Cloud computing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 1 of 9

Cloud computing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a metered service over a network (typically the Internet). Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service. Also, it is a delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols, and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources.[1][2] It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet.[3] This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own computers.[4] Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet, which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps, while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. In some cases, legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology, while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data centre location; in other cases, entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX.

Cloud computing logical diagram

At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services.[5] This type of data centre environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.[6][7] Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data centres, which appear to consumers as a single point of access for their computing needs. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs), but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies.[8][9] The tremendous impact of cloud computing on business has prompted the United States federal government to look to the cloud as a means to reorganize its IT infrastructure and to decrease its IT budgets. With the advent of the top government officially mandating cloud adoption, many government agencies already have at least one or more cloud systems online.[10]

Contents
■ ■ ■ ■ 1 Comparison 2 Characteristics 3 History 4 Layers ■ 4.1 Client ■ 4.2 Application ■ 4.3 Platform ■ 4.4 Infrastructure ■ 4.5 Server ■ 5 Deployment models ■ 5.1 Public cloud ■ 5.2 Community cloud ■ 5.3 Hybrid cloud ■ 5.4 Private cloud ■ 6 Architecture ■ 6.1 The Intercloud ■ 6.2 Cloud engineering ■ 7 Issues ■ 7.1 Privacy ■ 7.2 Compliance ■ 7.3 Legal ■ 7.4 Open source ■ 7.5 Open standards ■ 7.6 Security ■ 7.7 Sustainability

loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks.) ■ Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) ■ Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised.[25] Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualisation.[19] ■ Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. Details are abstracted from end-users. service-oriented architecture. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example) ■ Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources.[12] ■ Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing. typically bulk data processing such as census. as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface.[26] . increased security-focused resources. Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: ■ Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control." ■ Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organisations for critical applications.[16] ■ Device and location independence[17] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. etc. industry and consumer statistics. In addition. electricity. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network.[18] ■ Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used.. users can connect from anywhere. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. ■ Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. such as electricity..[13] ■ Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. mobile phone). ■ Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.[20][21] ■ Performance is monitored. autonomic.Wikipedia. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data.[22] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems. or control over. who no longer have need for expertise in.8 Abuse 8 Research 9 See also 10 References 11 External links Page 2 of 9 Comparison Cloud computing shares characteristics with: ■ Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management.[15] This is purported to lower barriers to entry. History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. without users having to engineer for peak loads. and financial transaction processing. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked. the free encyclopedia ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 7. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. self-service basis near real-time. enterprise resource planning. ■ Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. such as computation and storage.[16] ■ Security could improve due to centralization of data. police and secret intelligence services. PC.[11] ■ Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). and utility computing. etc.[16] ■ Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: ■ Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate."[14] ■ Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination.Cloud computing . with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model).g.[24] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. and the lack of security for stored kernels.[23] However.

when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility. A cloud application is a SOA application that runs under a specific environment. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time.[18][29] In early 2008. began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively.[34][35][36] Application See also: Category:Cloud applications Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project."[33] Layers Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers. and for the federation of clouds. which. ease of access. which is the cloud computing environment (platform).Cloud computing . SOA is an umbrella that describes any kind of service. communication and management capabilities. OpenNebula. Cloud applications are a kind of utility computing that can scale out and in to match the workload demand. A cloud application is software provided as a service. the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 9 The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s.[30] In the same year. There is no need to stop the running application or redeploy it in order to modify or change the information in this file [38]. cloud architecture addresses many technical details that are environment specific. This environment is characterized by horizontal scalability.[31] By mid-2008. the definition of these tasks. Cloud applications have a pricing model that is based on different compute and storage usage. Cloud tasks provide compute. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloudbased infrastructures. The Challenge of the Computer Utility. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers.. SOA applications are not necessary cloud applications. Cloud applications have the ability to scale out and in. Client See also: Category:Cloud clients A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. like most computer networks. operating systems (example: Google Chrome OS). Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers. fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. rapid provisioning. However. and flexible prices. Configuration Data is where dynamic aspects of cloud application are determined at run-time. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book. and are accessible through application programmable interfaces (API). phones (example: Google Nexus series) and other devices. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. provided as a utility. which contain dynamic information about tasks at run-time. and the configuration files. Examples include some computers (example: Chromebooks).. Tasks can be cloned into multiple virtual machines. A cloud application meta-model is a SOA model that conforms to the SOA meta-model. those who use IT services and those who sell them"[32] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . It consists of the following: a package of interrelated tasks. just to leave room for occasional spikes. which makes it more a technical model [37]. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. and tenancy metrics [37]. and browsers. and community forms. This can be achieved by cloning tasks in to multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet the changing work demand. online. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas.[27] The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit. Platform See also: Category:Cloud platforms . storage. resulting to a real-time cloud environment.[28] After the dot-com bubble. private." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision. A cloud application is a service. In early 2008. government. This makes cloud applications SOA applications. What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. Eucalyptus became the first open-source. While SOA is a business model that addresses the business process management.Wikipedia. illusion of infinite supply).

