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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 GENERAL Concrete is the basic engineering material used in most of the

1.1 GENERAL

Concrete is the basic engineering material used in most of the civil engineering structures. Its popularity as basic building material in construction is because of, its economy of use, good durability and ease with which it can be manufactured at site. The ability to mould it into any shape and size, because of its plasticity in green stage and its subsequent hardening to achieve strength, is particularly useful. Concrete like other engineering materials needs to be designed for properties like strength, durability, workability and cohesion. Concrete mix design is the science of deciding relative proportions of ingredients of concrete, to achieve the desired properties in the most economical way.

With advent of high-rise buildings and pre-stressed concrete, use of higher grades of concrete is becoming more common. Even the revised IS 456-2000 advocates use of higher grade of concrete for more severe conditions of exposure, for durability considerations. With advent of new generation admixtures, it is possible to achieve higher grades of concrete with high workability levels economically. Use of mineral admixtures like fly ash, slag, meta kaolin and silica fume have revolutionized the concrete technology by increasing strength and durability of concrete by many folds. Mix design of concrete is becoming more relevant in the above-mentioned scenario. How do we decide what concrete we need in any particular case? The required properties of hardened concrete are specified by the designer of the structure and the properties of fresh concrete are governed by the type of construction and by the techniques of placing and transporting. Mix Design can, therefore be defined as the process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative quantities with the purpose of producing an economical concrete which has certain minimum properties, notably workability, strength and durability. These properties are usually: the maximum water/cement ratio, minimum cement content, minimum strength, minimum workability, and maximum size of aggregate, and air content within limits.

It will be worthwhile to recall at this stage the relationship between aggregate and paste which are the two essential ingredients of concrete. Workability of the mass is provided by the lubricating effect of the paste and is influenced by the amount of dilution of paste. Since the properties of concrete are governed to a considerable extent by the quality of past, it is helpful to consider more closely the structure of the paste. The fresh paste is a suspension not a solution of cement in water. Concrete is an extremely versatile building material because, it can be designed for strength ranging from M10 (10Mpa) to M100 (100Mpa) and workability ranging from 0mm slump to 150mm slump. In all these cases the basic ingredients of concrete are the same, but it is their relative proportioning that makes the difference. Basic Ingredients of Concrete: -

1. Cement It is the basic binding material in concrete.

2. Water It hydrates cement and also makes concrete workable.

3. Coarse Aggregate It is the basic building component of concrete.

4. Fine Aggregate Along with cement paste it forms mortar grout and fills the voids in the coarse aggregates.

5. Admixtures They enhance certain properties of concrete e.g. gain of strength, workability, setting properties, imperviousness, etc.

Concrete needs to be designed for certain properties in the plastic stage as well as in the hardened stage. In the past the specifications for concrete prescribed the proportions of cement, fine and coarse aggregates. These mixes of fixed cement-aggregate ratio which ensures adequate strength are termed nominal mixes. These offer simplicity and under normal circumstances, have a margin of strength above that specified. However, due to the variability of mix ingredients the nominal concrete for a given workability varies widely in strength.

1.2 CONSIDERABLE FACTORS The economic and technical factors and the procedure of estimating the mix quantities will now be outlined. Normally, the strength for structural purposes is required at 28 days, but other consideration may dictate the strength at other ages. There is a variation in the strength of concrete for the same mix. This variation can be minimized by adopting quality control techniques. However quality control may depend on the cost and operation of

specified quality control. The factors depending are

1.2.1 Water\Cement Ratio The Water\Cement ratio required to produce a given mean compressive strength is best determined from previously established relation for mixes made from similar ingredients or by carrying trial mixes made with actual ingredients to be used in construction including admixtures. In appropriate circumstances, the maximum limit of cement content in the concrete may also have to be specified. This is because concrete mixes having high cement content may give rise to shrinkage, cracking and creep of concrete also increases with the cement paste content. In thick concrete sections restrained against movements, high cement content may give rise to excessive cracking caused by differential thermal stresses due to hydration of cement in young concretes. Hence as per IS 456-2000, cement content not in- cluding fly-ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag in excess of 450 kg/m should not be used unless special consideration has been given in design to the increased risk of cracking due to drying shrinkage in thin sections, or to early thermal cracking and to the increased risk of damage due to alkali-silica reactions.

in thin sections, or to early thermal cracking and to the increased risk of damage due

