Sie sind auf Seite 1von 34

1.

INTRODUCTION
Cloud computing is a better way to run your business. Instead of running your apps yourself, they run on a shared data center. Cloud computing is the next natural step in the evolution of on-demand information technology services and products. To a large extent cloud computing will be based on virtualized resources. The idea of cloud computing is based on a very fundamental principal of reusability of IT capabilities. The difference that cloud computing brings compared to traditional concepts of grid computing, distributed computing, utility computing, or autonomic computing is to broaden horizons across organizational boundaries. According to the IEEE Computer Society Cloud Computing is: "A paradigm in which information is permanently stored in servers on the Internet and cached temporarily on clients that include desktops, Entertainment centers , table computers, notebooks, wall computers, handhelds, etc." In theory, cloud computing promises availability of all required hardware, software, platform, applications, infrastructure and storage with an ownership of just an internet connection. People can access the information that they need from any device with an Internet connection including mobile and handheld phones rather than being chained to the desktop. It also means lower costs, since there is no need to install software or hardware. Imagine yourself in the world where the users of the computer of todays internet world dont have to run, install or store their application or data on their own computers, imagine the world where every piece of your information or data would reside on the Cloud (Internet).

As a metaphor for the Internet, "the cloud" is a familiar, but when combined with "computing", the meaning gets bigger and fuzzier. Some analysts and vendors define cloud computing narrowly as an updated version of utility computing: basically virtual servers available over the Internet. Others go very broad, arguing anything you consume outside the firewall is "in the cloud", including conventional outsourcing. Cloud computing comes into focus only when you think about what we always need a way to increase capacity or add capabilities on the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel, or licensing new software. Cloud computing encompasses any subscription-based or pay-per-use service that, in real time over the Internet, extends ICT's existing capabilities. Cloud computing used to posting and sharing photos on orkut, instant messaging with friends maintaining and upgrading business technology. The major cloud service providers include Microsoft, Salesforce, HP, IBM, Amazon and Google

2. HISTORY
The Cloud is a term with a long history in telephony, which has in the past decade, been adopted as a metaphor for internet based services, with a common depiction in network diagrams as a cloud outline. The underlying concept dates back to 1960 when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility"; indeed it shares characteristics with service bureaus which date back to the 1960s. The term cloud had already come into commercial use in the early 1990s to refer to large ATM networks. By the turn of the 21st century, the term "cloud computing" had started to appear, although most of the focus at this time was on Software as a service (SaaS). In 1999, Salesforce.com was established by Marc Benioff, Parker Harris, and his fellows. They applied many technologies of consumer web sites like Google and Yahoo! to business applications. They also provided the concept of "On demand" and "SaaS" with their real business and successful customers. The key for SaaS is being customizable by customer alone or with a small amount of help. Flexibility and speed for application development have been drastically welcomed and accepted by business users. IBM extended these concepts in 2001, as detailed in the Autonomic Computing Manifesto -- which described advanced automation techniques such as self-monitoring, self-healing, self-configuring, and self-optimizing in the management of complex IT systems with heterogeneous storage, servers, applications, networks, security mechanisms, and other system elements that can be virtualized across an enterprise. Amazon.com played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers after the dot-com bubble and, having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements, providing access to their systems by way of Amazon Web Services in 2005 on a utility computing basis. 2007 saw increased activity, with Google, IBM, and a number of universities embarking on a large scale cloud computing research project, around the time the term started

gaining popularity in the mainstream press. It was a hot topic by mid-2008 and numerous cloud computing events had been scheduled. In August 2008, Gartner Research observed that "organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" and that the "projected shift to cloud computing will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and in significant reductions in other areas."

3. CONCEPT
Cloud computing is Internet ("cloud") based development and use of computer technology ("computing"). It is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. A powerful underlying and enabling concept is computing through service-oriented architectures (SOA) - delivery of an integrated and orchestrated suite of functions to an end-user through composition of both loosely and tightly coupled functions, or services often network based. Related concepts are component-based system engineering, orchestration of different services through workflows, and virtualization. The concept incorporates infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and software as a service (SaaS) as well as Web 2.0 and other recent technology trends which have the common theme of reliance on the Internet for satisfying the computing needs of the users. Examples of SaaS vendors include Salesforce.com and Google Apps which provide common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the servers. The term cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on how the Internet is depicted in computer network diagrams, and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals.