jurisdiction. so only some of the benefits of cloud computing are realized.[42] Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform. in which a service provider makes resources. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. build. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue.[49][50] Architecture Cloud architecture. deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms.Wikipedia. It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another. community. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. including multi-core processors. each must build its own cloud platform.[48] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept".. such as applications and storage. [47] They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. along with raw (block) storage and networking. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity.Cloud computing . also known as platform as a service (PaaS). or even use services provided by the cloud. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud).). whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. they all have great potential in developing. Regardless of the nomenclature. data-center space or network equipment. Infrastructure See also: Category:Cloud infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services. etc. the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 9 Cloud platform services. also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS).[47] Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization.[39] It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings.[16] Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. available to the general public over the Internet.[43][44][45][46] Deployment models Public cloud A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. software.[40][41] Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry. compliance.[55][56][57] .[47] Cloud computing types Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. The Intercloud Main article: Intercloud The Intercloud[52] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[53][54] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. offering the benefits of multiple deployment models.[51] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. or Cloud 9. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management. Rather than purchasing servers. and when development teams create applications for the cloud.

the free encyclopedia Page 5 of 9 Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing."[59] Cloud computing poses privacy concerns basically. information. lawfully or unlawfully.[74] Security issues have been categorised into .Wikipedia.[64] Providers typically make this information available on request. Open source See also: Category:Open source cloud computing Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations.[58] While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal environment.[65][66] Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data.[69] Open standards See also: Category:Cloud standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[70]) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. may access the data that is on the cloud. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems. risk. Instances such as the secret NSA program. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. that promote external management of provided services. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network.[71] Security Main article: Cloud computing security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity. performance. developing. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures. web. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. platform. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity.Cloud computing . private or public.[72] The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. and quality engineering. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. can monitor at will. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[61][62] and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. software.[73] Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security-based services. and SOX in the United States.[60] Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. standardisation. Issues Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control. under non-disclosure agreement. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS. and Verizon. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info. certain legal issues arise.[63] Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification. thus. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability. because the service provider at any point in time. security. everything from trademark infringement.[67] Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing. HIPAA. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development. and governance in conceiving. working with AT&T. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model.[68] In November 2007.