1.2.2

Type of Cement

The type of cement is important mainly through its influence on the rate of development of compressive strength of concrete as well as durability under aggressive environments. Different types of cements can be used with the approval of the Engineer-in Charge. From among the different types of cements available, the Engineer-in-Charge is required to make his choice depending upon the requirements of performance at hand. Where very high compressive strength is required, for example, in pre-stressed concrete railway sleepers, high strength ordinary Portland cement confirming to IS 8112-1976 will be found suitable. Where an early strength development is required, rapid hardening Portland cement confirming to IS 8041-1978 is preferable. On the other hand in situations where heat of hydration to be limited, for example, in mass concrete constructions, low heat Portland cement confirming to IS 269-1976 is preferable. Portland pozzolana cement and Portland slag cement are permitted for use in reinforced concrete constructions; while Portland slag cement is also permitted for pre-stressed concrete constructions. With such blended cements, the rate of development of early strength may be somewhat slower. On the other hand, these blended cements render greater durability to the concrete in sulphatic environment and seawater. The requirements of durability are achieved by limitations in terms of minimum cement content, the type of cement, and the maximum water-cement ratio.

1.2.3 Aggregate

Maximum Nominal Size of Aggregate to be used in concrete is governed by the size of the section and spacing of the reinforcement. Both IS 456-2000 and IS 1343-1980, specify that the nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate should not be greater than one-fourth of the minimum thickness of the member, and it should be restricted to 5mm less than the minimum clear distance between main bars or 5mm less than the minimum cover to the reinforcement and 5mm less than the minimum cover to the reinforcement and 5mm less than the spacing between the cables, strands or sheathing in case of pre-stressed concrete. Within these limits, the nominal maximum size of coarse aggregates may be as large as possible. In general, it is found that larger the maximum size of aggregate, smaller is the cement requirement for a particular water-cement ratio. This arises mainly from the fact that

workability of concrete increases with increase in maximum size of aggregate. However, the maximum size of aggregates also influences the compressive strength of concrete in that, for a particular volume of aggregate, the compressive strength tends to increase with decrease in size of coarse aggregate. This is due to the fact that smaller size aggregates present a larger surface area for bonding with the mortar matrix; it also results from the fact that the stress concentration in the mortar-aggregate interfaces increase with increase in maximum size of aggregate. There is thus an interaction of the maximum size of aggregates well as the grade of concrete, which determine the strength efficiency of the cement, and, therefore, the re- quirement of cement for particular compressive strength is to be specified. For concrete with higher water-cement ratio, larger maximum size of aggregates may be beneficial whereas for high strength concrete 10 or 20mm size of aggregates is preferable. It is because of such rea- sons that IS 456-2000 and IS 1343-1980, while recommending that nominal size of coarse aggregates be as large as possible, also suggest that for reinforced and prestressed works, aggregates having a maximum nominal size of 20mm or smaller are generally considered satisfactory.

1.2.4 Compressive Strength The compressive strength of hardened concrete is considered to be the most important property. It can be measured easily on standard sized cube or cylindrical specimen and it is often taken as an index of the overall quality of concrete. Many of the desirable properties of concrete, for example shear, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, bond, impact, abrasion resistance and durability etc., are also taken to be related to the compressive strength, at least to a general extent. Among the materials and mix variables the water-cement ratio is the most important parameter governing the compressive strength. Beside water-cement ratio, the following factors also affect the compressive strength of concrete:

The characteristics of cementfactors also affect the compressive strength of concrete: The characteristics and properties of aggregates The degree

The characteristics and properties of aggregatesstrength of concrete: The characteristics of cement The degree of compaction Efficiency of curing The

The degree of compactionof cement The characteristics and properties of aggregates Efficiency of curing The temperature during the curing

Efficiency of curingand properties of aggregates The degree of compaction The temperature during the curing period The age

The temperature during the curing periodof aggregates The degree of compaction Efficiency of curing The age at the time of testing

The age at the time of testingaggregates The degree of compaction Efficiency of curing The temperature during the curing period The conditions

The conditions of testThe degree of compaction Efficiency of curing The temperature during the curing period The age at

1.2.5

Workability From the stage of mixing till it is transported, placed in the formwork and compacted,

fresh concrete should satisfy a number of requirements which may be summarized as follows:

a number of requirements which may be summarized as follows: The mix should be stable, in