Fig 3.1: Cloud Computing Overview 3.1 Cyber infrastructure: Cyber infrastructure makes applications dramatically easier to develop and deploy, thus expanding the feasible scope of applications possible within budget and organizational constraints, and shifting the scientists and engineers effort away from information technology development and concentrating it on scientific and engineering research. Cyber infrastructure also increases efficiency, quality, and reliability by capturing commonalities among application needs, and facilitates the efficient sharing of equipment and services. Today, almost any business or major activity uses, or relies in some form, on IT and IT services. These services need to be enabling and appliance-like, and there must be an economy of- scale for the total-cost-of-ownership to be better than it would be without cyber infrastructure. Technology needs to improve end-user productivity and reduce Technology-driven overhead.

3.2 Service-Oriented Architecture: SOA is not a new concept, although it again has been receiving considerable attention in recent years [e.g., Bel08, IBM08a]. Examples of some of the first network-based serviceoriented architectures are remote procedure calls (RPC), DCOM and Object Request Brokers (ORBs) based on the CORBA specifications. A more recent example is so called Grid Computing architectures and solutions. In an SOA environment end-users request an IT service (or an integrated collection of such services) at the desired functional, quality and capacity level, and receive the response at the time requested or at a specified later time. Service discovery, brokering, and reliability are important .Goal of the SOA is that creating an architecture in which services are able to communicate using http protocol it is expected that in the next 10 years, service-based solutions will be a major vehicle for delivery of information and other IT assisted functions at both individual and organizational levels. E.g: Software applications, Web-based services, Personal and Business desktop computing. 3.3 Comparison: Cloud computing is often confused with grid computing ("a form of distributed computing whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely-coupled computers, acting in concert to perform very large tasks"), utility computing (the "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility such as electricity") and autonomic computing ("computer systems capable of self-management"). Indeed many cloud computing deployments as of 2009 depend on grids, have autonomic characteristics and bill like utilities but cloud computing can be seen as a natural next step from the grid-utility model. Some successful cloud architectures have little or no centralized infrastructure or billing systems whatsoever, including peer-to-peer networks like Bit Torrent and Skype and volunteer computing.

Cloud computing derives characteristics as follows: 1. Autonomic computing: "Computer systems capable of self-management". 2. Clientserver model: Clientserver computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). 3. Grid computing: "A form of distributed computing and parallel computing, whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks" 4. Mainframe computer: Powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and financial transaction processing. 5. Utility computing: The "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity"; 6. Peer-to-peer: A distributed architecture without the need for central coordination, with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional clientserver model). 3.4 Implementation: The majority of cloud computing infrastructure as of 2009 consists of reliable services delivered through data centers and built on servers with different levels of virtualization technologies. The services are accessible anywhere that has access to networking infrastructure. The Cloud appears as a single point of access for all the computing needs of consumers. Commercial offerings need to meet the quality of service requirements of customers and typically offer service level agreements. Open standards are critical to the growth of cloud computing and open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations.

3.5 Characteristics: As customers generally do not own the infrastructure, they merely access or rent, they can avoid capital expenditure and consume resources as a service, paying instead for what they use. Many cloud-computing offerings have adopted the utility computing model, which is analogous to how traditional utilities like electricity are consumed, while others are billed on a subscription basis. Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power among multiple tenants can improve utilization rates, as servers are not left idle, which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development. A side effect of this approach is that "computer capacity rises dramatically" as customers do not have to engineer for peak loads. Adoption has been enabled by "increased high-speed bandwidth" which makes it possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites. 3.6 Economics: Cloud computing users can avoid capital expenditure on hardware, software and services, rather paying a provider only for what they use. Consumption is billed on a utility (e.g. resources consumed, like electricity) or subscription (e.g. time based, like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost. Other benefits of this time sharing style approach are low barriers to entry, shared infrastructure and costs, low management overhead and immediate access to a broad range of applications. Users can generally terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty) and the services are often covered by service level agreements with financial penalties. According to Nicholas Carr the strategic importance of information technology is diminishing as it becomes standardized and cheaper. He argues that the cloud computing paradigm shift is similar to the displacement of electricity generators by electricity grids early in the 20th century. Although companies might be able to save on upfront capital expenditures, they might not save much and might actually pay more for operating expenses. In situations where the capital expense would be relatively small, or where the organization has more 9