the TrustCloud research project [87][88] was started by HP Labs Singapore to address transparency and accountability of cloud computing via detective. to analyze the integration challenges and opportunities between cloud services and traditional U. ^ Thomas J. Solutions to various cloud security issues vary. the environmental effects will be more moderate. leading to the tackling of key cloud computing security issues such as cloud data leakages. ^ "Gartner Says Cloud Computing Will Be As Influential As E-business" (http://www. http://www. ■ In July 2011 the High Performance Computing Cloud (HPCCLoud) project was kicked-off aiming at finding out the possibilities of enhancing performance on cloud environments while running the scientific applications . 2.pdf.tmcnet. Yankee Group. University of Melbourne. (The same holds true for "traditional" data centers. the free encyclopedia Page 6 of 9 sensitive data access. ^ "Baburajan. 2010-11-15.jsp?id=707508) . 8.economist.thedacs.com/Pathto-the-Cloud/) . to use of multiple cloud providers.irishtimes. data-centric approaches[89] encapsulated in a five-layer TrustCloud Framework. Kwasniewski. Data & Analysis Centre for Software.com/channels/cloudstorage/articles/211183-rising-cloud-storage-market-opportunity-strengthens-vendors.[78] Sweden and Switzerland. Retrieved 2008-07-31.com/displaystory. ^ "Kerravala.[72][75][76] Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing". http://it.gartner. Zeus. Ken. "Migrating to the cloud is dependent on a converged infrastructure. Convergedinfrastructure. crackers posing as legitimate customers can purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes. 2009-10-15. Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energy-aware scheduling and server consolidation. bug exploitation.infoworld. http://www. Retrieved 26 July 2010.[91] See also ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Cloud computing comparison Cloud database Cloud storage Mobile Cloud Computing Web operating system Cloud collaboration References 1.gartner.convergedinfrastructure. 2011" (http://it. Rajani. ^ Cloud Computing Defined (http://www. The Irish Times.htm.htm) . Retrieved 2010-08-22. and Reality for Delivering IT Services as Computing Utilities (http://www.development of HPCCLoud Performance Analysis Toolkit which was funded by CIM-Returning Experts Programme .pdf) . Shajulin Benedict. ^ Buyya.) Thus countries with favorable conditions. It.com/content/converged-infrastructure-0) .com/business-services/cloud-computing-ireland/getting-clear-about-cloudcomputing/) . http://www.com/techs/abstract/518136) .[79] are trying to attract cloud computing data centers. http://www. there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption.com. ^ Lillington. standardisation of APIs.thectoforum.[83] Research Many universities. 2011-08-24.jsp?id=707508. 2010" (http://www. and improving virtual machine support and legal support. http://www. 9. recovery." CTO Forum. "What cloud computing really means" (http://www.[86] ■ In December 2010. Chee Shin Yeo.com/content/converged-infrastructure-0. Retrieved 2011-12-02.com/Path-to-the-Cloud/.irishtimes. Thectoforum. "Getting clear about cloud computing" (http://www. Srikumar Venugopal (PDF). Galen (2008-04-07). InfoWorld. vendors and government organisations are investing in research around the topic of cloud computing:[84][85] ■ In October 2007 the Academic Cloud Computing Initiative (ACCI) was announced as a multi-university project designed to enhance students' technical knowledge to address the challenges of cloud computing.convergedinfrastructure.Wikipedia. Gartner. "Converged Infrastructure.org/~raj/papers/hpcc2008_keynote_cloudcomputing.economist. The Economist. in the case of distributed clouds over data centers with different source of energies including renewable source of energies. Rajkumar.Cloud computing .tmcnet.org/~raj/papers/hpcc2008_keynote_cloudcomputing. Market-Oriented Cloud Computing: Vision.[77] Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. a small compromise on energy consumption reduction could result in high carbon footprint reduction.cloudcomputingdefined. 6. November 15.com/d/cloud-computing/what-cloud-computing-really-means-031. Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering. p. a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs that were infected by the malware.com/channels/cloudstorage/articles/211183-rising-cloud-storage-market-opportunity-strengthens-vendors. cloud accountability and cross-national data transfers in transnational clouds. ^ Gruman.com. privacy.com/business-services/cloud-computing-ireland/getting-clear-about-cloud-computing/.thectoforum.cfm?story_id=14637206. data segregation.gridBus. This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services.tmcnet.com/it/page." Tech Target" (http://www. August 24. The team identified the need for monitoring data life cycles and transfers in the cloud [90]. 