The mix should be stable, in that it should not segregate during transportation and placing. The tendency of bleeding should be minimized. The mix should be cohesive and mobile enough to be placed in the form around the reinforcement and should be able to cast into required shape. The mix should be amenable to proper and thorough compaction as possible in the situation of placing and with the facilities of compaction. It should be possible to obtain a satisfactory surface finish. The diverse requirements of stability, mobility, compatibility, placeability, and finishability of fresh concrete mentioned above are collectively referred to as workability . The workability of fresh concrete is thus a composite property. It is difficult to precisely define all the aspects in a single definition. It is clear that the optimum workability of concrete varies from situation to situation and concrete, which can be termed as workable for pouring into large sections with minimum reinforcement, may not be equally workable for pouring in thin sections with heavier concentration of reinforcement. A concrete may not be workable when compacted by hand but may be satisfactory when mechanical vibration is used.

but may be satisfactory when mechanical vibration is used. In addition to the desired compressive strength,
but may be satisfactory when mechanical vibration is used. In addition to the desired compressive strength,
but may be satisfactory when mechanical vibration is used. In addition to the desired compressive strength,

In addition to the desired compressive strength, the concrete should have workability such that it can be placed in the formwork and compacted with minimum effort without causing segregation or bleeding. The choice of workability depends upon the type of compacting equipment available, the size of the section and the concentration of reinforcement. For heavily reinforced section, or when the sections are narrow or contain inaccessible parts or when the spacing of reinforcements makes placing and compaction difficult, the concrete should be highly workable for full compaction to be achieved with reasonable amount of effort.

1.2.6 Durability

A durable concrete is one that performs satisfactorily in the working environment during its anticipated exposure conditions during service. The materials and mix proportions

specified and used should be such as to maintain its integrity and, if applicable, to protect embedded metal from corrosion. One of the main characteristics influencing the durability of concrete is its permeability to the ingress of water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, chloride, sulphate and other potentially deleterious substances. Impermeability is governed by the constituents and workmanship used in making the concrete. with normal-weight aggregates a suitably low permeability is achieved by having an adequate cement content, sufficiently low free water/cement ratio by ensuring complete compaction of the concrete, and by adequate curing. The factors influencing durability include:

The Environmentadequate curing. The factors influencing durability include: The Cover to embedded steel The Type and quality

The Cover to embedded steelThe factors influencing durability include: The Environment The Type and quality of constituent materials The Cement

The Type and quality of constituent materialsinclude: The Environment The Cover to embedded steel The Cement content Water/Cement ratio of the concrete

The Cement contentembedded steel The Type and quality of constituent materials Water/Cement ratio of the concrete Workmanship, to

Water/Cement ratio of the concreteType and quality of constituent materials The Cement content Workmanship, to obtain full compaction and efficient

Workmanship, to obtain full compaction and efficient curingThe Cement content Water/Cement ratio of the concrete The shape and size of the member. The

The shape and size of the member.Workmanship, to obtain full compaction and efficient curing The degree of exposure anticipated for the concrete

The degree of exposure anticipated for the concrete during its service life together with other relevant factors relating to mix composition, workmanship, design and detailing should be considered. The concrete mix to provide adequate durability under these conditions should be chosen taking account of the accuracy of current testing regimes for control and compliance as described in Indian standards.

1.3 METHODS OF MIX DESIGN The basic objective of concrete mix design is to find the most economical proportions (Optimization) to achieve the desired end results (strength, cohesion, workability, durability, As mentioned earlier the proportioning of concrete is based on certain material properties of cement, sand and aggregates. Concrete mix design is basically a process of taking trials with certain proportions. Methods have been developed to arrive at these proportions in a scientific manner. No mix design method directly gives the exact proportions that will most economically achieve end results. These methods only serve as a base to start and achieve the end results in the fewest possible trials. The mix design methods being followed in dif- ferent countries are mostly based on empirical relationships, charts and graphs developed from extensive experimental investigations.