flexibility in their capital budget than their operating budget, the cloud model might not make great fiscal sense. Other factors impacting the scale of any potential cost savings include the efficiency of a company's data center as compared to the cloud vendor's, the company's existing operating costs, the level of adoption of cloud computing, and the type of functionality being hosted in the cloud. Among the items that some cloud hosts charge for are instances (often with extra charges for high-memory or high-CPU instances); data transfer in and out; storage (measured by the GB-month); I/O requests; PUT requests and GET requests; IP addresses; and load balancing. In some cases, users can bid on instances, with pricing dependent on demand for available instances. 3.7 Companies: Providers including Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Sun and Yahoo exemplify the use of cloud computing. It is being adopted by individual users through large enterprises including General Electric, L'Oral, and Procter & Gamble.

10

4. CLOUD ARCHITECTURE

Cloud architecture the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing, comprises hardware and software designed by a cloud architect who typically works for a cloud integrator. It typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces, usually web services. This closely resembles the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts. Cloud architecture extends to the client, where web browsers and/or software applications access cloud applications. Cloud storage architecture is loosely coupled, where metadata operations are centralized enabling the data nodes to scale into the hundreds, each independently delivering data to applications or users

Fig 4.1: Cloud Architecture

11

The two most significant components of cloud computing architecture are known as the front end and the back end. The front end is the part seen by the client, i.e. the computer user. This includes the clients network (or computer) and the applications used to access the cloud via a user interface such as a web browser. The back end of the cloud computing architecture is the cloud itself, comprising various computers, servers and data storage devices. 4.1. Cloud Types 4.1.1 Public cloud: Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream. Public clouds are run by third parties, and applications from different customers are likely to be mixed together on the clouds servers, storage systems, and networks. A public cloud provides services to multiple customers. 4.1.2 Hybrid cloud: Hybrid clouds combine both public and private cloud models. This is most often seen with the use of storage clouds to support Web 2.0 applications. 4.1.3 Private cloud: Private clouds are built for the exclusive use of one client, providing the utmost control over data, security, and quality of service. The company owns the infrastructure and has control over how applications are deployed on it. Private clouds can be built and managed by a companys own IT organization or by a cloud provider 4.2 Cloud computing products and services: They can be further classified as follows 1. Application as service (AaaS) 2. Platform as a Service (PaaS) 3. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) 4. Software as a Service (SaaS)

12

4.2.1 Application as a service (AaaS): These are the first kind of cloud computing services that came into being. Under this, a service is made available to an end-user. The end-user is asked to create an account with the service provider and start using the application. One of first famous application was web-based email service by hotmail started in 1996. Scores of such services are available now on the web. 4.2.2 Platform as a service (PaaS): Cloud vendors are companies that offer cloud computing services and products. One of the services that they provide is called PaaS. Under this a computing platform such as operating system is provided to a customer or end user on a monthly rental basis. Some of the major cloud computing vendor are Amazon, Microsoft, Google etc 4.2.3 Infrastructure as a service (Iaas): The cloud computing vendors offer infrastructure as a service. One may avail hardware services such as processors, memory, networks etc on agreed basis for specific duration and price. 4.2.4 Software as a service (SaaS): Software package such as CRM or CAD/CAM can be accessed under cloud computing scheme. Here a customer upon registration is allowed to use software accessible through net and use it for his or his business process. The related data and work may be stored on local machines or with the service providers. SaaS services may be available on rental basis or on per use basis.

