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Husnain-Al-Bustam,Md. Zakaria Mahbub,M. M. Suvro Shahriar,Mirja Shafiqur Rahman,Md.

Imran Hossain/ International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 1,Jan-Feb 2012, pp.614-617

SOLAR ENERGY HOME SYSTEM FOR THE RURAL AREAS OF BANGLADESH


Husnain-Al-Bustam1, Md. Zakaria Mahbub2, M. M. Suvro Shahriar3, Mirja Shafiqur Rahman4, Md. Imran Hossain5
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Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur, Bangladesh Department of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur, Bangladesh 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh 4 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur, Bangladesh 5 Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, American International University- Bangladesh Dhaka, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
Energy and water are the keys to modern life and basis necessary for sustainable economic development. As a developing country we do not have much resource, though our government has the desire of supplying electricity, water and natural gas for all people. Due to the resource shortage it is not possible to provide electricity, water and natural gas for the rural people. So here we have developed a model that will help us to meet the solution of this problem. The name of our model is Solar Energy Home System (SEHS). According to this model each and every home in the villages will have a solar panel, a solar cooker and solar bottle bulb. KEYWORDS Solar cooker, solar bottle bulb, Solar panel, SEHS. of electricity and natural gas in the rural areas will support Bangladeshs efforts to raise levels of social development and economic growth. Keeping in mind all these facts we have developed Solar Energy Home System abbreviated as SEHS which we have mentioned in the abstract. The renewable energy technologies are suitable for the rural & remote areas where energy is often crucial in human development. It can directly contribute to poverty alleviation by providing energy needed for creating business & employment and make indirect contributions by proving energy for cooking, space heating, lightening etc. SEHS model consists of solar panel, solar cooker, solar bottle bulb and solar water heater for each and every family. In the later section we have design a cost effective solar system. The system is capable of driving two CFL bulb six hours in a day. The solar bottle bulb could be used at the day time in case of the need of light inside the room at a free of cost. Previously we have mentioned the hindrance of bringing natural gas line to the rural areas of Bangladesh and according to expert opinion the supply of the natural gas may run out by 2015. Moreover almost 80% of the total electricity has been producing by using the natural gas. Nowadays interruption of natural gas supply has been demonstrated specially in the urban areas. Besides the villagers are using the dry woods as a fuel for cooking purpose. To meet their daily demand they are cutting down vast areas of forests which are a serious loss for Bangladesh both environmentally and economically. So considering all these facts we are proposing in our SEHS model solar cooker for the cooking purpose. It has been people are suffering acutely for the scarcity of pure drinking water especially in the rural areas. By utilizing solar energy the villagers could live a healthy and peaceful life.

1. INTRODUCTION
Energy is the fuel for growth, an essential requirement for economic and social development. By 2050 the demand for energy could double or even triple as the global population grows and developing countries expand their economics. Approximately one-third of the worlds population lives in the rural regions without access to the electric grid and about half of these people live without access to safe and clean water. Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in south Asia. Efforts to achieve Bangladesh's macroeconomic goals have been problematic mostly due to various factors including the country's large population, power shortages etc. [1]. The main economic source of Bangladesh and the main occupation of the rural people is agriculture and Almost 76 % of total population in Bangladesh living the village without electricity and natural gas because the cost of bringing utility via transmission and distribution lines to no electrified villages is great. The access

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Husnain-Al-Bustam,Md. Zakaria Mahbub,M. M. Suvro Shahriar,Mirja Shafiqur Rahman,Md. Imran Hossain/ International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 1,Jan-Feb 2012, pp.614-617
earth between 15 and 35 latitude north and south. Fortunately, Bangladesh is situated between 2043 north and 2638 north latitude and as such Bangladesh is in a very favourable position in respect of the utilization of solar energy [3].Here, we will design a PV module for a small house in the rural areas of Bangladesh. As for example: A house has the following electrical appliance usage. Two 5 Watt CFL bulb used for 6 hours per day and One 60 Watt fan used for 4 hours per day. The system will be powered by 12 Vdc, 110 Wp solar panel [2]. 2.3.1. DETERMINATION OF POWER CONSUMPTION DEMANDS[2] Total appliance use = (5 W x2 x 6 hours) + (60 W x 4 hours) = 300Wh/day Total PV panels energy needed =300 x 1.3 (the energy lost in the system = 1.3) = 390Wh/day. 2.3.2. SIZE OF THE PV PANEL[2] Total Wp of PV panel capacity needed = 390 / 3.4 (panel generation factor = 3.43) = 114.70Wp Number of PV panels needed = 114.70 / 110 = 1.00327 modules Actual requirement = 1 modules So this system should be powered by at least 1 modules of 110 Wp solar panel.