1.3.1 ACI Method In the ACI method, the volume of coarse aggregate in the concrete mix is first determined depending on the maximum size of aggregate and the grading of fine aggregate, whereas in the British method, the proportion of fine aggregate is determined first depending on the maximum size of aggregate, the degree of workability, the grading of fine aggregate and the water-cement ratio of the concrete mix. The ACI method also determines the proportions of dry-rodded coarse aggregate in the concrete mix, the rodding being done according to ASTM C 29 for unit weight of aggregate. It is based on the concept that in dry-rodded void content, the differences in the amount of mortar required for workability with different aggregates due to differences in particle shape and grading are automatically compensated for. In the ACI method, the air content of concrete is consider to arrive at the absolute volume of the mix ingredients. The batch weight of the materials per unit volume of concrete is calculated from the absolute volumes. The ACI 211.1-77 recommends a method of mix design in which water content determines the workability of the concrete mix for different maximum size of aggregate. The bulk volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of concrete is determined for different maximum sizes of aggregates and for different fineness modulus of sand. The water-cement ratio is determined in the usual procedure to satisfy both strength and durability requirements. The volume of fine aggregate is determined for unit volume of concrete, from the difference in volume between the concrete and other ingredients. Allowance for air content in concrete is made prior to calculating the volume of fine aggregate. The procedure adopted for the selection of mix proportions is as follows:

i) Decide the required workability of the concrete for the job on hand ii) Decide the maximum size of coarse aggregate proposed to be used (following the guidelines of IS 456-2000) iii) Characteristic compressive strength (that is below which specified portion of test results are allowed to fall) at 28 days (f ck ) (This step follows BIS guideline) The target mean strength is first determined as follows: f t = f ck + K.S where f t = target mean compressive strength at 28 days, f ck = characteristic compressive strength at 28 days, S= Standard deviation, K= a statistical value depending upon the accepted proportion of low results and the number of tests

Note - As per IS 456-2000, the characteristic strength is defined as that value below which not more than 5 percent of the test results are expected to fall. In such case, K=1.65 in the above equation (Table-IS1).

The value of standard deviation depends on the degree of quality control that can be exercised in the site (Very good, Good, and Fair, defined in Table-IS2) and the characteristic compressive strength of concrete and the same is presented in Table-IS3.

iv) The water-cement ratio for the target mean strength is chosen from Table-A1. The

water-cement ratio so chosen is checked against the limiting water-cement ratio for the requirements of durability (Table-A4) and the lower of the two values adopted. v) The water content is selected from Table-A2 for the desired workability and maxi-

mum size of aggregate.

vi) The cement content is calculated from the water content and the water-cement ratio

required for durability or strength. The cement content so calculated is checked against the minimum cement content from the requirements of durability (Table-A4) and the

greater of the two values adopted. After this, correct the water content to maintain water-cement ratio.

vii) The coarse aggregate content is estimated from Table-A3 for maximum size of

aggregate and the fineness modulus of sand.

viii) The fine aggregate content is determined by subtracting the sum of the volumes of

coarse aggregate, cement, water and air content from the unit volume of concrete.

Table-A1 Water-Cement Ratio Vs Compressive Strength of Concrete

Compressive Strength

Water-Cement Ratio, by Weight

 

Non-air entrained Concrete

Air-Entrained Con- crete

450

0.38

-

400

0.43

-

350

0.48

0.40

300

0.55

0.46

250

0.62

0.53

200

0.70

0.61

150

0.80

0.71

Table-A2 Approximate Mixing Water (kg/m3 OF CONCRETE) Requirements for Different Slumps and Maximum Sizes of Aggregates

 

SLUMP

MAXIMUM SIZES OF AGGREGATE IN mm

mm

 

10

12.5

20

25

40

50

 

70

150

   

Non-Air-Entrained Concrete

 

30

to 50

205

200

185

180

160

155

145

125

80

to 100

225

215

200

195

175

170

160

140

150

to 180

 

240

230

210

205

185

180

170

-

Approximate amount of entrained air in non-air-entrained concrete, percentage

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.3

0.2

   

Air-Entrained Concrete

 

30

to 50

180

175

165

160

145

140

135

120

80

to 100

200

190

180

175

160

155

150

135

150

to 180

 

215

205

190

185

170

165

160

-

Recommended average total air con- tent, percentage

8.0

7.0

6.0

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

Table-A3 Volume of Dry-Rodded Coarse Aggregate Per Unit Volume of Concrete

Maximum size of Aggregate mm

Fineness Modulus of Sand

 

2.40

2.60

2.80

3.00

10

0.50

0.48

0.46

0.44

12.5

0.59

0.57

0.55

0.53

20

0.66

0.64

0.62

0.60

25

0.71

0.69

0.67

0.65

40

0.76

0.74

0.72

0.70

50

0.78

0.76

0.74

0.72

70

0.81

0.79

0.77

0.75

150

0.87

0.85

0.83

0.81

1.3.2 Indian Standard Method Basic Data Required: Characteristic Compressive Strength (based on cube strength), Workability, Limitations on w/c ratio (based on minimum cement to ensure durability), Maximum size of aggregate used, Standard deviation for compressive strength.