10.com/displaystory.S. particularly public key infrastructure (PKI). Dr. 4. 7.infoworld.cfm?story_id=14637206) . ^ "Oestreich. Australia.[80] However.[82] In 2009. "Cloud Computing in the Government" (http://www.com. http://www." infoTECH.gridBus. management console security. Retrieved 2011-12-02. Retrieved 2009-11-03. http://www.com/) 17 July 2010. from cryptography. accountability. "The Rising Cloud Storage Market Opportunity Strengthens Vendors. and multi-tenancy issues.com/d/cloud-computing/what-cloud-computing-really-means-031) . such as Finland.[81] Abuse As with privately purchased hardware. 9.com. 5. July 2011 . account control. Retrieved 2009-06-02. ^ "Cloud Computing: Clash of the clouds" (http://www. EJ Puig. 3. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available. malicious insiders.com/it/page. Retrieved 2011-12-02. telecommunications standards.under the coordination of Prof. Karlin. ■ In June 2011 the Telecommunications Industry Association developed a Cloud Computing White Paper. Hype.

http://news. Retrieved 2010-08-22. (2009) 31. 15. 13. the free encyclopedia Page 7 of 9 11.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.html) . Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ "EMC buys Pi and forms a cloud computing group" (http://searchstorage.co.nytimes.org/citation.idc.com/news/article/0. E.businessweek.stargroup.com/id/156911. http://searchstorage. Menychtas.html. Montero. 12. Datacenterknowledge.aspx?content=pstn.co.de/volltexte/1000023476. 2008-06-03.1902.html.unikarlsruhe.com/ie/?p=190) .thestandard. Retrieved 2010-08-22.uk/2009/12/02/intel_scc/. Rachael (2008-08-04). 2008-06-22.switch. Caceres.cryptoclarity.com.nist.cloudave. No. Boniface. Voith. Ebizq. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 34. Retrieved 200909-11. TechPluto. ^ "Economies of Cloud Scale Infrastructure" (http://www. http://mirror. I.pdf) .uwaterloo. Amy Schurr. November 2010 32.com/magazine/content/06_46/b4009001. http://news.com/platform/workflow.com. E. E.uk.sun. "Cloud Computing: Small Companies Take Flight" (http://www. ^ Gartner Says Worldwide IT Spending On Pace to Surpass Trillion in 2008 (http://www. Gartner. Businessweek.pdf) . Nagin. Retrieved 2010-08-22. citing the Gartner report.html) .com/aws/2008/06/the-forthcoming. 41.txt. ^ "Distributed Application Architecture" (http://java.cfm? id=1496091. KIT Software Quality Departement.com/archives/2008/Mar/25/whats_in_a_name_utility_vs_cloud_vs_grid.html) .techtarget.org/vm/TP2. Cucinotta.guardian. 1993 meeting report from the IP over ATM working group of the IETF" (http://mirror.pdf.txt) . Vol 15. Network World. ^ a b Mohammad Hamdaqa. No. 2008-07-08. http://www. ^ "Sun CTO: Cloud computing is like the mainframe" (http://itknowledgeexchange. ^ "An example of a 'Cloud Platform' for building applications" (http://www.aspx?content=pstn. International Conference on Real-Time and Embedded Systems (RTES 2010). D.com/writing/intro2tapi/default. IBM Journal of Research and Development. Wolfsthal. 18.5466.com/article/0.informationweek. Vol. Retrieved 2009-09-11. 26. Retrieved 2010-0822.acm.com. http://csrc.uk/technology/2008/apr/17/google. R.com/CryptoClarityLLC/Welcome/Entries/2009/7/23_Encrypted_Storage_and_Key_Management_for_the_cloud.com/news/software/web_services/showArticle. 37. Retrieved 13 August 2011. J. ^ King. Retrieved 2010-08-22.com/developer/Books/jdbc/ch07. Llorente.pdf. Galan.com/2008/06/22/what-makes-a-good-cloud-computer/) . 45.com/id/156911) . 25. 14. Retrieved 13 May 2011. Oberle. Infoworld.com. Aws.com/news/software/web_services/showArticle.net/blogs/saasweek/2008/03/distinguishing_cloud_computing/.1496100&coll=&dl=ACM&CFID=21518680&CFTOKEN=18800807) .techtarget.cfm? id=1496091. ^ "July.com/2008/10/28/technology/28soft. Searchstorage.businessweek.com/cloud-computing/2010/06/17/amazons-early-efforts-at-cloud-computing-partly-accidental/) .com/writing/intro2tapi/default. http://blogs. Retrieved 2010-08-22. http://portal.uni-karlsruhe. 27.de/volltexte/1000023476) . 30. CLOSER 2011: 98-103 38.html) .co. Ryan.html) .00.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 2008-02-21. 24.sid5_gci1301852. Retrieved 24 July 2011. Levy. ^ "Defining and Measuring Cloud Elasticity" (http://digbib.com/technology/content/aug2008/tc2008083_619516.com/ie/?p=190. ^ "Writing & Speaking" (http://www. "Cloud computing security forecast: Clear skies" (http://news.289142.acm.00. Retrieved 2010-08-22.