2. SOLAR ENERGY
Solar energy is the energy received by the earth from the sun. This energy is in the form of solar radiation which makes the production of solar electricity possible. Photons contained in this solar radiation makes the generation of electricity from the suns rays possible. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favourable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. 2.1. Solar PV System A photovoltaic cell (PV) is a device that converts sun light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. This cell directly converts sunlight into electricity. 2.2. MAJOR SYSTEM COMPONENTS Solar PV system includes different components that should be selected according to our system type, site location and applications. The major components for solar PV system are solar charge controller, inverter, battery bank, auxiliary energy sources and loads (appliances) [2,8,9]. PV module- converts sunlight into DC electricity. Solar charge controller -regulates the voltage and current coming from the PV panels going to battery and prevents battery overcharging and prolongs the battery life. Inverter converts DC output of PV panels or wind turbine into a clean AC current for AC appliances or fed back into grid line. Battery stores energy for supplying to electrical appliances when there is a demand. Load is electrical appliances that connected to solar PV system such as lights, radio, TV, computer, refrigerator, etc. Auxiliary energy sources - is diesel generator or other renewable energy sources. 2.3. SOLAR PV MODULE DESIGN The amount of electricity generated from a PV module depends on the amount of the sun light available to it. The greatest amount of sun light is available between two broad bands encircling the

2.3.3. SOLAR POWER INVERTER SIZING [2] Total Watt of all appliances = 10 + 60 =70 W For safety, the solar power inverter should be considered 25-30% bigger size. The solar power inverter size should be about 120 W or greater. 2.3.4. PV SOLAR SYSTEM BATTERY SIZING Total appliances use = (5 W x2x 6 hours) + (60 W x 4 hours) Nominal battery voltage = 12 V Days of autonomy = 2 days Battery capacity = [(5 Wx2 x 6 hours) + (60 W x 4 hours)] x2/(0.85 x 0.6 x 12) Total Ampere-hours required = 98.039 Ah So the battery should be rated 12 V 100 Ah for 2 day autonomy.

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Husnain-Al-Bustam,Md. Zakaria Mahbub,M. M. Suvro Shahriar,Mirja Shafiqur Rahman,Md. Imran Hossain/ International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 1,Jan-Feb 2012, pp.614-617
2.3.5. SOLAR REGULATOR SIZING [2] Solar panel specification Pm = 110 Wp Vm = 16.7 Vdc Im= 6.6 A Voc = 20.7 A Isc= 7.5 A Solar regulator rating = (2 strings x 7.5 A) x 1.3 = 19.5 A So the solar regulator should be rated 20 A at 12 V or greater. 2.4. SOLAR BOTTLE BULB Solar bottle bulb is a simple bottle bulb where usually a soda bottle is filled with a solution of purified water and bleach. The bottle is inserted halfway through a hole drilled in the metal roof and its sides are sealed with rubber sealant. The whole deal looks like a bulb through a sun roof. It can provide light like a 55 watt bulb would do. The chlorine and bleach poisons the water to keep molds from developing so the solution can last up to five years. The clear and purified water helps disperse the light through refraction, so the light is not concentrated. This bulb never heats up. Elements required to build a solar bottle bulb are PET soda bottle (1.5 litter), Galvanized Iron (GI) sheet, Rubber sealant, Bleach (10 ml) Filtered Water [14,15]. This sort of bulb can be used where the houses are built very close to each other like slums in Bangladesh. Using these bulbs we can reduce the electric bills which come from the electric bulbs during the day time. Moreover only Taka 50-100 is worth installing a solar bulb. So it is cheaper. 2.5. SOLAR COOKER A solar cooker is a device which uses the energy of sunlight to heat food or drink to cook it or sterilize it. In Bangladesh people use the natural gas, electricity, or the firewood to cook. So it gives an extra pressure on the natural gases or the electricity. Moreover using firewood for cooking purpose cost a high amount of trees in every single day. So a solar cooker can be a good alternative against these odds [8, 9]. Solar cookers do not produce any smoke as a product of combustion. The indoor concentration of health-damaging pollutants from a typical wood-fired cooking stove creates carbon monoxide and other noxious fumes at anywhere between seven and 500 times over the allowable limits. Fire-based cooking also produces ashes and soot, which make the home dirtier. However, any type of cooking, including solar cooking, can evaporate grease, oil, etc. from the food into the air. So solar cookers are more environmental friendly than other any cookers. Institute of fuel Research and Development (IFRD) of BCSIR and Centre for mass Education in Science (CMES) are engaged in the development and dissemination of solar cookers. A low cost ref lector type cooker developed by IFRD is a spunaluminium parabolic reflector. It is light- 9weight (2-3 Kgs), cheap and simple to construct, but the disadvantages are that it needs manual sun tracking frequently and the reflectivity deteriorates rather rapidly and cooking is interrupted by cloudy and hazy conditions [5]. On a bright sunny day a 42 inch aperture spun aluminium cooker takes about three hours for cooking three items (rice, fish or meat, pulses) for a family of 5-6 members in Bangladesh. So it is obvious that the solar cooker can be very effective to reduce the load on the conventional fuel. Since sunlight is free and it is our good fortune that Bangladesh is a place where a substantial amount of sunlight can be obtained. So we can count on it.

