Cloud computing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Cloud computing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a metered service over a network (typically the Internet). Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service. Also, it is a delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols, and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources.[1][2] It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet.[3] This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own computers.[4] Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet, which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps, while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. In some cases, legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology, while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data centre location; in other cases, entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX.

Cloud computing logical diagram

At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services.[5] This type of data centre environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.[6][7] Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data centres, which appear to consumers as a single point of access for their computing needs. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs), but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies.[8][9] The tremendous impact of cloud computing on business has prompted the United States federal government to look to the cloud as a means to reorganize its IT infrastructure and to decrease its IT budgets. With the advent of the top government officially mandating cloud adoption, many government agencies already have at least one or more cloud systems online.[10]

Contents
■ ■ ■ ■ 1 Comparison 2 Characteristics 3 History 4 Layers ■ 4.1 Client ■ 4.2 Application ■ 4.3 Platform ■ 4.4 Infrastructure ■ 4.5 Server ■ 5 Deployment models ■ 5.1 Public cloud ■ 5.2 Community cloud ■ 5.3 Hybrid cloud ■ 5.4 Private cloud ■ 6 Architecture ■ 6.1 The Intercloud ■ 6.2 Cloud engineering ■ 7 Issues ■ 7.1 Privacy ■ 7.2 Compliance ■ 7.3 Legal ■ 7.4 Open source ■ 7.5 Open standards ■ 7.6 Security ■ 7.7 Sustainability

police and secret intelligence services." ■ Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organisations for critical applications.[24] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. service-oriented architecture."[14] ■ Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination. etc. as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example) ■ Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources.[11] ■ Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients).. typically bulk data processing such as census. Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: ■ Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control. In addition. History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. such as electricity. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford.8 Abuse 8 Research 9 See also 10 References 11 External links Page 2 of 9 Comparison Cloud computing shares characteristics with: ■ Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data. ■ Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier.. etc. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).[20][21] ■ Performance is monitored. enterprise resource planning.[25] Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualisation. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface.[22] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems. such as computation and storage. industry and consumer statistics.[15] This is purported to lower barriers to entry. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. Details are abstracted from end-users. and utility computing.[26] . ■ Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. users can connect from anywhere.) ■ Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) ■ Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks.[12] ■ Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing. without users having to engineer for peak loads.[18] ■ Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. and financial transaction processing.[16] ■ Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: ■ Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks.Wikipedia.g.[23] However. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible.Cloud computing . the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. or control over. PC. who no longer have need for expertise in. ■ Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. increased security-focused resources.[16] ■ Security could improve due to centralization of data. the free encyclopedia ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 7.[16] ■ Device and location independence[17] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. electricity.[13] ■ Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked. with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model). mobile phone). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. self-service basis near real-time. autonomic. and the lack of security for stored kernels.[19] ■ Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility.

and browsers." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision.[28] After the dot-com bubble. The Challenge of the Computer Utility.Cloud computing . efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloudbased infrastructures. and flexible prices. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. Cloud applications have the ability to scale out and in. which. cloud architecture addresses many technical details that are environment specific. A cloud application is a service. A cloud application meta-model is a SOA model that conforms to the SOA meta-model. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. online. This can be achieved by cloning tasks in to multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet the changing work demand. storage. Cloud applications are a kind of utility computing that can scale out and in to match the workload demand. and are accessible through application programmable interfaces (API). in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project. resulting to a real-time cloud environment. There is no need to stop the running application or redeploy it in order to modify or change the information in this file [38].[27] The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies.. A cloud application is software provided as a service. Cloud tasks provide compute. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility. ease of access. and the configuration files. Platform See also: Category:Cloud platforms .. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. the definition of these tasks. Configuration Data is where dynamic aspects of cloud application are determined at run-time. communication and management capabilities. private. SOA applications are not necessary cloud applications. Client See also: Category:Cloud clients A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it.[34][35][36] Application See also: Category:Cloud applications Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers. and community forms. While SOA is a business model that addresses the business process management. fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily.[30] In the same year. Cloud applications have a pricing model that is based on different compute and storage usage. and for the federation of clouds. OpenNebula.[18][29] In early 2008. they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively. like most computer networks. This environment is characterized by horizontal scalability. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers. illusion of infinite supply). which contain dynamic information about tasks at run-time."[33] Layers Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas.[31] By mid-2008. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. phones (example: Google Nexus series) and other devices. Examples include some computers (example: Chromebooks). What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity. operating systems (example: Google Chrome OS).Wikipedia. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. SOA is an umbrella that describes any kind of service. those who use IT services and those who sell them"[32] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time. which makes it more a technical model [37]. In early 2008. rapid provisioning. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits. However. It consists of the following: a package of interrelated tasks. government. A cloud application is a SOA application that runs under a specific environment. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book. Tasks can be cloned into multiple virtual machines. began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. which is the cloud computing environment (platform). The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. just to leave room for occasional spikes. and tenancy metrics [37]. This makes cloud applications SOA applications. the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 9 The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers. Eucalyptus became the first open-source. provided as a utility.