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145. "The RESERVOIR Model and Architecture for Open Federated Cloud Computing". CNET News.techtarget.com/8301-1009_3-10150569-83. Retrieved 2010-08-22. Singapore.html) . http://www. Theregister. Galis.jhtml?articleID=222200331.00.net/blogs/saasweek/2008/03/distinguishing_cloud_computing/) .typepad. ^ http://www.com. "Intel puts cloud on single megachip" (http://www. ^ Mills. Rochwerger. CloudAve.1496100&coll=&dl=ACM&CFID=21518680&CFTOKEN=18800807. ^ D.uk/technology/2008/apr/17/google.informationweek.1902.com/d/cloud-computing/cisco-unveils-cloudcomputing-platform-service-providers-113) . ^ a b c "The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing" (http://csrc.infoworld.nist. http://www. Retrieved 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2010-09-14. 2008-08-18. 4 (October 2011). Sun Microsystem. "Cloud Computing Confusion Leads to Opportunity".com/article/0.ch/ftp/doc/ietf/ipatm/atm-minutes-93jul. “A Real-time Service Oriented Infrastructure”. 16. M.networkworld. Kousiouris. Cryptoclarity. 53.com. ^ Regulation of the Cloud in India (http://ssrn. Oliveros. ^ a b c d "Defining "Cloud Services" and "Cloud Computing"" (http://blogs. T.eccentex. W.sellsbrothers. 46.com/link/recession-is-good-for-cloud-computing-microsoft-agrees.cnet.globus. 2008 (2008-09-02). http://aws.1/doc/cloud.com/it/page. "The Cloud's Chrome Lining" (http://www.html. ^ Danielson. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Claburn.com/link/recession-is-good-for-cloud-computing-microsoft-agrees) .com/archives/2008/Mar/25/whats_in_a_name_utility_vs_cloud_vs_grid.com.cnet. G.ca/~mhamdaqa/publications/A%20REFERENCEMODELFORDEVELOPINGCLOUD%20APPLICATIONS. 2008-09-23.newsweek.htm) .html) . "Microsoft Plans 'Cloud' Operating System" (http://www.jhtml? articleID=222200331) .thestandard.eccentex. Gigaom.ubka.com.co.com/developer/Books/jdbc/ch07. Emmerich. ^ "It's probable that you've misunderstood 'Cloud Computing' until now" (http://portal. http://www.com/newsletters/itlead/2008/070708itlead1. http://www.html. A.newsweek.businessweek.html.com/830113953_3-9977049-80. Dan (2008-06-25). Cloud Slam 2011. 35. http://digbib. http://www. 43. "Google angles for business users with 'platform as a service'" (http://www. 23. ^ Markoff. Breitgand.sun. ^ "Recession Is Good For Cloud Computing – Microsoft Agrees" (http://www. Eccentex.289142. 33.html. 17. Newsweek.techtarget. ^ "What Makes a Cloud Computer?" (http://gigaom.youtube.com/technology/content/aug2008/tc2008083_619516.nytimes. InformationWeek.htm) . ^ [1] (http://itknowledgeexchange. Retrieved 2010-08-22. J. 2009-03-11. http://www.Wikipedia. Nytimes.com/d/cloud-computing/cisco-unveils-cloud-computing-platform-serviceproviders-113.html.theregister. http://java.cnet. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 22. ^ Keep an eye on cloud computing (http://www.cloudave.com/news/article/0. Berger. S. "Cisco unveils cloud computing platform for service providers" (http://www.infoworld.jsp?id=742913) . Retrieved 2010-08-22.idc. ^ Myslewski.switch.com/CryptoClarityLLC/Welcome/Entries/2009/7/23_Encrypted_Storage_and_Key_Management_for_the_cloud. http://www. 20.com/8301-13953_3-9977049-80.com.com/mainframe-blog/sun-cto-cloud-computing-is-like-themainframe/) .ebizq. Krissi (2008-03-26). 47.techtarget.co.com.cryptoclarity. Falvey & Merchant.M. http://www.software. Elmroth.uk/2009/12/02/intel_scc/) .datacenterknowledge. 42. Journal of Internet Law.techtarget. 2009-07-30. Cloud vs Grid" (http://www. ^ "The Internet Cloud" (http://www. T.software) . Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ "Encrypted Storage and Key Management for the cloud" (http://www.com/aws/2008/06/the-forthcoming. 21.theregister. Retrieved 201008-22.ch/ftp/doc/ietf/ipatm/atm-minutes-93jul. "Google Reveals Nexus One 'Super Phone'" (http://www.html) . Retrieved 2010-08-22. 28.cnet. "Distinguishing Cloud Computing from Utility Computing" (http://www. ^ Jack Schofield (2008-04-17).youtube. CNET News.com.html) 44. http://www. F.pdf 39. http://www. ^ Nimbus Cloud Guide (http://workspace. http://www. National Institute of Science and Technology. Itknowledgeexchange. ^ B. Thomas.sid5_gci1301852. A.sellsbrothers. ^ by Brian BraikerSeptember 02. Sellsbrothers. 36.datacenterknowledge.typepad. E. IDC.com/abstract=1941494) . K. ^ "The Emerging Cloud Service Architecture" (http://aws.Cloud computing . Elinor (2009-01-27). http://www. Retrieved 2010-08-22. K. London: Guardian. Ladan Tahvildari: A Reference Model for Developing Cloud Applications. Thestandard. ^ a b Jeff Bezos' Risky Bet (http://www. Tassos Livogiannis. M. Y.com/watch?v=nfDsY3f4nVI) . Caceres. John (2008-10-27). . "The new geek chic: Data centers" (http://news. Jim (2009-05-12).html) . http://www. 19.htm. Kyriazis. 29.gartner. ^ Farber. Retrieved 2010-0822. Retrieved 2011-08-20.com/8301-1009_3-10150569-83. Rik (2009-12-02). http://gigaom.html.com/mainframe-blog/sun-cto-cloud-computing-is-like-themainframe/. Retrieved 2010-08-22.com/2008/06/22/what-makes-a-good-cloud-computer/.org/citation.html) .com/2008/10/28/technology/28soft. BenYehuda.typepad.guardian.S. ^ Duffy.net.html. 4.com. http://www.ubka. ^ "What's In A Name? Utility vs.com/platform/workflow.techtarget. Elmroth. 40.com/watch? v=nfDsY3f4nVI.5466. http://itknowledgeexchange.htm) .ebizq.00.

