\

c
c
c
c
+


.

\

c
c
c
c
+

.

\

c
c
c
c
=
(
c
c
+
c
c
\

=
2
0
2
0
3
exp
r
r
Q Q
r
2
1
2 2
) ( y x + = r
) /( ) ( * ) (
0 i e e i e e
z z z z r r r r =
,
Q
r
is the source intensity,
Q
0
is the maximum source intensity,
r
e
is the (x,y) parameter of Gaussian curve in the upper plane at z=z
e
,
r
i
is the (x,y) parameter of Gaussian curve in the lower plane at z=z
i
.
3D Conical Gaussian heat source model
16.11.2011 8
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
Heat Input Calculation
where Q
keyhole
is the absorbed laser beam power (75%), r
0
is the
average keyhole radius, H is the plate thickness, r is the current
radius, i.e. the distance from the cone axis and z is the current
depth.
Where q is the maximum heat flux per unit area and R is the
heat source effective radius (R = 2r
0
, r
o
is the average
keyhole radius, about 0.3mm).
Surface
Volume


.

\

+
=
2
2 2
0
) ( 3
exp ) , (
R
y x
q y x q
2
0
3
R
Q
q
top
t
=
top
Q is a power of the plane heat source (25%)

.

\

=

.

\

h
z
e
h r
Q
z q
r
r
keyhole
1
2
) (
2
0
1
2
0
t
v
q
is a Volumetric heat source
h
16.11.2011 9
H. Du, L. Hu, J. Liu and X. Hu, A study on the metal flow in full penetration laser beam welding for
titanium alloy, Journal of Computational Materials Science, 29, 2004, pp. 419427.
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
The initial condition is
The essential boundary condition is
Boundary Conditions
( ) ( ) z y x T t z x T , , , , 0 ,
0
=
( ) ( ) z y x T z y x T , , 0 , , ,
0
=
on the boundary S
1
. This condition prescribes
nodal temperatures at the inlet surface S
1
.
16.11.2011 10
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
( ) ( ) 0
4
0
4
0
= + +
c
c
T T T T h q
n
T
k
n
oc
Boundary Conditions
The natural boundary conditions can be defined by
n
k
q
h
o
c
0
T
where
is thermal conductivity normal to the surface (W/m K)
is prescribed heat flux (W/m
2
)
(varies with beampower, welding speed and beamincident angle)
is heat transfer coefficient for convection (W/m
2
K)
is StefanBoltzmann constant for radiation (5.67 x 10
8
W/m
2
K
4
)
is emissivity
is ambient temperature (K)
on the boundary S
2
.
16.11.2011 11
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
Heat Input to FEM
A three Dimensional Conical Gaussian Heat
Source Model
T  Joint
16.11.2011 12
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
Thermal material properties namely conductivity, specific heat, density are
temperature dependent
The latent heat of fusion is considered by the enthalpy of material for the
calculation of phase change
The physical phenomena like viscous fore, buoyancy force, convective melt
flowand Marangoni effects are neglected
It is also assumed that, the absorbed laser energy is considered as 69.3%of
the laser power as proposed by Xie and Kar.
The assumptions made in this investigation are:
16.11.2011 13
Ref: Xie J, Kar A. Laser Welding of Thin Sheet Steel with Surface Oxidation. Welding Research
Supplement 1999; 78:343s 348s
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
16.11.2011 14
Sl.
No.
Beam
Power
(BP), Watts
Welding
speed
(WS),
mm/min
Beam
Angle
(BA), deg.
Focal Length
(F), mm
1 1000 500 30
160 2 1250 600 45
3 1500 700 60
Laser Welding Parameters
Three input laser parameters namely laser beam power, welding speed and
beamincident angle varied at three levels resulting in 3
3
= 27 welding trials.
The experimental trials are conducted based on full factorial design.
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
16.11.2011 15
Schematic representation of laser
welding process for Tjoint specimen
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
16.11.2011 16
Tjoint laser weld
Beam power 1250 W, welding speed 500 mm/min, beam angle 30
o
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
16.11.2011 17
Experimental Work
Cross sectional views of 1.6 mm thick T joint specimen welded with (a)
60
o
, (b) 30
o
and (c) 45
o
beam angles on both sides of the stiffener
Beam power 1250 W,
welding speed 500 mm/min
Partial Penetration
Partial Penetration
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
16.11.2011 18
Physical Model of Tjoint configuration
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
Finite Element Model
2D
3D
T Joint
16.11.2011 19
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
16.11.2011 20
The temperature distribution during laser
welding process at various time steps
Beam power 1250 W, welding speed 500 mm/min, beam angle 30
o
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
Weld pool shape between (a) Experimental investigation and
(b) finite element simulation
(a) (b)
Comparison Exp. Vs. FEM
T Joint
16.11.2011 21
Beam power 1250 W,
welding speed 500 mm/min
beam angle 30
o
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
60
o
45
o
30
o
Beam power  1250 W,
welding speed  500 mm/min
Bead Shape
BA  60
o
BA  45
o
BA  30
o
T Joint
16.11.2011 22
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
16.11.2011 23
Proper fusion of base material (horizontal and vertical sheets) and tie
between the bead profiles is achieved when the laser system is operated
with 30
o
beam incident angle,1250 W beam power and 500 mm/min.
welding speed.
A partial penetration is established in the macro graph, when the
beam angle is maintained at 60
o
For the beam angle of 45
o
, proper fusion of base material is achieved
between the horizontal and vertical sheets, but there is no tie between
the resulting bead profiles
A series of experiments have been conducted to verify the finite
element simulation results.
Comparison of experimental and simulation results reveals a very
good correlation for depth of penetration and bead width values with a
standard error of 2.78% and 1.9%, respectively
Based on the results of this investigation, the following conclusions
are made:
CONCLUSIONS
National Institute of Technology, Trichy
N. Siva Shanmugam, Department of Mechanical Engineering
16.11.2011 24