13

5. LAYERS
Cloud computing has six layers, They are represented diagrammatically as follows.

Fig 5.1: Layers Of Cloud Computing 5.1 Client: A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software which relies on cloud computing for application delivery, or which is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and which, in either case, is essentially useless without it. For example:

Mobile (Android, iPhone, Windows Mobile) Thin client (CherryPal, Zonbu, gOS-based systems) Thick client / Web browser (Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox)

14

5.2 Services: A cloud service includes "products, services and solutions that are delivered and consumed in real-time over the Internet". For example, Web Services ("software systems designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network") which may be accessed by other cloud computing components, software, e.g., Software plus service, or end users directly. Specific examples include:

Identity (OAuth, OpenID) Integration (Amazon Simple Queue Service) Payments (Amazon Flexible Payments Service, Google Checkout, PayPal) Mapping (Google Maps, Yahoo! Maps) Search (Alexa, Google Custom Search, Yahoo! BOSS) Others (Amazon Mechanical Turk)

5.3 Application: Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. Key characteristics include:

Network-based access to, and management of, commercially available (i.e., not custom) software Activities that are managed from central locations rather than at each customer's site, enabling customers to access applications remotely via the Web Application delivery that typically is closer to a one-to-many model (single instance, multi-tenant architecture) than to a one-to-one model, including architecture, pricing, partnering, and management characteristics

Centralized feature updating, which obviates the need for downloadable patches and upgrades. For example:

15

o o o o

Peer-to-peer / volunteer computing (Bittorrent, BOINC Projects, Skype) Web application (Facebook) Software as a service (Google Apps, SAP and Salesforce) Software plus services (Microsoft Online Services)

5.4 Platform: Cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers For example:

Web application frameworks


o o o

Python Django (Google App Engine) Ruby on Rails (Heroku) .NET (Azure Services Platform)

Web hosting (Mosso) Proprietary (Force.com)

5.5 Storage: Cloud storage involves the delivery of data storage as a service, including database-like services, often billed on a utility computing basis, e.g., per gigabyte per month. For example:

Database (Amazon Simple DB, Google App Engine's Big Table data store) Network attached storage (MobileMe iDisk, Nirvanix CloudNAS) Synchronization (Live Mesh Live Desktop component, MobileMe push functions) Web service (Amazon Simple Storage Service, Nirvanix SDN)

16

5.6 Infrastructure: Cloud infrastructure services or "Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)" delivers computer infrastructure, typically a platform virtualization environment as a service. Rather than purchasing servers, software, data center space or network equipment, clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. The service is typically billed on a utility computing basis and amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. It is an evolution of virtual private server offerings. The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services, including multi-core processors, cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings For example:

Full virtualization (GoGrid, Skytap) Management (RightScale) Compute (Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud) Platform (Force.com)

17

5.7 Components:

Cloud computing Components


Applications Facebook Google Apps SalesForce Microsoft Online Client Infrastructur e Platforms Services Storage Standards Browser(Chrome) Firefox Cloud Mobile (Android iPhone) Netbook (EeePC MSI Wind) Nettop (CherryPal Zonbu) BitTorrent EC2 GoGrid Sun Grid 3tera App Engine Azure Mosso SalesForce Alexa FPS MTurk SQS S3 SimpleDB SQL Services Ajax Atom HTML 5 REST

6. DEPLOYMENT MODEL

18

Fig 6: Types of Cloud Computing 6.1 Public cloud Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense, whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained, self-service basis over the Internet, via web applications/web services, from an off-site third-party provider who shares resources and bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis. 6.2 Private cloud Private cloud and internal cloud are neologisms that some vendors have recently used to describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks. These products claim to "deliver some benefits of cloud computing without the pitfalls", capitalizing on data security, corporate governance, and reliability concerns. While an analyst predicted in 2008 that private cloud networks would be the future of corporate IT, there is some uncertainty whether they are a reality even within the same firm. Analysts also claim that within five years a "huge percentage" of small and medium enterprises will get most of their computing resources from external cloud computing providers as they "will not have economies of scale to make it worth staying in the IT business" or be able to afford private clouds.

19

The term has also been used in the logical rather than physical sense, for example in reference to platform as service offerings, though such offerings including Microsoft's Azure Services Platform are not available for on-premises deployment. 6.3 Hybrid cloud A hybrid cloud environment consisting of multiple internal or external providers will be typical for most enterprises". A hybrid cloud can describe configuration combining a local device, such as a Plug computer with cloud services. It can also describe configurations combining virtual and physical, colocated assetsfor example, a mostly virtualized environment that requires physical servers, routers, or other hardware such as a network appliance acting as a firewall or spam filter 6.4 Cloud Storage Cloud Storage is a model of networked Computer data storage where data is stored on multiple virtual servers, generally hosted by third parties, rather than being hosted on dedicated servers. Hosting companies operate large data centers; and people who require their data to be hosted buy or lease storage capacity from them and use it for their storage needs. The data center operators, in the background, virtualize the resources according to the requirements of the customer and expose them as virtual servers, which the customers can themselves manage. Physically, the resource may span across multiple servers. 6.5 Inter Cloud The Inter cloud is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds" and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. The term was first used in the context of cloud computing in 2007 when Kevin Kelly opined that "eventually we'll have the inter cloud, the cloud of clouds. This Inter cloud will have the dimensions of one machine comprising all servers and attendant cloud books on the planet." It became popular in 2009 and has also been used to describe the datacenter of the future.