amazonwebservices.com/news/services/business/showArticle.com/news/2008/072808-open-source-cloud-computing. ^ "Cloud Certification From Compliance Mandate to Competitive Differentiator" (http://www. ^ "There's No Such Thing As A Private Cloud" (http://www..blogspot. http://www.net.readwriteweb.com/news/2009/042709-burning-security-cloud-computing. A. ^ "Are security issues delaying adoption of cloud computing?" (http://www. Retrieved 2010-08-22. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ "Assessing Cloud Computing Agreements and Controls" (http://wistechnology. Samj. Retrieved 2010-08-22. John. A.com/blog/eucalyptus-completes-amazon-web-services-specs-with-latest-release. 2010.com/news/2011-05-13/sony-network-said-tohave-been-invaded-by-hackers-using-amazon-com-server. ^ http://www. ^ "SP360: Service Provider: From India to Intercloud" (http://blogs. ^ "Eucalyptus Completes Amazon Web Services Specs with Latest Release" (http://ostatic.net/directories/research-clouds.org/10. Pavel (2011-05-14). Energy-Efficient Cloud Computing (http://www.1145/1839676.htm.greenbiz.. http://searchcompliance. Joseph. Retrieved 2011-08-20.youtube. Monique (2009-05-24). doi:10.fr/~derbel/cgc/papers/surveyenergycloud. 49.html) . http://www. http://www. .org/10.com. 51.com/news/2008/072808-open-source-cloud-computing..com/blog/eucalyptus-completes-amazon-web-services-specs-with-latestrelease) .networkworld. 67. ^ Alpeyev. Lee. Bloomberg.sid201_gci1374629.cisco. Dimitrios. 2010).php) 71.org/magazines/2011/1/103200-cloud-computing-privacy-concerns-on-our-doorstep/fulltext.com/news/article/0.1145%2F1721654. ^ "Open source fuels growth of cloud computing.informationweek.1839683 (http://dx.TWLINKS29/TPStory/Business. ^ "Security of virtualization. R. Retrieved 4 August 2010.html) . 72. Thomas Helbing.cisco. http://www.com/sogrady/2009/04/15/open-source-licensing-in-a-networked-age/.. Communications of the ACM 53 (11). Ludvigson. Patterson. ^ Farrahi Moghaddam. "A view of cloud computing.kk. Ostatic. ".html.networkworld.com/watch?v=wYiFdnZAlNQ.TWLINKS29/TPStory/Business) . 66. cloud computing divides IT and security pros" (http://www.jhtml?articleID=209904474. to become PCI Compliant" (http://www. "Addressing cloud computing security issues" (http://www. Amazon Web Services.com/servlet/story/LAC. but analysts not satisfied" (http://searchcloudcomputing. D.techtarget. ^ "Google Apps and Government" (http://googleenterprise.20071129. Cloudbook.ieee.future.com/servlet/story/LAC. Fox. doi:10. Readwriteweb.sciencedirect. "Security in the cloud".00. 2009-09-15.uk/2011/05/14/playstation_network_attack_from_amazon/ 84. Rackspace. http://www. ^ Bernstein. 56.com/8301-19413_3-10428065-240.future. Retrieved 4 August 2010. http://cacm. http://ostatic.com/news/washington/2006-05-10-nsa_x. (http://www. software-as-a-service" (http://www.thomashelbing.amazonwebservices. 58. http://www2.networkworld. Retrieved 2010-08-22.html) .com.com/connect/entry. Low Carbon Virtual Private Clouds (http://ieeexplore.gogrid. et al.12. http://www. Communication of the ACM 53 (4): 50–58.com/cloud-computing/blog/archives/2009/01/theres_no_such. "Cloud computing's green paradox" (http://news. Retrieved 2010-08-22.1016%2Fj. 54. ^ Berl.html.cloudbook. 2009-06-22. CNET News. doi:10. pp. USATODAY. ^ Armbrust. Toronto: Theglobeandmail.sid195_gci1377298.com/2009/09/google-apps-and-government. ^ Haff.net/2009/06/intercloud-is-global-cloud-of-clouds. Retrieved 2010-08-22. Network World.com/news/article/0.com/news/2009/042709-burning-security-cloud-computing. Steve.20071129. A.htm) . 79.doi. 52.blogspot.1721672) .2009.". ^ "Feature Guide: Amazon EC2 Availability Zones" (http://developer.2009.2009.amazonwebservices.2009. Retrieved 2010-08-22.informationweek. David.Cloud computing . SearchCloudComputing. "Private Clouds Take Shape" (http://www. 77.thomashelbing.com/connect/entry. ^ "Vint Cerf: Despite Its Age. Katz.html) .com/science/article/pii/S0167739X10002554) . Official Google Enterprise Blog.1109/ICIW. ^ "Cloud Computing Privacy Concerns on Our Doorstep" (http://cacm.lifl. Retrieved 2010-08-22.jspa? externalID=1632&categoryID=100..html) . Gordon (2009-01-27). 2009-11-17.1109%2FICIW. 55. an Online Merchant.doi. Dr.00. 82. Erik.und ITRecht" (http://www. Network World. 68. 69. 59.com/news/article/0. http://www.289142.com/sp/comments/from_india_to_intercloud/) .techtarget. http://searchcloudcomputing.readwriteweb. ^ a b Zissis.usatoday.bloomberg. 2009-03-14. ^ "AGPL: Open Source Licensing in a Networked Age" (http://redmonk. http://www. ^ "Cloud Hosting is Secure for Take-off: Mosso Enables The Spreadsheet Store. Lekkas (2010).org/magazines/2011/1/103200-cloud-computing-privacy-concerns-on-ourdoorstep/fulltext) . ^ "FISMA compliance for federal cloud computing on the horizon in 2010" (http://searchcompliance. ^ James Urquhart (January 7. IEEE Computer Society. Retrieved 2010-03-01" (http://www.com/news/washington/2006-05-10-nsa_x.html) .youtube.html.2010. 