Step 1:- The target mean strength is first determined as follows f t = f ck + K.S

where

f ck = characteristic compressive strength at 28 days, S= Standard deviation,

f t = target mean compressive strength at 28 days,

K= a statistical value depending upon the accepted proportion of low results and the number of tests

TABLE: IS-1 values of K

Percentage of results below the characteristic strength

K

50

0

16

1.0

10

1.28

5

1.65

2.5

1.96

1.0

2.33

0.5

2.58

0.0

Infinity

TABLE :IS-2 Suggested Standards Deviation

Grade of

Standard deviation for different degree of control

concrete

 

Very good

Good

Fair

M10

2.0

2.3

3.3

M15

2.5

3.5

4.5

M20

3.6

4.6

5.6

M25

4.3

5.3

6.3

M30

5.0

6.0

7.0

M35

5.3

6.3

7.3

M40

5.6

6.6

7.6

M45

6.0

7.0

8.0

M50

6.4

7.4

8.4

M55

6.7

7.7

8.7

M60

6.8

7.8

8.8

Step 2: Determine the Water-cement ratio for the target strength Check against Tables- IS4 to IS7 for requirement of durability, and adopt lower of the two values. However, such trials will need 28 days for determining the strength characteristics of cement and at least another 28 days for the trial mixes. In order to cut down the time required for trials an alternative method has been suggested by BIS. In this method, the accelerated

strength (boiling water method in accordance with IS 9013-1978) of a 'Reference' concrete mix having water-cement ratio 0.35 and workability of 0.80 compacting factor with the cement proposed to be used is determined on 15 cm cube specimens. The nominal maximum size of aggregate of the reference concrete should be 10mm and fine aggregate should be conforming to zone II of IS 383-1970. Corresponding to this accelerated strength, the water cement ratio is determined for the target mean strength, from the curves based on the relation between 28 days compressive strength of concrete having water cement ratio of 0.35, which found to be, on an average, 0.934 times that of 28-days strength of cement tested as per IS 4031-1968, and correlation accelerated and normal 28 days strength of concrete.

TABLE:IS-3 Degree of Quality Control Expected Under Different Site Conditions

Degree of Control

Conditions of Production

Very good

Fresh cement from single source and regular tests, weigh batching of all materials, aggregates supplied in single sizes, control of aggregate grading and moisture content, control of water added, frequent supervision, regular workability and strength tests, field laboratory facilities.

Good

Carefully stored cement and periodic tests, weigh batching of all ma- terials, controlled water, graded aggregate supplied, occasional grading and moisture tests, periodic check of workability and strength, intermittent supervision, experienced workers.

Fair

Proper storage of cement, volume batching of all aggregates allowing for bulking of sand, weigh batching of cement, water controlled by inspection of mix, occasional supervision and tests.

Table: IS-4 Environmental exposure conditions

Environment

 

Exposure conditions

Mild

Concrete surfaces protected against weather or aggressive conditions, except

Moderate

Concrete surfaces sheltered from severe rain or freezing whilst wet Concrete exposed to condensation and rain Concrete continuously under water Concrete in contact or buried under non aggressive soil/ground water Concrete surfaces sheltered from saturated salt air in coastal area

Severe

Concrete surfaces exposed to severe rain, alternate wetting and drying or occa- sional freezing whilst wet or severe condensation. Concrete completely immersed in sea water Concrete exposed to coastal environment

Very severe

Concrete surfaces exposed to sea water spray, corrosive fumes or severe freezing conditions whilst wet Concrete in contact with or buried under aggressive sub-soil/ground water

Extreme

Surface of members in tidal zone Members in direct contact with liquid/solid aggressive chemicals

Table:IS-5 Minimum cement content, Maximum water-cement ratio and minimum grade of concrete for different exposure with normal weight aggregates of 20mm nominal maximum size

Exposure

 