20

7.WORKING OF CLOUD COMPUTING


Super computers today are used mainly by the military, government intelligence agencies, universities and research labs, and large companies to tackle enormously complex calculations for such tasks as simulating nuclear explosions, predicting climate change, designing airplanes, and analyzing which proteins in the body are likely to bind with potential new drugs. Cloud computing aims to apply that kind of powermeasured in the tens of trillions of computations per second to problems like analyzing risk in 21

financial portfolios, delivering personalized medical information, even powering immersive computer games, in a way that users can tap through the Web. It does that by networking large groups of servers that often use low-cost consumer PC technology, with specialized connections to spread data-processing chores across them. By contrast, the newest and most powerful desktop PCs process only about 3 billion computations a second. Let's say you're an executive at a large corporation. Your particular responsibilities include making sure that all of your employees have the right hardware and software they need to do their jobs. Buying computers for everyone isn't enough you also have to purchase software or software licenses to give employees the tools they require. Whenever you have a new hire, you have to buy more software or make sure your current software license allows another user. It's so stressful that you find it difficult to go. 7.1 A typical cloud computing system Soon, there may be an alternative for executives like you. Instead of installing a suite of software for each computer, you'd only have to load one application. That application would allow workers to log into a Web-based service which hosts all the programs the user would need for his or her job. Remote machines owned by another company would run everything from e-mail to word processing to complex data analysis programs. It's called cloud computing, and it could change the entire computer industry. In a cloud computing system, there's a significant workload shift. Local computers no longer have to do all the heavy lifting when it comes to running applications. The network of computers that make up the cloud handles them instead. Hardware and software demands on the user's side decrease. The only thing the user's computer needs to be able to run is the cloud computing system's interface software, which can be as simple as a Web browser, and the cloud's network takes care of the rest. There's a good chance you've already used some form of cloud computing. If you have an e-mail account with a Webbased e-mail service like Hotmail, Yahoo! Mail or Gmail, then you've had some experience with cloud computing. Instead of running an e-mail program on your computer, you log in to a Web e-mail account remotely. The software and storage for your account doesn't exist on your computer its on the service's computer cloud. 22

Fig 7.1: Working Of Cloud Computing

8. ROLES
8.1 Provider A cloud computing provider or cloud computing service provider owns and operates live cloud computing systems to deliver service to third parties. The barrier to entry is also significantly higher with capital expenditure required and billing and management creates some overhead. Nonetheless, significant operational efficiency and agility advantages can be realized, even by small organizations, and server consolidation and virtualization rollouts are already well underway. Amazon.com was the first such provider, 23

modernizing its data centers which, like most computer networks, were using as little as 10% of its capacity at any one time just to leave room for occasional spikes. This allowed small, fast-moving groups to add new features faster and easier, and they went on to open it up to outsiders as Amazon Web Services in 2002 on a utility computing basis. 8.2 User A user is a consumer of cloud computing. The privacy of users in cloud computing has become of increasing concern. The rights of users are also an issue, which is being addressed via a community effort to create a bill of rights. 8.3 Vendor A vendor sells products and services that facilitate the delivery, adoption and use of cloud computing. For example:

Computer hardware (Dell, HP, IBM, Sun Microsystems)


o o

Storage (Sun Microsystems, EMC, IBM) Infrastructure (Cisco Systems)

Computer software (3tera, Hadoop, IBM, RightScale)

9. STANDARDS
Cloud standards, a number of existing, typically lightweight, open standards, have facilitated the growth of cloud computing, including:

Application
o o o

Communications (HTTP, XMPP) Security (OAuth, OpenID, SSL/TLS) Syndication (Atom) 24