2010-02-22.net/2009/06/intercloud-is-global-cloud-of-clouds.com/archives/vint_cerf_despite_its_age_the. 60.amazonwebservices.php?mtcCampaign=2765. 73. SearchCompliance. ^ Canada (2007-11-29).006 (http://dx.cisco...rackspace.sid201_gci1374629..html. ^ Swiss Carbon-Neutral Servers Hit the Cloud.org.php? mtcCampaign=2765) .co. http://wistechnology.computer.html.com. Sankar. Future Generation Computer Systems.html) . Krishna. 83.theglobeandmail. Retrieved 2010-08-22.html.networkworld. 50.cnet. the free encyclopedia Page 8 of 9 48.there is some significant evidence that the cloud is encouraging more compute consumption" 78. IEEE Cloud 2011.com/company/press-releases/gogrid-moves-api-specification-to-creativecommons. Retrieved 2010-08-22. CNET News. ^ "Cloud Net Directory.net/directories/research-clouds) . 53. Part 1: Cloud Architectures" (http://developer.. InformationWeek.com Server Said to Have Been Used in Sony Attack" (http://www. Kk. 61. http://googleenterprise.com. Zaharia.acm.com/8301-19413_3-10428065-240. (2010).pdf) .com/en/how-new-eu-rules-data-export-affect-companies-and-outside-eu) . R. Retrieved 2010-08-22. A.com.org/10. ^ "Building GrepTheWeb in the Cloud. G.sid195_gci1377298. ^ "How the New EU Rules on Data Export Affect Companies in and Outside the EU | Dr.php) .55 (http://dx. Retrieved 2011-09-20.cnet.org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.1109/ICIW.net. 2010.html.1016/j. 63. Cloudcor. Diamond.1145%2F1839676.informationweek. Retrieved 2010-08-22.com/news/2010/022210-virtualization-cloud-security-debate. Retrieved 2010-08-22.bloomberg.org/thetechnium/archives/2007/11/a_cloudbook_for.informationweek. Retrieved 2010-08-22. The Computer Journal.doi.. 57.rackspace. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 2010-06-30. doi:10. The Internet is Still Filled with Problems" (http://www.html) . Developer. Redmonk.org/10.1839683) . Online.com/news/article/0.com/2009/09/google-apps-and-government. InformationWeek.com/science/article/pii/S0167739X10002554. Morrow.com/sp/comments/from_india_to_intercloud/.006) .php. (http://www. 76.com/news/2011-05-13/sony-network-said-to-have-been-invaded -by-hackers-using-amazon-com-server.Wikipedia. http://www.com/watch?v=wYiFdnZAlNQ) .com/news/2010/022210-virtualization-cloud-securitydebate. http://developer. 81.289142.cloudbook. et al.com/news/services/business/showArticle. http://www. http://developer. http://news.usatoday. 74.. 328–336.com/) . Rabkin.com. Griffith. Retrieved 2010-08-22. Retrieved 2010-08-22.com/cloud/blog/2009/03/05/cloud-hosting-is-secure-for-take-off-mosso-enables-the-spreadsheet-store-an-online-merchant-tobecome-pci-compliant/) . http://redmonk.kk.1109/ICIW.com/archives/vint_cerf_despite_its_age_the.networkworld. ^ GoGrid Moves API Specification to Creative Commons (http://www. G. http://samj. "Just don't call them private clouds" (http://news. ^ "Kevin Kelly: A Cloudbook for the Cloud" (http://www. http://blogs. http://www. Andreas. 70.html) .00.com/8301-13556_3-10150841-61.55) .com/articles/6954/.com/sogrady/2009/04/15/open-source-licensing-in-a-networked-age/) .org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.com/news/2010/06/30/swiss-carbon-neutral-servers-hit-cloud) .2010.289142.cnet.jspa?externalID=1347&categoryID=112) .sciencedirect. Retrieved 2010-08-22.com. 80. ^ Anthens.techtarget. Network World.1721672 (http://dx.networkworld.com/cloud-computing/blog/archives/2009/01/theres_no_such.com.com/en/how-new-eu-rules-data-export-affect-companies-and-outside-eu.org/search/srchabstract. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ "Intercloud is a global cloud of clouds" (http://samj. ^ "Amazon gets SAS 70 Type II audit stamp. 200904-15. 62. http://news. http://www. Leslie (2006-05-11). ^ Foley.html.jspa?externalID=1347&categoryID=112.com/articles/6954/) .org/thetechnium/archives/2007/11/a_cloudbook_for.fincloud.amazonwebservices. Fereydoun.00. ^ Finland – First Choice for Siting Your Cloud Computing Data Center.com/cloud/blog/2009/03/05/cloud-hosting-is-secure-for-take-off-mosso-enables-thespreadsheet-store-an-online-merchant-to-become-pci-compliant/.doi. Retrieved 2010-08-22.html. 65.acm. Blogs.. ^ Cauley.computer.55. Blueprint for the Intercloud – Protocols and Formats for Cloud Computing Interoperability (http://www2.55) . Thomas Helbing – Kanzlei für Datenschutz-. M. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 75.html.html) .com/connect/entry. Retrieved 2010-08-22.cnet. WTN News.theglobeandmail.1145/1721654.jhtml?articleID=209904474) .techtarget. http://www. Retrieved 2010-08-22.com/connect/entry.html) . 64. "Amazon.289142.com.html. Retrieved March 12.freehostingcloud. http://www.12. Konwinski.jspa? externalID=1632&categoryID=100) . "NSA has massive database of Americans' phone calls" (http://www.theregister. http://www.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6008718) . "Head in the clouds? Welcome to the future" (http://www.com/8301-13556_3-10150841-61.