3. CONCLUSIONS
Energy is the key determinant factor of socio economic development of country. At the same time Bangladesh is one of most densely populated countries of the world. The population growth rate of Bangladesh is 1.566%. Most of the people here are villagers and this huge amount of people is not getting the facility of electricity and natural gas. So our developed system could be great solution of this problem. Now question comes about the costing of the total system. The answer is straight forward. As the villagers are poor we have managed to build the system within 50 USD that is equivalent to 3800 BDT. It takes only 50-100 taka to build a solar bottle bulb. The cost for fabricate a

Fig 1: A solar bottle bulb is glowing in a room [14]

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Husnain-Al-Bustam,Md. Zakaria Mahbub,M. M. Suvro Shahriar,Mirja Shafiqur Rahman,Md. Imran Hossain/ International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 1,Jan-Feb 2012, pp.614-617
solar cooker is almost 9 USD which equal to 560 BDT. So our proposed system could be built within approximately 4500 BDT that is equal to 60 USD. As the villagers are poor, considering their economic condition we have talked with some NGOs. They have assured us that they will help us on this matter. The idea is that they will give loan to the villagers to buy the SEHS and they will give time of five years to repay the money without any interest. They are doing that as a part of their social responsibility. We can say that our proposed system is good enough to serve the energy need of the poor villagers of Bangladesh. And as we are graduating students we have wish to establish a research centre and industry to produce the SEHS with the help of local technology with reduced cost after the graduation. [7] http://www.pvsolarchina.com/guide-manualof-design-pv-solar-system.html [8] Rofiqul Islam, M., M. Rabiul Islam and M. RafiqulAlam Beg, 2008, Renewable energy resources and technologies practice in Bangladesh, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(2): 299-343. [9] Solanki, Chetan Singh. Renewable Energy Technologies: Practical Guide for Beginners 1st Edition, Prentice-Hall of India Pvt.Ltd, ISBN :8120334345 [10] World Bank. 1996. Rural Energy and Development: Improving Energy Supplies for 2 Billion People.Washington, DC. [11] Martinot, Eric, and KilianReiche. 1999. Regulatory Approaches to Off-Grid Electrification and Renewable Energy: Case Studies from Developing Countries (draft). Washington, DC: World Bank. [12] Boom, S. (2005), Affordable lighting for people living in rural areas of Cambodia. Design of a solar lantern for the Cambodian market.Graduation report, TU Delft. [13] Renewable energy report was prepared by Prof. Dr. Neem ChandraBhowmik, Director Renewable Energy Research Centre, University of Dhakaunder a consultancy assignment given by the Asian and Pacific Centre forTransfer of Technology (APCTT). [14] http://www.pinoybisnes.com/businessideas/how-to-make-solar-bottle-light-bulb/ [15] http://asia.cnet.com/blogs/solar-bottle-bulbcheaper-than-thomas-edisons-invention62211212.htm

REFERENCES
[1] KhairulAnam, Husnain-Al-Bustam, Power Crisis & Its Solution through Renewable Energy in Bangladesh, Journal of Selected Areas in Renewable and Sustainable Energy (JRSE), September Edition, 2011, pp, 13-19. [2] http://www.wagonmaker.com/script_calculator .html [3] http://www.banglapedia.org/httpdocs/HT/R_01 75.HTM [4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cooker [5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cooker [6] http://www.leonics.com/support/article2_12j/a rticles2_12j_en.php

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