Client
o o

Browsers (AJAX) Offline (HTML 5) Virtualization (OVF) Solution stacks (LAMP) Data (XML, JSON) Web Services (REST) Database(Amazon Simple DB, Google App Engine BigTable Datastore) Network attached storage (MobileMe iDisk, Nirvanix CloudNAS) Synchronization (Live Mesh Live Desktop component, MobileMe push functions) Web service (Amazon Simple Storage Service, Nirvanix SDN)

Implementations
o

Platform
o

Service
o o

Storage
o o o

10. ISSUES WITH CLOUD COMPUTING

10.1 Privacy: The Cloud model has been criticized by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the Cloud services control, and thus, can monitor at will, lawfully or unlawfully, the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. Instances such as the secret NSA program, working with AT&T, and Verizon,

25

which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens, causes uncertainty among privacy advocates, and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonies" the legal environment, providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. 10.2 Legal: In March 2007, Dell applied to trademark the term "cloud computing" (U.S. Trademark 77,139,082) in the United States. The "Notice of Allowance" the company received in July 2008 was cancelled in August, resulting in a formal rejection of the trademark application less than a week later. Since 2007, the number of trademark filings covering cloud computing brands, goods and services has increased at an almost exponential rate. As companies sought to better position themselves for cloud computing branding and marketing efforts, cloud computing trademark filings increased by 483% between 2008 and 2009. In 2009, 116 cloud computing trademarks were filed, and trademark analysts predict that over 500 such marks could be filed during 2010.

10.3 Security: The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue which may be delaying its adoption. Some argue that customer data is more secure when managed internally, while others argue that cloud providers have a strong incentive to maintain trust and as such employ a higher level of security. The Cloud Security Alliance is a non-profit organization formed to promote the use of best practices for providing security assurance within Cloud Computing

26

10.4 Availability and Performance: In addition to concerns about security, businesses are also worried about acceptable levels of availability and performance of applications hosted in the cloud. There are also concerns about a cloud provider shutting down for financial or legal reasons, which has happened in a number of cases. 10.5 Sustainability and siting Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing", there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. In areas where climate favors cooling and lots of renewable electricity is available the environmental effects will be more moderate. Thus countries with favorable conditions, such as Finland, Sweden and Switzerland, are trying to attract cloud computing data centers.

11. KEY CHARACTERISTICS

Cost is greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. This lowers barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and minimal or no IT skills are required for implementation.

27

Agility improves with users' ability to rapidly and inexpensively re-provision technological infrastructure resources.

Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using, e.g., PC, mobile. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet the users can connect from anywhere.

Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs among a large pool of users, allowing for:
o

Centralization of infrastructure in areas with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.) Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10-20% utilized.

Reliability improves through the use of multiple redundant sites, which makes it suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. Nonetheless, most major cloud computing services have suffered outages and IT and business managers are able to do little when they are affected.

Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a finegrained, self-service basis near real-time, without users having to engineer for peak loads. Performance is monitored and consistent and loosely-coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. One of the most important new methods for overcoming performance bottlenecks for a large class of applications is data parallel programming on a distributed data grid.

Security could improve due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources, etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data, and the lack of security for stored kernels. Security is often as good as or better than under traditional systems, in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. Providers typically log accesses, but accessing the audit logs themselves can be difficult or

28

impossible. Furthermore, the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area and / or number of devices.

Maintenance cloud computing applications are easier to maintain, since they don't have to be installed on each user's computer. They are easier to support and to improve since the changes reach the clients instantly.

Metering cloud computing resources usage should be measurable and should be metered per client and application on daily, weekly, monthly, and annual basis. This will enable clients on choosing the vendor cloud on cost and reliability (QoS).

Sustainability comes about through improved resource utilization, more efficient systems, and carbon neutrality. Nonetheless, computers and associated infrastructure are major consumers of energy.

12. MERITS AND DEMERITS:


Merits: Cloud enabler technologies like utility computing, Grid Computing, RTI, web infrastructure and others are cloud enabled. 1. Infrastructure service providers are taking advantage of the Cloud services.

29

2. Information services, entertainment-oriented services such as video on demand, simple business services such as customer authentication or identity management and contextual services such as location or mapping services are positioned well by using the service. 3. Other services, such as corporate processes (for example, billing, deduction management and mortgage calculation) and transactional services (for example, fiscal transactions), would take longer to reach the cloud and the mainstream. 4. Cloud computing infrastructures allows efficient use of their IT hardware and software investments 5. A cloud infrastructure can be a cost efficient model for delivering information services, reducing IT management complexity. 6. The Cloud makes it possible to launch Web 2.0 applications quickly and to scale up applications as much as needed when needed. Demerits: 1. Stored data might not be secure: With cloud computing, all our data is stored on the cloud. The unauthorized users gain access to our confidential data. 2. Dependent on internet connection: Internet connectivity isnt completely stable and reliable. 3. Its not platform agnostic: Most clouds force participants to rely on a single platform or host only one type of product. 4. Can be slow: Even on a fast connection, web based application scan sometimes be slower than accessing a similar software program on our desktop PC

30

13. FUTURE ENHANCEMETS A solid majority of technology experts and stakeholders participating in the fourth Future of the Internet survey expect that by 2020 most people will access software applications online and share and access information through the use of remote server networks, rather than depending primarily on tools and information housed on their individual, personal computers. They say that cloud computing will become more dominant than the desktop

31

in the next decade. In other words, most users will perform most computing and communicating activities through connections to servers operated by outside firms. Among the most popular cloud services now are social networking sites (the 500 million people using Facebook are being social in the cloud), webmail services like Hotmail and Yahoo mail, micro blogging and blogging services such as Twitter and Word Press, video-sharing sites like YouTube, picture-sharing sites such as Flickr, document and applications sites like Google Docs, social-bookmarking sites like Delicious, business sites like eBay, and ranking, rating and commenting sites such as Yelp and Trip Advisor. This does not mean, however, that most of these experts think the desktop computer will disappear soon. The majority sees a hybrid life in the next decade, as some computing functions move towards the cloud and others remain based on personal computers. "By 2020, most people won't do their work with software running on a general-purpose PC. Instead, they will work in Internet-based applications such as Google Docs, and in applications run from smartphones. Aspiring application developers will develop for smartphone vendors and companies that provide Internet-based applications, because most innovative work will be done in that domain, instead of designing applications that run on a PC operating system." Large businesses are far less likely to put most of their work "in the cloud" anytime soon because of control and security issues; most people are not able to discern the difference between accessing data and applications on their desktop and in the cloud; low-income people in least-developed areas of the world are most likely to use the cloud, accessing it through connection by phone.

13. CONCLUSION
Cloud computing is a powerful new abstraction for large scale data processing systems which is scalable, reliable and available. In cloud computing, there are large selfmanaged server pools available which reduces the overhead and eliminates management headache. Cloud computing services can also grow and shrink according to need. Cloud

32

computing is particularly valuable to small and medium businesses, where effective and affordable IT tools are critical to helping them become more productive without spending lots of money on in-house resources and technical equipment. Also it is a new emerging architecture needed to expand the Internet to become the computing platform of the future. Cloud Computing Brings Possibilities as follows: Increases business responsiveness Accelerates creation of new services via rapid prototyping capabilities Reduces acquisition complexity via service oriented approach Uses IT resources efficiently via sharing and higher system utilization Reduces energy consumption Handles new and emerging workloads Scales to extreme workloads quickly and easily Simplifies IT management Platform for collaboration and innovation Cultivates skills for next generation workforce

Finally, cloud apps dont eat up your valuable IT resources, so your CFO will love it. This lets you focus on deploying more apps, new projects, and innovation. Cloud computing is a simple idea, but it can have a huge impact on your business. Cloud Computing is a technology which took the software and business world by storm. The much deserved hype over it will continue for years to come

14. REFERENCES
[1] www.wikipedia.com [2] www.infoworld.com/article/08/04/07/15FE-cloud-computing-reality_1.html 33

[3] www.wiki.cloudcommunity.org/wiki/CloudComputing:Bill_of_Rights [4] www.davidchappell.com/CloudPlatforms--Chappell. PDF [5] www.amazon.com [6] www.thinkgos.com/cloud/index.html [7] www.salesforce.com [8] www.google.com [9] Chip Computer Magazine, December 2008 - Feb 2009 Edition

34