Trust and Security in Cloud Computing" (http://www. See Terms of use for details.org/market_intelligence/publication_download. Lee. DataCenterKnowledge. 86. Bu Sung (2011).. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.org/w/index.pdf.jsp?cntn_id=114686) . Miranda. Ryan K.org/en/2011/11/18/infographic-the-future-of-the-cloud/) ■ Larry Edison. "Flogger: A File-centric Logger for Monitoring File Access and Transfers within Cloud Computing Environments" (http://www. Bu Sung (2011). External links ■ The NIST Definition of a Cloud (http://csrc.cfm?file=TIA_Cloud_Computing_White_Paper) . IEEE Computer Society.org/market_intelligence/publication_download. 89.hpl.jsp?cntn_id=114686.hp. Bu Sung (2011).hp.cfm?file=TIA_Cloud_Computing_White_Paper.tiaonline.hp. L. Lee. Ryan K.wikipedia. Security and Privacy of Computing and Communications (TrustCom-11).cloudtweaks.Accountability. ^ Ko.com/techreports/2011/HPL-2011-38.nsf.com/people/ryan_ko/RKo-DSR2011-Data_Centric_Logging.pdf) . http://www. Lee.. "IBM. Pearson.hpl. "TrustCloud: A Framework for Accountability and Trust in Cloud Computing" (http://www.S. Tiaonline.hpl.com/2011/12/infographic-value-of-cloud-computing-services-through-theyears/) ■ Cloud Computing Daily News (http://www. Retrieved 2011-08-20.pdf) .com/techreports/2011/HPL-2011-38. http://www.hostingtecnews. Google Team on an Enterprise Cloud" (http://www. Jagadpramana.pdf.pdf. a non-profit organization.hp. Proceedings of the 1st Defence.nist. the free encyclopedia Page 9 of 9 85. http://www. ^ Ko. ^ Ko.Department of Commerce ■ The Future of Cloud Computing (http://blog. Kirchberg. Mowbray.php?title=Cloud_computing&oldid=471084514" Categories: Cloud computing Cloud platforms Free software for cloud computing ■ This page was last modified on 13 January 2012 at 04:22. Jagadpramana. additional terms may apply.com/techreports/2011/HPL-2011-119.. ^ Ko.Wikipedia. USA. http://www. 3-4 August 2011. 91. Siani.hpl. L. Ryan K.datacenterknowledge. July 7-8.hpl. Markus. Jagadpramana. Markus.hp. Retrieved 2010-08-22.Symposium on Cyber Terrorism.com/techreports/2011/HPL-2011-119. Retrieved 2011-12-02.hp. 87.com. Liang. ^ "– National Science Foundation (NSF) News – National Science Foundation Awards Millions to Fourteen Universities for Cloud Computing Research – US National Science Foun" (http://www.com/watch?v=0FacYAI6DY0) ■ Cloud Computing Through The Years (http://www. Peter.pdf) .tiaonline. Peter. Nsf. "Flogger: A File-centric Logger for Monitoring File Access and Transfers within Cloud Computing Environments" (http://www.gov/news/news_summ.nsf. Lee. http://www. ^ "Publication Download" (http://www. Kirchberg.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145. Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Conference on Trust. http://www. Singapore. ^ Rich Miller (2008-05-02). 88.com/techreports/2011/HPL-2011-119. Qianhui. Peter. Inc. ■ Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Ryan K. L.youtube.gov/news/news_summ. Security and Privacy of Computing and Communications (TrustCom-11). Ko.pdf) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology at the U. "From System-Centric Logging to Data-Centric Logging .com/archives/2008/05/02/ibm-google-team-on-an-enterprise-cloud/.pdf.Cloud computing . Washington DC.hpl. . http://www. 2011. Science and Research Conference 2011 . Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Cloud Forum for Practitioners (IEEE ICFP 2011).com/category/topic/cloud-computing/) Retrieved from "http://en.hp. unimpressed by the marketing "fad" of "cloud computing" (http://www. 90.. CEO of Oracle.hpl. Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Conference on Trust.com/archives/2008/05/02/ibm-google-team-on-anenterprise-cloud/) .hp.eyeos.org. Bu Sung (2011).com/people/ryan_ko/RKo-DSR2011Data_Centric_Logging.pdf) .com/techreports/2011/HPL-2011-119.gov.hpl.datacenterknowledge. L.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful