. the free encyclopedia ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 7. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: ■ Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.[18] ■ Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. and utility computing. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet.. who no longer have need for expertise in. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example) ■ Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources.) ■ Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) ■ Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised. service-oriented architecture. mobile phone). as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. police and secret intelligence services."[14] ■ Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination.Cloud computing . electricity.[24] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents.[16] ■ Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: ■ Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. and financial transaction processing. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer.[11] ■ Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients).8 Abuse 8 Research 9 See also 10 References 11 External links Page 2 of 9 Comparison Cloud computing shares characteristics with: ■ Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management. typically bulk data processing such as census.[15] This is purported to lower barriers to entry.[20][21] ■ Performance is monitored. autonomic. and the lack of security for stored kernels." ■ Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organisations for critical applications. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. such as electricity.[23] However. self-service basis near real-time. Details are abstracted from end-users. users can connect from anywhere. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. etc. etc. with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model). such as computation and storage. In addition. ■ Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. industry and consumer statistics. without users having to engineer for peak loads.[26] .[25] Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualisation. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users.[19] ■ Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained.[16] ■ Device and location independence[17] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.

Wikipedia." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision. and flexible prices.[27] The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits. resulting to a real-time cloud environment. A cloud application is software provided as a service. operating systems (example: Google Chrome OS). which is the cloud computing environment (platform). Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloudbased infrastructures. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. Cloud applications are a kind of utility computing that can scale out and in to match the workload demand. It consists of the following: a package of interrelated tasks. fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily. rapid provisioning. In early 2008.[30] In the same year. like most computer networks. which makes it more a technical model [37].. SOA applications are not necessary cloud applications. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. Configuration Data is where dynamic aspects of cloud application are determined at run-time. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time. they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively. and tenancy metrics [37]. which. communication and management capabilities. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers. Cloud applications have the ability to scale out and in."[33] Layers Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers. began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity. private. ease of access. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. illusion of infinite supply). cloud architecture addresses many technical details that are environment specific. storage. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds.Cloud computing . The Challenge of the Computer Utility.[18][29] In early 2008. government. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. and community forms. A cloud application is a service. which contain dynamic information about tasks at run-time. the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 9 The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. Tasks can be cloned into multiple virtual machines. A cloud application is a SOA application that runs under a specific environment. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit. the definition of these tasks. SOA is an umbrella that describes any kind of service. This environment is characterized by horizontal scalability. While SOA is a business model that addresses the business process management. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. Cloud applications have a pricing model that is based on different compute and storage usage. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. phones (example: Google Nexus series) and other devices. Examples include some computers (example: Chromebooks). A cloud application meta-model is a SOA model that conforms to the SOA meta-model. There is no need to stop the running application or redeploy it in order to modify or change the information in this file [38]. and for the federation of clouds. However. Platform See also: Category:Cloud platforms . Cloud tasks provide compute. Client See also: Category:Cloud clients A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it.. This makes cloud applications SOA applications. and are accessible through application programmable interfaces (API). provided as a utility. Eucalyptus became the first open-source. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility. This can be achieved by cloning tasks in to multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet the changing work demand. and browsers. just to leave room for occasional spikes. OpenNebula.[34][35][36] Application See also: Category:Cloud applications Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. online. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book.[28] After the dot-com bubble. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small.[31] By mid-2008. those who use IT services and those who sell them"[32] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . and the configuration files.

and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management. offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. including multi-core processors.[42] Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services.[49][50] Architecture Cloud architecture. and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms.[39] It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers.[47] Cloud computing types Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. build. software.Cloud computing .Wikipedia. Rather than purchasing servers. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. data-center space or network equipment. also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS). the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. [47] They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy.[48] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". or Cloud 9. or even use services provided by the cloud.[40][41] Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry.[55][56][57] . the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 9 Cloud platform services. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model.[51] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. in which a service provider makes resources. jurisdiction.[43][44][45][46] Deployment models Public cloud A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform.. and when development teams create applications for the cloud. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. Regardless of the nomenclature. available to the general public over the Internet. they all have great potential in developing. Infrastructure See also: Category:Cloud infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services.[47] Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. also known as platform as a service (PaaS).). The Intercloud Main article: Intercloud The Intercloud[52] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[53][54] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud). deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. compliance. community. Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud.[16] Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. etc. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings. each must build its own cloud platform. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. such as applications and storage. so only some of the benefits of cloud computing are realized. It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another. along with raw (block) storage and networking.

lawfully or unlawfully.[68] In November 2007. and governance in conceiving. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company.[69] Open standards See also: Category:Cloud standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[70]) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable.[73] Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security-based services. certain legal issues arise. information. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. and quality engineering. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. thus. can monitor at will. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model.[58] While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal environment. platform. security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development.Cloud computing .[60] Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA.[74] Security issues have been categorised into . because the service provider at any point in time. developing. private or public.[71] Security Main article: Cloud computing security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity. risk. security. Instances such as the secret NSA program. HIPAA.[64] Providers typically make this information available on request."[59] Cloud computing poses privacy concerns basically. web. performance. under non-disclosure agreement. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. may access the data that is on the cloud. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens.[65][66] Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services. and SOX in the United States. and Verizon. Issues Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. everything from trademark infringement. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[61][62] and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance. Open source See also: Category:Open source cloud computing Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. the free encyclopedia Page 5 of 9 Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems. standardisation. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation. working with AT&T. software.[63] Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services.[72] The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption.[67] Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing.Wikipedia. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework. that promote external management of provided services.

InfoWorld. from cryptography. 4.[72][75][76] Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing". 2010-11-15.development of HPCCLoud Performance Analysis Toolkit which was funded by CIM-Returning Experts Programme . 2010" (http://www.Cloud computing . ■ In July 2011 the High Performance Computing Cloud (HPCCLoud) project was kicked-off aiming at finding out the possibilities of enhancing performance on cloud environments while running the scientific applications . ^ Cloud Computing Defined (http://www. 6. November 15. University of .gartner. Data & Analysis Centre for Software. 3. Galen (2008-04-07). Convergedinfrastructure. ^ Buyya. privacy. http://www. management console security. It.irishtimes. a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs that were infected by the malware.cfm?story_id=14637206) .cfm?story_id=14637206.[91] See also ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Cloud computing comparison Cloud database Cloud storage Mobile Cloud Computing Web operating system Cloud collaboration References 1.[83] Research Many universities.pdf) .org/~raj/papers/hpcc2008_keynote_cloudcomputing.htm) . vendors and government organisations are investing in research around the topic of cloud computing:[84][85] ■ In October 2007 the Academic Cloud Computing Initiative (ACCI) was announced as a multi-university project designed to enhance students' technical knowledge to address the challenges of cloud . Yankee Group.convergedinfrastructure.[82] In 2009. the free encyclopedia Page 6 of 9 sensitive data data segregation.tmcnet.irishtimes.thedacs.jsp?id=707508. ■ In June 2011 the Telecommunications Industry Association developed a Cloud Computing White Paper. Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energy-aware scheduling and server consolidation. data-centric approaches[89] encapsulated in a five-layer TrustCloud Framework. 8. Rajani. Retrieved 2009-06-02. cloud accountability and cross-national data transfers in transnational EJ "Cloud Computing in the Government" (http://www. crackers posing as legitimate customers can purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased . to analyze the integration challenges and opportunities between cloud services and traditional U. 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