Cloud computing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Cloud computing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a metered service over a network (typically the Internet). Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service. Also, it is a delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols, and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources.[1][2] It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet.[3] This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own computers.[4] Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet, which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps, while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. In some cases, legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology, while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data centre location; in other cases, entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX.

Cloud computing logical diagram

At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services.[5] This type of data centre environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.[6][7] Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data centres, which appear to consumers as a single point of access for their computing needs. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs), but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies.[8][9] The tremendous impact of cloud computing on business has prompted the United States federal government to look to the cloud as a means to reorganize its IT infrastructure and to decrease its IT budgets. With the advent of the top government officially mandating cloud adoption, many government agencies already have at least one or more cloud systems online.[10]

■ ■ ■ ■ 1 Comparison 2 Characteristics 3 History 4 Layers ■ 4.1 Client ■ 4.2 Application ■ 4.3 Platform ■ 4.4 Infrastructure ■ 4.5 Server ■ 5 Deployment models ■ 5.1 Public cloud ■ 5.2 Community cloud ■ 5.3 Hybrid cloud ■ 5.4 Private cloud ■ 6 Architecture ■ 6.1 The Intercloud ■ 6.2 Cloud engineering ■ 7 Issues ■ 7.1 Privacy ■ 7.2 Compliance ■ 7.3 Legal ■ 7.4 Open source ■ 7.5 Open standards ■ 7.6 Security ■ 7.7 Sustainability

the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. and financial transaction processing.[12] ■ Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing. typically bulk data processing such as census. PC. such as computation and storage.[18] ■ Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. without users having to engineer for peak loads. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked.[23] However. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. ■ Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. service-oriented architecture. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. and utility computing. as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. mobile phone).) ■ Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) ■ Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised.[24] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents.[13] ■ Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. autonomic. the free encyclopedia ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 7.[15] This is purported to lower barriers to entry. ■ Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. increased security-focused resources.[25] Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualisation.[26] . In addition. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).. police and secret intelligence services.[22] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet.[16] ■ Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: ■ Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. or control over. History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet.8 Abuse 8 Research 9 See also 10 References 11 External links Page 2 of 9 Comparison Cloud computing shares characteristics with: ■ Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management. electricity. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data. etc. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks.g. as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example) ■ Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources.[11] ■ Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: ■ Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control. self-service basis near real-time.Cloud computing . industry and consumer statistics. enterprise resource planning."[14] ■ Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination.[16] ■ Device and location independence[17] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.Wikipedia.[20][21] ■ Performance is monitored.[16] ■ Security could improve due to centralization of data." ■ Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organisations for critical applications. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. and the lack of security for stored kernels. etc.[19] ■ Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. users can connect from anywhere. ■ Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. who no longer have need for expertise in.. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. Details are abstracted from end-users. with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model). such as electricity.

resulting to a real-time cloud environment. began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost.[34][35][36] Application See also: Category:Cloud applications Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. Platform See also: Category:Cloud platforms . This environment is characterized by horizontal scalability. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book. cloud architecture addresses many technical details that are environment specific. illusion of infinite supply)." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision. storage. However. Examples include some computers (example: Chromebooks). who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers.[18][29] In early 2008. they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively. Cloud applications have the ability to scale out and in.[30] In the same year. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. Cloud applications have a pricing model that is based on different compute and storage usage.[31] By mid-2008. and community forms. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. In early 2008. A cloud application is software provided as a service. communication and management capabilities. rapid provisioning.. Eucalyptus became the first open-source. There is no need to stop the running application or redeploy it in order to modify or change the information in this file [38]. SOA applications are not necessary cloud applications. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. provided as a utility. OpenNebula. like most computer networks. those who use IT services and those who sell them"[32] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. the definition of these tasks. government. While SOA is a business model that addresses the business process management. Client See also: Category:Cloud clients A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it. and tenancy metrics [37]. and browsers. A cloud application meta-model is a SOA model that conforms to the SOA meta-model.[27] The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies.Cloud computing . the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 9 The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. SOA is an umbrella that describes any kind of service. Configuration Data is where dynamic aspects of cloud application are determined at run-time. operating systems (example: Google Chrome OS). What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity. which makes it more a technical model [37]."[33] Layers Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers. and the configuration files. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. A cloud application is a service. This makes cloud applications SOA applications. A cloud application is a SOA application that runs under a specific environment. This can be achieved by cloning tasks in to multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet the changing work demand. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit. and flexible prices. online. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project. and for the federation of clouds. The Challenge of the Computer Utility. Cloud tasks provide compute. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. ease of access. fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily.[28] After the dot-com bubble. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. and are accessible through application programmable interfaces (API). efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloudbased infrastructures. just to leave room for occasional spikes. which contain dynamic information about tasks at run-time. Cloud applications are a kind of utility computing that can scale out and in to match the workload demand. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time. which.. phones (example: Google Nexus series) and other devices. Tasks can be cloned into multiple virtual machines. private. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small.Wikipedia. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers. which is the cloud computing environment (platform). It consists of the following: a package of interrelated tasks.

the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 9 Cloud platform services. community. etc. also known as platform as a service (PaaS). or even use services provided by the cloud. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service.Cloud computing . Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model. also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS). Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. such as applications and storage. and when development teams create applications for the cloud.[40][41] Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry. Rather than purchasing servers. each must build its own cloud platform.[55][56][57] . whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. jurisdiction. build. Infrastructure See also: Category:Cloud infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services. including multi-core processors.. in which a service provider makes resources. or Cloud 9. deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue.[16] Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. data-center space or network equipment.[42] Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. they all have great potential in developing. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. [47] They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform. available to the general public over the Internet.[48] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". software. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud). and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms.[43][44][45][46] Deployment models Public cloud A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings.[49][50] Architecture Cloud architecture.[51] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. along with raw (block) storage and networking.[47] Cloud computing types Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. so only some of the benefits of cloud computing are realized. Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud. The Intercloud Main article: Intercloud The Intercloud[52] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[53][54] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based.[39] It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. compliance.[47] Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management.Wikipedia. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. Regardless of the nomenclature.).

and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. may access the data that is on the cloud.[74] Security issues have been categorised into . information. security. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework. certain legal issues arise.[72] The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. can monitor at will. thus. Issues Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control. because the service provider at any point in time. security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources. risk. Open source See also: Category:Open source cloud computing Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. standardisation. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. developing. web.Cloud computing . The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model.[69] Open standards See also: Category:Cloud standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[70]) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. platform. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. working with AT&T.[73] Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security-based services. and governance in conceiving.[67] Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing.[63] Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification. everything from trademark infringement."[59] Cloud computing poses privacy concerns basically.[65][66] Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[61][62] and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance.[68] In November 2007. that promote external management of provided services. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info. Instances such as the secret NSA program. and SOX in the United States. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services. the free encyclopedia Page 5 of 9 Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. under non-disclosure agreement. and quality engineering. performance. lawfully or unlawfully. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services.[58] While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal environment. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation.Wikipedia. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability.[71] Security Main article: Cloud computing security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity. and Verizon.[64] Providers typically make this information available on request. software. HIPAA. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits.[60] Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. private or public.

Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energy-aware scheduling and server consolidation. ^ "Kerravala.infoworld.S.htm. the free encyclopedia Page 6 of 9 sensitive data Ken. ■ In June 2011 the Telecommunications Industry Association developed a Cloud Computing White Paper. malicious insiders.economist.economist. Gartner. http://it. ^ Gruman. data-centric approaches[89] encapsulated in a five-layer TrustCloud Framework. to use of multiple cloud providers. http://www.infoworld. http://www. Retrieved 2011-12-02.htm) .[82] In 2009.irishtimes.jsp?id=707508) . "Migrating to the cloud is dependent on a converged infrastructure. "Getting clear about cloud computing" (http://www. p. 9. 7. http://www." Tech Target" (http://www.[86] ■ In December 2010. It. July 2011 . Retrieved 2009-11-03. vendors and government organisations are investing in research around the topic of cloud computing:[84][85] ■ In October 2007 the Academic Cloud Computing Initiative (ACCI) was announced as a multi-university project designed to enhance students' technical knowledge to address the challenges of cloud computing.gartner. Srikumar Venugopal (PDF). ^ "Gartner Says Cloud Computing Will Be As Influential As E-business" ( Zeus. InfoWorld. Retrieved 26 July telecommunications standards. management console security. Rajani. 2011-08-24. leading to the tackling of key cloud computing security issues such as cloud data leakages. and Reality for Delivering IT Services as Computing Utilities (http://www. and multi-tenancy issues.[81] Abuse As with privately purchased hardware. Retrieved ■ In July 2011 the High Performance Computing Cloud (HPCCLoud) project was kicked-off aiming at finding out the possibilities of enhancing performance on cloud environments while running the scientific applications . Thectoforum. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available. standardisation of APIs. particularly public key infrastructure (PKI). Yankee Group. Hype. The ^ Buyya." infoTECH. Convergedinfrastructure. Data & Analysis Centre for Software.convergedinfrastructure.tmcnet. August 24. the TrustCloud research project [87][88] was started by HP Labs Singapore to address transparency and accountability of cloud computing via detective. 2. Market-Oriented Cloud Computing: Vision. November 15. This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services. accountability. Retrieved 2011-12-02. "The Rising Cloud Storage Market Opportunity Strengthens Vendors.Cloud computing .thedacs.[77] Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. 10. ^ " . the environmental effects will be more moderate. Solutions to various cloud security issues vary." CTO Shajulin . Retrieved 2011-12-02.tmcnet.cfm?story_id=14637206) . Retrieved 2008-07-31. 5. "Cloud Computing in the Government" ( 17 July 2010-11-15. ^ "Cloud Computing: Clash of the clouds" (http://www.pdf) . and improving virtual machine support and legal support. 2009-10-15. Dr. Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering. a small compromise on energy consumption reduction could result in high carbon footprint reduction. Chee Shin Yeo.cfm?story_id=14637206. ^ Thomas J. crackers posing as legitimate customers can purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes. ^ "Baburajan. ^ Cloud Computing Defined (http://www. a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs that were infected by the The team identified the need for monitoring data life cycles and transfers in the cloud [90].com/d/cloud-computing/what-cloud-computing-really-means-031) http://www. Karlin. http://www.cloudcomputingdefined. 4. from cryptography.convergedinfrastructure. recovery. Kwasniewski.[72][75][76] Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing".com/business-services/cloud-computing-ireland/getting-clear-about-cloud-computing/. 2010" (http://www. "What cloud computing really means" (http://www. Galen (2008-04-07).[80] However. in the case of distributed clouds over data centers with different source of energies including renewable source of energies.development of HPCCLoud Performance Analysis Toolkit which was funded by CIM-Returning Experts Programme . Australia. 8. 2011" (http://it. ^ Lillington. . account control.pdf. "Converged Infrastructure. (The same holds true for "traditional" data centers.[78] Sweden and Switzerland. The Irish . to analyze the integration challenges and opportunities between cloud services and traditional[79] are trying to attract cloud computing data centers.thectoforum.under the coordination of Prof. such as Finland.gartner.jsp?id=707508.gridBus. University of Melbourne. EJ Puig. 9. Retrieved 2009-06-02.) Thus countries with favorable conditions.[91] See also ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Cloud computing comparison Cloud database Cloud storage Mobile Cloud Computing Web operating system Cloud collaboration References 1. 6. data segregation. privacy.Wikipedia. there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption.[83] Research Many cloud accountability and cross-national data transfers in transnational clouds. bug exploitation. http://www.

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