Plain concrete

Reinforced concrete

 
 

Minimum

Max. free

Minimum

Minimum

Max. free

Minimum

cement

water-cement

 

grade of

cement

water-

 

grade of

content

ratio

concrete

content

cement

concrete

kg/m3

 

kg/m3

ratio

 

Mild

220

0.60

-

300

0.55

M

20

Moderate

240

0.60

M

15

300

0.50

M

25

Severe

250

0.50

M

20

320

0.45

M

30

Very severe

260

0.45

M

20

340

0.45

M

35

Extreme

280

0.40

M

25

360

0.40

M

40

Notes

1. Cement content prescribed in this table is irrespective of the grades of cement and it is inclusive of additions mentioned in 5.2. The additions such as fly ash or ground granulated blast furnace slag may be taken in to account in the concrete composition with respect to the cement content and water-cement ratio if the suitability is established and as long as the maximum amounts taken in to account do not exceed the limit of pozzolana and slag specified in IS 455 respectively.

2. Minimum grade for plain concrete under mild exposure condition is not specified

 

Table: 5(a) Adjustments to minimum cement contents for Agg. other than 20mm Nominal Max. Size

Nominal max. aggregate size

Adjustments to minimum

(mm)

cement contents in Table-5 (kg/m3)

10

+40

20

0

40

-30

Table: IS-6 Limits of chloride content of concrete (Clause 8.2. 5.2)

Type or use of concrete

Maximum total Acid soluble Chloride content expressed as kg/m3 of concrete

Concrete containing metal and steam cured at elevated temperature and pre-stressed concrete

0.4

Reinforced concrete or plain concrete containing embedded metal

0.6

Concrete not containing embedded metal or any material requiring protection from chloride

3.0

TABLE: IS-7 (a) Requirements for Prestressed Concrete Exposed to Sulphate Attack

Class

Contraction of Sulphates, Expressed as So3

Type of Cement

Requirements for Dense Fully Compacted Concrete Made With Aggregates Complying With IS-383 1970

 

In Soil

In ground

 

Min. cement

Maximum free w/c ratio

water (ppm)

content

 

Total

SO3 in 2:1 water ex- tract g/l

       

SO3 (%)

1

< 0.2

-

< 30

OPC or Portland slag cement

280

0.55

2

0.2 0.5

-

30 to 120

OPC (see note5) or Portland slag cement

330

0.50

3

0.5 1.0

1.9 to 3.1

120 to 250

OPC (see note5)

330

0.50

Note 1: this table applies only to concrete made with 20 mm aggregates complying with the

requirements of IS 383 1970 * placed in near neutral ground waters of pH 6 to 9, containing

naturally occurring sulfates but not contaminants, such as ammonium salts, for 40 mm

aggregates the value maybe reduced by about 15% and for 12.5mm aggregates, the value

may be increased by about 15%, concrete prepared from ordinary Portland cement would

not be recommended in acidic conditions (pH 6 or less).

Note 2: the cement contents given in class 2 are the minimum recommended. For SO 3

contents near the upper limits of class 2, cement contents above this minimum are advised.

Note 3: where the total SO 3 in col 2 exceeds 0.5%, then a 2:1 water extract may result in

a lower site classification if much of the sulfate is present as low solubility calcium sulfate.

Note 4: for severe conditions such as thin sections under hydrostatic pressure on one side

only and sections partly immersed, considerations should be given to a further reduction

of w/c ratio, and if necessary an increase in the cement content to ensure the degree of

workability needed for full compaction and thus minimum permeability.

Note 5: for class 3 concrete , ordinary Portland cement with the additional requirement that

C 3 A content be not more than 5 % and 2C 3 A + C 4 AF ( or its solid solution 4CaO,

Al 2 O 3 ,Fe 2 O 3 + 2CaO, Fe 2 O 3 ) not more than 20% is recommended. If this cement is used

for class 2 concrete, minimum cement content may be reduced to 310 kg/m 3 .

Step 3: Estimate air content from Table-IS8, for the maximum size of the aggregate used.