[47] Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform.Wikipedia.Cloud computing .[42] Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. along with raw (block) storage and networking. so only some of the benefits of cloud computing are realized. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management. build. the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 9 Cloud platform services. community. they all have great potential in developing. including multi-core processors. etc. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings. the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity.. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. jurisdiction. Infrastructure See also: Category:Cloud infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services.[47] Cloud computing types Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. and when development teams create applications for the cloud. It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another. in which a service provider makes resources. and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms. or even use services provided by the cloud. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. Rather than purchasing servers. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS). such as applications and storage. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. The Intercloud Main article: Intercloud The Intercloud[52] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[53][54] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. [47] They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. each must build its own cloud platform. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications.[48] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. compliance.[16] Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. also known as platform as a service (PaaS).[39] It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. data-center space or network equipment. software. Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud. Regardless of the nomenclature.[40][41] Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry. or Cloud 9.). The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud). available to the general public over the Internet.[55][56][57] .[49][50] Architecture Cloud architecture. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service.[43][44][45][46] Deployment models Public cloud A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model.[51] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model.

private or public. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation. platform. developing. may access the data that is on the cloud. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS.[68] In November 2007. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. working with AT&T. that promote external management of provided services. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[61][62] and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures.[69] Open standards See also: Category:Cloud standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[70]) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. information. HIPAA. everything from trademark infringement. certain legal issues arise. software. Instances such as the secret NSA program. and Verizon. Issues Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control."[59] Cloud computing poses privacy concerns basically. thus.[72] The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption.Cloud computing . with a view to delivering interoperability and portability.[74] Security issues have been categorised into .[65][66] Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources. risk. Open source See also: Category:Open source cloud computing Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services. and governance in conceiving. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. performance. the free encyclopedia Page 5 of 9 Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing.Wikipedia. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services. because the service provider at any point in time.[60] Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model. under non-disclosure agreement. and quality engineering. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. standardisation.[67] Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing. web. lawfully or unlawfully. security. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework.[58] While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal environment. can monitor at will.[63] Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification.[64] Providers typically make this information available on request. and SOX in the United States.[73] Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security-based services.[71] Security Main article: Cloud computing security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info.