Step 4: Determine the water content and percentage of sand in total aggregate by absolute volume from the Tables-IS9 and IS10 for medium and high strength concretes, respec- tively, for the following conditions:

i) Crushed (angular) coarse aggregate

ii) Fine aggregate consisting of natural sand conforming to zone-II of Table-4, IS:383-1970, in saturated surface dry condition

iii) Water -cement ratio of 0.60 and 0.35 for medium and high strength concretes respectively

iv) Workability corresponds to compacting factor of 0.80

TABLE: IS-7(b) MINIMUM CEMENT CONTENT REQUIRED IN CEMENT CONCRETE TO ENSURE DURABILITY UNDER SPECIFIC CONDITIONS OF EXPOSURE FOR PSC

EXPOSURE

MINIMUM

MAXIMUM W/C

CEMENT

RATIO

CONTENT

(kg/m3)

(1)

(2)

(3)

Mild: for example, completely protected against weather or aggressive conditions, except for a brief period of exposure to normal weather conditions during construction

300

0.65

Moderate: for example, sheltered from heavy and wind driven rain and against freezing, whilst saturated with water, buried concrete in soil and concrete continuously under water

300

0.55

Severe: for example, exposed to sea water, alternate wetting and drying and to freezing whilst wet subjected to heavy condensa- tion or corrosion fumes

360

0.45

NOTE: the minimum cement content is based on 20mm nominal size. For 40mm aggregate, minimum cement content be reduced by about 10 % under severe exposure conditions only, for 12.5 mm aggregate the minimum cement content should be increased by 10 % under moderate conditions only.

TABLE: IS-8 Approximate Entrapped Air Content

Nominal Maximum Size Of Aggregates (mm)

Entrapped Air, As Percentage of Volume of Concrete

10

3.0

20

2.0

40

1.0

TABLE : IS-9 Approximate Sand and Water Contents/ Cubic Metre of Concrete W/C = 0.60, Workability = 0.80 CF: (applicable for concrete up to grade M35)

Maximum Size of Aggregate

Water Content Per Cu-

Sand as Percent of Total Aggregate by Absolute Volume

(mm)

bic metre of Concrete

10

208

40

20

186

35

40

165

30

TABLE : IS-10 Approximate Sand and Water Contents/ Cubic Metre of Concrete W/C = 0.60, Workability = 0.80 CF: (applicable for concrete above grade M35)

Maximum Size of Aggregate

Water Content per cubic meter of

Sand as Percent of Total Aggregate by Absolute Volume

(mm)

Concrete (kg)

10

200

26

20

190

23

NOTE: Water content corresponding to saturated surface dry aggregate.

Step-5: For other conditions of workability, water-cement ratio, grading of fine aggre-

gate and for rounded aggregates, adjustments in water content and percentage of sand in

total aggregate are made as per Table-IS11.

TABLE: IS-11 Adjustment Of Values in Water Content and Sand Percentage for Other

Conditions

Maximum Size of Aggregate (mm)

Adjustments Required in

 

Water Content

Percent Sand in Total Aggregate

For sand confirming to grading zone I, Zone III or Zone IV of Table 4, IS : 383-1970

0

-1.5 % for Zone I and Zone II -3.0 % for Zone IV

Increase or decrease in the value of compacting factor by 0.1 Each 0.05 increase or decrease in water cement ratio For rounded aggregate

+_ 3 percent

0

0

+_ 1 %

-15 kg / m3

-7 %

Step-6: The cement content is calculated from the water-cement ratio and the final water

content arrived after adjustment, then checked against the minimum cement con-

tent required for durability (Tables IS4 to IS7), and adopt greater of the two values.

Step-7: With quantities of water and cement per unit volume of concrete and percentage of sand in total aggregate already determined, the coarse aggregate and fine aggregates content per unit volume of concrete are calculated from the following equations:

of concrete are calculated from the following equations: where, V is the absolute volume of fresh

where, V is the absolute volume of fresh concrete (excluding the air content, i.e.1m 3 - volume of entrapped air), S c =specific gravity of cement, W= mass of water (kg ) per m 3 of concrete, C= mass of cement (kg) per cu.m. of concrete, p = ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume. f a , C a = total masses of fine and coarse aggregates by absolute volume. S fa , S ca = specific gravities of fine and coarse aggregates (saturated sur- face dry condition)

Table: IS-12 Percentage Passing for Single Sized Aggregate of Nominal Size(IS383-1970)

 

IS sieve

 

Percentage Passing for Single Sized Aggregate of Nominal Size

 

Designation

 
   

63 mm

 

40 mm

 

20

mm

16 mm

12.5 mm

10 mm

80

mm

 

100

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

63

mm

85 100

 

100

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

40

mm

0

30

85 - 100

100

   

-

 

-

 

-

20

mm

0

- 5

0

- 20

85

- 100

100

 

-

 

-

16

mm

 

-

 

-

 

-

85 - 100

 

100

 

-

12.5

mm

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

85 - 100

 

100

10

mm

0

- 5

0

- 5

0

- 20

0

- 30

0

45

85 - 100

4.75

mm

 

-

 

-

0

5

0

- 5

0

- 10

0

20

2.36

mm

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

0

- 5

Table: IS-13 Percentage Passing for Graded Aggregate of Nominal Size (IS 383-1970)

 

IS sieve Designation

Percentage Passing for Graded Aggregate of Nominal Size

 

40 mm

 

20

mm

16 mm

12.5 mm

80

mm

100

 

-

-

-

63

mm

 

-

 

-

-

-

40

mm

95

- 100

100

 

-

-

20

mm

30

- 70

95

- 100

100

100

16

mm

-

 

-

90 - 100

-

12.5

mm

-

 

-

-

90 - 100

10

mm

10

- 35

25 - 55

30 - 70

40 - 85

4.75

mm

0

- 5

0

- 10

0 10

0 - 10

2.36

mm

-

 

-

-

-

Table: IS-14 Coarse Aggregate for Mass Concrete (IS383-1970)

Class and Size

IS sieve Destination

Percentage Passing

Very Large, 160 80 mm

160 mm

90

100

80

mm

0

10

Large, 80 40 mm

80

mm

90

100

40

mm

0

10

Medium, 40 20 mm

40

mm

90

100

20

mm

0

10

Small, 20 4.75 mm

20

mm

90

100

4.75 mm

0

10

Table: IS-15 Grading requirements of All-In-Aggregates (IS 383)

IS Sieve Designation

Percentage Passing for All-in-Aggregate of Nominal Size

   

40 mm

 

20 mm

80

mm

 

100

 

-

40

mm

95

100

 

100

20

mm

45

75

95

100

4.75 mm

25

45

30

50

600

micron

8

30

10

30

150

micron

0

6

 

0 - 6

Table-IS-16 Fine Aggregates limits for Grading in Zones I to IV (IS 383)

IS sieve Designation

 

Percentage passing for

 
 

Grading

Grading

Grading

Grading

 

Zone I

Zone II

Zone III

Zone IV

10 mm

100

100

100

100

4.75

mm

90

- 100

90

100

90

- 100

95

- 100

2.36

mm

60

95

75

100

85

100

95

100

1.18

mm

30

70

55

90

75

100

90

100

600

micron

15

34

35

59

60

79

80

100

300

micron

5 20

8

30

12

40

15

50

150

micron

0 10

0

10

0 10

0 - 15

1.3.3 British Mix Method Replaces traditional British Mix Design method of Road Note no.4. Discarding the use of specific grading curves of the combined aggregates. It replaces the mix design tables correlating water- cement ratio, aggregate-cement ratio, maximum size of aggregate, type of aggregates of different shapes (rounded or irregular), degree of workability and overall grading curves of the combined aggregates in earlier Road Note-No.4. Uses the relationship between water-cement ratio and Compressive strength of concrete depending upon the type of cement and type of aggregates used. Water content required to give various levels of workability is determined for two types of aggregates (crushed and uncrushed). Degree of workability very low, low, medium and high have now been referred in terms of specific values of slump and Vee-Bee time. Expresses the maximum proportions in terms of quanti- ties of materials per unit volume of concrete in line with European and American Practice. (Compressive strength ---> based on cube strength).

Step-1: Determine water-cement ratio for target mean strength. Step-2: Compare with maximum water-cement ratio specified for durability and choose the lower of these two values. Step-3: Determine the water content, depending on the type and maximum size of aggregate to give a concrete of specified slump or Vee-Bee time.

Step-4: Calculate the cement content from water-cement ratio and water content of the

mix.

Step-5: Obtain wet density of concrete, depending upon the water content and the relative density of the combined aggregate.

Step-6: Determine the total aggregate content (saturated surface dry condition) by subtracting the cement and water content from wet density of concrete

Step-7: Determine the proportions of fine and coarse aggregate, depending on the water-cement ratio, maximum size of aggregate, workability level and grading zone of fine aggregate.