org/~raj/papers/hpcc2008_keynote_cloudcomputing. p. http://www.thectoforum.com. 2011-08-24. Market-Oriented Cloud Computing: Vision. Zeus. the TrustCloud research project [87][88] was started by HP Labs Singapore to address transparency and accountability of cloud computing via detective.[91] See also ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Cloud computing comparison Cloud database Cloud storage Mobile Cloud Computing Web operating system Cloud collaboration References 1. 2011" (http://it." Tech Target" (http://www. InfoWorld. ^ Cloud Computing Defined (http://www. Shajulin Benedict.[79] are trying to attract cloud computing data centers.[72][75][76] Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing".org/~raj/papers/hpcc2008_keynote_cloudcomputing. and Reality for Delivering IT Services as Computing Utilities (http://www. ^ Buyya. a small compromise on energy consumption reduction could result in high carbon footprint reduction.com/Path-to-the-Cloud/. The Irish Times. University of Melbourne.[81] Abuse As with privately purchased hardware. 2009-10-15.gartner. This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services. "Migrating to the cloud is dependent on a converged infrastructure. bug exploitation. data-centric approaches[89] encapsulated in a five-layer TrustCloud Framework.com/it/page.htm. Galen (2008-04-07).com. from cryptography. vendors and government organisations are investing in research around the topic of cloud computing:[84][85] ■ In October 2007 the Academic Cloud Computing Initiative (ACCI) was announced as a multi-university project designed to enhance students' technical knowledge to address the challenges of cloud computing.[83] Research Many universities. Retrieved 26 July 2010. 9. The Economist. Rajkumar. 8. malicious insiders. ^ "Gartner Says Cloud Computing Will Be As Influential As E-business" (http://www. accountability. Srikumar Venugopal (PDF).Wikipedia. Retrieved 2008-07-31. Kwasniewski.htm) . ^ Thomas J. to analyze the integration challenges and opportunities between cloud services and traditional U. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available. "Getting clear about cloud computing" (http://www.Cloud computing .tmcnet. http://it.com/displaystory. http://www. cloud accountability and cross-national data transfers in transnational clouds.com/business-services/cloud-computing-ireland/getting-clear-about-cloud-computing/. account control. 5. privacy. Retrieved 2009-11-03.pdf) .com/d/cloud-computing/what-cloud-computing-really-means-031) . July 2011 . the free encyclopedia Page 6 of 9 sensitive data access.com/Pathto-the-Cloud/) .gridBus.[82] In 2009.tmcnet. http://www." CTO Forum. Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering.com.pdf.[78] Sweden and Switzerland. Retrieved 2011-12-02. to use of multiple cloud providers. recovery.com/techs/abstract/518136) .S.) Thus countries with favorable conditions. there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. 2. August 24.under the coordination of Prof.com/content/converged-infrastructure-0) . 2010" (http://www. November 15. Retrieved 2009-06-02. (The same holds true for "traditional" data centers. Rajani. ^ Gruman. 4. 3. Australia. http://www. Convergedinfrastructure. Retrieved 2010-08-22.com. Chee Shin Yeo. a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs that were infected by the malware.gartner. 2010-11-15. EJ Puig. ^ "Baburajan. telecommunications standards. Retrieved 2011-12-02.irishtimes.jsp?id=707508. Gartner. Yankee Group.com/displaystory. "Cloud Computing in the Government" (http://www. 6. 9. Data & Analysis Centre for Software. "What cloud computing really means" (http://www.infoworld. leading to the tackling of key cloud computing security issues such as cloud data leakages. Dr.com/it/page. http://www. The team identified the need for monitoring data life cycles and transfers in the cloud [90]. ^ "Oestreich.jsp?id=707508) . "Converged Infrastructure.com/) 17 July 2010.com/business-services/cloud-computing-ireland/getting-clear-about-cloudcomputing/) ." infoTECH.cfm?story_id=14637206) .convergedinfrastructure.com/channels/cloudstorage/articles/211183-rising-cloud-storage-market-opportunity-strengthens-vendors. http://www. ^ "Kerravala.cfm?story_id=14637206.convergedinfrastructure. Thectoforum. ■ In June 2011 the Telecommunications Industry Association developed a Cloud Computing White Paper. particularly public key infrastructure (PKI).gridBus.economist. and multi-tenancy issues. ■ In July 2011 the High Performance Computing Cloud (HPCCLoud) project was kicked-off aiming at finding out the possibilities of enhancing performance on cloud environments while running the scientific applications . the environmental effects will be more moderate. ^ "Cloud Computing: Clash of the clouds" (http://www.[86] ■ In December 2010.economist.development of HPCCLoud Performance Analysis Toolkit which was funded by CIM-Returning Experts Programme . 7.[77] Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energy-aware scheduling and server consolidation. http://www. in the case of distributed clouds over data centers with different source of energies including renewable source of energies.thedacs. data segregation.com/channels/cloudstorage/articles/211183-rising-cloud-storage-market-opportunity-strengthens-vendors. Ken. Solutions to various cloud security issues vary. Retrieved 2011-12-02. standardisation of APIs. and improving virtual machine support and legal support. Hype. 10.cloudcomputingdefined.infoworld. Karlin. crackers posing as legitimate customers can purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes.tmcnet. ^ Lillington.com/d/cloud-computing/what-cloud-computing-really-means-031. such as Finland. management console security.irishtimes.[80] However.com/content/converged-infrastructure-0. "The Rising Cloud Storage Market Opportunity Strengthens Vendors.thectoforum. It.

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