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H E B R E W

This work was compiled and pub lished with


the support of the Office of Education,
Department of Health, Education and Welfare,
United States of America.

JOSEPH A. REIF HANNA LEVINSON

F O R E IG N SE R V IC E IN ST IT U T E
WASHINGTON, D.C.

1965

P A R T M E N T
S T A T

O F

F O R E I G N S E R V I C E I N S T I T U T E B A S I C C O U R S E S E R I E S Edited by
LLOYD B. SWIFT
P R E F A C E

H*br*w Basic Course was produced by the Foreign Service Institute with the support of the Office of Education,
Department of Health, Education and Welfare, under the National Defense Education Act.

In its present form, the course is based on classroom experience with Government personnel whose duties require a
knowledge of spoken Hebrew, It is designed to provide material sufficient to enable the student to obtain mini- mum
professional competence both in speaking and in reading modern Hebrew.
The linguist in charge of the project was Joseph A. Reif, Scientific Lin guist on the staff of the Department of Near
Eastern and African Languages, The Hebrew material was principally written by Mrs, llanna Levinson, language instructor.
Tape recordings were made in the FSI language laboratory, under the direction of Mr. Gary Alley, by Mrs. Levinson, Mr.
Menachem Dov Heller, & Mrs. Rivka Behiri, language instructors. The illustrations were drawn and con- tributed by Mr. Irving
Bernstein of New York.
Mr. Heller contributed valuable suggestions as a result of his experience using drafts of the course in class. Mrs.
Behiri not only typed the final version in English, Hebrew and transcription, but also contributed many improvements in
style and format as the work progressed.

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

HEBREW
CONTENTS

School of Language and Area Studies Foreign Service


Institute

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction: Purpose

Style of Hebrew Used


Methods and Procedure
Material
Drills
Translations
Tests
Readings
Summary

xiv
xv
xv
xvii
xx
xxii
xxiii
xxiv
xxiv

Pronunciation: Transcription
Consonants
Consonant Clusters
Vowels
Stress and Intonation

xxv
xxvi
xxix
xxx ii
xxxiv

Tape Recordings

Basic Conversation:

Grammar Notes:

xxxvi

1.
1
1.
2
13
1.
4
15
L.
6
17

Unit 1.
Greetings (Two men meet)

Greetinqs (Two women meet)

Additional Vocabulary

Classroom Expressions

Masculine and Feminine

Pronominal Suffixes - Singular Set


Alternate Forms of Nouns before Suffixes

1
06

1
1

Unit 2.

Grammar Notes: Review

1
07

Review Conversations

Basic Conversation:

22Introductions (Two women are introduced)


23Additional Vocabulary
24Equational Sentences
2-5 The Direct Object Preposition /et ~ ot-/

Conversations
21Introductions (Two
men are introduced)

23

1
2
1
4

BASIC

COURSE

HEBREW
CONTENTS
Unit 3
Basic Conversation: 3*1 Introductions, contd.
3-2 Introductions, contd.
3.3 Additional Vocabulary
Grammar Notes: 3^ Alternate Forms of Nouns
3-5 Dual Number in Nouns
3.6 Pronominal Suffixes -

24

(Two men) 15
(Two women) 16
16
17
17
Plural Set 17

CONTENTS

Basic Conversation:

HEBREW

Review
Conversa
tions
20Unit
4.

2
1

Grammar Notes:
4.1Housing Arrangements
(Two men
Review Conversations speaking
)
4.2Housi
ng
Arrangem
ents
(Two
women

2
2

g
2
7
27
28

Review Conversations
speaking
)
4.3Addit
ional
Vocabula
ry
4.4The
Preposit
ion
/Mel/
,of"
4.5The
Preposit
ion
/avur/
for, on
behalf
of'
4.6Contr
action
of /le- ha-/
'to the'

Unit 5
B
a
s
i
c
C
o
n

versa
tion:
Gramm
ar
Notes
:
51Sp
eaki
ng

VI

BASIC COURSE

CONTENTS

H
e
b
r
e
w
(
M
e
n
)
5
2S
p
e
a
k
i
n
g
H
e
b
r
e
w
(
W
o
m
e
n
)

HEBREW

53Pa
st
Tens
e of
Verb
s Firs
t
and
Seco
nd
Pers
ons
54Al
tern
atio
n
/mi~
me-/

from
' 55
Cons
onan
t
Alte
rnat
ion
/ b
~ v/

BASIC COURSE

29
30
3
1
3
6
36
37

Unit 6.

_________
(A man
asks a
man)

_______
39
62Asking
Directio
ns (A
woman
asks a
woman) 40
63Additi
onal
vocabula
ry 4!
64Stark

VI

CONTENTS

HEBREW

Imperati
ves 42
65Gentle
imperati
ves 45
66Negati
ve
Imperati
ves 47
67Contra
ction of
/be - ha-/
at the,
in the'
51
68Altern
ate
Forms
/ve- ~
u-/
'and'
69Loss
of Final
Basic Conversation:
sking Directions (i
Grammar Notes:

Review Conversations

Stem
Vowel in
Verbs 51

U
n
i
t
7

B
a
s
i

52

sati
on:

Gram
mar
Note
s:
7.1
Wand

Review Conversations
c
C
o
n
v
e
r

erin
g
thro
ugh
Tel
Aviv
(spe
akin

VI

BASIC COURSE

CONTENTS

g
t
o

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

spea
king
to
woma
n

m
passerby)
a
7-3
n
Voca
passerby)
bula
7
ry
Dril
2
l
W
7.4
a
Gend
n
er
d
and
e
Numb
r
er i
Pres
n
ent
g
Tens
t
e
h
Verb
r
s
o
and
u
Adjectives
g
7h
5
T
/t/
e
l
Suff
A
ix
v
Femi
i
nine
v
Form
(
s

Unit 8.
B
a
s
i
c
C
o
n
v
e
r
s
a
t
i
o
n

5
3

5
4

Gra
mma
r
Not
es:
Rev
iew
Con
ver
sat
ion
s
51Wa
nder

5
5
5
7
5
8
6
2

VI

CONTENTS

i
n
g
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
T
e
l
A
v
i
v
(
c
o
n
t
d

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

.)
52Wa
nder
ing
Thro
ugh
Tel
Aviv
(con
td.)
53Vo
cabu
lary
Dril
l
54/
a/ Suff
ix
Femi
nine
Form
s

6
3
6
4
6
5
6
6
7
0
VI

BASIC COURSE HEBREW CONTENTS


Unit 9
Basic Conversation:
Grammar Notes:
Review Conversations

Unit 10.
Basic Conversation:
Grammar Notes: Review

Unit 11.

9.1 Wandering through Tel Aviv (contd.)

9-2
9.3
9-4
95
77

73
Wandering through Tel Aviv (contd.)
73
Vocabulary Drills
74
The Construct State of Nouns
75
Definite Article /ha-/ Prefixed to Adjectives
80

conversations
101Wandering through Tel Aviv (concluded)
8
102Wandering through Tel Aviv (concluded) 10- 1 3
Vocabulary Drills
8
104The Relative Conjunction /e-/
2
105Adjectives used to Modify Verbs
8
3
8
4

86

Basic Conversation: 11.1 Dinner Invitation


89 8
112Additional Vocabulary
90 7
113Vocabulary Drills
90
114Cardial Numbers 92 Grammar Notes: 11.5 Contraction
of Initial Syllables
93
11.6 /yeS li/, /eyn li/
93
Review Conversations
95

Unit 12
Basic Conversation: 12.1 Friday Evening Dinner
97
122Additional Vocabulary
97
123Vocabulary Drills
98 Grammar Notes: 12.4 Cardial
Numbers with Nouns
99
12.5 Ordinal Numbers
163
Review conversations
10b

Unit 13.
Basic Conversation

Review conversations

13-1 Friday Evening Dinner (contd.)


107
132Additional Vocabulary
108
133Vocabulary Drills
109
Grammar Notes: 13*4 Consonant Alternation /k ~ x/ 111
13.5 Formation of the Future Tense
111
13.t Use of the Future Tense
113
122

vll
Unit 14.

BASIC COURSE
Basic Conversation:

Grammar Notes:
Review Conversations

HEBREW CONTENTS
14.1
14.2
14-3
14.4
14-5
14.6
14-7

At the Grocery Store


Additional Vocabulary
Vocabulary Drills
Cardinal Numbers, 20 - 1000
Colors
/o ~ u/ Alternation in Related Forms
Review of Negative Sentences

125
126
128
129
131
132
133
136

Unit 15
Basic Conversation:

Rapid Response Drill


Review Conversations

15*1 At a Coffee House


152Additional Vocabulary
153Vocabulary
141
Grammar
Notes:
145
15-5 Patterns Occurring with Roots
156Alternating Radicals
157Alternating Patterns
15-8 Designation of Patterns
I5.9 Designation of Radicals

154

139
140
Drills
Roots
145
147
148
148
149
150
151

Unit 16.
Basic Conversation:

16.1 Conversation in the Coffee House


153
16.2 Additional Vocabulary
154
16-3 Vocabulary
Drills
155 Grammar Notes: 16.4 Third Person Past Tense
Verb
Forms
156
Rapid
Response
Drill
163
Review
Conversations
164

Unit 17.
Basic Conversation:

17.1 At the Post Office


172Additional Vocabulary
173Vocabulary Drills
Grammar Notes: 17-4 Past Tense of pi'el
I7.5 Past Tense of kal fpa'al)
lf.6 Past Tense of hitpa'el
177Past Tense of hif'il
178Past Tense of lamed hey Verbs
Rapid Response Drill
Review Conversations

167
168
168
170
170
172
173
176
178
179

18.1 Telling Time


182Additional Vocabulary
183Vocabulary Drills
184Clock Drills
Grammar Notes: 18-5 The Expected Future
18.6 /matay Se-/

181
182
183
189
19C
191
191
192

Unit 18.
Basic Conversation:

Rapid Response Drill


Review Conversations

lx

CONTENTS
COURSE

HEBREW

Unit 19
Basic Conversation:
Grammar Notes:

BASIC

Review Conversations
191Calling Long Distance
195
192Additional Vocabulary
196
193Vocabulary Drills
196
194Adverbs 199 19-5 The nif'al Conjugation - Present
and Past
Tenses 200
19-6 Present Tense of the nif'al
20
19-6
____
1
19.7 Past Tense of the nif'al
20
4
209

Unit 20.
Basic

Conversations:

Grammar Notes:

Unit 21.
Basic

Conversation:

Grammar Notes:

Unit 22.
Rapid Response Drill
Review Conversations Basic

Rapid Response Drill Review Conversations


201Hot Weather
202Cold Weather
203Additional Vocabulary
204Vocabulary Drills
205Further Remarks on lamed hey Verbs
206Verbs with Initial Radical y 20-7 Loss
of n before Consonants

21
1

21
2
213
21
4
21
6
211Going to the Theater
21
212Vocabulary Drills 21-3 Generalizations
8
214The pi'el Conjugation
220
215lamed hey Verbs in the pi'el Conjugation
22
216Stem Vowel Variations in the pi'el
1
217Verbal Nouns of the pi'el
22
223
218The pu'al Conjugation
2
224
229
230
236
237
238
Grammar Notes:
239
Rapid
Response
Drill
Review 240
Conversations
241

Conversation:

Unit 23.
Basic Conversation:

Grammar Notes: Rapid Response

221At the Box Office


222Additional Vocabulary
22-3 The kal (pa'al) Conjugation 22.4 Verbal
Noun of the kal

Drill Review Conversations


231Before the Play
232Additional Vocabulary
233Vocabulary Drills
234Verb Drills
235The nif'al Conjugation

vlll

243
244
245
256
257
257

259
26
0
26
0
26
1
26
4
27
5
27
5

CONTENTS
COURSE
Unit 24.
Basic conversation:

Grammar Notes:

HEBREW
Rapid Response Drill Review
conversations
241Discussing the Show
242Additional Vocabulary
243Vocabulary Drills
244Verb Drills
245The hitpa'el Conjugation

27
7
27
8 2
79

281
28
3

288

Unit 25
Basic Conversation:

25-1 Leaving the Cafe


291
252Additional
Vocabulary
292
253Vocabulary
Drills
292
254Verb
Drills
293
Grammar
Notes:
25*5
The
hif'il
Conjugation

29

256Verbal
Nouns
of
the
hif'il
306
257The hof'al conjugation
307
Rapid
Response
Drill
309
Review
Conversations
309

Unit 26.
Basic Conversation:

Rapid Response Drill


Review Conversations

26.1 Military Service


311
262Additional
Vocabulary
312
263vocabulary
Drill
312
264verb
Drills
313
265Members of the Family
322
322

Unit 27
Basic Conversation:
326
326
327
Grammar Notes:
have"

27-1 At the Barbershop 325


27.2 Additional vocabulary
27-3

Vocabulary

Drills

27.4

Verb

Drills

27.5 /haya/ "he was"


27.6 "I had", "I

33

33O
will

28
9

BASIC

CONTENTS
COURSE

HEBREW

332
Rapid Response Drill
Review Conversations

335
335

Unit 28.
Basic Conversation:

28.1 At the Cleaner's


337
282Additional
Vocabulary
339
283Vocabulary
Drills
339
284verb
Drills
339
285Object
Suffixes
of
Verbs
346
Rapid
Response
Drill
349
Review
Conversations
349

34

BASIC

BASIC COURSE
Unit 29
Bas
ic
Con
ver
sat
ion
:

Rap
id
Res
pon
se
Dri
ll
Rev
iew
Con

Unit 30
Bas
ic
Con
ver
sat
ion
:

Gra
mma
r
Not
es:
Ra
pi
d
Re
sp
on
se
Dr
il
l
Re
vi

HEBRE
W

versa
tions
29-1
At
the
Shoem
aker'
s 292
Addit
ional
Vocab
ulary
293Ve
rb
Drill
s
294/
oto
ha-/
"The
same"

ew
Conve
rsati
ons
301Ach
es and
Pains
302Add
itiona
l
Vocabu
lary
303Voc
abular
y
Drills
304Ver
b
Drills
305The
Prepos
ition
/mi-/
"from"
306Com
parati
ves
and
Superl
atives

CONTENT
S

35
1
35
2
35
2
35
5
35
7
35
36
8
1
362
36
3
36
4
36
6
36
7
37
0
37
1

395
XI

CONTENTS
COURSE
Unit 31.
Bas
ic
Con
ver
sat
ion
:

Gra
mma
r
Not
es:
Rap
id
Res
pon
se
Dri
ll
Rev
iew
Con
ver
sat

Un
it
32
.
Ba
si
c
Co
nv
er
sa
ti
on
:
Gr
am
ma
r
No
te
s:

HEBREW
ions
311Fr
iends
Meet
at an
Offic
e
312Ad
ditio
nal
Vocab
ulary
313Vo
cabul
ary
Drill
s
314ve
rb
Drill
s
315To
o
Much
31.6
The
Passi
ve
Parti
ciple

BASIC

37
3
37
4
37
4
37
5
37
6
37
7
37
9
37
9

Rapid
Respo
nse
Drill
Revie
w
Conve
rsati
ons
321Fri
ends
Meet
at an
Office
(contd
.
322Add
itiona
l
Vocabu
lary
323Ver
b
Drills

xli

32
-4
Th
e

UnitJQ.
Ba
si
c
Co
nv
er
sa
ti
on
:

G
r
a
m
m
a
r
N
o
t
e
s
:
R
a
p
i
d
R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

Prepos
itions
/ke-/,
/too/

R
e
v
i
e
w
C
o
n
v
e
r
s
a
t
i
o
n
s
33.1
Friends
Meet at
an
Office
(contd.
) 33-2
Additio
nal
Vocabul
ary

33 .3

Vocabul
ary
Drills
33 u
Verb
Drills
335
Supposi
tions
and
Conditi
onal
Sentenc
es

38
1
38
2
38
2
38
4

386

395
XI

38
7
38
9
39
0
39
C
3
'1
39
2

39
4

CONTENTS
COURSE
Unit 34.

HEBREW

BASIC

Basic Conversation: 34.1 Friends Meet at an Office


(concluded! 397
342Additional Vocabulary
398
343Vocabulary Drills
398
344verb Drills398 Grammar Notes: 3^*5 Nouns with Pronominal
Suffixes- Singular get 405 Rapid Response Drill407
Review
conversations
408

Unit 35.
Basic Conversation:

35-1 Getting Up in the Morning


35-2 Additional Vocabulary
35.3 Verb Drills
410 Grammar Notes: 35-4
Pronominal Suffixes-Plural Set 411
35*5 Prepositions with Pronominal Suffixes
Rapid Response Drill
Review conversations

409
409
Nouns

with

417
418
419

Unit 36.
Basic Conversation: 36.! Getting Up in the Morning
(contd.) 421
362Additional Vocabulary
422
363Verb Drills423 Grammar Notes: 36.4 Construct State of
Plural
Nouns
424
Rapid
Response
Drill
425 Review conversations
426

IJnit_3Z
Basic Conversation: 37*1 Getting Up in the Morning
372Additional Vocabulary
373Vocabulary Drills
374verb Drills431 Grammar Notes:
/-ut/ "-ness"
37-6 Hortatives
Rapid Response Drill
Review Conversations

(concluded) 429
43O
430
37*5 Abstract Nouns
433
433
434
435

in

Unit 33.
Basic Conversation: 38.1 Purim Parade
^37
382Additional Vocabulary
438
383Vocabulary Drills
438
384Verb Drills439 Grammar Notes: 38-5 Negative Adverbials
440 Rapid Response Drill4*il Review Conversations
4
+ 2

xli

Unit 39
BASIC
HEBREW
CONTENTS

COURSE

Basic Conversation:
443
39.2 Additional Vocabulary
Grammar Notes:
445
Rapid Response Drill
Review Conversations

39! Buying Clothes


444
39*3 /kvar/ and /od/
445
446

Unit 40
Basic Conversation: 40.1 Going to the Irrigation Project
40.2 At the Irrigation Project
40-3 Additional Vocabulary
Grammar Notes: 40.4 Derived Nouns - mif'al
40.5 Derived Adjectives - pa'il
Rapid Response Drill

Tests:

Reader:

447
448
449
450
450
45O

Interpreter Situations
Taped Tests

451
456

The Hebrew Alphabet

Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Common Proverbs and Expressions
Stor
y
Stor
y
537
Stor
y
Glossary
Stor
y
Stor
y
538
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
Stor
y
is

1.

2.

4.

6.

8.

10
.
11
.
12
.
13

14
.
15
.
16
.
17

18





3
-


19

20 39

.
21

.
22

.
23

.
24
...
.
25

26

.
27

28
.
29

30

.

46
3
48
8
49
1
49
3
49
5
49
7
50
0
50
2
50
5
50
7
51
0
51
4
51
5
51
6
51
7
51
8
51
9
52
0
52
1
52
2
52
3
52
5
52
6
52
8
52
9
53
0
53
1
53
2
53
3
53
4
53
6
53
7

PRONUNCIATION HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

INTRODUCTION

Americans know of Hebrew as the language of the Old Testament. Hebrew had
been a living language, that is, it was spoken as a native language by a community
of people, at least until the First Century, B.C., and possibly for several
centuries after that. But even though it ceased to be a living language in this
sense, a large and important body of literature has remained in constant daily use
for prayer and study.
During the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance Hebrew served as a lingua
franca for Jews throughout the world, and the literature was expanded by scholars
and poets. Hebrew thus was kept in continuous familiarity, and in the last century
successful efforts were begun to revive it as a modern language.
Today Hebrew is the official language of the State of Israel. It is being
taught to immigrants speaking a wide variety ,of native languages, and the coal is
to have all the inhabitants learn to speak it.
To be sure, modern Hebrew is different from the Biblical language. The
phonology (sound system) has been symplified, and new syntactic patterns and
vocabulary have been developed to express concepts not dreamed of two thousand
years ago. But the modern language is unmistakably the descendant of the language
of the Psalms and the prophets.
The sounds of modern Hebrew are fairly easy for Americans to learn. Since
only a minority of the present population are native speakers of Hebrew, foreign
accents can hardly be called rare, and one should not feel the slightest
embarrassment in making even halting efforts to speak it.
PURPOSE
It should be stated very clearly at the outset that this book is not
intended as an elementary text for the study of the Bible or other Hebrew
literature. It is also not intended as a reference grammar of Hebrew. There are a
number of good books on the market to fulfill those needs. This book is intended
as a training manual, designed to teach a non-speaker of Hebrew to speak and
comprehend with some degree of fluency an acceptable form of the modern language.
Its relationship to a reference grammar is analogous to the relation- ship of a
program of calisthenics to a textbook on physiology. The student is not supposed
to read this book in order to find out about Hebrew; he is supposed to work at the
material presented here until he can speak Hebrew, and he will have to work hard.
The goal of this course is performance. One "knows" Hebrew in the same
sense that one "knows" how to drive a car. It is not necessary to be an automotive engineer or to know the technical terms for the parts of a car in order to be
a good driver. Many excellent drivers even have wrong notions about the mechanical
aspects of an automobile. Similarly, it is not necessary to be able to discuss
accurately and comprehensively the grammar of a language in order to speak it
fluently and correctly. Intensive drilling will produce the proper habits. When
the student participates in conversation easily and fluently with a minimum of
either "accent" or of conscious effort then he has achieved the goal of the
course.
Emphasis on the spoken language does not mean that reading and writing are
to be ignored or downgraded in overall importance for the educated speaker. These
latter skills are a separate problem which in the initial stages of study are
treated as secondary.
Many students who use this book will already be familiar with the Hebrew
alphabet and writing system. For those who are not it is suggested that work on
reading be postponed until Unit 10 is completed. Classes will of course, vary in
their ability to absorb the material, and the instructor should feel free to
adjust this schedule.
However, it is felt highly probable,on the basis of a large body of
experience with many languages, including Hebrew, that the total competence of the
student will be greater if he starts with the spoken language and then adds the
written form rather than vice versa. students who already know how to read will
profit greatly if they concentrate exclusively on the spoken language for at least
the first ten units.

40

STYLE OF HEBREW USED


BASIC

COURSE

HEBREW
CONTENTS

The language presented here as a model for students


to imitate is the ordinary informal speech of educated
native Israelis. This is different from the Hebrew usually
taught outside of Israel, and students who have already
learned some Hebrew may have to make some adjustments.

Modern Hebrew is a living language and as such it is changing daily. Slang


expression, coinages, variant pronunciations, and grammatical innovations are
characteristic of any living language. Furthermore, Hebrew is spoken and written
in a variety of styles. These vary from highly formal to highly informal.
Formal spoken style is very similar to the literary style and is more
like the Hebrew that is taught traditionally. Formal style is used, as the name
implies, for public speaking, official meetings, radio news broadcasts, or
other occasions where the speaker would use deferential or deliberate speech.
Informal spoken style is that used by native speakers in ordinary, relaxed
conversation. It is often more rapid than the formal style and is the speech which
seems most "natural" to native Israelis.
There is a highly informal style which contains much slang, contractions
and dropping of sounds, and is fairly rapid. The student should not attempt to
learn it until he is fairly fluent in the ordinary informal style.
The informal speech used in this text is tempered with features of more
formal speech. These are included because the non-native speaker will be expected
to have learned them, and their use will not seem affected.
It is interesting to note that the speakers who provided the material for
this book often insisted that one should not use forms or expressions which they,
in fact, did. This occasionally led to long discussions about what to include in
the book, and sometimes no final decision was reached. Thus, for a example, the
forms /birer/and /otxem/ "you"are included in the material as well as the
'correct' forms /berar/ and /etxem/. In such cases the student will find that
either choice will be acceptable in conversation.
METHODS AND PROCEDURE
The Native Speaker

41

INTRODUCTION

HEBREW BASIC

COURSE

Since the emphasis is on speech throughout the course, an indispensable


component is the voice of an instructor whose native language is Hebrew. The
student should not attempt to use these materials without either a native
instructor or recordings of a native instructor's voice. The method of instruction
incorporates guided imitation, repetition, memorization, pattern practice, and
conversation.The instructor performs the following functions:
a)He serves as a model for imitation and a source for elicitation of material.
In this his ability to repeat without change and his endless patience are most
important.
b)He corrects mistakes of all kinds: pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary.
Tape recordings are an extremely useful tool, but they cannot correct the
student.
c)He drills the student. He conducts, and may himself devise, drills and
exercises designed to fix new language patterns in the habits of the learner.
d)He converses with the student. He acts out prepared conversations with the
student. It is here that his intelligence, imagination, and skill are most
important.
It is to be noted that explanation is not listed as a normal
function of the instructor. In general, explanation of the language is held
to a minimum. Using the language and talking about it are different things.
The native speaker has under his control the vast array of possible
sentences of the language, knows when to use them, and recognizes and responds to
them when used by others. In this sense only the native speaker really knows the
language. For this reason he is the most satisfactory model, corrector, and
conversation partner.
However, the native speaker is to a great extent unaware of the structural
patterns of his language because he learned them at an early age and has not
thought much about them. The educatedman is overtly familiar only with those
patterns of grammar, style, and pronunciation which are emphasized in his
education. These are usually only a small fraction of the total structure of the
language, and by no means the most important for the English-speaking student.
The native speaker's explanations about his language may be satisfac- tory, or
correct but inadequate, or even completely false or misleading. For these reasons
the student should not rely on the native speaker as an explainer. Normally, the
course is conducted under the supervision of a scientific linguist who provides
whatever explanations are necessary. .
Intensiveness
Not only is a large total of instructional hours necessary, but concentrated study is essential. Experience has shown that greater concentration of
contact hours, especially at the beginning of a language course, yields far
better results than dispersal of the same number of hours of over a long period
of time. The maximum load per day for efficient learning is highly variable, some
students reaching the point of diminishing returns with four contact hours and
others being able to work up to eight or more. At the Foreign Service Institute
students usually have six hours a day five days a week of classroom contact
hours.
The size of the class is another important consideration. As in many
learning situations, the learning of a second language proceeds more thoroughly
and rapidly if it takes place in a small group. This provides greater variety in
drill and conversation, more speaking time for each student per class hour, and
allows the instructor to give more attention to each individual. The maximum
figure for effective learning varies with the personality types of the students,
the skill of the instructor, and other factors, but the number six serves as a
standard, across-the-board maximum.
At the other extreme, a class consisting of a single student is feasible
and may be very successful, but it usually proves better to have several students
for drill and conversation. In the regular intensive courses at the Foreign
Service Institute the norm is about four.
xv 1

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

INTRODUCTION
The drill techniques described below assume that the class will have
no more than six students. For larger classes the instructor will have to
devise various types of choral drills and responses and to rely more on tape
recordings to give- the individual student practice in speaking.
An important aspect of the method is OVERLEARNING, that is, learning
sentences so thoroughly that they come out automatically. Any thinking in the
language' then consists of thinking about what to say and not about how to go
about saying it. This cannot be accomplished unless the student spends a lot of
time practicing.
MATERIAL
The material for the spoken Hebrew section of the course is divided into
units which consist of the following parts: Basic Conversations, additional
vocabulary, vocabulary drills, verb drills, grammar notes and drills, rapid
response drills, and review conversations.
Basic Conversations
The Basic Conversation is the core of each unit. It consists of a set of
sentences in dialogue form, which is to be completely memorized by the student.
After having overlearned these sentences the student proceeds to intensive
drilling based on the sounds, constructions, and vocabulary contained in the
sentences, then to prepared or guided conversations, and finally to free
conversation on topics covered in the sentences and expanded by the grammatical
points covered in the grammar sections.
The sentence is the natural unit of speech. All languages have sentences,
and sounds and forms of a language normally appear within sentences. It is clear
that the student must learn to use sentences readily, no matter how this learning
is accomplished.
In learning whole sentences the student acquires words and grammatical
patterns simultaneously. Experience has shown that having the student first learn
words and rules and then produce sentences by combining the words according to
the rules is an inefficient way to learn. For most people a grammatical pattern
is learned (in the sense that it is "internalized" and can readily be used) more
rapidly by thoroughly learning illustrative sentences which embody it than by
having it presented as a rule.
Furthermore, the pronunciation and grammatical form of words or other
units of the language may be quite different in isolated citation from what they
are in connected speech, and since the connected speech form is far more frequent
it normally deserves far more attention and drill than the citation form.
The sentences of the Basic Conversation are presented in three parallel
columns. The column on the right gives the Hebrew sentence -in the Hebrew
alphabet. The column on the left gives an English equivalent (not necessarily a
literal translation) of the Hebrew sentence. The middle column is a transcription
of the Hebrew sentence. Since the Hebrew spelling is given vithout vowel points
the student will have to rely on the transcription for rendition of the
pronunciation. The Hebrew in the right hand column is given mainly for the
benefit of the instructor who will find it more familiar to read than the
transcription, although the student may use it for reading practice later.
After each sentence a "breakdown" of the new words is given. The English
translations of these entries tend to be more literal than those given for the
Basic Sentences themselves, and are more like the entries to be found in a
dictionary.
The technique for teaching the Basic Sentences is a "build-up" scheme in
which each longer sentence or group of sentences is broken up into short
pieces, and then each piece is presented last piece first and cumulatively,
until the student can speak the entire sentence or group of sentences. When the
entire sentence is built up it is repeated by the instructor and student.

The pieces to be presented are printed on separate lines. For example, the
group: /toda raba. lomx tov. uma lomxa?/ "Thank you very much. I'm fine. And how
are you?" is written in the book like this:

43

PRONUNCIATION HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Thank you very much.


I'm fine.
And how are you?

toda raba.
Siomi tov.
uma lomxa?

.
.

? /i'

It is presented to the student as follows:


Instructor or Tape:

uma Slomxa?

Student:

uma Slomxa?

Instructor or Tape:
Student:
Instructor or Tape:

toda raba.

Student:

toda raba.

Instructor or Tape:

toda raba.

Student:

toda raba.

Slomf tov
.
Slomi tov
.
Slomi tov
.
Sloml tov
.
Slomi tov
.
Slomi tov
.

uma Slomxa?
uma Slomxa?
uma lomxa?
uma lomxa?
uma Slomxa?

(repetition
)

uma Slomxa?

As much as possible the sentences have been divided into natural sounding
pieces. However, the instructor will still have to achieve skill in presenting the
pieces with the intonation that they have within the entire sentence. The
repetitions of these partial sentences should not be dull and mechanical, but should
be an accurate model for the student to imitate in a natural conversation.
The instructor's pronunciation may vary somewhat from that indicated by the
transcription. The student should imitate the instructor, but the instruc- tor should
not try to impose a "bookish" or supposedly "correct" pronunciation if it is not
completely natural to him in ordinary, relaxed speech.
For the benefit of the instructor the Basic Sentences are printed in larger
type than the vocabulary entries after each sentence. The instructor does not drill
the vocabulary entries; they are given for the student's reference.
After acceptable imitation and accurate pronunciation of the Basic Sentences
have been achieved they are assigned for memorization outside of class or repeated in
class until memorized. Repetition outside of class, preferably using recorded
materials as a guide, must be continued to the point of over- learning, as mentioned
above. As a final step, the students act out the entire Basic Conversation from
memory, with the instructor or with other students. Only when the Basic sentences have
been mastered to this extent can they be considered to provide an adequate basis for
grammatical drills and for control of the spoken language.
Some Basic Conversations are rather long, and are therefore broken up into
sections which cover several units. After the section in each succeeding unit is
mastered it may be combined with the sections from preceding units for review and
practice of longer conversations.

Additional Vocabulary

Appropriate additional vocabulary is presented in this section which


follows the Basic Conversation. New words or expressions are always presented
within sentences, and the student is not required to memorize lists of new words
as such. Items are included in this section to give material for expanded or
varied conversation or to present paradigms to be learned before a grammatical
explanation is given.
Vocabulary Drills and Verb Drills
It is not assumed that a student will automatically be able to extend the
rules to all new forms encountered. Therefore, further opportunities are
presented to practice the manipulations. Whenever, for example, an adjective is
introduced in a Basic Sentence or Additional Vocabulary all other forms
(masculine, feminine, singular, plural) will be drilled in this section. Whenever a new verb is introduced the entire conjugation is drilled, as far as is
practicable. These drills not only reinforce the grammatical patterns, but also
give an opportunity to illustrate different meanings and the use of forms in
different contexts.
Grammar Notes and Drills

44

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

INTRODUCTION
All explanation of the structure of Hebrew - sounds, forms, constructions,
or style, - is kept to a minimum in the course. When a grammatical point is to be
made clear by a supervising linguist or in a Grammar Note, this is done (a) after
examples of the point have appeared in Basic Sentences, (b) by calling attention
to these instances and adding other illustrations, and (c) by a simple, clear
statement. Then, most important of all , the point is reinforced by drills.
Historical explanations or appeals to "logic" are generally avoided, but
contrast with similar or conflicting patterns of English is usually indicated.
It is generally wasteful to spend a great deal of time on grammatical
explanations. Even if they explain what IS said, rather than somebody's idea of
what SHOULD be said, it is still largely wasted motion in that the student does
not participate and does not master the point. The time spent in explaining a
point is usually better spent in drilling that point with carefully selected,
natural sentences exemplifying it.
On the other hand, the attempt to rule out all explanation and to teach
everything by a "direct method" completely in Hebrew also wastes time. Very often
a simple point which takes endless repetitions of various sentences before the
student gets the hang of it can be explained briefly and effectively in English
and then drilled systematically.
The Grammar Notes do not cover all possibilities. The instructor will be
sure to find exceptions to each explanation or contexts in which the explanation
is contradicted. The Grammar Notes are intended as guides, and the student should
not expect them to be comprehensive for all cases.
Some explanations are not given in traditional order. Thus, for example,
the first and second person forms of the past tense of verbs are drilled
separately from the third person forms, and the complete past tense of verbs is
then drilled without regard to binyan, or conjugation. The complete paradigm of
each binyan is not presented until Units 21-25, although references are made to
them and various verbs are drilled in preceding units. Also, the pi'el is
presented before the kal since the former is a simpler conjugation in modern
Hebrew and because most new verbs are coined in the pi'el.
Terminology
In line with the desire to keep explanations simple, no wild forays into
novel terminology are made. All students will recognize such familiar terms as
"past tense", "imperative", "gender", etc. Certain other terms which may not be so
familiar are "construct state", "radical", and "dual", but these are traditionally
used in grammars of Hebrew. Also, some Hebrew grammatical terms are used, such as
"lamed hey verb", "pi'el", etc.
Nevertheless, the student may find some of the terms to be strange,
especially if he has had no grammatical training embodying the practices of modern
scientific linguistics. New terminology has arisen in order to be able to make more
objective statements about language, and some of it is used here as a matter of
course. Thus, for example, "forms" are said to "occur"; groups of consonants with
no intervening vowel are called "consonant clusters"; etc. The most unfamiliar
terminology may be the phonetic descriptions of consonants and vowels, such as
"affricate", "low central vowel", etc.
The student should keep in mind that he does not have to learn terminology
or to talk about Hebrew. It is far better and more pertinent for him to be a good
mimic than to know what a voiced velar fricative is.
Rapid Response Drills
In Rapid Response Drills students answer in quick succession questions on
the Basic Conversation of the unit. The instructor may vary these questions by
having the students take the parts of various actors in the Basic Conversation and
asking them direct questions about their parts.
Review Conversations
The Review Conversations give the student opportunity to improvise brief
conversations, starting with models given in the text. The sample conversations
given in this book may be used both for testing comprehension and for conversation practice. Complete directions for using the Review Conversations for

45

PRONUNCIATION HEBREW
BASIC COURSE
conversation practice are given in Unit 1. Later the instructor and students are
left to their own ingenuity in changing and expanding them.
DRILLS
Drills are not tests.
All drills are planned to be easily and rapidly answered. In class they are
to be done orally with the students' books closed. Answers are available in the
textbook. The drills are not puzzles; they are not to be "figured out" but merely
to be spoken for speed and accuracy. They are opportunities to practice new forms
or sequences in new contexts. If the student has difficulty this may reflect an
inadequate mastery of the Basic Conversations or of previous drills. In any case,
it is of no great importance whether or not he can figure them out by himself. The
goal is to learn to speak Hebrew accurately and fluently, and this aim can be
achieved only by correct repetition of the forms and patterns involved. The
instructor should supply the correct response whenever the student hesitates too
long or does not answer correctly.
In the earlier units of the course the drills are given in the Hebrew
spelling and in transcription so that the student may follow the drills when using
the tape recordings. It is assumed, however, that the student will have learned to
read Hebrew by the time Unit 20 is completed. After Unit 21, therefore, the
transcription is omitted in the drills. Translations are given for the first set of
responses in each drill.
The instructor should check to see if the students understand what is going on
by stopping at random points in a drill and asking a student to translate the last
response. It is best to ask a student other than the one who just responded. The
instructor should do this only once in a while so that a maximum amount of time is
given to the students to speak Hebrew.
Substitution Drills
The purpose of this type of drill is to present variations in form, such as for
gender, number, person, without the student having to do any manipulations at all
other than to repeat what the instructor has said and to fit it into the model
sentence.
A substitution drill is done as follows: The model sentence is given by the
instructor and then repeated by the students. The instructor then gives a form which
is to be substituted into the model sentence. The student responds with the entire
sentence with the new form substituted. The instructor rein- forces the correct
response by repeating the student's response.
In the tape recordings of drills a blank interval is left for the student to
respond. The correct response is then given. If the student has not responded
correctly he will hear something different from what he himself has said. This will
serve as a correction from the instructor. If he has responded correctly then the
repetition will reinforce the proper habits.
Further instructions for doing substitution drills and substitutionagreement drills are given with examples in Unit 1.
Substitution-Agreement Drills
The purpose of this type of drill is to elicit a variation determined by the
cue from the instructor. The instructor gives the student a substitution to make in
the model sentence, and this substitution requires the student to make a change
elsewhere in the sentence. These subsequent changes are the points being drilled.
A substitution-agreement drill is done in the same way as a simple substitution
drill. It will usually require more repetitions for mastery since the student must
make more than one change in the model sentence.
Expansion Drills

46

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

INTRODUCTION
The purpose of expansion drills is to give the student practice in producing
longer utterances while maintaining a certain grammatical context.
The instructor gives the student a model sentence. The student repeats this
model sentence and adds another sentence to make a longer utterance. For example:
Instructor: hu gar bemalon dan.
Student: hu gar bemalon dan, vehamiSpaxa Selo tag1a beod Savua. Instructor: He's
staying at the Dan Hotel.
Student: He's staying at the Dan Hotel, and his family will arrive in a week.

47

INTRODUCTION

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

In this case the reference to the subject of the first sentence is maintained
in the added sentence: /hu - Selo/ "he - his".The instructor repeats the entire
response of the student. After the drill has been done a number of times the
instructor may omit this repetition in order to speed up the drill in class.
Transformation Drills
The purpose of transformation drills is to give the student practice in
shifting from one tense to another/ from one conjugation to another, from singular to
plural, etc., or simply to paraphrase. The student must eventually be able to make all
grammatical manipulations automatically, and this type of drill is most helpful.
The instructor gives a sentence and the student responds with another
sentence, determined by the instructions given for the particular drill. The
instructor should give the first reponse so that the student will understand what
sort of transformation he is supposed to make.
Response Drills
The purpose of response drills is to simulate a situation which may occur in a
real conversation. The question and response is extracted from such a possible
conversation in order to concentrate on the grammatical points which must be drilled.
Response drills differ from real conversation in that the student is instructed
to give only one possible answer. The instructor should give the first response so
that the student will know what his responses to subsequent questions should be.
Translation Drills
The purpose of translation drills is to familiarize the student with the idiom
of Hebrew or with characteristic constructions of Hebrew whose literal English
translation might be misleading. Translations drills are comparatively few in number
in the course, but all drills may be used as translation exercises by asking for spot
translations into English as explained above.
TRANSLATIONS
Two kinds of translations are used in this text, literal and free. The latter
is often more in the nature of an English equivalent, that is, what would be said in
English in an equivalent situation rather than a linguistic trans- lation,
A beginning student often has the impression that the literal meaning is
the "true" meaning and that any other meaning is necessarily secondary or wrong.
This misunderstanding should be avoided. By comparing literal and free
translations, the student will learn how much the translation depends on context.
A word, expression, or construction may have several translations, depending on
other words in the sentence, the grammatical structure of the two languages
involved, and the social situation in which the conversation takes place. For
example, the literal translation of /ma Slomxa/ is "What is your peace?" We have
translated this as "How are you?", which is what an English speaker says in the
same situation. Conversely, though, the literal equiva- lent of the English, /eyx
ata?/, is used in Hebrew but only as a rejoinder to a previous greeting.

xxli
In the drills various possible translations are deliberately used to free
the student from the idea that there is only one correct translation.
TESTS
The ultimate test is the ability to engage in a conversation in Hebrew and
to speak and comprehend accurately, fluently, and easily. Most students, though,

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

INTRODUCTION
will appreciate some measurement of their performance during the course. Certain
tests are built into the course material itself, and depend on the instructor's
judgment in proceeding to new material. That is, the instructor should not
proceed to new material until the students have mastered the old. A decision to
proceed is thus a satisfactory mark of performance.
Intensive language training is usually very tedious, and the instructor
should resist pressure from the students to go on to a new unit if he feels that
they need more practice on the old.
The Basic Conversations and Additional Vocabulary must be memorized and
overlearned. Any hesitation on the part of a student means that he does not
know the material.
The Review conversations also serve as a test for comprehension and of
the ability of the students to use the limited amount of material learned up
to that point.
For further testing two other types are suggested below and some examples
of each are given in the section on tests.
Interpreter Situations
These require three persons - the instructor, who pretends to know no
English, the student, who acts as the interpreter, and a third person who,
ideally,knows no Hebrew, but who may be another student pretending to know no
Hebrew. The interpreter is the one being tested and his ability to serve in that
function with accuracy will be readily apparent. In later stages of the course an
error on his part may lead the conversation far off the track or reduce it to an
absurdity. Students usually enjoy these interpreter situ- ations once they become
familiar with the technique.
Taped Tests
None of the above tests will give the student a number grade. Suggestions
for tests which can be marked and a number or percentage grade given are included
in the section on tests. These tests require a tape recorder for the student to
record his answers. If the school is equipped with a language laboratory, then
the entire class may be tested at one time. The tapes are then listened to and
marked by the instructor.
The supervising linguist and instructor will, of course, want to devise
additional tests which the student will not be able to see beforehand.
The student should not be required on any test to discuss Hebrew grammar
per se or to list conjugations or the like. Questions such as "What is the
feminine singular imperative of /ba/ ,he came' ?" are to be avoided. Instead, the
student should be told "Tell that girl to come over here." If he responds with
/boi hena/, then he knows the form. Otherwise, he does not.

xxili

PRONUNCIATION HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

READINGS

Material for instruction and practice in reading Hebrew is given in a


special section at the end of the material for spoken Hebrew. This does not mean
that such instruction should wait until the spoken material is completed. Indeed,
it is expected that reading will begin about the time Unit 11 is started.
After the explanation of the Hebrew alphabet some simple recognition
drills are given. These may be supplemented or replaced by flashcard drills in
class. Once the students have learned to recognize all the letters and the most
frequent sequences, then they may go back to the earlier units and read the Basic
Conversations, drills, and Review Conversations.
Resumes of the Basic Conversations from Unit 11 on are then given in the
reading section. These becomes progressively longer and more difficult.
Occasionally new vocabulary "is supplied in these resumes. The material in the
spoken Hebrew does not assume this additional vocabulary, but it may, of course,
be used in Review Conversations and the like.
Following the series of resumes is a series of short paragraphs, some of
which are based on actual news articles. These are intended to bridge the gap
between a fixed written text and free conversation. Progressive stages of
different types of questions follow these paragraphs. All of this is in Hebrew,
and the student practices reading and free conversation this way.
At the very end are some reading selections taken from newspapers and
other periodicals. They are presented as examples of material which the student
will see in normal encounters in Israel. The supervising linguist and instructor
may prepare additional materials to supplement them and to cover a range of
subject matter more pertinent to particular classes or individual students.
SUMMARY
The text provides for the assimilation of all basic forms and patterns of
the language by the guided imitation, memorization, and manipulation of a large
number of sentences and by practice in confronting several widely occurring
everyday situations. Actual living use of the language is a necessary adjunct of
the course. The instructor should therefore encourage his students from the start
to use Hebrew in every way possible, above and beyond what is provided for in the
text. After the first few days of work both students and instructor should avoid
the use of English in the classroom. Only by constant use of the skill he is
learning can the student hope to master it and retain it as a useful tool.
Transcription
In addition to the Hebrew spelling the material in this course is written
in a transcription meant to help the student listen. It is an attempt to put down
on paper the sounds that the instructor will say, or that will be heard on the
recordings. It should be emphasized that the transcription is just a reminder of
what is said and not a substitute for it.
The transcription is based for the most part directly on spoken Hebrew and
is not a transliteration of ordinary Hebrew spelling. Thus, for example, /k/ is
used for both and , and /t/ is used for both and Transcriptions are set
off in slash lines / / except in the Basic Conversations and Additional
Vocabulary. Slash lines are also omitted where they would clutter the text.
Some departures are made from a slavish transcription of the spoken
language. The definite article is spelled /ha-/ even though the /h/ is often
dropped in connected speech. Root consonants which assimilate to other
consonants in clusters are spelled consistently. For example, /tisgor/ "you
wall close" is spelled with /s/ although /tizgor/ would represent the actual
pronunciation more accurately. The departures were made ad hoc to eliminate
possible confusion and then only when the normal pronunciation may be easily
read from the varied transcription.
Students may be familiar with other transcription and transliteration
systems which are in use. sh is used where we use and ch or kh where we use x .
The system used here avoids ambiguities in the use of letters, and students will
have no trouble adopting it. However, commonly used transliterations will be
found in the English translations: For example, chala, Moshe, etc.

50

BASIC

TABLE OF SYMBOLS

COURSE

________________________________

HEBREW
Consonants:
_____________________________
PRONUNCIATION
Voiceless: p

Voiced:

Nasal:

m n

Lateral:

Glide:

Open juncture:
Vowels:
Stress: Strong

i e a o u
Weak (unmarked)

The correspondences of these symbols with the letters of the Hebrew


alphabet is given in the section on Readings.
In the following drills attention will be paid mainly to those Hebrew
sounds or groups of sounds which are very different from their English
counterparts. The examples in the drills are not to be memorized. The English
translations are given only for reference.

51

PRONUNCIATION

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

CONSONANTS
/l/ The articulation represented by this letter differs from the articulations
represented by the letter in English, especially at the end of a syllable. The
Hebrew articulation is a lateral, with the tongue touching the gum ridge behind
the upper teeth. The tongue is somewhat tenser than in English. The Hebrew
articulation is essentially the same at the end as at the beginning of a
syllable, whereas in English the tongue is retroflexed with the tip approaching the gum ridge but not making definite contact.
The Hebrew /!/ should be thoroughly learned since substitution of the
ish or American
Eng articulation gives one
a "thick" accent to the Israeli
l
ear.
li
"to me"
Salom
"hello"
e
"to"
l
lo
"to him"
Seli
"mine"
a
"on"
l
la
"to her"
elo
"his"
ko
"all"
l
lan
"to us"
Selanu
"ours"
gado
"big"
u
l
lev
"heart"
milon
"dictionar
meil
"coat"
y
kilkul
"malfunction
"
klal "generalization
"
menahe
"director"
l
gide
"he raised"
l
gode
"size"
l
Voiceless velar fricative.
/*/
The
represented by this letter
in English,
articulation
does
and, therefore, may give some difficulty to students. However, it is extremely
important that students master it and do not substitute /h/ or /k/ for it.
The tongue is brought back toward the soft palate, but instead of stopping
the passage of air, as with /k/, a friction sound is made between the back of the
tongue and the soft palate, similar to the noise made in clearing the throat.
Some speakers use an Arabicized pronunciation of /x/ when spelled . This
pronunciation is affected on the radio, also. However, it is not used in
general speech and will not be heard on the accompanying tapes.
xam
"warm"
lexem
"bread"
oreax
"guest"
xalav
"milk"
oxel
"food"
eyx
"how"
xom
"heat"
exad
"one"
Slomex
"(greeting)
"
xodeS
"month"
axal
"he ate"
elax
"yours"
xeci
"half"
?axav
"he lay"
namux
"short"
xika
"waited"
axim
"brothers"
macliax
"succeeds"
xuc
"outside"
axot
"sister"
tox
"inside"
xiduS
"renewal"
xada'S
" new"
xex
"palate"
xaxam
"smart"
lomxa
"(greeting)"
xemed
"delight"
xaval
"pity"
xut
"thread"
/r/ voiced velar fricative.

xxv i

PRONUNCIATION

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

The articulation of the tongue is similar to that of /x/, but it is accompanied by


voicing of the vocal cords. Some speakers use a tongue-tip trill instead of the velar
fricative. The trill is also generally used on radio, in the theater, etc. Students
may use the trill, but for most native Israelis the velar fricative will sound more
"natural".
ram
"high"
laruc
"to run"
Soter
"policeman
rax
"soft"
teruc
"excuse"
xaver
"friend"
rion
"first"
derex
"way"
sefer
"book"
rikud
"dance"
^rev
"evening"
ir
"city"
rega
"minute"
arox
"long"
sar
"minister"
regel
"foot"
garim
"live"
kar
"cold"
ruax
"wind"
xaverim
"friends"
or
"light"
roS
"head
Sagrirut
"embassy"
barur
"clear
rak
"only"
Sagrir
"ambassador" lira
"pound"
/p/ voiceless Bilabial stop.
This consonant is quite similar to the English articulation. It occurs at
the end of words only rarely, and these are all loan words or abbreviations used
as words. At the end of words the lips are released. Before a stressed vowel it is
not as strongly aspirated as the English counterpart.
po

"here"

bapina

"on the corner"

jip "jeep"

/t/ Voiceless alveolar stop.


This sound is also similar to the English, except that at the end of a
word it must be released. Before a stressed vowel it is not as strongly
aspirated as the English counterpart.
tov
matay
et
at
ot
Selet
safot
kapot

"good"
"when"
"time"
"you"(f.s.)
"letter"
"sign"
"languages"
"spoons"

omedet
menahelet
Sevet
zait
bait
Stut
xut
rut

"stands"
"directress"
"tribe"
"olive"
"house"
"foolishness"
"thread"
"Ruth"

/k/ Voiceless velar stop.


This consonant, too, is similar to the English articulation except that at
the end of a word it must be released. Before a stressed vowel it is not as
strongly aspirated as the English counterpart.
kol
"all"
amok
"deep"
devek
"glue"
sakana
"danger"
xok
"law"
ravak
"bachelor
rak
"only"
bakbuk
"bottle"
xarak
"insect"
sakik
"small bag"
Sotek
"keeps quiet M
selek
"beet"
Sok
"thigh"
matok
"sweet"
tadlik
"kindle"
Suk
"market"
pihuk
"yawn"
emek
"valley"
porek
"unloads"
xelek
"part"

xxvil

PRONUNCIATION HEBREW
BASIC COURSE
/c/ Voiceless alveolar affricate.
This consonant is a combination of the articulation /t/ and /s/ functioning
as a unit ts. Practice is usually required when /c/ occurs at the beginning of a
word or after a consonant.
The single symbol /c/ is used because between vowels the sequence /-ts-/ is
broken up into /-t + s-/ when syllabified. /c/, on the other hand, goes with
the second syllable as a unit.
/huca/ "he
/hutsa/ "she
koc
yoec
ec
lauc
kaic
acic
toceret
kacav
tocaa
mecit

was taken out"

was flown"

"thorn"
cav
"advisor"
cava
"tree"
cedek
"to
" ceaef
advise
"summer"
cemed
"flowerpo II
t
ceva
"product"
cimuk
"butcher"
cincene
t
"result"
cipor
"lighter"
cir

"turtle"
"army"
"justice"
"shell

cafon
cara
came
carud

"north"
"trouble"
"thirsty"
"hoarse"

"pair"
"color"

coek
cofe

"hollers"
"scout"

"raisin"
"jar"

colea
colelet

"bird"
"representative"

cur
cuk

"lame"
"submar
ine
"rock"
"cliff"

/y/ This sound is similar to the English glide and


forms
precedin vowels.
g
/iy/
/ey/
/ay/
/oy/

diphthon with
gs
/uy/

The diphthong /iy/ is rare and tends to be reduced to /i/ when it occurs.
/tiySan/

/tiSan/ "you will sleep."

At the beginning of a word the sequence /yi/ tends to be reduced to /i/


/yisrael/ /israel/
/'/ Open Juncture
The open juncture /'/ has an English counterpart which is not usually
written. It is the "catch" that occurs between vowels in the exclamation
"oh - oh" or the separation of syllables the second of which begins with a
vowel, as in the sequence "an aim" as opposed to "a name", or in "grade A"
as opposed to "gray day".
/'/ occurs mainly in slow or deliberate speech, it
elided or barely audible.

is

In ordinary
conversation

/'/ is spelled or . The latter has an


Arabicized pronunciation which is used by some
speakers but which is not heard generally. It does not occur on the accompanying
tapes.
The following pairs are given as illustrations. They should not require much
practice on the part of the English-speaking student.
/lirot/
/maca/
/nasa/
/mila/

"to shoot"
"he found"

"he travelled"
"word" /lir'ot/

tee"
/mac'a/
/nas'a/
/mil'a/

"to

54


"she rcuna"
"she travelled"
"she filled"

PRONUNCIATION

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

For the pronunciation of vowels when the intervening /'/ is elided see the
note on vowel clusters.
/h/ This sound is similar to the English counterpart, except that it tends
to be dropped in rapid speech. Before stressed vowels it is usually
retained.
When /h/ is dropped it is replaced by zero, not /'/
/lehakir/ /leakir/ "to recognize" ( not /le'akir/)
The /h/ is generally kept in the transcription since the student might just
as well retain it until he acquires a natural-sounding rapid speech. It will
not seem affected or bookish.
The student should be aware in listening to other speakers that the
dropping of /'/ and /h/ will produce homonyms.
/gahar/ /gaar/
/ga'ar/ _ ^
/gaar/

"he crouched"
"he scolded"

The following consonants are infrequent and occur only in loan-words and
proper names.
// as the ch in English cheese.
/?izbat/ "tall tale"

/j/ as in English ]eep.


/jip/

"jeep"

/X/ as the s_ in English measure or the in French.


/2aket/ "jacket"
'
/b el/
"beige"
'
Consonant Clusters
In ordinary speech two adjacent consonants within a word will tend to be
either both voiced or both voiceless. If there is a sequence voiced voiceless, such as / - zk -/, or voiceless-voiced, such as /- sg -/ then the
first will assimilate to the second. In slow or very careful speech the
distinction may be maintained.
Slow speech
voiced-voiceless
/tizkor/

Normal speech

/tiskor/ "you will remember"

/tizgor/ "you will close"

voiceless-voiced
/tisgor/

This will often produce homonyms, or forms which in slow speech are
distinguishable but in normal speech are not. For example, the singular forms
of these verbs are always distinguishable:
/yexapes/

"he will seek"

/yexabes/

"he will launder"

xxlx

PRONUNCIATION HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

The plural forms, though, will usually sound the same:


/yexapsu/
(/yexabsu/ ) /yexapsu/

"they will seek."

"they will launder

English speakers should have no difficulty learning such pronunciations,


though in English the second consonant often assimilates to the first rather
than the reverse:
"observe" is pronounced obzerve, rather than opserve.
The student should be aware of the possibilities since the occurrences are
quite common, but context usually relieves any ambiguity.
The four consonants which do not have voiceless counterparts /m, n, 1, y/
(see chart) as well as /r/ and /v/ do not cause the assimilation of a preceding
voiceless consonant.
/masve/
"veil"
not */mazve/
/nifrad/
"separated" not
*/nivrad/
/c/ assimilates to a following voiced consonant, also: /hicbia/ "voted"
often sounds like /hidzbia/.
The
between
finally
English

above examples show medial consonant clusters, that is, clusters


vowels. Clusters also occur initially (at the beginning of a word) and
(at the end of a word). Medial and final clusters should give the
speaker no particular difficulty.

Initial Consonant Clusters


Some initial clusters are similar to their English counterparts and should
not present any pronunciation problems,
/pi/
/tr/
/kl/

/plitim/
/truma/
/klita/

"refugees"
"contribution"
"absorption"

Many frequently occurring initial clusters will be unfamiliar and will


require practice. Some examples are given below, but many more will occur in
the course material.
The most common error that English speakers make is to insert a vowel
between the consonants.
/pt/ /ptixa/

/ptax/
"opening"

"open"

/pn/ -

/pne/
/pnim/

"turn"
"interior"

/tm/ - /tmariny'
/tmuna/

"dates"
"picture"

/tl/ - /tluya/

/tliSut/

"dependent"
"detachment"

/ktana/

"address"
"small"

/cror/

"necessary"
"bundle"

/cfat/
/cfoni/

"Safed"
"northern"

/kt/ - /ktovet/
/cr/ - /crixa/
/cf/

56

BASIC

COURSE

________________________________

/cvat/
/cv/
_____________________________ /cvai/
PRONUNCIATION /bd/
/bdika/
/bdixa/

"pliers"
"military"

HEBREW

"examination"
"joke"

M/

/bgadim/
/bgida/

"clothes"
"treason"

/dl/

/dli/
/dlatot/

"bucket" "doors"

/dv/

/dvaS/
/dvora/

"honey" "bee"

/gv/

/gveret/
/gvina/

/gd/

/gdola/
/gdud/

Cluster
s

o
f

Mrs." ,'cheese"
"big" "troop"

Three Consonants

Medial clusters of three consonants are rare. When they occur as a result
of grammatical patterning then a vowel (usually /e/) is inserted between the
second and third consonants. When clusters of three consonants occur initially
the vowel /i/ is usually inserted between the first and second consonants.
These insertions are discussed in a number of places in the text.
The clusters of three consonants which do occur are mainly in recent loanwords or proper names:
/split/

"(banana) split"

Non-Permissible Clusters
Some sequences of consonants do not occur in Hebrew. These are called
non-permissible clusters. For the most part, restrictions are limited to
initial clusters.
When a grammatical pattern would ordinarily produce a cluster, but
the cluster is non-permissible, then a vowel is inserted, usually /e/. If
the first of the two consonants is /h/, /x/, or /'/ then the inserted
vowel is usually /a/.
are:

Examples of non-permissible clusters occurring in a grammatical pattern


m.s.
/gadol/
/yaxol/
/xazak/
/'acuv/
/na'im/

"big"
"able"
"strong"
"sad"
"pleasant"

f.s.
/gdola/
/yexola/ for Yyxola/
/xazaka/ for yxzaka/
/'acuva/ for */' cuva/
/ne' ima/ for Yn' ima/

The insertion of such vowels is discussed and drilled for each particular
grammatical pattern.

57

PRONUNCIATION HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Some non-permissible initial clusters are permissible medially. The


addition of a prefix may, therefore, give two possible forms with the same
meaning.
/rexov alenbi/
/berexov alenbi/
or
/birxov alenbi/

"Allenby Road"
"0n Allenby Road"

(The shorter form is often the more formal or literary style.)


VOWELS
The vowels of modern Hebrew are harder to master than the consonants.
Students who have already learned some Hebrew traditionally may find that they
have to un-learn some of the pronunciations.
In stressed syllables the vowels are very similar to the five vowels of
Spanish. In unstressed syllables the vowels are generally reduced or centralized. In rapid speech vowels may be dropped entirely.
The student will find that the instructor's pronunciation of vowels will
shift when going from deliberate speech to normal speed speech. Often the
instructor is unaware of these changes and when asked to repeat or slow down
he will produce a somewhat unnatural utterance. The student should be aware of
this tendency and imitate the normal speed utterance. Speaking whole sentences
at normal speed rather than choppy groupings of individual words will help the
student in this regard.
/i/ High front vowel, tenser than the i. of English bit
"to drink"
1m
IS
iSa ir
biSvili

"with"
"man"
"woman"
"city"
"for
me"

liStot
naim
ma im
tikans
i
adoni

"sir"
II J II

"pleasant"
"water"
"enter"

"who"
am
"without"
mi
bl
"dish"
i
kl
/e/
This i
symbol represents a vowel which has a range covering several
English vowel phonemes. In stressed position followed by a consonant or at the
end of a word it is similar to e of English bet.
Students should be very careful not to replace it with /ey/ at the end of a
word - /kafe/ does not sound like the English cafe. The final /e/ is like the e
of bet with the t cut off.
bet
omed
oxel

"second letter"
"stands"
"eats"

betax
yafe
et

"sure"
"pretty"
"time"

nae
kafe
roe

"nice"
"coffee"
"sees"

In primary stress position before a vowel it is slightly higher and


followed by a y glide.
yodea

"knows"

Somea

"hears"

korea "tears"

In other positions it is more centralized, like tl3e of democracy.


meod
meot
mevin
kesef
yeled

"very"
"hundreds"
"understands"
"money"
"boy"

lamadeti
derex
beseder
bevakaga

58

"I studied"
"way"
"O.K."
"please"

BASIC

COURSE

________________________________
HEBREW

_____________________________ /a/ Low central vowel


PRONUNCIATION
This vowel is pronounced like the o in
American English hot. Before voiced consonants
this vowel is shorter tnan the similar English vowel. At the end of a word
it is glottalized, that is, has a "clipped" ending.
In unstressed syllables, especially before a strongly stressed syllable it
tends to be centralized, like the e of English below.
at
rak
SamaS
mamaS
ahav
ad

"you" f.s.
"only"
"custodian"
"really"
"loved"
"until"

amad
gag
az
kala
xala
teva

"stood"
"roof"
"strong"
"bride"
"twist bread
"nature"

/o/ Low-mid back vowel.


This vowel is similar to the ou of cough as pronounced by many Americans.
Listen to the tapes or the native instructor to get the exact pronunciation.
Be careful not to substitute a diphthong such as the o of note . Before voiced
consonants it is shorter that the similar English vowel. At the end of a word
it is glottalized.
In unstressed syllables, especially before a strongly stressed
syllable it tends to be centralized, like the e of English below.
kof "monkey" boker
tov "good" boker
sof "end" oxel
xodeS "month" oxel
yom "day" ohev

"morning" oto
"herdsman" lo
"food" o ^
"eats" Slomo
"loves"

"him"
"no"
"or"
"Solomon"

/u/ High back vowel


This vowel is slightly higher than the oo of shook. Be careful not to
substitute a diphthong with a w-off-glide such as the oo of food.
Suk "market"
Suv "again"
Siput "jurisdiction"
sulam "ladder"
sidur "arrangement"
ud "firebrand"
uf "fly away"
uc "advise"
hu "he"

yifnu "they will turn"


yiStu "they will drink"
Savu "they returned"
banu "in us"
banu "they built"
kanu "they bought"
avdu "they worked"
kumu "get up"
uru "wake up"

Vowel Clusters
All combinations of two vowels occur. The Hebrew spelling may indicate
that /'/, /h/, or /y/ should occur between them, and in deliberate speech
these consonants will usually be heard. In ordinary speech, however, vowel
clusters occur with a smooth transition between them. English speakers will
have to practice these vowel clusters in order to achieve a proper Israeli
pronunciation.
In the transcriptions these clusters are generally written without the
consonants which are indicated by the Hebrew spelling. Appropriate reminders
are given at various points in the text.

59

PRONUNCIATION

HEBREW

COURSE

In pronouncing the following examples for the students to imitate, the


instructor should be relaxed and informal in his pronunciation. otherwise he
will tend to insert a consonant and the practice will have lost its point.
Elision of /'/, /W> and /y/ does not mean that the speech is "sloppy" or
"corrupt". In slow or emphatic speech they must occur. But in normal, everyday,
"natural" speech they are dropped by native speakers of Hebrew Maintaining
these
consonants in this informal style will
,time"
paam
sound
awkward.
,you will cross"
taavor
1to go up"
laalot
,house"
oait
,Israel"
israel
,pleasant"
naim
,directors"
menaalin
,to eat"
leexol
,pleasant"
neima
'very"
meod
,really"
beemet
,counsellor"
yoec
,counsellors"
yoacim
'come"
bou _
,week"
Savua
,sure"
batuax
'beans"
Seuit
maaSaa
"What time is it?"
STRESS AND INTONATION
A complete description of stress and intonation patterns would be very
complicated and of little help in the actual learning of them. The
instructor should present the sentences as naturally as possible, and the
student should do his best to mimic closely.
The following comments will explain the general occurrence of stress on
individual words and in connected speech. The learning of the Basic Sentences
and the acting out of the conversations constitute the drills on stress and
intonation.
In the transcription an accent mark _ indicates a syllable which may
receive strong stress. In words of more than one syllable the placement
of stress is meaningful.
In individual words, particularly when pronounced in isolation, the stress
is usually on the last syllable or on the next to the last syllable. In most
cases the placement of stress is a part of the grammatical pattern, but in
others it must be memorized as part of the individual word. For example, the
/-ti/ and /-ta/ suffixes of the past tense are never stressed: /amarti/ "I
said", /amarta/ "you said". On the other hand the following pairs of words are
distinguished from each other by the stress placement.
/oxel/
"(he is) eating"
/oxel/
"food"
/Slomo/ " his peace"
/Slomo/
"Solomon"
/emca/
" I will find"
/emca/
"middle"
/banu/
" they built"
/banu/
"in us"
In some words of three or more syllables the stress is on the last
syllable

but two:

/maSehu/ "something",

/amerika/
"America"

/mfSehu/
someone

/otobus/ "bus"

xxx iv

BASIC

PRONUNCIATION

HEBREW

COURSE

(in general, loan-words tend to retain the stress where it was in the
language from which it was borrowed.)

xxx iv

BASIC

BASIC

COURSE

________________________________
HEBREW

_____________________________
Only the main stress of a word is indicated.
PRONUNCIATION
Of the unstressed (unmarked) syllables some will
seem louder than others. English has similar patterns of "secondary" and
"tertiary" stresses, and there is no need to drill the pronunciation - provided
the main stress is properly placed: /ledaber/ "to speak" and not */ledaber/.
From Unit 18 on the stress mark is placed on a word only when the stress
is not on the last syllable.
Reduction of Stress
In ordinary connected speech many words, particularly the prepositions
with pronominal suffixes, lose the stress which they have when spoken in
isolation: /tagid li/ "tell me". In effect, these words are pronounced as one
word with the stress on the next to last syllable.
Style Differences in Placement of Stress
The placement of stress differs in formal style in some words and
grammatical patterns. In general, a stress on the next to last syllable is
shifted to the last syllable in these forms. For example:

/
Smone/ /
hi
baa/
/amartem
/

Formal
/Smone/
/hi
baa/
/amarte
m/

"eight" "she is coming" "you said"

Intonation Marks
Intonation is indicated only in a very broad way by the use of punctuation
marks at the end of a phrase or sentence.
A period indicates a falling intonation. Questions which begin with a
question-word (who, what, etc.)generally have a falling intonation at the end
and are therefore marked with a period, not with a question mark.
A question mark indicates a rising intonation. Yes-or-no questions and
rejoinder guestions (And how are you?) generally have a rising intonation at
the end.
A comma indicates a possible pause with a relatively sustained intonation. A
hyphen indicates a hesitation pause, usually with a sustained or rising
intonation.
An exclamation mark indicates an exclamation with increased loudness.
Note: These marks are used in this manner only in the transcription. In the
English and Hebrew spellings the standard punctuation is used.

62

RECORDINGS
COURSE

HEBREW BASIC

TAPE RECORDINGS
The tape recordings which accompany FS!-Hebrew Basic Course have the
following format:
1)Basic Conversation
(a)Dialogue for Learning. The first presentation of the Basic Sentences

are built up from the partial utterances, as described in the


Introduction. Each full sentence is said twice. The student repeats everything he hears at this step. ' He may follow in his book.
(b)Dialogue for Fluency. Each complete Basic Sentence is given with space

for repetition. The student should not need his book here.

(c)Dialogue for Comprehension. The Basic Conversation is spoken at normal

speed by a group of Hebrew speakers as you might overhear it. The student
just listens with his book closed.
(d)Alternating

Drill. The Basic Conversation is presented at normal


speed with one speaker's part missing. The Student speaks the missing
part. He thus conducts a conversation with the tape recording.
The Basic Conversation is then presented with the other speaker's part
missing. The student supplies the part. He thus practices participating in the
entire conversation.
In some Basic Conversations a third speaker has a small part. In such
cases the entire conversation is not repeated with this small part missing.
2)Additional vocabulary
The sentences in the Additional Vocabulary section are presented with
build- ups if necessary.
3)Drills
(a)Substitution Drills, Substitution-Agreement Drills. The first, or

"model" sentence is given with spaces for repetition. Then a substitution


cue is given with space for the student to respond with the new sentence.
The correct response is then given on the tape. The student may follow in
the book.
(b)Expansion Drills, Transformation Drills, Response Drills. The
cue sentence is given with space for the response sentence. The tape then gives
the correct response sentence. The student should look in the book to see what
his response should be. Only the translation of the first cue-response in
given.

Note: In using the tapes the student should not go through an entire tape at
one sitting especially when doing the drill sections. Instead he should do a
few drills, rewind the tape, and do them again until he can do them perfectly
without using the book.
Translation Drills, Rapid Response Drills, and Review Conversations are
not recorded.
Occasionally circumstances required the use of a woman's voice to record a
man's part and vice versa. This should not disturb the student.

63

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

1.1 Greetings (Two men meet)


He
ll
o,
Mo
sh
e.
Ho
w
ar
e
yo
u?
peac
e,
welf
are
what
the
welf
are
of
you,
your
(m.s
.)
MR.
WILLIAMS

Sl
om
xe
i.

. ,
?

S
a
l
o
m
(
m
)

al6m
moSe.
11 &

.
.
?

m
S

l
6
m
x
&
(
m
.
s
.
)

MOSHE
Thank you
very much.
I'm fine.
And how are
you?
t
h
a
n
k
s
m
u
c
h
m
e
,
m
y

a
n
d
to
dc
i
ra
bc
i.
Sl
om
I
t6
v.
u
t1
S
Sl
om
xe
i?
t

64

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

od
&
(f
)
ra
bc
i
(f

)
1

u
-

MR. WILLIAMS
Fine.
How
is
the
famil
y?
th
e
fa
mi
ly
t6v.
m
c
i

1
6
m
h
a

m
i
S
p
a
x
c
i
.
h
a
m
i
S
p
a
x
S

(
f
)

65

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

MOSHE
A
l
l

i
f
e
?

r
i
g
h
t
.

in
order
wife,
woman
be
s
e
d
e
r
(
m
)
i
S

(
f
)

H
o
w
i
s
y
o
u
r
w
MR. WILLIAMS
gSm SlomS tov. slix&. ana.
muxrcix
laruc. too, also
her
pardon
(noun) I
have to, must
to
run

She's fine,
too. Excuse me.
I have to
run.

bes^de
r.
mS
Slom
iStexS
.

,
.
.

gSm -k
slixci (f)
ani
muxrcix
(m.s.
lariic

.

?

.
-

MOSHE
0h yesl
It's
lace
already.
Gooubye.
ye
s
a
l
r
e
a
d
y

o
kenl
kvar
meuxar
.
Salom.
ken
kvar
meuxar

l
a
t
e

66

.
.

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

So long. Be seeing
you.
to see again 1.2
Greetings (Two women meet)
Hello, Miriam. How
are you?
you, your (f.s.)

. .

f-'-RS- WILLIAMS
Salom, miry&m. mS
Slom6x.
-ex
-

,
.
?

MIRIAM
todci
rabci.
Slomi
tov. umci
Slomex?

Thank you very much.


I'm fine.
And how are you?

.
.
?

MRS. WILLIAMS

Fine.
How is the family?

tov.
mci Slom hamiSpaxli.

.
?

MIRIAM
All right. How is
your husband?
husband

besede
r.
mci

.
?

Slom

baalex
.
He's fine, too.
Excuse me. I have
to run.
him, his have to,
must
MR.
WILLIAMS
Salom.
lehitraot.
Iehitra6t
Oh, yes! It's late
already.
So long.

bial (m)

gcim Slomo tov.


slixcL. ani
rauxraxfi laruc.
-6 -

muxraxi (f.s.)
MIRIAM

. .

salon:.
MRS. WILLIAMS

. .

Salom.
lehitraot.

1.3 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY


We are fine.
How are you?
How are you?
How are they?
How are they?

.
.
.

MRS. WILLIAMS

So long. Be seeing
you.
o ken! kv&r meux&r.

(m.pl.)
(f.pl.)
(m.pl.)
(f.pl.)

67

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

Mr. Carmi
Mr. Carmi (alternate form) Miss or Mrs. Carmi It is early.

Slomenu
tov. mci
Slomxem.
mci
SlomxSn.
mci
Slomcim.
mci SlomSn.
mcir kcirmi
adon kcirmi
68
gveret
kcirmi
mukdcim.

.
?

?
?
?

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

1.4 Classroom Expressions


In this section we introduce a few additional Hebrew phrases which will be
used in class. They should be practiced until the pronunciation is learned, but
since they will be used constantly in class they can be memorized without special
effort.
Some of the expressions are given in more than one form, differing in
gender or number. Their use will depend on the make-up of the class, and the
instructor may find it necessary to introduce additional variations not included
here.
Close the door.
1.

2.Sit down, please.

(said to a man)
(said to a woman)
All together.

.
.

dabSr yotSr bek6l.


dabri yotfir bek6l.

kulSm beyaxad.
6d hapSam,

Do you understand? (said to a

man) (said to a woman)

I don't understand, (said by


man) (said by a woman)

ani 16 yodea. ani 16 yodSat.

know.
(said by a man) (said by
atS
woman)

11.Please translate.
10 .

?
mevin, ? ani

ani 16
16 mevinS.

.
don't

.
.

Again.

Speak louder.

. ,

pitxu et hasfar fm.


ptaxna
et
hasfarfm.

(said to men or both)


(said to women)

sigri
et
.
.
. ,
. ,
,

S6ket, bevakaSS.

3.Quiet, please.
4.Open your books.

hadSlet.

6v, bevakaSS.
Svi, bevakaSS.
Svi,
bevakaSS.

(said to a man)
(said
to
a
woman) (said to
men or both)

sg6r
et
hadSlet.

(said to a man) (said to a woman)

(said to a man)
(said to a woman)

12.How do you say

table in Hebrew?

targSm, bevakaSS.

mevin? St
mevinS?
targeml,
bevakaSS.
Syx omrlm table
beivrit. \
. ,

69

.
.
. ,
.
.

table
?

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

GRAKMAR DRILLS
1.5 Masculine and Feminine

Compare the following sets of corresponding sentence


from conversations 1.1
and 1.2:
a. Sal6m, moS6. mS Slomxei.
Hello, Moshe. How are you?
Sal6m, miry&m. mci
Slomfex. Hello, Miriam.
How is your wife? How How are you?
is your husband?
b. mS 516m
iStexS. mS Sl6m
baal6x.
Note that forms differ when a man or woman is being spoken to. It is
important that the student learn the corresponding forms at the outset. There
are a number of patterns of these corresponding forms, which will be referred
to by their traditional names, masculine and feminine. All nouns in Hebrew,
whether or not referring to beings with sex, are members of one or the other
class. These will be designated (m) or (f) in the vocabulary listings.
Throughout the course the various corresponding forms required by
each gender will be drilled.
The following drills should be thoroughly learned. The student should not
have to be corrected afterwards on the use of the proper forms. Such errors
will produce a reaction similar to that felt by English speakers on hearing the
following: How is your brother?"
She is fine, thank you."
The cue words in the following drills are names of men and women.
Include .the name in the response so as to fix firmly the connection of form
and sex of person spoken to. The instructor may vary the drill by using the
names of members of the class or by introducing other Hebrew names such as
/avigdor/(man) and /xcina/ (woman).
The drills are to be done as follows:
Instructor: Salom mo5 mS SlomxS. Student:
(repeats) Salom moS6. ml SlomxS. Instructor:
mirySm Student: Salom mirySm. mci SlomSx.
Instructor: (repeats) Sal6m mirySm. mS
Slomex.
mcir kohen
a!6m mo56. mS SlornxS.

Salom mirySm. mS

mirySm

Slomfix. al6m mcir

mcir k6hen

kohen. mci SlomxS.

gveret Williams

gv6ret Williams. mci

gveret kcispi

Slomex. Sal6m gveret

m&r Williams

kcispi. mS Slomex.

avigdor

mcir

Xcina

Slomxei. Salom

m&r kcispi mo56

avigdor. mci Slomxei.

Williams. mS

70

.run


Sal6m

Salom

Sal6m

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

x&na. mS Slomex. Salom mcir


kcispi. mS SlomxS. Sal6m moS6. mci SlomxS.
?
,,
mfi Slom
mcir
iStexS,
Williams.
^.;:
qv6ret
m 516 baal6x gv6ret Williams.
Williams
l m
,
i
mc 316 iStexc mcir kohen.

mcir kohen
i
m
i,
mc Slo baal6x gveret kcirmi.

gveret kcirmi
i
m
,
mc Slo baal6x xSna.
xcina

i
m
,
mc S16 iStexS moS6.
moSS

i
m
,
mc Sl6 iStexS mcir Williams.
,
mcir Williams
i
m
,
1.6 Pronominal Suffixes - Singular Set
There are several sets of pronouns indicating person, gender, and number. The
following occur as suffixes to singular nouns and to certain prepositions. They
will be referred to as the singular set.
When suffixed to nouns they are often translated as possessives.
m Slomxei.
(literally) What is your peace?
mS Slom iStexci.
How is your wife?
Slom1_ tov.
(literally) My peace is good.
Except for certain stereotyped expressions as these, though, the suffixing of
nouns to indicate possession is more formal in style.
When suffixed to prepositions they are usually translated as the objects of
the prepositions. This will be discussed later on.
A. Substitution Drill
m& SlomxS.
How are you?
siomex
Slomxem
siomsm /. .
SlomSn - v.. siomo
siomx^n
_sioms ; :

?
:
LOU /'
,

B. Substitution Drill
siomi tov.
siomenu
siomo
Slomcin
sioms
510mSm

I'm f

.
,*
;

:
../
,
7

C. Response Drill
mS Slomxa.
Instructor:
m Slomxem.
mS SlomSm.
mci

Slom!
Student: SlomSm

tov.
tov.

Siomenu
Siomo

tov.
tov.

Siomenu
tov.
Slomi t6v.

Slom6.

mS SlomxSn.
mS SlomS.

mS Slom6x.

71

SlomS

tov.

UNIT 3
COURSE.
D.
?.
-..
;.
Instructor:
?
.
?
:.
?
:
?
:
?
.,
?

HEBREW BASIC

?

?
?
?
?

Response Drill

mci 16m baalex.


Student: Slom6
t6v.
mli Slom iStexci.
lomi
t6v.
mci lom hamiSpaxS.
SlomS
t6v.
mi Slom baali.Slom6
t6v.
mS 16m it6. SlomS
t6v.

72

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

[Note: in the
form
/iStexS/
the
/-e-/
is
inserted
for
phonological
reasons,
to
break
up
the
three-consonant
cluster
/-tx-/, which
would otherwise
result. ]

1.7 Alternate forms


of nouns before
suffixes
Many nouns have
an alternate form
when occurring with
a
pronominal
suffix.
alom
'welfare'

73

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

Slomi ,my
welfare'
igci
wife'

iSti
my wife'

Compare, on the
other
hand:
bSal
,husband'
baali 'my husband'
It is very
difficult
to
predict
which
nouns will have
such alternate
forms or what
the
alternate
form will be.
The
student
should
simply
drill these as
they occur in
the text until

74

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

he has mastered
them.
When a
suffixed noun
occurs in a Fasic
Sentence the
independent form
of the noun will
be given in the
vocabulary
breakdown, and,
as much as
possible, drills
will be provided.

75

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

REVIEW
CONVERSATIO
NS

The
purpose
of
the
Review
Conversations
is
to
lead
the
student
into
free
conversation
within
the
range of the
vocabulary
and
grammatical
patterns
which he has
learned.
Students
should
keep
their
books
closed
while
the
instructor
follows
the
procedure
suggested
here.

76

BASIC COURSE
4
1.With the class
just
listening,
the
instructor
reads the
conversation
in as
natural a
manner as
possible.
The
instructor
repeats the
conversation
until the
class
understands
it
completely.

HEBREW UNIT

2.The instructor
rereads the
conversation
several
times with
half the
class

77

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

repeating
one role and
half the
other role.
3.The two halves
of the class
exchange roles
and Step 2 is
repeated.
4.The instructor
takes the
first part
and acts out
the
conversation
with the
class.
5.The class and
instructor
exchange roles
and repeat
Step 4.
6.Individual
students are
assigned the

78

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

various roles
in turn until
all have
taken both
parts in the
conversation.

7.Individual
students
make
substitut
ions
freely,
including
whatever
changes
may
be
necessary
elsewhere
in
the
conversat
ion.
These
free
conversat
ions
should
not
be

79

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

prolonged
more than
four
minutes
or
so.
This will
give
all
the
students
an
opportuni
ty to try
their
hand
at
the
same
situation
.
The
instructo
r
should
refrain
from
adding
a
lot
of
vocabular
y at this
point.

80

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

A: 8a16m, gvSret

k&hen. mS
siomgx.

?,

b: tods, siomi
t6v, um&
siomxS?
?.

81

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

A:

gim Slomi t6v, todci.

. ,

B:

mS Slom mo5.

A:

ani 16 yoda.

C
:

mci Sl6m iStexci, mcir kcirmi.

c:
D:

tov, todci. slixci. meuxcir.

c:

6, g&m ani muxraxS laruc. Salom,

D:

5al6m, lehitraot.

? ,

bes&der, todci. mS Slom baal6x?

? . ,

Slom6 tov. mci 516m hamiSpaxci?

? .

. . . ,
. . ,
. ,

E: Sal6m,
mSr
Willia

ms.
Sa
l6m,

82

BASIC COURSE
4

gveret

zahSv

Willia

i. E:

ms. mS

bes6d

Slomx6

er. mci

m. F:

Slom

todci

hamiS

rabci.

paxS?

Slom6n

F:

u t6v.

slixS

mci

HEBREW UNIT

. an!

Slom6x

lo

mevtn

gv6ret

. 6d

83

UNIT 3
COURSE.

hapSam

HEBREW BASIC

,
b

v
a

S
.

h
a

84

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

a
x

v
,

F
:

t
o

85

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

86

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

87

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

88

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

: .

:?

G:

o
Sal6

m,

mSr

kcir

mi.

H:

89

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

moSe

! mS

Slom

xei.

G:

Slom

tov.

mS

Sl6m

hami

Spax

90

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

g6r

et

hadS

let,

beva

kaSS

G:

ken.

slix

S.

91

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

92

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

I:
mSr

iam
s,
Sv

Will
,

93

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

beva

me

kaSS

vl

n.

J:

I:
S6

6d
hap

v,
be

Sam
,

va
ka

bev
aka

SS
.

SS.
ani
lo

J:
o

94

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

k6n.

mu

an

xr

mevi

Sx

n.

la

todS

ru

c.

K:
sli
xS,
mir
ySm
.
ani

L:
lo
.
S
v,
be
va

95

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

kaS

to

S.

v.

muk

Ie

dSm

hi

tr

K:

a6

lo,

t.

tod

M:

S.
meu

Sik

xSr

et,

bev

L:

aka

96

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

Si.

t!

N:

atS
mev

slix
S.

ln?
N:

dab4
r

tov

yot

ani

beko

mev

l.

ln.

M:

sli
xS.

Ske

97

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

98

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

99

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

100

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

.
:

101

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

102

2.1

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

Introductions (Two men are introduced)


MR. CASPI
M
r
.
C
o
h
e
n
,

p
l
e
a
s
e
m
e
e
t
M
r
.
W
i
l
l
i
a
m
s
.
you will
know
(preposit
ion
indicatin
g object
of verb)
mSr k6hen,
takir
bevakaSS et
mSr
Williams.
takir
(m.s.)
et

103

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

I'
m
ve
ry
ha
pp
y
to
me
et
yo
u,
Mr
.
Wi
ll
ia
ms
.

na
im
(m
.s
.)
li
me
6d
le
ha
ki
r
ot
xS
(m
.s
.)
p
l
e
a
s
a
n
t

t
o
m
e
v
e
r
y
to know
(a
person)
you
(m.s.,
obj.)
MR. COHEN
naim li
me6d
lehakir
otx&,
mSr
William
s.

104

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

MR. WILLIAMS
How do you do, Mr. Cohen.
MR. CASPI
Mr. Williams
is
Counsellor
of
the
American
Embassy.
he, it
counsel
lor,
adviser
embassy
America
n
When
di
d
yo
u
ar
ri
ve
in
th
e
co
un
tr
y,
Mr
.
Wi
ll
ia
ms
?

Sagri
rfit
(f)
ameri
k&i
(m.s.
)

h
u

M
R
.

y
o
6
c

C
O
H
E
N

nalm
me6d, mSr
k6hen'.

h
a
S
a
g
r
i
r
u
t

when
(inter
rogati
ve)
you
arrive
d
(m.s.)
countr
y
mSr

W
i
l
l
i
a
m
s

m
a
t
S
y
h
i
g
S
t
a

h
a
a
m
e
r
i
k
S
i
t
.

l
a
S
r
e
c
,
m
S
r

h
t
i

W
i
l
l
i

yo
6c
(
m

105

,
.

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

ams.
matSy
higSta
)(m.s.
)6rec (f


.


,
.

106

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

MR. WILLIAMS
I
ar
ri
ve
d
tw
o
da
ys
ag
o,
Mr
.
Co
he
n.

y
o
m
S
i
m
,
m
S
r
k
6
h
e
n
.
I
a
r
r
i
v
e
d
b
e
f
o
r
e
,

higSti
lifn&y
y6m
(m)
yomSim

a
g
o
d
a
y
t
w
o
d
a
y
s

higSti
lifn6y

107

2.2

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

Introductions (Two women are introduced)


MRS. CAS PI
M
r
s
.
C
o
h
e
n
,
p
l
e
a
s
e
m
e
e
t
M
r
s
.
W
i
l
l
i
a
m
s
.

m
s
.
you
(f.
s.,
obj
.)
gv6ret
k6hen,
takiri
bevakaSS
et gveret
Williams.
)

W
i
l
l
i
a
m
s
.

ota
x
(f.
s.)

takiri
(f.s.
M
R
S
.
W
I
L
L
I
A
M
S

MRS.
COHE
N
n
a
i
m
l
i

you
will
know
(f.

I'm
ver
y
hap
py
to
mee
t
you
,
Mrs
.
Wil
lia

r
e
t

m
e
6
d
l
e
h
a
k
i
r
o
t
S
x
,
g
v
f
i

108

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

,

.

109

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

How do you do, Mrs. Cohen.


Mrs. Williams
is the wife
of the
Counsellor of
the American
Embassy.
s
h
e
,
i
t
o
f

MRS. CAS PI

naim me6d,
gvSret
k6hen.

gvSret
Williams hi
iSt6 Sel
yo6c
haSagrirtit
haamerikSit.
hi 61



.

110

BASIC COURSE
4
When
did
you
arr
ive
in
the
cou
ntr
y,
Mrs
.
Wil
lia
ms?

HEBREW UNIT

you
arrived
(f.s.)
KRS. COHEN
m
a
t
&
y
h
i
g
&
t
l
a
S
r
e
c
,
gvferet
Williams.
hig&t
(f.s.)

MRS.
WILLIAMS

111

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

higciti

lifnSy yomSim, gveret k6hen.


2.3
ADDITIONAL
VOCABULARY I
arrived
yesterday.
I arrived the
day before
y
esterday. I
arrived a week
ago. week
I arrived two
weeks ago.
I arrived a
month ago. month
I arrived two
months ago.

I arrived
two days
ago, Mrs.
Cohen.

,
.

112

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

higci

higci

higci

higit

higSt

etm61
.

SilS6
m.

lifn^
y

Savua.

Savua

(m)

lifn6
y

lifn6
y

SvuSim.

xodeS.

)
(

x6deS

higci

lifne
y

xodS&im.

113

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

2.4 Equational Sentences


Compare the following sentences and their English translations:
a.m& SlomxS

(literally) What is your peace?

b.Slomi t6v
(literally) My peace is good.
c m&r Williams hti yo6c
Mr. Williams is the Counsellor
haSagrirut haamerikciit.
of the American Embassy.
Note that the Hebrew equivalent of the English sentence pattern A is B is A B
. The Hebrew equivalent for the English present tense forms am, ij3_ and are is the
juxtaposition of the two parts of the sentence. Such sentences are called equational
sentences.
In Sentence c the form /hu/ ,he' is a pleonastic subject.
Now compare the following sentences and their translations:
d.meuxcir.

It is late.

e.naim mtod.
It is very pleasant.
In these sentences the English has not only a verb form, but this verb requires a
subject, in this case the impersonal pronoun it. The Hebrew sentences are complete as
they stand.

A.Substitution Drill
hu amerik&i.
ani
moSe hu
mkr wiliiams
baais

He is an A m e r i c a n .

B.Substitution Drill
hi amerikSit.
ani
iSti
gvgret Williams
mirySm hi

She is an A m e r i c a n .



itX
THJI
! ,t

C.Substitution Drill
hu -joea hagcgrirut.
ani
reSr wiliiams hu
baalli

He is the Counsellor of the Embassy. .iiW "UV H

0
J

D.Substitutioa Drill
meuxir meod.

It is very late.

mukdSm

. Tl

naim

114

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

2.5 The Direct Object Preposition /et ~ ot-/


The preposition /et/ preceded a direct object of a verb when the object is
definite. An object is definite in any of the following cases:
a.It is preceded by the definite article prefix /ha-/ ,the1;
b.It has a pronoun suffix, e.
:., /it/ r8y v.-ife' ;
c.It is a proper name, e.g., /moS6/ ,Moshe";
d.It is the first noun of a noun-noun construction in which the second noun
is definite, e.g., /yoec haSagrirtit/ 'the Counsellor of the Embassy';
[The grammar of this last case will be discussed in detail later. ]
e.It is an interrogative or demonstrative, e.g. /mS/ 'what', /ze/ ,this'.
When the object of the verb is not definite, then the preposition does not
occur. Compare: sgor et hadelet.
Close the door.
sg6r d4let.
Close a door.
The sequence /et ha-/ is often nontracted in ordinary speech to /ta-/. /sgor
tade'let./ /pitxu tasfarim./
The singular set of pronominal suffixes is used with this preposition, but
the preposition has the alternate form /ot-/ when occuring with a suffix.
naim li meod lehakir otxS.
naim li me6d lehakir otax.
Some speakers use a regularized form of the latter - /otex/. The first person
plural form is /otSnu/ rather than */ot^nu/ These variants of the pronominal
suffixes, /-ax/ and /-Snu/, occur with certain other prepositions.
The second person plural forms are either /otxem, otx6n/ or /etxm, etxen/.
The latter, however, are considered rather literary and somewhat stilted, though
these are the only ones occurring in the classical language.
Substitution Drill
Please meet
takir bevakaSS et mSf Williams.
gveret Williams
moS
hayoec
hamiSpaxS
iSti
yoec haSagrirtit
baalS
iSt6
xSna

Mr.

Williams,

115

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

B. Substitution Drill
sg6r et hadelet.
hasfarim
C. Substitution Drill
pitxu et hadelet.
hasfarim haSagrirut
D. Substitution Drill
I'm very happy to meet you.
naim li me6d lehakir otxS.
.
otSx

ot6
et mar Williams
et ist6

Close the
door.

Open the
door.

116

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

E. Substitution-Agreement Drill
I'm very happy to meet you, Mr. Williams. naim li meed lehakir otxa, mar
W

gveret k6hen
gv6ret Williams
mSr k&spi
moe
mirySm
gveret zahSvi
mcir oren
xSna
avigdor

nai
m
nai
m
nai
m
nai
m
nai
m
nai
m
nai
m
nai
m
nai
m

l
i
l
i
l
i
l
i
l
i
l
i
l
i
l
i
l
i

me6d lehaki
r
me6d lehaki
r
meod lehaki
r
me6d lehaki
r
meod lehaki
r
meod lehaki
r
meod lehaki
r
meod lehaki
r
meod lehaki
r

otax
,
otax
,
otxS
,
otxS
,
otax
.
otax
,
otxS
,
otax
,
otxS
,

REVIEW

gveret k6hen.
gveret Williams.
mSr kaspi.

mirySm.

gveret zahavi.

xSna.
avigdor.

moe.

mSr oren.

. , :
.

A: Sal6m, gveret Williams,


takiri bevakaSa et iSti

, :
? .

B: naim li meod lehakir


sLa;< gveret zahSvi. mS
Slomex.

. :

C: gSm li naim lehakir otSx.

117

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

D: mirySm. takiri et baalS Sel sSra. E: naim


li meod lehakir otxa, mcir zahavi. F: naim
meod.
: . . :
. : . ,

118

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

? ? , :

G: ma Slomex, mirySm.
matay higSt laSagrirut.
w,.

H: higSti lifney yomaim, mar Williams.


takir bevakaSS et baali.

. , :
.
. , :

G: naim li meod lehakir otxS, mar kohen.

. , :

I: naim meod, mar Williams.


: ? , :

J: matSy higata laarec, mSr Jones.

. : .

K: higati etmol.
J: gam ani higati etmol.

? . :
. :
? ,

L: atara. matSy higSt letfel aviv.

. :

M: higati lifney xodeS.


matay higSta laSagrirut, david.
L: higSti SilSom.

. , . :
?

N: david. sgor et hadelet, bevakaSS. O:

. :

et mS? N: et hadelet. O: o ken. slixa.

119

3.2 Introductions,
(Two women)
3.1 Introductions,
contd.
(Two men)
UNIT 3 contd.
COURSE.
MR. COHEN
How did you come?

x hig&ta.

By plane or
by ship?
how
airplane

beavir6n 6
beonici.
6x, 6yx
avir6n (m)

or
ship

HEBREW BASIC

6
onici (f)

?

?

MR. WILLIAMS
I came

higciti

by plane
to Lydda.

beavir6n
lelfid.
lud, I6d

Lydda (place
name)

MR. COHEN

How

6x

were you impressed


by Lydda?
you were
impressed
from, by

hitraScimta
milud.
hitraScimta (m.s.)
mi-, me-

MR. WILLIAMS
Lydda is

lud hti

a beautiful and
modern airport.

nemil teufci
yaf6
vexadiS.
nam&l, naml (m)
teufS (f)
yaf e (m.s.)
vexadiS (m.s.)

port
flight
beautiful, pretty
and
modern

MR. COHEN

-

.

I hope that

ani mekavi Se-

you like our country.

arcSnu
m6cet xn
beeynxa.
mekav4 (m.s.,pres.)
Se-

hope
that
(conjunction)
find
favor, charm
eye
[two] eyes
your (m.s.) eyes

mocet (f.s.,pres.)
xn (m)
Sin (f)
eynSim
eyn6xa

MR. WILLIAMS
Oh, ye s.

6 k6n.

The country is
very pretty.
beautiful, pretty

haSrec
yafci meod.
yafci (f.s.)

120

.1 ,

MRS. COHEN
How did you come? By plane or by ship?
MRS. WILLIAMS

hig&t.
beaviron
6
higciti
beonici.
beaviron
lelud.

I came
by plane
to
Lydda.

MRS. COHEN
How
were you
impressed by
Lydda?
you were
impressed
ex
hitragcimt
milud.
hitragcimt (f.s.)

Lydda is

121

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

eautiful
and
modern
airport.

v
S

I hope that
you like our
country.

a
r
c
6
n
u

hope (present)
your (f.s.)
eyes
MRS.
WILLIAMS
l
G
d

m
o
c
e
t
x
e
n

h
u

b
e
e
y
n
S
i
x
.

n
e
m
S
l
t
e
u
f
c
i

meka
vci
(f.s
.
,pre
s.)
eynS
ix

y
a
f
e

MRS.
WILLIAM
S


.

v
e
x
a
d
i
g
.

MRS. COHEN
an
i
me
ka

g
e
-

122

Oh, yes.
The country is
very pretty.
3.3 ADDITIONAL
VOCABULARY
How did you
come?
(said
to men or
both)
(said to
women) We
came by
plane.

o
k6n.
hacir
ec
yaf
Si
meod.

. ,

123

UNIT 3
COURSE.

ex higlitem.
x higliten.
higci beaviron.
hacir

mocet xe
n

beeynSy.

?
?

HEBREW BASIC

mocet xe beeynSv.
.

n
J
haSre mocet xe beeyneha. .
n

hacir mocet xe beeyneynu.


n
.

hacir mocet xe beeyneyx^m


n
.
.
hacir mocet xe beeyneyxen
n
.
.

hacir mocet xe beeyneyhem


n
.
.

hacir mocet xe beeyneyhen


n
.
.

BASIC COURSE_________________________HEBREW________________________________UNIT 3
hacir

GRAMMAR DRILLS
3. 4 Alternate Forms of 1Touns
In Grammar Section 1.6 it was noted that some nouns have an alternate form
when occurring with suffixes. Some nouns also have an alternate form when
occurring as the first noun in a noun-noun sequence. Some examples of this are:
'Sal6m
namSl

welfare1
port'
,

Slom hamiSpaxS ,the welfare of the family'


,airport1
nemSl teufS

Compare, on the other hand:


yoSc

counsellor1 yoke haSagrirut ,the Counsellor of the jiirbassy1

As with suffixed nouns, it is difficult to predict which nouns will have


an alternate form or what the alternate form will be. It may or may not be the
same form of the noun which occurs with suffixes (except for stress placement),
e.g., /Slomi/ and /Slom hamiSpaxS/.
When a noun occurs in a Basic Sentence as the first noun in such a
sequence the independent form will be given in the vocabulary breakdown.

3.5 Dual Number in Nouns


In addition to singular and plural as grammatical numbers Hebrew has a
noun suffix, /-Sim/, which indicates dual number. Some examples are:
y6m ,day'
Savu 'week1
,month
a
xode '
S
'eye'
Sin

yomSim
SvuSim
xodSSi
m
eynSim

'two days1 'two weeks1 ,two months' '[two] eyes'


This suffix occurs with a limited number of nouns and in a few other
forms. These nouns include parts of the body which come in pairs, doubled
1 like the country. He likes the country. She likes the country. We like the
country. You (m.pl.) like the country. You (f.pl.) like the country. They (m)
like the country. They (f) 1ike the country.

124

numbers and units of time, paired articles of clothing, and a few other items.
It is not otherwise used to indicate two of something. Except for this suffix,
dual nouns are treated as plurals. Verbs and adjectives used with them have
plural forms, and the plural set of pronominal suffixes is also used. (See
Section 3.6)

3.6 Pronominal Suffixes - Plural Set


In Section 1.6 the singular set of pronominal suffixes was discussed.
Another set of pronominal suffixes occurs with plural (and dual) nouns and
with certain prepositions. The form of the noun preceding these suffixes is
often a special plural alternate, and this alternation will be drilled later.
Often however, the only indication of the number of the noun is the pronominal
suffix.
eyni^ 'my eye'

eynSy

'my eyes'

[Note: As in many other instances, /ev/ is sometimes shortened to /e/. This


may cause some confusion in the first and second person plural suffixes of the
two sets. ]

125

UNIT 3_______________________________HEBREW____________________BASIC COURSE

A. Substitution Drill
hacirec mocet xen beeynSy.

. !

I like the
country.

beeyn4xa
beeynSix
beeynSv
beeyneha

beeyneynu
beeyneyxem
beeyneyxen
beeyneyhem
beeyneyhen
B. Expansion Drill

The student repeats the question or the instructor and asks the second question.
Instructor: How are you?

Student:

How are you? How do you Tike the country?

mli SlomxS. 6x mocet xen beeyn^xa haSrec.


mci Slom iStexci. ex m6cet beeyneha harec.
mS Slom hamiSpaxS. ex m6cet x^n beeyneha haSrec.
m& Slomex.
mocet x4n beeynSix haSrec.
mS Slomxem. ex mocet xen beeyneyxem haSrec.
mS Slom baalex. 6x m6cet x4n beeynSv hacirec.
mS SlomS. 6x mocet x6n beeyneha hacirec.
mS Slomxen. ex mocet x6n beeyneyxen hacirec.
mS Slom david. ex mocet xen beeynSv hacirec.
mS Siomo. ex mocet xen beeynSv haSrec.
mS SlomSm. ex mocet xen beeyneyhem haSrec.

C. Response Drill
Instructor:
How are you?

Student:
Fine. I like the country.

m& SlomxS.

tov.

mS
mS
mS
mS
m&

t6v.
tov.
tov.
tov.
tov.

Slom david.
Slomxem.
Slom iStexS.
Slom moSe veiSto.
Slomex.

mS Slom xSna umirySm.

tov.

haSrec troce
t
haSrec mocet
haSrec mocet
haSrec mocet
haSrec mocet
hacire mocet
c
hacire mocet
c

xen beeynay.
xen
xen
xen
xen
xen

beeynSv.
beeyneynu.
beeyneha.
beeyneyhem.
beeynSy.

xen beeyneyhen.

D. Transformation Drill - Pronominal Suffixes, singular and Plural Sets

126

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

Instructor:
His country is very beautiful.

Student:
He likes
country.
the
arc6 yafci meod.
hacir mocet xe beeynSv.
ec
n
arci yafS meod.
hare mocet xe beeynSy.
c
n
arcenu yafS meod.
hacir mocet xe joeeyneynu
ec
n
.
arcSm yafS me6d.
hare mocet xe beeyneyhem
c
n
.
arcexS yafS me6d.
hare mocet xe beeynexa.
c
n
arcex yafS meod.
haSre mocet xe beeynSix.
c
n
arcS yafS meod.
haSre mocet xe beeyneha.
c
n
arcexem yafS meod.
hafir mocet xe beeyneyxem
ec
n
.
E Transformation Drill - Repeat Drill D in reverse.
F. Substitution-Agreement Drill
In the following drill responses by men should begin with /ani mekave/ and
those of women should begin with /ani mekava/. The instructor should repeat the
correct answer of the particular student.

127

ani mekave Searcenu mocet xen beeynexa, mSr Williams.

qveret Williams mekave


an
Searcenu mocet xe
i gveret
n
Williams,

beeynaix,

mar k6hen

an
mekave
Searcenu mar mocet xe
i kohen.
n

beeynexa,

an
mekave
Searcenu mocet xe
i gveret Smith.
n

beeynaix,

an
mekave
Searcenu mocet xe
i mcir Jones.
n

beeynexa,

an
mekave
Searcenu mocet xe
i gveret Fuller.
n

beeynaix,

an
mekave
Searcenu mocet xe
i gveret Jones.
n

beeyn&ix,

an
mekave
Searcenu m&r mocet xe
i Williams.
n

beeynexa,

qveret Smith

mS.r Jones

gveret Fuller

qveret Jones

mcir Williams

128

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

R E V I E W
A

a16m, D A V I D

M A T S Y

H I G

C O N V E R S A T I O N S

&TA

L A S R E C

. ?. , :

H I G S T I

B E O N I A

etm61

H I T R A G

&

L E X D Y F A

. .

M T A

M E H A N A M I I

??

hanamSl xadlS veyafe.

>

129

C: matSy higSta laSagrirtit, mSr Jones.


D: higciti lifney Savua, mirySm.
C: ani mekavci SehaSagrirut mocet xen
beenexa.
D: ken. haSagrirut meod mocet xen beenay.

, :
? 4

E: gveret kohen. 4yx hig&t lairec. F

, :
.
:
.
. :
.

higciti beonici lexayfa. E: ani mekav

SehitraS&mt mehaoniS. F: ken. haoniS


yafS me6d.

?
,

higciti

beaviron

leltid.

etmol, mSr k6hen. G: eyx


H:

:
.

G: mSr Williams. matSy hig&ta. H:

higSta.

higciti

130

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

4.1 Housing Arrangements

reside

p
r
e
s
.
)
,
?

(Two men speaking)


MR. COHEN
Where
are
you
staying,
Mr.
Williams?
where
you

heyx&n
at& g&r,
mcir Williams.
heyx&n
at& (m.s.)
g&r (m.s.

I'm staying in the meantime at


the Dan Hotel.
meanwhile hotel
MR. WILLIAMS
ani
g&r
bemal&n dan.

beynatciim
malon (m)

beynat&im

MR. COHEN
Very good. It's close to
the Embassy.
it, this, that near, close
t6v
meod.
z6
karov

laSagrirut.
ze (m)
karov
(m.s.)

MR. WILLIAMS
Yes, that's right.
correct

ken. naxon.
naxon (m.s.)

, .

MR. COHEN
And where do you
plan to live?
where plan
to reside
veeyf6
MR. WILLIAMS
There will be
arranged for us
a house in Ramat Gan.
will be arranged
for, on behalf
of house

ata mitkonen lagur?


ey ro, ey(?o
mitkonen (m.s. pres.)
lagur

yesud&r avurenu
b&it beramat gan.
yesudar (3
m.
avur
bait (m)

MR. COHEN
Have you seen the house?
(yes-or-no question introducer)
you S3J.W

haim raita
et habait?
haim

raita
(m.s. )

131

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

MR. WILLIAMS
N
o
.
B
u
t
I

v
e
h
e
a
r
d
t
h
a
t
t
h
e
h
o
u
s
e
i
s
b
i
g

f
u
I heard
b
i
y
o
arrive
of you,
yours
of me,
still,
1
6
g
a
&x
gam&ti
gad6l
(m.s.)
M
R
.
C
O
H
E
N

min
e
yet
approximately,
as days

m
tagia

(3.f.s.
) gelx&
(m.s.)
M
h
Sell
keyamim
(pi. of
/y6m/)

a
n
d
b
e
a
u
t
i

132

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

133

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

4.2 Housing Arrangements


(Two women
speaking)
MRS. COHEN
Whe
re
a
r
e
y
o
u
s
t
a
y
i
n
g
,
M
r
s
.
W
i
l
l
i
a
m
s
?

I
'
m

t
a

h
e
y
x
&
n
&
t
g
f
i
r
a
g
v
e
r
e
t
W
i
l
l
i
a
m
s
you .
(f.s)
fit (f.s.)
reside
g&ra
(f.s.pr
(f.s.pres.
es.))
MR
S.
WI
LL
IA
MS

134

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

n
i

k
a
r
o
v

g
&
r
a

l
a
S
a
g
r
i
r
f
i
t
.

b
e
y
n
a
t
&
i
m
b
e
m
a
l
o
n

MR
S.
WI
LL
IA
MS

d
&
n
.

k
e
n
.
M
R
S
.
C
O
H
E
N

n
a
x
o
n
.

t
o
v

m
e
o
d
.

z
e

135

UNIT 4
BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

MRS. COHEN
And where
do
you
plan
to
live?
plan

vee
yfo
a
t

onen
et
(f.s
.pre
s.)

m
i
t
k
o
n
e
n
e
t
l
a
g
u
r
?

m
i
t
k

T
h
e
r
e
w
i
l
l
b
e
a
r
r
a
n
g
e
d
f
o
r
u
s
a
ho
us
e
in
Ra

m
a
t
G
a
n
.
MRS
.
WIL
LIA
MS
y
e
s
u
d
a
r
a
v
u
r
e
n
u
b
a
i

136

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

t
be
ra
ma
t

g
a
n
.

H
a
you saw
MRS
.

COHE
N

N
o
1
'
MRS
.
WIL

LIA
MS

Wh
en
wi
ll
th
e
re
st
of
yo
ur
fa
mi
ly
ar
ri
ve
?

m
a
t
a

h
rait
(f.s.)

l
o
g
a

y
e
t
e
r

M
y
M
R
S
.

yeter
Selax
(f.s.'
WI
LL
IA
MS
h

137

?:

t
a
g
i
a

h
a
m
i
rest,S
remainp
der ofa
you,x
yoursa
MR
S.
S
CO
e
HE
l
N
a
x
.

UNIT 4
BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

4.3
ADD
ITI
ONA
L
VOC
ABU
LAR
Y

e
.
T
h
e
i
r

(
m
His )
hou
se h
is o
ver u
y
s
nic e
e.
Her i
hou s
se
is v
ver e
r
y
nic y
e.
Our n
hou i
se c
is e
ver .
y
nic T
e. h
You e
i
r
(m. r
pl.
(
)
hou f
se )
is h
ver o
y
u
nic s
e. e
You
r
i
(f. s
pl.
)
v
hou e
se r
is y
ver
y
n
nic i

138

c
e
W

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

(m)
liv
e
in
Hai
fa.
You
(m.
pl.
)
liv
e
in
Hai
fa.
The
y
(m)
liv
e
in
Hai
fa.
We
(f)
liv
e
in
Hai
fa.
You
(f.
pl.
)
liv
e
in
Hai
fa.
The
y
(f)
liv
e
in
Hai
fa.
hab
ait
el
o
yaf
e
meo
d.
hab
ait
Mel

a
y
a
f
e
m
e
o
d
.
h
a
b
a
i
t
S
e
l
a
n
u
y
a
f
e
m
e
o
d
.
h
a
b
a
i
t
S
e
l
a
x
e
m
y
a
f
e
m

139

e
o
h
h

UNIT 4
BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

Sel
ahe
n
yaf
e
meo
d.
a
n
u
g
a
r
i
m
b
e
x
a
y
f
a
.
a
t
e
r
a
g
a
r
i
m
b
e
x
a
y
f
a
.
h
e
m
g
a
r
i
m
b
e

x
a
y
f
a
.
a
n
u
g
a
r
o
t
b
e
x
a
y
f
a
.
a
t
e
n
g
a
r
o
t
b
e
x
a
y
f
a
.
h
e
n
g
a
r
o
t
b
e

140

HEBREW UNIT

:

:


.
.;

:

-:
;


.
.

!
:

141

BASIC COURSE
4

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

GRAMMAR NOTES

4.4 The Preposition /Sel/ 'of'


Examine these sentences which have occurred in the text:
hi igto gel voec aaSa^rirut.

She is the wife of the Counsellor of the


Embassy.

mat&y tagia hamigpax& Selx&.

When will your family arrive?

hab&it ge!6 yafe me6d.

His house is very nice.

Note that the preposition /gel/ indicates a genitive or possessive


relationship of the noun following it or pronoun affixed to it with the noun
preceding it.
This is the most frequent construction in spoken Hebrew indicating such a
possessive relationship. The preposition may often be equated to the English
preposition of_ as in the first example above.
The noun preceding /gel/ is made definite with /ha-/ or with a pronominal
suffix /iSto/. The latter is not used when a pronoun is suffixed to /gel/
itself. The difference is primarily one of style.
haig& gel m&r Williams
igto gel m&r Williams

The wife of Mr. Williams


The wife of Mr. Williams

The construction with the suffixed preposition is synonymous with the


suffixed noun construction.
hab&al gel& naim me6d.
baal& naim meod.

Her husband is very pleasant.


Her husband is very pleasant.

When the noun preceding /gel/ is indefinite the usual English equivalent is
a prepositional phrase construction.
avir6n gel&nu.

An airplane of ours.

The singular set of pronominal suffixes is used with /gel/, with variations
in the feminine second person singular, /gel&x/, and in the plural suffixes,
(compare /otax/ and /ot&nu/.)
A. Substitution Drill.
My house is very modern

hab&it Sell xadig meod. 5elx& gel&x elo


Selfi gel&nu gelaxeni gelaxen Selahem
Selahen

142

BASIC COURSE
4

HEBREW UNIT

B. Transformation Drill
Instructor:
Mr. Carmi1s
plane is in
Lydda.
haaviron
haaviron
haaviron
haaviron
haaviron
haavir6n
haaviron

ge
l
ge
l
ge
l

m&r k&rmi beltid.

haaviron

x&na belud.

haaviron

moe velea belfid.

haavir6n

ge
l
ge
l
ge
l
ge
l

hayoec belud.

haavir6n

hagagrirut belud.

haavir6n

baalex belud.

haaviron

igti belud.

haavir6n

Student:
ris plane
is in
Lydda.
gel beltid
o
.
gel bel&
ud.
geiahem b e


gel beltid
o
.
5el beltid
&
.
gel belud.
o
gel belud.
&

C.
Transfor
mation
Drill

i u d .

yaf&
me6d.
Student
:
haig&
geli
yaf&
meod.
hai5&
5el&
yaf&
me6d.
haig&
2elx&
yafl
nieod.

My wife
is very
pretty.
Instruc
tor:
iSti
yaf&
meod.
igto
yafci
meod.
i5tex&

D. Transformation Drill - Repeat Drill C


in reverse.

E. Transformation Drill
Her husband is staying at
the Dan Hotel.
Ins
tru
cto
r:
ba
al

&
g&r
bem
alo
n
d&n

.
baa
lex
g&r
bem
alo

143

.
.
.

UNIT 3
COURSE.
n
d&
n.
ba
al
i
g&
r
be
ma
lo
n
d&
n.
Stu
den
t:
ha
b&
al
ge
l&

HEBREW BASIC

g&r
bem
alS
n
d&n
.
hab
&al
Sel
&x

gkr
bem
alo
n

dkn
.
hab
cia
l
gel
i
g&r

bem
alo
n
d&n
.

F. Transformation Drill - Repeat Drill E


in reverse.

Transformation Drill
Our country is very
>Deautifr.l.
I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
o
r
:
a
r
c
e
n
u
y
a
f
&
m
e
o
d

.
arc
i
yaf
&
meo
d.
arc
o
yaf
&
me6
d.
arc
&m
yaf
&
meo
d.
arc
&n
yaf
&
meo
d.

a
r
c
e
x
e
m
y
a
f
&
m
e
o
d
.
a
r
c
e
x
e
n
y
a

144

BASIC COURSE
4
f
&
m
e
6
d
.
a
r
c
&
y
a
f
&
m
e
o
d
.
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
:
h
a
&
r
e
c
S
e
l
&
n
u
y
a
f
&
m
e
6
d
.
h
a
&
r
e
c
S
e
l

l
yaf
&
meo
d.
ha&
rec
Sel
o
yaf
&
meo
d.
ha&
rec
gel
ahe
m
yaf
&
me6
d.
ha&
rec
gel
ahe
n
yaf
&
meo
d.
ha&
rec
Sel
axe
m
yaf
&
meo
d.
ha&
rec
Sel
axe
n
yaf
&
me6
d.
ha&
rec
Sel
&
yaf
&
meo
d.

H. Transformation Drill -

HEBREW UNIT

Repeat Drill G in reverse.

145

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

146

BASIC COURSE
4
I. Transformation Drill y
f
u
a
I
gar
.
n
im
h
s
bex
a
t
Syf
m
a.
r
i
h6m
u
S
gar
c
p
im
t
a
bex
o
x
Syf
r
S
a.
:
S
ani
H
e
gSr
e
l
bex
l
S
Syf
n
i
a.
u
v
hn
g
e
gar
S
s
6t
r
i
bex
a
n
Syf
b
H
a.
e
a
Stu
x
i
den
S
f
t:
y
a
His
f
fam
.
a
ily
liv
.
h
es
h
u
in
a
g
Hai
m
a
fa.
i
r
S
b
ha
p
e
mi
a
x
Sp
x
S
ax
S
y
S
S
f
Se
e
a
l6
l
.
gS
a
h
ra
h
i
be
i
g
xS
m
S
yf
g
r
a.
S
a
ha
r
b
mi
a
e
Sp
b
x
ax
e
S
S
x
y
Se
S
f
lS
y
a
gS
f
,
ra
a
S
be
.
n
xS

HEBREW UNIT

147

UNIT 3
COURSE.

HEBREW BASIC

h
a
m
i
S
p
a
x
S
S
e
l
l
g
S
r
a
b
e
x
S
y
f
a
.
h
a
m
i
S
p
a
x
S
S
e
l
a
h
e
n
g
S

ra
be
xS
yf
a.

Transformation Drill
- Repeat Drill I. in
reverse.
K. Expansion Drill
Instructor:
He
is
staying
at
the
Dan
Hotel.
Student: He is staying
at the Dan Hotel, and
his family will arrive in
a week.
hu

gar

bema!6n

dSn.

148

BASIC COURSE
4
vehamiSpaxS Selo tagia
be&d SavCia.
.

hem
garim
bemaldn
dSn.vehamiSpaxS
3elah6m
tagia be6d Savua.
.

ani
gSr
bemalon
dSn.vehamiSpaxS
Sell
tagia be6d Savtia.
.

hi
gSra
bema!6n
dSn.vehamiSpaxS
SelS
tagia beod Savua.
.

Snu
garim
bema!6n
dan.vehamiSpaxS
SelSnu
tagia beod Savfia.
.

hayoec
gSr
bema!6n
dan.vehamiSpaxS
Selo
tagia be6d Savua.
"H
hu veiSt6
garim
bema!6n
dSn.vehamiSpaxS
S
e
l
a
h
6
m
.

tagia
be6d
SavGa.

HEBREW UNIT

L. Transformation Drill
Instructor:
Student:
I
like

the

My
country
pretty.
haSre
c
haSre
c
haSre
c
haSre
c
haSre
c
haSre
c
haSre
c

moce
t
moce
t
m6ce
t
m6ce
t
m6ce
t
moce
t
m6ce
t

xe beeynSy. haSrec
n
xe beeynexa. haSrec
n
xe beenSix. haSrec
n
xe beeyneynu.haSrec
n
x6n
beeyneyxem.haSrec
xe beeyneha. haSrec
n
xe beeyneyxen,haSre
n
c
M.

country.
is

very

geli yafS meod.

SelxS yafS meod.

SelSx yafS me6d.

SelSnu yafS meod.

! Selaxm yafS me6d.

SelS yafS me6d.


! 8 el axe
a f i veod.
Response Drill

.
.

l
h

149

UNIT 3
COURSE.
Instructor:

HEBREW BASIC

Student:
Where
is
your
family
staying? My family is
staying
at
the
Dan
Hotel.

150

BASIC COURSE
heyxS
n
heyxS
n
heyxS
n
heyxS
n
heyxS
n

gSr
a
gSr
a
gSr
a
gSr
a
gSr
a

HEBREW
hamiSpaxS
hamiSpaxS
hamiSpaxS
hamiSpaxS
hamiSpaxS

UNIT
?

SelxS. hamiSpaxS Seli gSra


beiiidlon dSn.
SelS. hamiSpaxS Sel6 gSra
bemalon dSn.
Selaxm.hamiSpaxS SelSnu gSra
bemalon dSn.
SelSx. hamiSpaxS Seli gSra
bemalon dSn.
SelahSn.hamiSpaxS Selahen
gSra
bemal6n dSn.

?
?
?
?

4.5 The Preposition /avtjr/ 'for', on behalf of'

The preposition /avtir/ is used with the singular set of pronominal suffixes,
yesud&r avur^nu b&it ber&mat g&n.
A. Substitution Drill
A house will be arranged for me.
yesud&r avuri b&it. avurx& avurSx avur6 avur&
avurenu avurxem avurx^n avur&m avur&n

Transformation Drill
Instructor: A house will be arranged for Mr.
Williams. Students A house will be arranged for him.

C.

yesud&r avur m&r Williams b&it.


yesud&r avtir miry&m b&it. yesud&r
avtir yaak6v vel6a b&it. yesud&r
avtir hamiSpax& Selo b&it. yesud&r
avdir hayoec b&it.
yesud&r
avur6
b
&
i
t
.
.

yesudSr
avurS b&it.
.

yesud&r
avur&m

b
&
i
t

avurS
b
&
i
t

yesud&r avur6 b&it.

yesud&r
.

Transformation Drill
Instructor: His house will be arranged. Student: A house will be arranged for him.
hab&it
el6
yesudar.
hab&it
elx&
yesud&r.
hab&it
gel&nu
yesud&r.
hab&it
geli
yesud&r.
hab&it
gel&x
yesud&r.
hab&it
gel&
yesud&r.
hab&it
gelahem
yesud&r.
hab&it
gelaxem
yesud&r.
hab&it gel david yesud&r.
yesud&r
avur6
b&it.

yesud&r
yesud&r
yesud&r
yesudr
yesud&r
yesud&r
yesud&r
yesud&r
b&it.

avurx&
avurenu
avuri
avurex
avura
avuram
avurxem
avur

b&it.
bait,
b&it.
b&it.
b&it.
b&it.
b&it.
david

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

D. Transformation Drill - Repeat Drill C in reverse.

151

UNIT

HEBREW

11

BASIC
COURSE

4.6 Contraction of /le- + ha-/ 'to the'


Examine the underlined forms in the following:
lelud
'to Lydda
hagagrirut
'the embassy'
lagagrirut
'to the embassy'
Note that the preposition /le-/ and the definite article /ha-/ contract to
/la-/. This is an obligatory contraction.
When /ha-/ is a verb prefix or is simply the first syllable of a word (but not
the definite article) then the contraction is not made: /lehakir/ 'to know' The
preposition has the alternate form /la-/ with certain verb infinitives: /laruc,
lagfir/. However, it is;not a contraction of /leha-/ in these cases.

152

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT
G: 16 yesud&r avur6x b&it?

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

A: heyx&n at& g&r, m&r Williams?

H: k6n. gam&ti geyesud&r b&it.


&x ani 16 yod&at eyfo
umat&y.

B: ani veigti garim bemal6n beynat&im.

: ? , , :

A: bemal6n d&n?

: .

B: kin. z6 karov laSagrirut.

. : ?

A: haim at& mitkonen lagtir betel aviv?

: .

B: 16. ani mitkonin lagur ber&mat g&n.

. : ?

A: haim yesud&r avurxem b&it?

? : .
. . :

B: kn. &x 16 raiti ot6.


C: haim hamipax& elx& betel aviv?

: ? :

D: lo. hamiSoaxu. Sell beamerika.

: . .
. : ?

C: mat&y tagia hamipax& la&rec?


D: beod x6deS.

? :
: . . :

E: haim raita et hab&it el m&r k&rmi?

. . : .

F: ken. vehitraSamti meod mehab&it.

E: gam&ti gehab&it gad6l.


F: ken. nax6n. hab&it gad6l vexadig.

. , :
. :
.

G: heyx&n &t mitkonenet lagur, at&ra.


H: ani lo yod&at. beynat&im ani
g&ra bemal6n.

? :
. . :
.

I: d&lya, rait et hayo6c haamerik&i?

? , :

J: k4n. hu naim me6d.

. . :

I: eyfo hu g&r?

? :

J: hu veigt6 garim bemalon d&n.

. :

I: rait et igto?

? :

J: lo. &x gam&ti gehi yaf& me6d.


5.1 Speaking Hebrew (Men)
Tell me,

. . :

please.

Where did

153

HEBREW

UNIT

11
you learn to speak
such a beautiful
Hebrew?
tell, say you
learned to speak
all
so, as much

I learned to speak
Hebrew in America.
I learned

In which school
did you study?
which
book
school

In the school of
languages
of our
State
Department
language
languages
office
outside

COHEN emor li
bevakaSS.
4
heyxSn lamSdeta
ledaber ivrit kol
kS;c yafS.
em6r (m.s.imv. )
lamSdeta (m.s.)
ledaber k61
kol kSx

BASIC
COURSE

MR. WILLIAMS
lamSdeti ledaber
ivrit beamrika.
lamSdeti MR. COHEN
beeyze bet sefer
lamadeta.
eyze
(m)
sefer
(m) bet
s6fer

MR. WILLIAMS
bevet hasefer
lesafot Sel
misrSd haxuc
SelSnu.
safS (f) safot
(f.pl.) misrSd (m)
xuc

MR. COHEN
You did well to
learn Hebrew before
you came here.
you did you came
[to] here, hither
You
speak
Hebrew
just
like an
Israeli
.
speak
really, just like
MR.

t6v me6d asita


SelamSdeta ivrit
lifney Se- bSta
hena.
asita
(m.s.) bSta
(m.s.) hena
atS medaber ivrit
mamSS km6 israeli.
medaber
(m.s.pres.)
mamSS
kmo
. ,

?

154

UNIT 5

HEBREW BASIC

COURSE

MR. WILLIAMS
D
o
n
'
t
e
x
a
g
g
e
r
a
t
e
.
L
i
k
e

you
will
exagger
ate
as yet
not
I don't
S
i
e
y
Si
(neg.par
t.)
tagzim
adSin
eyn
(neg.par
t.)
eyneni

a
n
I
s
r
a
e
l
i
a
s
y
e
t
I
d
o
n
'
t

155

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11

MR. COHEN

You speak
very
well.

MR. WILLIAMS
I'm
happy

resu
lts

5.2
Speak
ing
Hebre
w
(Wome
n)
samea
mehatoc x
aot.
h
atocaa
p(f)
p
y
rtocao
et
s(f.pl
u.)
l
t

ani
sameax
with
the
results
.

MRS. COHEN
T
e
l
l
m
e
,
P
l
e
a
s
e
,

p
l
tell,
say
(imv.
) you
learn
ed
i
m
i mri
lamSde
t
(f.s.)

156

atS
medaber
yafe
meod.

UNIT 5

HEBREW BASIC

COURSE

157

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
MRS. WILLIAMS

I learned
to speak
Hebrew in
America.
MRS. COHEN
In which
school
did you
study?
MRS. WILLIAMS
I
n
t
h
e

o
f
b
e

s
c
h
o
o
l

e
t

lamSdeti
beeyze
ledaber
bet
ivrit
sefer
beamerika.
lamSdet
?

158

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

MRS. COHEN
You did well
to learn
Hebrew before
you came here.
you did you came

t6v me6d asIt


SelamSdet ivrit
lifney Se- bSt
hena.
asit (f.s.) bSt (f.s.)

You speak
Hebrew just
like an
Israeli
speak Israeli

St
medab^ret
ivrit mamSS
kmo
israelit.

medab6ret (f.s.pres.)
israelit (f.)

Do
n'
t
ex
ag
ge
ra
te
.
Li
ke
an
Is
ra
el
i
as

y
e
t
I
don't
speak.
y
o
u
w
i
l
l
e
x
a
g
g

159

MR
S.
WI
LL
IA
MS
S
i
t
a
g
z
i

er
at
e

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
m
i
.

t
a
g
z
i
m
i
(
f
.
s
.
)

k
m
6
i
s
r
a
e
l
i
t
a
d
S
i
n
eynini
medabret.
You speak
very
well.

MRS. COHEN
at medaberet yaf4 me6d.
MRS. WILLIAMS

I'm happy
with the results.

160

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

happy

ani smexS
mehatoca6
smexS
t.
(f.s.)

161

HEBREW

UNIT

11
GRAMMAR NOTES

5 3 Past Tense of Verbs - First and Second Persons


Compare the underlined forms in
the following sentences:
1. mat&y
hig&ta
la&rec,
mcir
Williams,
mat&y
hig&t
la&rec,
gveret
Williams.

2.

heyx&n lam&deta ledaber


ivrit kol k&x yafS. heyx&n
lam&det ledaber ivrit kol
k&x yaf&.
3 tov me6d asita
Selam&deta ivrit lifney
Seb&ta h4na. t6v me6d
asit Selam&det ivrit
lifney Seb&t h6na.

Note that in speaking to a man the forms


end in /-ta/, and in speaking to a woman they
end in /-t/. Now compare the following forms
as spoken by either a man or a woman.
4. hig&ti lifniy yom&im.

5 lam&deti ledaber
ivrit beamrika.

Note that these forms end in /-ti/.


Comparison with some plural verb forms yields
three more suffixes.
/-rm/ 'we' hig&nu lifney yom&im.
/-tem/ 'you' (m.pl.) mat&y hiq&tem
la&rec.
/-ten/ ,you' (f.pl.) matSy hig&ten
la&rec.
These pronominal suffixes are affixed to the

162

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

past tense stems of all verbs. Given a past tense


form with any of these suffixes, the other five
may be derived by substitution.
The third person forms of the past tense will
not be drilled until later.
The third person forms involve changes in the
stem, whereas the first and second person forms
differ only in the suffixes.
The independent pronouns may be used with the
first and second person past tense forms for
contrast, insistence, etc.
ani hig&ti hena
etm61 mat&y at&
hig&ta.

got
here
yesterday.
When
did you get here?

A. Substitution Drill
When did you get here?
mat&y hig&ta hena.

163

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
B.
In

Substitution Drill
higat
higatei which school did you study?
r,
hig&ten begyze bet sefer lam&deta.?

Instructor
: Student:
b&ta
etmol.
b&nu
etmol.
etmol.
b&ti
etmol.
b&tem
etmol.
baten
etmol.

b&t


1am&det
lam&detem
laiti&deten

I S O

You came yesterday.


C. Expansion Drill
You did well that you came yesterday.

t6v asita Seb&ta etm6l. t6v


asinu Seb&nu etm61. tov asit
Seb&t etm6l. tov asiti Seb&ti
etm6l. tov asitem Seb&tem
etm6l. tov asiten Sebaten etmol.

.
.
.
.
.

. . .
. .
. .
. . .
. .

.
.

Instructor: I arrived yesterday. Student:


I arrived yesterday, and I'm
staying at the Savoy Hotel.
hig&ti etmol. veani g&r bemal6n savoy.
hig&tem etm61 . veatem garim bemalon savoy.
hiq&nu etmol. ve&nu garim bemal6n savoy.
hig&t etmol. ve&t g&ra bemalon savoy.
hig&ten etm6l . veaten gar6t bemal6n
sav6y. hig&ta etmol. veat& g&r bemalon
savoy.

D. Expansion Drill
Note: Women students may respond with /ani g&ra/ and /&nu gar6t/.

E. Expansion Drill Instructor: Hello. David.


Student:
Hello, David. When did you get here?
Salom
david .
Salom
s&ra .
Salom. m&r
k&rmi.
Salom,
moSe.
dov .
Salom,
kohen .

matay higata hena. mat&y hig&t


?
hena. mat&y higata hena.
.
?
.
?
.
Salom. x&na. Salom. lea , mat&y
hig&ten hena. ? .. . Salom,
avigdor .
Salom,
.. .
gveret
?
.

mat&y
hig&ta

164

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

hena.
? .
mat&y hig&tem hena mat&y hig&t h6na.

165

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
F. Transformation Drill

Instructor: I was very impressed by the school.


Student:
I saw that the school is modern and beautiful.
hitrag&mti me6d mibt hasefer.
raiti eb6t hasfer xadig
hitraS&mnu meod mibet hasefer.
rainu Sebet has&fer xadiS
hitraS&mtem me6d mibet hasefer.
raitem Seb6t hasfer xadig
hitraS&mt me6d mibet hasefer.
rait Sebt hasefer xadig
hitraScimta me6d mibet hasefer.
raita gebet hasefer xadig
hitraS&mten meod mibet hasefer.
raiten gebt hasefer xadiS

veyaf6.

veyafe.

veyafe.

veyaf.

veyafe.

veyaf.

.
.
.
.
.

This drill may be varied by making it an expansion drill. Instructor: hitraScimti

Student:

me6d mibet hasefer.


hitraScimti me6d mibet hasefer. raiti Sebet hasefer xadiS
veyaf6.

G. Transformation Drill
Instructor: You live in Tel Aviv. Student:
You have seen the Dan Hotel.
atem garim betel aviv.
&t g&ra betl aviv.
an! g&r betel aviv.
&nu garim betel aviv.
at& g&r betel aviv.
aten gar6t betl aviv.
raitem et mal6n d&n.

rait et
raiti et
rainu et
raita et
raiten
d&n.

malon d&n.
mal6n d&n.
mal6n d&n.
mal6n d&n.
et
malon

.
.
.
.
.
.

This drill may be varied by making it an expansion drill.


Instructor: atem garim betel aviv.
Student:
atem garim betel aviv. raitem et mal6n d&n.
H. Transformation Drill
Instructor: I learned to speak Hebrew in America. Student:
before I came here.
lam&deti ledaber ivrit beamerika.
lam&deti ivrit lifney Seb&ti hena.
lam&dnu ledaber ivrit beamerika.
lam&dnu ivrit lifney Seb&nu hena.
lam&deta ledabir ivrit beamerika.
lam&deta ivrit lifney Seb&ta hena.
lam&det ledaber ivrit beamerika.

166

I studied Hebrew

lam&det ivrit lifney


Seb&t hena. lam&deten ledaber
ivrit beamerika.
lam&deten ivrit lifney
geb&ten hena. lam&detem ledaber
ivrit beamerika.
lamadetem ivrit lifniy

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

geb&tem hna.

.
I. Transformation Drill
Instructor: I heard that Haifa is very beautiful.
Student:
I haven't seen Haifa.
Samfiti Sexayfa yaffi meod.
16 raiti et xfiyfa.
Samfitem gexfiyfa yaffi me6d.
16 raitem et xfiyfa.
gamSt gexayfa yafa me6d.
lo rait et xfiyfa.
gam emu gexfiyfa yaffi meod.
16 rainu et xfiyfa.

.
.
'3
.
.

.
.

gamSta gexfiyfa yafS meod.

. .;

lo raita et xfiyfa.
gamSten gexfiyfa yaffi meod.

16 raiten et xayfa.

J. Trans formation Drill - Repeat Drill 1 in reverse.


Drills I and J may be varied by making them expansion drills.
Instructor: gamfiti Sexfiyfa yafa meod.
Student:

gamfiti gexfiyfa yaffi meod, fix lo raiti otfi.

Instructor: lo raiti et xfiyfa.


Student;
lo raiti et xfiyfa, fix gamfiti gehi yaffi meod.
In the following drills the instructor supplies the independent pronoun
as a cue,and the student responds with an entire sentence. The instructor may
vary the drills by requiring the students to include the independent pronoun
in the response.
Instructor: bfiti hena lifney yomfiim. Student:
bfiti hena lifney
yomfiim.
Instructor: atfi
Student:
bfita hena lifney yomfiim. (or) atfi bfita hena lifney
yomfiim.
K. Substitution Drill
I came here two days ago.
bfiti hena lifney yomfiim.

atfi - finu - fit - atem

- - -

167

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
aten - finu - atfi - ani

- - -

L. Substitution Drill
You did well to get to Israel a month ago.
tov asita gehigfita lafirec lifney xodeg. .
ani - fit - atem - finu
- - -
fit - aten - ani - atfi
- - -
M. Substitution Drill
We've heard him and we've seen him.
sam&nu oto verainu oto.
ani - fit - atfi - ani
atem - atfi - aten - finu

- -
- - -

N. Substitution - Agreement Drill


When did you arrive in the country, Mr. Williams?
matfiy higfita laarec, mfir Williams.
gveret fuler
miryfim
avigdor
gveret kohen
mfir 6ren
qveret kfispi
mar Williams

matfi
y
matfi
y
matay

higfit
laarec,
higfit
lafirec,
higfita
laarec
matay higfit
lafirec,
matfi higfita
y
lafirec
matfi higfit
y
lafirec,
matfi higfita
y
lafirec
5-4 Alternation

? 1
,

gveret filler.

mirySm.

, avigdor.

gveret kohen.

, mfir oren.

gveret kfispi.
, mfir Williams.

/mi- ~ me-/ 'from'

The prefixed preposition /mi-/ 'from' has the alternate form /me-/ when
immediately followed by a vowel or by /h/.
ex hitraSfimta miltid.
ani sameax mehatocaot.
Many speakers, especially in more formal speech, use /me-/ before /x/ and
/r/.
mexfiyfa.
meramat gfin.
5-5 Consor.ant Alternation /b ~ v/
The consonant /b/ often alternates with /v/ when not initial in the word.
bet hasefer
'the school'
bevet hasefer
'in the school'

168

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

In this
particular
case the
alternation in
the second
example is
optional in
informal
speech both /bebet
hasefer/
and /bevet
hasefer/ are
heard. In
other cases,
particularly
in verbs, the
alternation is
required. The
patterns of
alternation
are rather
complicated
and are not
consistent for
all levels of
speech nor for
all speakers.
For the time
being the
student should
simply
memorize each
particular
example as it
occurs in the
text. [Note:
The instructor
may insist
that students
make the
optional
alternations
since it is
supposedly
'correct' to
do so.
Students
should
interpret
'correct' to
mean ,more
formal' and
not spend much
time on this
point. ]REVIEW

D.o ? atS 16 israeli?


C. lo. bati hena mehungSrya.
E.St medaberet ivrit km6
israelit.
P. Si tagzim. kmo israelit
eyneni medaberet.
E.St medaberet yaf4 me6d.
F.todS rabS.
G.SamSti SehabSit gel moS4 gad6l
veyafe.
H.Si tagzim . raiti et habSit ,
vehu lo kol kSx gadol.
I.haim raitem et habSit SelSnu?
J. 16,Sx gamSnu mimoSe
gehabSit Selax^m yafe meod.
I. matSy raitem et moSe?
J. rainu oto lifney yomSim.
I. eyfo hu gSr?
J. an! lo yodea . rainu oto
bemisrSd haxuc.

CONVEF

A.heyxSn lamSdeta ledaber ivrit, mSr


Williams.
B.lamSdeti ivrit beamerika.
A.tov asita SelamSdeta ivrit.
B.ken, ani sameax mehatoca6t.
C.hitraSSmti me6d mib4t hasefer lesafot.
D.kn. ze bet sefer tov.
C.gSm ani lamSdeti ivrit bev4t sefer
lesaf6t.

169

HEBREW

BASIC
COURSE

UNIT

11

medaber ivrt.
L. ken. gamfiti. hu medaber yaf6
me6d.
?K. km6 israeli
L. lo. lo km6
israeli. fix hu
medaber t6v.

: , ?
: .
: .
: , .
:. . : .
.

M. rainu et habfiit gelxfi.


N. eyx hitraSfimtem.

: /.
: ; ?

M. hitragfimnu meod. habfiit


Selxfi xadig meod.

: . (J .

N. ani mekave gegfim avurxem


yesudfir bfiit yafe.

: .

,M. gfim ani mekave.


:! ?
.

: . .
: .
: .

: , . .
: ?
: . .
.
: .
: ?

: .
: . ,
.

: ?
: . .

: . .

: ?

:
.

: .

: .

: ?
: . .

K. yaak6v. gamfita? hayoc haamerikfii

170

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

6.1 Asking Directions (a man


kfin
d6ar (m)
merkazi (m.s.)
Tell me, please, how can
I get from here to the
main post office? can
to arrive here
mail, post office
central

Turn here
at the first corner to
the right.
turn
corner
first
to the right

Yes-

Go
about four blocks, and
there turn left.
go four street
there
you will turn to
the left

Yes-

Continue straight to the


intersection.
you will continue
straight until, up
to intersection

PASSERBY
pn kSn
bapinS hariSonS
yemina.
pne (m.s.imv.)
pina (f)
riSonS (f.s. )
yemina

em6r li bevakaSS. 6x
ani yaxol lehagia
mikSn ladoar
hamerkazi.
yax6l (m.s.)
lehagia

MR. WILLIAMS

k6nPASSERBY
lex
kearbaa rexovot,
veSam
tifne smola.
lx (m.s.imv.)
arbaS (m)
rex6v (m) Sam
tifne (m.s.)
smola

MR. WILLIAMS
kin-

PASSERBY
tamSix yaSSr d
lahictalvfit.
tamSix
(m.s.)
yaSSr
(m.s.)
d
hictalvut (f)
MR. WILLIAMS
hahictalvut
hariSonS?
, ,


?

The first intersection?


asks a man)
MR. WILLIAMS

171

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
Yes. Go past
the lights,
and continue straight to
the post office
building, cross,
pass traffic light
continue building

ken. PASSERBY
avor et
haramzorim,
vehamSex yaSSr
fid lebinySn
had6ar.
avor (m.s.imv.)
ramzor (m)
hamSex

(m.s,imv.)
binySn (m)
, .

.

MR. WILLIAMS
Is it

haim z6 rax6k mikSn?


rax6k (m.s.)

far from here?


far
PASSERBY

No,
it's
not
far.

16.
ze
16
rax6k.

MR. WILLIAMS
Thank you very much, sir.
sir
todS rabci lexS, adoni.

adoni

Don't mention it. on


thing
PASSERBY
6.2 Asking Directions

(A

,
.

Si lo davSr. SI
davSr (m.)
.

woman asks a woman)


MRS. WILLIAMS

Tell me, please, how can


I get from here to the
main post office? can
imri li bevakaSS. ex
ani yexolS lehagia

mikan ladoar
hamerkazi.
yexola (f.s.)

, ,

PASSERBY
Turn here
at the
right.

first

corner

to

pni kSn
bapinS hariSonS yemina.
pni (f.s.imv.)

the

turn
Yes-

MRS. WILLIAMS k6n-

172

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

PASSERBY
Go
a
b
go
you
will
turn
l
e
k
e
t
i
l
e

173

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
MRS.
WILLI
AMS
kenPASS
Yes-

ERBY
C
o
n
t
i
n
u
e

.
you
will
continu
e

y
a
S
a
r

t
o

S
d

t
h
e

l
a
h
i
c
t
a
l
v
u
t
.

i
n
t
e
r
s
e
c
t
i
o
n

tamgix
i
(f.s.)

The first
intersection
?

PASSERBY
Y

174

t
a
m
S
i
x
i

s
t
r
a
i
g
h
t

MRS. WILLIAMS

e
s

a
n

hahictalv
ut
hariSonS?

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

c
r
o
s
s
,
p
a
s
s
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
k
Is it

e
n
i

A
S
S
E
R
B
Y

f
a
M
R
h
P
lo. ze
lo
rax6k.
MRS.
WILLIAMS

Thank you very much , ma'am.

t
o
g

ma' am

6
No,
it's
not
far.

R
Y
C
(said to
men or
both)
(said to
women)
h

.
3
A
D
D
I
T
I
O
N
A
L
V
O
C
A
B
U
L
A

,
.

175

UNIT

HEBREW

11
a
m
S
i
x
u
y
a
g
S
r
.
h
a
m
S
e
x
n
a
y
a
g
S
r
.

176

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

GRAMMAR NOTES
6.4 Stark Imperatives
Compare the underlined forms in the following sentences:
a.sgor et hadelet.
sigri et
hadelet.
b.Sev. bevakaSS.
Svi.
bevakaSS.
c.daber. yoter bek61.
dabri,voter bekol.
d.targem, bevakaSS.
targemi.
bevakaSS.
e.emor li bevakaSS. heyxSn lamSdeta ledaber ivrit.
imri 11 bevakaSS. heyxSn lamSdet ledaber ivrit.
f.pne kSn bapinS hariSonS yemina.
pni kSn bapinS hariSonS
yeminS.
g.lx kearbS rexov6t.
lexi kearbS
rexov6t.
h.avor et haramzorim vehamSex yaSSr.
ivri et haramzorim vehamSixi yaSSr.
The underlined words are imperative forms of verbs. They are termed 'stark
imperatives' since their only function is as imperatives and to differentiate
them from the 'gentle imperative' forms which function also as future tense
forms.
There are a number of form classes of verbs in Hebrew, but the imperatives
of all of them have certain similar characteristics. The masculine singular does
not end in /-i/ and the feminine singular does. In some the /-i/ does not bear
the stress /hamSixi/, and in some it does /imri, sigri, pni/.
Examine now the plural forms which have occurred in the text.
i.hamSixu yaSSr.
hamSexna
yaSSr.
Note that the masculine plural is identical to the feminine singular except
for the final vowel, /-u/ instead of /-i/; and that the feminine plural is
identical to the masculine singular except for the additional syllable /-na/.
This criss-cross patterning occurs with all verbs in the stark imperative. Thus,
given both singular forms, both plurals, both masculine forms, or both feminine
forms, the other two may be easily derived.
The stress will always be on the corresponding syllable in the feminine
singular and masculine plural: /hamSixi - hamSixu/ and /sigri - sigru/. The
feminine plural suffix /-na/ is never stressed.
At this point the student will have to memorize the corresponding
pairs. It will be a while before the patterns become sorted out. However,

177

UNIT

HEBREW

11

BASIC
COURSE

since the pattern of the stark imperative is one of the keys to the
identification of a particular verb pattern the student will have lost
nothing by memorizing and drilling them thoroughly now.

178

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

A. Substitution Drill

Tell me, please, where is the post

office?

emor li bevakaSS. eyfo had6ar.


emoma
imri
imru
em6r

? !, ,

B. Substitution - Agreement Drill


In the following drill the instructor may vary the substitutions supplied as cues,
alternating between the imperatives and the pronouns.

Tel
l

C.

m , please, where
e do
em6r l bevakaSS
eyf
i
o
emorna li
eyf
bevakaSS.
o
imr l bevakaSS.
eyf
i
i
6
imr l bevakaSS.
eyf
u
i
o
imr l bevakaSS.
eyf
i
i
6
emo l bevakaSS.
eyf
6
r
i
imr l bevakaSS.
eyf
6
u
i
em6rna li
eyf
bevakaSS.
o
imr l bevakaSS.
eyf
i
i
o

you live?
atS gSr.
aten garot.
St gSra.
atem qarim.

?.
?
?
?

St gSra.

atS gSr.

atem garim.
aten qarot.
St gSra.


'.

, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

,'

,'

ivru

Substitution Drill

Go past the first intersection.

avor et hahictalvut hariSonS.


avorna
ivri
ivru
avor
ivri

D. Substitution Drill
Close the door, please.
sigri et hadelet, bevakaSS.
sigrfi
sgor
sgorna
sigru

179

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

11
sigri
sgor

180

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

E.
Substitution Drill
. ,

Open the door, please.

pitxu et hadelet bevakaSS.


pitxi
ptSxna
ptSx
pitxi
pitxu
ptSx
F. Substitution Drill

The following drill may be varied by first going through the drill a few
times using one verb as substitution cues and then a few times using the other
verb as cues. When the forms are mastered the drill may be done by alternating
the cues.
Turn left here and go straight.
pne kSn yemina
pni kSn yemina
pnu kSn yemina
pnena
kSn
yemina pne kSn
yemina pnu kSn
yemina pni kSn
yemina
vel&x

.
.

.
.

yaSSr.
velexi
yaSSr.
velexu
yaSSr. velexna
yaSSr.
velex
yaSSr.
velexu
yaSSr.
velexi
yaSSr.

G. Substitution Drill
Continue straight to the school.








hamSexna
hamSex
hamSixi

.0

hamSex yaSSr Sd leb^t hasefer.


hamSixu
hamSixi

H. Substitution - Agreement Drill

181

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
I. by alternating the substit .ion
This drill may be varied
ut
cues
Close the door
sit down, please.
and
sgor et hadelet
veSev bevakaSS.
. ,

as in Drill
F.

siqru et hadelet

veSvu bevakaSS.

sigri et hadelet

veSvi bevakaSS.

sq6rna et hadelet

veSevna bevakaSS.

sqor et hadelet
siqri et hadelet

veSev bevakaSS.
veSvi bevakaSS.

.
.

sigru et hadelet

veSvu bevakaSa.

. ,

,
2
,

Substitution Drill
Please speak Hebrew.
daber ivrit, bevakaSS.
dabri
dabru
daberna
dabr

6.5 Gentle Imperatives


Compare the
underlined forms in the
following sentences:
a.taki
r
be
va
ka
SS
et
mS
r
Wi
ll
ia
ms
.
ta
ki
ri
be
va

182

.J ,

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

ka
SS
et
gv
6r
et
Wi
ll
ia
ms
.
b.SSm
ti
fn
e
sm
6l
a.
SS
m
ti
fn
l
sm
61
a.
c.tamS
ix
ya
SS
r
Sd
la
hi
ct
al
vt
it
.
ta
mS
ix
i
ya
SS
r
Sd
la
hi
ct
al
vu
t.

183

HEBREW

UNIT

11
Note that the
masculine-feminine
alternation is very
much the same as in the
stark imperatives. In
addition the forms have
a prefix beginning with
/t-/. These are
identical with the
second person future
tense forms but are
used as imperatives.
They are termed
gentle imperatives'
since they are not
ordinarily used for
direct positive
commands, and have a
gentler connotation.
The stark imperative is
used for the whole
range of simple request
to direct command.
As with the stark
imperatives,
the
corresponding
pairs
should be drilled and
memorized.
With
the
exception noted below
the
same
criss-cross
derivations may be made
to get the remaining
forms.
ti
fn
e
(m
.s
.)
ti
fn
i
(f
.s
.)
ti
fn
en
a
(f
.p
l.
)

184

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

ti
fn
u
(m
.p
l.
)
The exception is
with verbs in which the
final vowel of the
masculine singular
is /-i-/. In most of
these verbs the
feminine plural has /-/, in the others
/-S-/.
ta
mS
ix
ta
mS
ex
na
ta
ki
r
ta
k^
rn
a
(When the feminine
plural has /-&-/, this
will be especially
noted.)
[in the vocabulary
breakdown of the basic
sentences the gentle
imperatives are
translated as future
forms. This is a
convention adopted for
this text. ]
The vowel of the
prefix depends on the
form class to which the
verb belongs. It may be
/i, e, a, o/, but it is
the same in all four
forms. At this point

185

HEBREW

UNIT

11
the substitution drills
should be repeated
until the vowel of the
prefix is memorized.

186

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

Substitution Drill
Turn left at the first
corner.
tifne smola bapinS hariSonS.
tifni
tif nu
tifnena
tifni
tifnu
tifne

B. Substitution Drill
Cross the intersection.
taav6r et hahictalvut.
taavri
taavru
taavorna
taavri
taavor
taavru
C. Substitution Drill
Keep on speaking
tamSix ledaber
tamSixi
tamSixu
tamSexna
tamSix
tamSixi

I understand,
ani mevin.

Women students should respond with /ani mevinS/.


D. Substitution Drill

Please meet my wife

187

HEBREW

UNIT

11

BASIC
COURSE
takiri
takiru
takirna

(husband).
takir bevakaSS et iSti

.( )

(baali).

188

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

E. Substitution - Agreement Drill

Moshe, please meet Mr. Oren.

. ,

moS6. takir bevakaSS et m&r

6ren.
mirySm
mirySm. takiri bevakaSS
et mSr 6ren.
mSr kaspi mSr kSspi. takir
bevakaSS et mSr 6ren. mSr
Williams mSr Williams. takir
bevakaS et mSr 6ren. qveret kohen
gveret k6hen. takiri bevakaSS et
mSr oren. xSna
xSna. takiri
bevakaSS et mSr oren.
avigdor
avigdor. takir bevakaSa
et mSr 6ren.
P. Substitution - Agreement Drill
This drill may be done first
as
two
separate
substitution
drills,
and
then
varied
by
alternating the substitution cues
as in Drill F, Section 6.4 above.
Drill 1. tisqor et hadelet. Drill 2.
teSSv beSeket.
Drill 3 tisg6r et hadelet
veteSev beSMket.
Close the door and sit quietly.
tisg6r
et
hadelet
tisgeru
et
hadelet
tisgerl
et
hadelet
tisg6rn
a
et
hadelet
tisg6r
et
hadelet
tisgeri
et

hade
let
tisg
eru
et
hade
let
vete
Sev
beSe
ket.
vete
Svu
beSe
ket.
vete
Svi

b
e
S
e
k
e
t
.
v
e
t
e
S
e
v
n
a

beSek
et.
veteS
<v
beSek
et.
veteS
vi
beSek
et.
veteS
vu
beSek
et.

189

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

11

190

.

.

Sub

sti

.
t
i
f
t
e
x
i
t
i
f
t
e
x
u
t
i
f
t
S
x
n
a
t
i
f
t
e
x
i
t
i
f
t
e
x

tut
ion
Dri
ll
Ope
n
the
off
ice
for
me.
tif
tSx
et
ham
isr
Sd
avu

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

u
tif
tSx

UNIT

6.6 Negative Imperatives


The

negative
of
both
imperatives
consists
of
the
Si
construction
/al/+
tagzim. gentle imperative.
1

Don t exaggerate.

G.

191

HEBREW

UNIT

11
A. Substitution Drill
Don't exaggerate. The house isn't that
big.
&1

a
g
z
i
m
u

t
a
g
z
i
m
.

t
a
g
z
i
m

h
a
b
&
i
t

t
a
g
z
e
m
n
a

l
o
k
o
l
k
a
x
g
a
d
o
l
.
t
a
g
z
i
m
i
t

t
a
g
z
i
m
i
B.
Transfor
mation
Drill Affirmat
ive to
Negative

192

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

p
n
e
s
m
6

UNIT

Instructor: Turn left here.


Student: Don't turn left here.
1
a
.
p
n
i
s
m
6
1
a
,

p
n
u

s
m
6
1
a

.
p
n
e
n

193

HEBREW

UNIT

11

C.Transformation - Expansion Drill


Repeat Drill B
with student
adding /pne
yemina./ Turn
right'.
Instructor: pn6
sm6la.
Student: kl tifne
smola. pne yemina.
D.Transformation Drill
- Affirmative to
Negative.
Instructor: Go to
the main post
office. Student:
Don't go to the
main post office.
lx
lado
ar
hame
rkaz
i.
lexi
lado
ar
hame

rkaz
i.
lexn
a
lado
ar
hame
rkaz
i.
lexu

lad
oar
ham
erk
azi
.
lex
i
lad
oar

194

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

hame
rkaz
i.
lex
lado
ar
hame
rkaz
i.
&1
tel
ex
lad
oar
ham
erk
azl
.
al
tel
xi
lad
oar
ham
erk
azi
.
&1
tel
^xn
a
lad

6ar
hame
rkaz
i.
&1
telx
u
lado
ar
hame
rkaz
i.
SI
telx
i
lado
ar
hame
rkaz
i.
&1
tele
x
lado
ar
hame
rkaz
i.

HEBREW

UNIT

E. Transformation - Expansion Drill


Repeat Drill D with
student adding /l6x
laSagrirut./ Go to the
embassy.'
Instructor: lex
lad6ar hamerkazi.
Student: al telex
ladoar hamerkazi.

16x
laSagrirut.

195

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
F. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative

Instructor: Continue straight to the intersection.


Student: Don't continue straight.
hamSex
al tamSixna
y
a
S
S

yaSSr
n

lahictalvtat.
hamSixu yaSSr
lahictalvut.
hamSixi yaSSr
lahictalvut.
hamSexna yaSSr
lahictalvut.

Sd

hamSix
yaSSr Sd
lahictal
vtit.
hamSixi
yaSSr Sd
lahictal
vtit.
al tamSix
yaSSr. Si
tamSixu
yaSSr. Si
tamSixi

Sd
Sd
Sd

yaSSr.
tamSix
yaSSr.
Si
tamSixi yaSSr.

.

.

.

.

.
cil

G.Transformation - Expansion Drill


Repeat Drill F with student adding /pni sm6la./
,Turn left.
Instructor: hamSex yaSSr Sd lahictalvfit.
Student: Si tamSix yaSar. pne smola.
H.Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative.
Instructor: Cross the lights. Student: Don't
cross the lights.
avor
et
haramzorim.
ivri
et
haramzorim.
avorna
et
haramzorim.
av6r
et
haramzorim.
ivr<1
et
haramzorim.
ivri
et
haramzorim.
Si
taav6r

et
haramzorim.
al taavri et
haramzorim.
Si
taav6rna
et
haramzorim.
Si taav6r et
haramzorim.
Si taavru et
haramzorim.
Si taavri et
haramzorim.

I. Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative

Si

teda

ber

bek61.

196

BASIC COURSE

Si
tedabru
bekol. Si
tedabri
bekol. Si
tedaberna
bekol. Si
tedaber
bekol. Si
tedabri
bekol.
dabir
bek6l.
dabru
bekol.
dabri

HEBREW

beko
l.
dabe
rna
bek6
l,
dabi
r
bek6
l.
dabr
i
bek6
1.

UNIT

.
.
:

Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative


Repeat Drill I in reverse. K. Transformation
- Expansion Drill Drill I is repeated as follows.
Instructor: daber bekol.
Student: SI tedaber !oekol. daber beSeket.

Instructor: Don't speak loudly.


Student: Speak loudly.

197

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
L.

S
I
S
i
S
i
S
I
S
i
S
I
N.

Substitution Drill M. Expansion Drill


Don't say goodbye, Instructor: Don't say goodbye to me.
Student: Don't say goodbye to me; say Be seeing you'
Si
.
tomStomc
l Salom.
emo l lehitraot.
. .

r ir i
r
i

tomrSal6
l Salom.
imr l lehitraot.
. .

i m. i
i
i

tomr li
tomSrna
emorna 11
.

i
Salom.
.
lehitraot.
.

tomrtomS
l Sal6m.
imr l lehitraot.
. .
u rnai
u
i

tomrtomr
l Salom.
imr l Iehitra6t.
. .
i u i
i
i

tomStomc
l Salom.
emo l Iehitra6t.
. .
r ir i
r
i

tomr
i
Individual Transformation - Expansion Drill

In this drill the student contradicts the instructor and adds a further
instruction.
Instructor: Turn left here.
Student: Don't turn here. Continue straight.
Instructor: pni kSn sm61a. Student: Si tifni kSn.
hamSix yaSSr.
lix ladoar hamerkazi. pni bapinS hariSonS yemina.
dabir anglit, bevakaSS. lexxi lemalon dSn. avor
et hahictalvtit. ivri et haramzorim. hamSixu
yaSSr Sd laSagrirut. hamSixi ledabir.
pnu bahictalvut hariSonS yemina.

. :
. . :

.
, .
. .
. .
.
.
.

6.7 Contraction of /be- + ha-/ 'at the, in the'


When the preposition /be-/ is prefixed to a form with the definite article
prefix /ha-/, the two syllables are contracted to /ba-/.
hapinS hariSonS
bapinS hariSonS

'the first corner'


'at the first corner'

This contraction is similar to that of /le- -1- ha-/ to /la-/, described in


Section 4.6, and it is equally obligatory.

198

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

6.8 Alternate forms /ve- ~ u-/ 'and'


In formal speech the conjunction /ve-/ has the alternate form /u-/ before
the consonants /m, v, f/ and before consonant clusters.
moSe umirvcim.
I6x usg6r et hadilet.
In informal speech the form /u-/ is heard occasionally in these cases and
in stereotyped expressions, such as /um& SlomxS/ but the form /ve-/ is far more
frequently used, with some speakers there is free alternation of these forms,
and the student should be prepared for both.
sigrti et hadilet veSvu beSiket.
sigrti et hadilet uSvu beSeket.
Since the use of /u-/ in these cases is more formal, ,correct', classical,
or what have you, the instructor may insist on the student using it, but the
student may safely ignore these strictures in informal conversation.

6.9 Loss of Final Stem Vowel in Verbs


Compare the following pairs of forms:
dabir
dabirna
Siv
Sevna

dabri
dabru
Bvi

Bvfi

taav&r
taav6rna

taavri
taavru

Note that the forms in the right-hand column have a suffix beginning with
a stressed vowel /-i, -6/ and that the final vowel of the verb stem is dropped.
Now compare the following
pairs:
hamSex
hamSix
hamSex
i
na
hamSix
u
takir
takirn
takiri
a
takiru
In the forms of the right-hand column the suffix is not stressed, and the
final vowel of the stem remains.
When a suffix beginning with a stressed vowel is affixed to a verb, the
final vowel of the verb stem is dropped.
This is a general rule in verbs and allows but a few exceptions, which will
be stated when they occur.
Wlien the dropping of this stem vowel results in a medial three-consonant
cluster, or in a non-permissible initial two-consonant cluster, then /-e-/ is
inserted for
phonological reasons.
tiftexi
/lxi/]

[for tiftS
x
targi
m lex

* /tiftxi/] targemi [for * /targmi/] lexi [for

199

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11

The latter pair is comparable to /ev~ vi/ except that /Sv-/ is


a permissible initial cluster and /lx-/ is not. However, in the gentle
imperative both verbs are more similar since there are no initial
clusters.
teSev
telex

tev
telxi

When an initial three-consonant cluster results /-i-/ is usually inserted


between the first' two.
sg6r
ptSx

sigri [for * /sgri/]


pitxi [for * /ptxi/]

>.10 Consonant Alternation /p ~ f/ in Related Forms Examine the following pairs of


forms:
ptax
pne
tiftax
tifne
In these pairs there is an alternation of the consonants /p/ and /f/.
These two consonants often alternate in related forms (such as stark and gentle
imperatives.) The patterns of the alternation are regular but somewhat complicated, and at this point the student should simply memorize them by drilling
the forms.

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS
A.imri li bevakaSS. 6yx ani yax&l
lehagia lemalon dcLn.

, :
?

B.lex kearbS rexovot, pne smola,


vetamSix yaSSr Sd lamalon.

, , :
.

A.haim ze raxok?

? :

B.lo, ze karov.

. . :

200

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

C.

daber ivrit, bevakaSS.

D.

atS medaber ivrit?

C.

ken. lamSdeti bevet hasifer.

D.

ani eyneni medaber kol kSx tov.

C.

lex lebet hasefer.

D.

leeyze bet sefer?

C.

lebit hasefer lesaf6t. kSn bapinS.

UNIT

. ,
?
. .
.
.
bun !
?
. .

201

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

7.1 Wandering Through Tel Aviv (speaking to man passerby)


MR. WILLIAMS
Pardon me, sir. I
want to get
to the tourist office.
you will pardon
want
tourism
tislcix li, adoni.

ani roci lehagia


lemisrSd hatayarut.
tislSx (m.s.)
roce
(m.s.pres.)
tayarut (f)

, ,

PASSERBY
To the Government tourist
office?
governmental
lemisrSd hatayarut hamemSalti?

memSalti (m.

MR. WILLIAMS
.
?

Yes. Is it far from here?

ken. haim ze
raxok mikSn?

No, it's not far.


you are
now next to
the Mugrabi Theater,
right?
situated, found
now
next to,
alongside movie
theater

lo. ze lo raxok.
atci nimcS axSav
al ySd kolnoa
mugrabi. naxon?
nimca
(m.s.) ax
civ al ySd
kolnoa (m)

PASSERBY

,
.

MR. WILLIAMS

Yes, I
think
so.
think

kin,
ani xoev kix.
xoe'v (m. s.pres.)


.
?

PASSERBY
What do you mean,
you think so? You
don't see that this
is the Mugrabi
Theater? it, this
say see
mS zot

omeret, atci
xoev kcix. atci
lo roe Seze
kolnoa mugrabi?
zot (f)
omeret (f.s.pres.) roe
(m.s.pres.)

MR. WILLIAMS
Sir,
speak a little slower.
a little,

adoni.
daber kcat
yoter
leat.
kci
t

,
?

?

202

HEBREW UNIT

BASIC COURSE

7
I'm new
in

the

new
I come
from America.
come

country.

ani xadS
baarec.
xadcig (m.s. )
ani bci
meamerika
.
b (m.s.pres.)

PASSERBY
re
new
in
the
That's
something . k- atS xadSS baSrec
? ze davar axer.
axer (m.s.)
other
az lima lo amarta 11
So why didn't
kodem?
you tell me
kz
before?
lima
then, so why
am&rta (2
you said
m.s/ kodem
before,
earlier
Oh,
you
country
else.

When before?
You didn't give me
a chance to speak.
you gave
chance, opportunity
MR. WILLIAMS
matay

kodem.

? ,
.

natata
11
hizdamnut
ledaber.
nat&ta (2
m.s.
hizdamnut (f)


.

.

lo

7.2 Wandering through Tel Aviv (speaking to woman passerby)


MRS. WILLIAMS
Excuse me,
ma'am. I want to
get
to the tourist
office, want

hamemgalti?
, ,

.

To the
Government
tourist office?
tislexi li, gvirti.
ani rocS
lehagia
lemisrad hatayarut.
roca (f.s.
pres.)
PASSERBY
lemisrlid
hatayarut

203

HEBREW

UNIT

11
Yes. Is it far from
here?

found
MRS. WILLIAMS
ken. haim ze
raxok mikan?

No , it's not far.


You are
now next to
the Mugrabi Theater,
right?
situated,

BASIC
COURSE

nimcet
(f.s.
.
?

PASSERBY
lo. ze lo raxok.
at nimcet axav
al yad kolnoa
mugrabi. naxon?

204

. .


? ,

HEBREW UNIT

BASIC COURSE

7
MRS. WILLIAMS

Y
e
t
h

s
p
I
I
f
r
k
i
a
n
xoSevet
(f.s.pr
es.)

PASSERB
Y
m
k
o
ro&
(f.s.pr
es.)

MR
S.
WI
LL
IA
MS

g
a
xadaSa
(f.s.)
a
n
bcia
(f.
s.pres.
)

PASSERB
Y

205

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC
COURSE

11

T
h
a
t
'
s

l
z
e
a

s
o
m
e
t
h
i
n
g
e
l
Oh, you're new in the country.a- St xadaSa baSrec'
s
e
.
S
o
w
h
y
d
i
d
n
'
t
y
o
u
t
e
l

206

HEBREW UNIT

BASIC COURSE

.


?

207

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC
COURSE

11
I
A
M
S

W
h
e
n
b
e
f
o
r
e
?
Y
o
u
d
i
d
n
'
t
g
i
v
e
m
e
a
c
h
a
n
c
e
t
o
s
p
e
a
k
.

m
a
t
S
y
k
o
d
e
m
?
l
o
n
a
t
a
t
1
1
h
i
z
d
a
m
n
u
t
l
e
d
a
b
e
r
.

M
R
S
.
W
I
L
L

7.3

Vocab

ulary

208

HEBREW UNIT

BASIC COURSE

7
lls

and

A.

Subst

tis

ituti

lax

on

11.

Drill

ani

lo

mev

in.
tis
lex
i
tis
lex
u
tis
lSx
na

u
s
e
m
e

(
W
o
m
e
n

,
I
d

s
t
u
d
e
n
t
s

o
n
'
t

s
h
o
u
l
d

u
n
d

s
u
b
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

e
r
s
t

209

UNIT

HEBREW

11
/ani
lo
mevin
a/.)

,

.

210

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW UNIT

BASIC COURSE

7
B.

Substitution - Agreement Drill /tislax "tislexi/ Excuse me, Moshe, I have to


run.
tisi&x li, moSe. ani muxrSx laruc.

. .

x&na - gvirti - mcir kcispi - mirySm avigdor - adoni gveret k6hen - david

- - -
- - -

(Women students should substitute /ani muxraxS/.) C.


Substitution - Agreement Drill /am&rti/ "1 said"
The instructor gives the underlined portion of the following sentences,
and the student responds with the entire sentence. The instructor may vary
the first person sentences, depending on the composition of the class, /ani
g&ra, Snu garot/.
I told Moshe that I live in Tel Aviv.

at& - &nu
- &t ani atem
- aten at& - &t

an:&rti lerroSe Seanl g&r betel


am&rnu lemoge Se&nu garim betel
am&rt lemoge ge&t g&ra betil
am&rtem lemoge geatem garim
aviv. _ am&rta lemoge geat& g&r

aviv.
aviv.
aviv.
betel
betel
aviv.
am&rten lemoge geaten garot betel
aviv.

.
.
.
.
.

.

D. Substitution- Agreement Drill


I didn't give David the books.
lo natati ledavid et hasfarim.

211

BASIC
COURSE
- -

HEBREW

UNIT

11
- - - -

212

HEBREW UNIT

BASIC COURSE

7
GRAMMAR NOTES
7.4 Gender and Number - Present Tense Verbs and Adjectives
Examine

the

underlined

forms

in

the

following sentences: 1.
atci medaber ivrit mama km6 israeli. at
medaberet ivrit mamaS km6 israelit.

2
.

.
.
.
.

ani lo yodea. ani lo yod&at.

at& nimc& .
axg&v ai y&d koinoa mugrabi
&t nimcet ax&v ai y&d koinoa mugrabi.

4.
ani roce lehagia lemisr&d hatayariit. ani roc&
lehagia lemisr&d hatayarut.

6.

ani muxr&x
laruc. ani
muxraxci
laruc.

ani g&r beynat&im bemalon dan.


ani g&ra beynat&im bemalon dan.
.

.
.
7. eyx ani yax6l
r
k
a
z

eyx ani yexol&


a
z
i
.

lehagia
i
.

lehagia

ladoar
.

ladoar
.

You will note here that, in contrast to the past tense


verb forms, there is no pronoun suffix to the verb itself.
Instead the independent form of the pronoun is used.
Further, the verb form indicates the gender of the subject
with the first person, also. The pattern is similar to the
noun-adjective sentence pattern:

.
.

ani xad& ba&rec. ani xada& ba&rec.


The similarity extends to the plurals.
&nu garim bex&yfa. &nu garot
bex&yfa.
The present tense of verbs has just these four forms masculine singular and plural and feminine singular and
plural - and person is indicated by an independent subject.

213

UNIT

HEBREW

11
Plurals of present tense verb forms and of adjectives are
all alike in that the masculine plural has the suffix /-im/
and the feminine plural has the suffix /
ot/.
[Note: Some masculine plural nouns end in /-ot/ and some
feminine plural nouns in /-im/. The present tense verbs
and adjectives for these plurals, however, end in /-im/
and /-6t/ respectively. ]
The feminine singular forms are of two major types those that have a suffix ending in /-t/ and those that
have the suffix /-a/. The forms which have thus far c ;?
virred are:

214

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

these two /-a/ feminines major types


muxrax&
in turn.
/-t/ feminines drilled
mevina
medabiret
yexol& g&ra
omiret
7.5 /t/ - Suffix
Feminine
Forms *
riSoni b&a
xoSivet
xadag&
mitkonenet
a) Present Tense of
Verbs
with Stem
smex&
yod&at
Pattern /-eC/
mekav roc&
mocit
Examine the verb
forms in
the following
ro& yaf&
nimcit
sentences: at& medabir
ivrit. &t
medaberet
amerik&it
ivrit. In this pattern
the
masculine
singular ends in /-eC/. The feminine is the same
as the
masculine but with an added unstressed /-et/. In
the plurals
the final stem vowel /-e-/ is dropped, unless a
threeconsonant cluster would result or two similar consonants would be juxtaposed,
atim medabrim ivrit. atin medabrot ivrit.
The variations of
will be described and

atim mitkonenim lagur ber&mat g&n.


aten mitkonenot lagur ber&mat g&n.
The adjective /axer/ is also of this pattern. The forms are: m.s. /axer/
m.pl. /axerim/
f.s. /axeret/
f.pl. /axer6t/
There are some other minor variations of this pattern in the plurals, and
these will be described as they occur in the text.
The following drills are substitution-agreement drills. The last
substitution cue given in each drill will result in the model sentence. Each
drill should be done a number of times in continuous succession until correct
entire sentences are given without hesitation as responses.
Substitutions for the first person may be masculine or feminine,
depending on the class situation.
A. You speak Hebrew very well.
at& medaber tov meod ivrit.
at - hem - m&r Williams - x&na aten hu - atem - &nu - at&

- - - -
- - -

215

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11

kcispi - hen - aten - moSe

B. Moshe says that it's very late.

- - - -
- - -

moSe omer Sekv&r meux&r meod.


ani - hu - anu - mirySm - hem gveret
C. What do you think - is it far from

here?

mli atci xoSev - z6 rax6k mik&n?

? -

- - - -
- -

hi - atem - St - aten
hem - hu - hen - at&
D. I plan to live in Savyon.

hen - hu - atara - ani

ani mitkonen lagur besavy6n.

- - -
- - - -

hem - avigdor - iSti veani - hi Snu -

E.In this drill some noun plurals are introduced. The instructor should
correct the student by giving the correct noun-adjective sequence rather
than by discussing gender per se.
He sees something else.
hu ro6 davfir axer.

oni& - nam&l - sfarim - b&it


- - -
melonot - oniot - binyan - delet
- - -
Sagrirut - misradim - migpaxot - dav&r - - -
b) Present Tense of Verbs with Stem Pattern /-ea(x)/
This is the pattern of /yodea/ 'know'. The four forms are:
m.s. yodea
f.s. yod&at

m.pl. yod'im
f.pl. yod'ot

Note that in the plurals an internal open juncture functions as a third
root consonant. Verbs in which the masculine singular ends in /-eax/ have a
similar pattern. The four forms have the following endings: m.s. -eax f.s.
-&xat
m.pl. -xim
f.pl. -xot
[There is a close correspondence with written Hebrew in that all such words
are spelled with y or and not with or . ]
F.He knows I'm new in the country.
hu yodea Sean! xad&s ba&rec.

at& - igto - hen - gveret kohen


aten - at - david - atem - hu

- - -
- - - -

216

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

I think he knows how to speak Hebrew.


ani xoSev gehu yodea 1edab<r ivrit.

gehi - geatS - gehem - geigtexS


- - -
gebaalex - Sehen - gedov vemoge - gehu - - -
c)Present Tense Pattern /moce "mocet/
This pattern is characterized by the singular ending in /e e
t/ and by an
internal open juncture functioning as a third root consonant in the plural /-,im ~
-1ot/. The full present of /moci/ is: m.s. mocem.pl. moc'im
f.s. mocet
f.pl. moc'ot
In the plurals this pattern is similar to that of /yod1im/ in Section b. The
student should be sure to practice the singulars of any such plural that he may
learn in order not to confuse the two types. There are pairs of verbs whose only
distinction is in this respect. The writing system reflects this difference in that
verbs of the /moce ~ mocet/ pattern are spelled with and not with - the reverse
of verbs like /yodea/.
H.I like the country.

haSrec mocet xen beeynay .

habSit - hagagrirut - hasfarim - haaviron ---


haoniot - him - aten - harexovot - haarec - ---

I.He finds that the house is very nice.

hu moce gehabSit yafe meod .

ani - mar zahSvi - igtexS - hem


aten - Snu - igto veiSti - hu

.
- - -
- - -

d)Present Tense Pattern /nimca ~ nimcet/


This pattern is a minor variation of a pattern which will be discussed later.
The plural suffixes are ad .!ed to the masculine singular, and the feminine singular
has the suffix /-t/ with the vowel change. The student should simply learn this
particular verb at this time. The full present is: m.s. nimcS
f.s. nimcet
m.pl. nimcaim
f.pl. nimcaot
Some speakers use the pronunciation /nimceim, nimceot/ in the plural.
This particular pattern is similar to that of /moce/ in that such verbs are
always spelled with . In fact, /moce/ and /nimcS/ are different conjugations of
the same verb root - /moce/ 'finds', /nimca/ 'is found' - but lis point will be
discussed in detail further on.

j. The Embassy is located in Tel Aviv.

hasagrirut nimcet betel

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

.
aviv.
- -
habait sell - mar Williams - iSto vehu hen
- - - -
- kulam - isto - iStexa -xana velea

hasagrirut
e. Derived Adjectives with /-i/

Adjectives are often derived from other parts of speed, by the addition of
/-i/, in certain cases with other changes in the form. Examples from our text so far
are:
/memSalti/ derived from /memSalS/ ,government'
/amerik&i/ derived from /amerika/ America'
/merkazi/ derived from /merkaz/ 'center'
The endings for these adjectives are of the following pattern:
m.s. /-1/
f.s. /-it/
m.pl. /-iim/
f.pl. /-i6t/
In some adjectives the stress is on
amerik&it/.

a non final syllable as in /amerik&i,

The above pattern occurs in derived


nouns, which have similar patterns.

adjectives.

For example:
m.s. yisraeli
m.pl. yisraelim

There

are

also

derived

f.s. yisraelit
f.pl. yisraeliot

Note that a distinction is made in the following case:


noun: /yisraelim/ 1Israelis'
adjective: /avironim yisraeliim/ Israeli airplanes' K. Where is the Government
office? heyx&n hamisrad hamemSalti.

? .
habiny&n - hamisradim - hayoec
habinyanim - hayoacim - hamisr&d

- -
- -

I,. Where is the American Embassy?


eyfo haSagrirut haamerikait.

x,

u u n,

hayoec - haonia - habinyanim


haoniot - hakolnoa - haSagrirut

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

- I

- -
- -

A: Salom moSe. lama ata rac.

A: leeyze misrad tayarut.

B: Salom miryam. ani muxrax

Bs lemisrad hatayarut

hamemSalti.

laruc lemisrad hatayarut.

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

. ?

. . ?

. .

. .
.

UNIT 7

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 7

C:

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

ani nimca axSav


mugrabi. naxon?

al

yad

.
? .

kolnoa

. . .
?

D: ken. naxon. veata roce lehagia


lisfat hayam?

? . .

C: ken. haim ze raxok mikan?

. . .
.

D: lo. ze lo r a x o k l e x ^ a S a r
berexov alenbi ad lesfat hayam.

E:

. , .

adoni. daber kcat yoter leat.

? .
F: ata lo mevin ivrit?

. . .

E: kcat. ani xadaS baarec.

. ? .

F: ata xadaS baarec? ze davar axer.

. .

E: ani ba meamerika.
5.1 Wandering through Tel Aviv (cont'd.)
PASSERBY
All right.
So you say
you want to get
to the tourist office,
right?

Yes, that's right.

Listen.
Are you in a hurry?
listen, hear hurry
(verb)

cities

If so, go straight on
Allenby Road towards
the seashore, if
direction
shore, language,
lip sea
seashore

In this direction?

Yes. You'll pass the


Brooklyn Bar.
Not really. I want to
walk around and see the
city.
to stroll, hike
to see
city

The what?
nd t6v. &z
am&rta

SeatS
roci
lehagia
lemisr&d
hatayarut.
naxon?
MR. WILLIAMS
kin. nax6n.
PASSERBY
Sm&.
atfi memahir?
Smfi
(m.s.imv.)
memahir
(m.s.pres.)
MR. WILLIAMS
16
kol
k&x.
ani
roci
letay

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
?

el velir'ot et
hair, letayil
lir'ot ir (f)
arim (f.pi.)

.
.

PASSERBY
im k&x, lix yaS&r
berexov filenbi lekivun
sffit hayfim. im
kivfin (m) saffi (f) y&m
(m) sffit yfim

MR. WILLIAMS
bakivun hazi?
PASSERBY
kin. taavor et
bruklin bfir.
MR. WILLIAMS
et m&?

? ,

. .

.
?

.

.

,
.

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

The Brooklyn Bar. Do you know


where the Brooklyn Bar is?
et bruklin bar. atci yodea
No, I don't know. Haven't I told you that
I'm
new
in
the
country,
(interjection)

iyfo
bar?

PASSERBY Sebruklin

16. ani lo yodia.


hariy am&rti lexa
Seanl xad&S ba&rec.
hariy

MR. WILLIAMS

> ,
?
. .

.

5.2 Wandering through Tel Aviv (cont'd.)

All right.

The what?
PASSERBY

So you say
you want to get
to the tourist office,
right?

nfi t6v. &z


am&rt
Se&t roc& lehagia
lemisr&d hatayarut.
nax6n?

Yes, that's right.

MRS. WILLIAMS
kin. nax6n.

Listen.
Are you in a hurry?

Not really. I want to walk


around and see the city.

If so,
go straight on Allenby Road
towards the seashore.

In this direction?

PASSERBY
Sim'i.
&t memahiret?
MRS. WILLIAMS
16 kol k&x. ani
roc& letayel
velir'ot et hair.
PASSERBY
im k&x, lexi yaS&r
berexov &lenbi
lekivun sf&t hay&m.
MRS. WILLIAMS
bakivun haze?

Yes. You'll pass the


Brooklyn Bar.

PASSERBY
kin. taavri et
bruklin b&r.

MRS. WILLIAMS
et m&?

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 7

HEBREW

,?

..

. ?

.
.

,
.

. .

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

The Brooklyn Bar. Do you


know
where the Brooklyn Bar is?
No, I don't know.
Haven't I told you
that I'm new in the country?
MRS. WILLIAMS

PASSERBY

et bruklin bSr. St
yodSat
iyfo Sebruklin bSr?
lo. ani lo yodSat.
hariy amSrti lSx
Seani xadaSS baSrec,

. .

.

8.3 Vocabulary Drill


Present tense plurals of verbs in which the middle root consonant is /h/ such
as /memahir/ vary slightly from the pattern described in Section 7.5a. The vowel /e/
is replaced by /a/ instead of being dropped. The present tense forms of /memahir/
are:
m.s. memahir
m.pl. memaharim
f.s. memahiret
f.pl. memaharot

In normal speech intervocalic /-h-/ is often replaced by a smooth


transition between the vowels when the stress does not immediately follow the
/h/. Thus, one frequently hears /memaarim/ and /memaarot/.
A. Substitution - Agreement Drill
I'm hurrying to the movies.
ani memahir lakoinoa.
hi - mSr k6hen - mir kohen veiSto

hin - gviret Williams - atim - ani

- -
- - . -

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

GRAMMAR NOTES
8. 4 &-Suffix Feminine Forms

a. Present Tense of /l&med hiy/ Verbs


A frequent pattern is illustrated by the following:
ani roci lehagia lemisr&d hatayarut.

ani roca lehagia lemisrSd hatayariat.


In the plurals the suffixes /-im/ and /-ot/ are substituted.
hem roc1m lehagia lemisr&d hatayarut.
hen rocot lehagia lemisr&d hatayarut.
This pattern occurs in a number of adjectives such as /yafi ~ yaf&/.
[in traditional Hebrew grammars, which deal mainly with the written language,
verbs are classified according to the letters which comprise the "roots". Verbs of
the pattern described in this section are called "/l&med hey/" verbs since the third
letter of the root in the writing system is /hiy/. This designation may remain
abstruse for the time being until the student learns to read, but there is little to
be gained by coining a new term for these verbs. All /l&med hey/ verbs exhibit
certain similarities regardless of the conjugation or consonants of the root. With
the exception of one conjugation, this is true of the present tense. The exception
will be described later on.]
The following drills are substitutionagreement drills and should be done as the
drills in the previous unit.
A. He wants to get to the Eden Theater.
hu roce lehagia lekolnoa eden.

hi - Snu - &t - hen - dov atem - s&ra - ani


- hu

- - - -
- - -

B.He hopes to speak Hebrew in Israel.


hu mekave ledaber ivrit beisrael.

ani - m&r Williams - gveret Williams - -


iSti veani - hen - &t - anu - hu
- - - -
C.He sees the office.
hu roe et hamisr&d.

. !

hem - at&ra - ani - x&na velea

- - -

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Snu - hi - hayoec veiSto - hu

- - -

UNIT 7

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

D. I heard that the house is very nice.


gamfiti ehabait yafe meod.
Sehafirec - gemiryfim - Sehamisradim
gehaoniot - gehanamfil - gehasfarim
Sesara veatara - Seze - Sehabait

.
- -
-
- -

b. Common Adjective Pattern


The pattern illustrated in the following pairs of sentences is very
frequent in adjectives and occurs in certain conjugations of verbs.
ani xadfig bafirec. (man speaking) ani xadagfi bafirec. (woman
speaking)
ani muxrax laruc. (man speaking) ani muxraxfi laruc. (woman speaking)
In the plurals the suffixes /-im/ and /-ot/ are substituted where the
feminine singular has /-a/.
finu muxraxim laruc. finu muxraxot laruc.
When the masculine singular is a monosyllabic verb then the stress is on
the first syllable in the feminine singular.
ani gara bemalon dan. ani bfia meamerika.
When the masculine singular form has the consonant-vowel pattern /cactfc/
e.g. /xadig, gadol, yagfir/, then the pattern of the feminine and plurals is
phonologically a bit more complicated.
The /-a-/ of the masculine singular is dropped when the suffixes for the
feminine and plurals are added.
m.s. gadol
f.s. gdolci
m.pl. gdolim
f.pl. gdolot

karov
krova
krovim
krovot

If a phonologically impossible cluster would result from dropping the


/-a-/, then the vowel /e/ occurs between the first two consonants in the
pattern /ceCVCa/. Bear in mind that there are many clusters which are quite
possible in Hebrew, but which the student will be tempted to break up by
inserting a vowel as in /gdola/ above.
raxok

m.s
.

yaSar

f.pl. rexokot

f.s. rexoka
yeSara
m.pl. rexokim yeSarim
yeSarot

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

If the first consonant is /x/, /'/, or /h/, then the vowel /a/ is
inserted to break up the resulting cluster. The net effect is that the
feminine and plural suffixes are added without change.
xadiSa
xadfS
m.s. xadaS
xadiS^m
f.s.
xadaSa
xadiSot
m.pl. xadaS^m
f.pl. xadaSot
The consonants /h/ and /'/ are often dropped between vowels. Vowels which
break up clusters containing these consonants are retained even when the
consonants are dropped. In this text the transcription usually reflects the
informal spoken pronunciation, especially when /,/is elided.
f.s.
m.pl
.
m.s. naim (for /na' 1m/)
.
f.pl
- - -
.
E.He has to live near the office.
- - -
hu muxrcix lagur karov lamisr&d .
&t - finu - hayoec - him atin gviret k6hen - ani - hu

F.Moshe lives on Allenby Road.


mo4 g&r berexov &lenbi.
hem - ani - at&ra - Snu
david veiSt6 - hen - moSe
G.1'm coming to see Mr. Zahavi.
ani b& lir'6t et m&r zah&vi.
&nu - hi - gveret k&rmi - hem
aten - avigdor - hen - ani
H.The Lydda airport is new and beautiful.
nemal hateuffi lud xad&5 veyafi.
naima (for /ne'ima/) ne imxm (for /ne
imim/) neimot (for /ne'imot/)
.

- - -
.-

- - - - -

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
.

haavironim - haagrir<it - nem&l hateuf&

The tourist office is very large.


misr&d hatayarut gadol meod.
malon d&n - haoniot - hakolnoa haavironim haagrirtit - misrad hatayarut
The ships are very far from the port.
haoniot rexok6t meod mehanam&l.

- - -

mal6n d&n - haoniot - kolnoa mugrabi - -


^ _ ,

I.

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 7

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

haagrirut - habatim -misrad hatayarut


haavironim - malon d&n - haoniot

- -

BASIC COURSE

K.

HEBREW

UNIT

The plane is very close to the port.


haaviron karov meod lanam&l.

habatim - haoniot - misr&d hatayarut


malon d&n - kolnoa mugrabi - haavir6n

- -
. -

Moshe's family is very pleasant.

.
hamipax& el moSe neim& meod.
itex& - at& - hem - aten - atem

M.

gveret zah&vi - m&r kohen - hamiSpax& Sel moe

- - - -
- ' 1

Mr. Williams is honest and good. m&r Williams yag&r


vet6v.

&nu

hen - hu - at&ra -

hu gviret karmi &nu - hi

- -
- -

moSe - at& vedavid m&r Williams


N. You can't see the

at
&

ship.
at& 16 yax61 lir'6t

- - -

- - ' 1
-

et haoni&.
atim - hen - ani c. Adjectives ending in

AW

A variation of the above patterns is that


of /samiax/ 'happy'. In this adjective pattern the
masculine singular ends in /-tfax/.
m.s.

f.s. smex& m.pl. smexim f.pl. smex6t


[There is a close correspondence with written Hebrew in that all
such

233

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
i

t
o

words are spelled with , and not with


.

0.

I'm very happy to

a
n
i
Compare Section
7.5b. ]

see Mr. Carmi.


ani sameax meod
lir'6t et m&r
k&rmi.

&nu - hi

- atem
- s&ra

- -
- -

velia
kul&m baal& -

234

UNIT 8

_________
HEBREW

REVIEW
A:

CONVERSATIONS
e
a
n
f

a
m
a
r
t

r
o
c
a

S
e
a
t

l
e
h
a
g
i
a

r
o
c
a
l
e
h
a
g
f
a

l
e
m
i
s
r
a
d

l
e
m
a
l
o
n

h
a
t
a
y
a
r
u
t
.

d
a
n
.

A:

n
a
x
o
n
?
B:

BASIC
COURSE

s
l
i
x
S
.

l
o
.

1
6

a
m
a
r
t
i

S
a
m
S

235

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
t
i

o
t
&
x
.

k
o
l

C:

a
S

m
'

a
t

?
Cs

m
e

h
e

t
l

D:

236

BASIC
COURSE

_________
HEBREW

e
m
a
h
e
r
.
:

237

UNIT 8

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11

, :

:?

.
:

E: at roca

Sam tova

glfda?

meod.

F: ken.

E: ken,

eyfo

ani

bruklin

yodea.

bar?
ata

E: berexov

G:

alenbi

yodea

bekivun

eyfo

sfat

Sebruklin

hayam.

bar?

F: haglida

H:

238

lo. ani

UNIT 8

BASIC
COURSE

_________
HEBREW
lo
yodea.
G:

ata lo

haSagriru
t?
L: lo, ani

tel avivi?

lo yodea.

lo. ani

ani xadaS

H:

xadaS

betel

baarec.

aviv.
K: tov. az

I: ata roce

tamSix

lalexet

yaSar

lemisrad

barexov

hatayarut?

haze.

J:

ken.

lemisrad

L: toda
raba.

hatayarut

hamemSalti

I: im kax,

. :

lex yaSar

birxov

alenbi.
J:

rexov

alenbi hu

bakivun

haze?

I: ken.

Ks ata
yodea eyfo

.
, :

nimcet

239

HEBREW

BASIC
COURSE

UNIT

11

240

BASIC
COURSE

_________
HEBREW

241

UNIT 8

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
?

Semisrad

hatayarut.

M: kan

bapina
hariSona.

?
, :
.

.

O: lama
ata
memaher,
adon?

P: kvar
meuxar

veanf roce
lehagi

. :

lekoln

oa

mugrab

M: at
memaheret
gvirtf?
N: lo. an lo
memaheret.
an roca

i.
O: ze lo
raxok
mikan.

letayel

P: ken.

velir'o

an! yodea

t et

Seze lo

hair.

raxok.

M: az lexi
lemisrad
hatayarut.

N: ani lo
yodaat eyfo

O: az lama
ata
memaher?

P: amarti
lexa

242

BASIC
COURSE

_________
HEBREW

:
,
?

Sekvar

:.

.

meuxar.

.
:

.:

.:

:
,
?
:
,

243

UNIT 8

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

11
:
.
: .

.
:

?
:

244

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

91 Wandering through Tel Aviv (cont'd.)


PASSERBY
You can
go into
Brooklyn
and eat
cream.

the
Bar
ice
t
o
e
n
t
e
r

t
o
e
a
t
i
c
e
c
r
e
a
m
atfi yax61

lehikanes
lebruklin
bSr
veleexol
glida.
lehikanes
leexol
glida,
glidS
(f)

245

HEBREW

UNIT

11

BASIC
COURSE

MR. WILLIAMS

What kind of ice cream do


they have there? which
there is
eyzo glida yiS SSm.
eyzo (f) yeS

246

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

PASSERBY

The ice cream there is very good.


MR. WILLIAMS
Really
?

truth

beeroet?

emet (f)
PASSERBY

They even

make a
banana
split
like
[with
you] in
America.
prep
are
at
(Fre
nch
chez
)

haglidS
SSm
tovS
meod.

him afilu
mexinim banana
split kmo
eclexem
beamerika.
afilu
mexin
(m.s.
)
ecel

247

HEBREW

UNIT

11

BASIC
COURSE

MR. WILLIAMS
What do you say!
say

mS atS sSx!
sSx (m.s.pres,

9.2 Wandering through Tel Aviv (cont'd.)


PASSERBY
You can
go into
Brooklyn
and eat
cream.

the
Bar
ice

What kind of
ice cream do
they
have
there?

St yexolS
lehikanes
lebrflklin
bSr veleexol
glida.
MRS.
WILLIAMS

iyzo glida
yiS SSm.

248

BASIC COURSE

The ice cream


there is very
good.

Really?

They even
make a banana
split like
[with you] in
America.

What do you
say!
PASSERB
Y

HEBREW

UNIT

ha
gl
fd
a
Si
m
to
vi
me
od
.

MRS.

WILLIAM
S
beemit?
PASSERB
Y
him afilu
mexinim
banSna
split km6
eclexira
beamirika.
MRS.
WILLIAM
S
mi &t s&xa!

249

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11

93 Vocabulary Drills
A. They are preparing the ice cream.
him mexinim et hag1Ida.
.
hi - inu - atin - david

- - -
at&ra - xina veiSti - hu - him

- - -
The preposition /icel/ is difficult to
translate succinctly. It is roughly
comparable to the French chez and means "at
the home, place, office of, by, with", etc.
The preposition has the alternate form
/eel-/ before pronominal suffixes. It is
used with the singular set.
Many speakers have the following variant
forms with some of the suffixes.

2f.s. /eclix/
3m.pl. /eclahim/

for /eclix/
for /ecl&n/ 3
f.pl. /eclahin/ for /eclin/
B. Substitution Drill
The book is at my house.
hasifer nimci ecli babiit.
eclexi
eclix
ecli
ecli
eclinu
eclexim
eclexin
eclim
ecl&n

GRAMMAR NOTES

9.4 The Construct State of Nouns


a. Examine the underlined noun phrases in the
following sentences:
1.lud hu nemfil teuffi yafi vexadiS.
2.beiyze bet sifer lam&deta.
In each of these phrases a noun is
modified by another noun. In Sentence 1, for
example, the noun /nam&l/ (in the alternate

250

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

form /nem&l/) is modified by /teuf&/. This


construction is comparable to the English in
which one noun modifies another, except that
in English the first noun modifies the second,
while in Hebrew the reverse is true.
/nam&l/
/teuf&/
/nem&l teuf&/

"port"
"flight"
(lit.) "flight port"

In sentence 2 the
noun /b&it/ (in the
alternate form /bit/) is modified by /sefer/
/b&it/
"house"
/sefer/
"book"
/bet sefer/
The first noun in

"school" (lit.) "book house"


such a sequence is said to

be in the construct state.

b.As noted in Grammar Section 3.4 some


nouns have an alternate form when
occurring as the first noun in this
construction. It is hard to predict the
alternate forms, but as patterns occur
in this text th^y wi.T 1 be pointedd
out. if not otherwise noted it may be at
least temporarily assumed that there is
no alternate construct state form.

(1)Masculine singular nouns of the


pattern /CaCVC/ have a construct form
without the /-a-/ unless the first
consonant is /x-/.
/Sal6m/ - /Sl6m igtexa/
/nam&l/ - /nem&l teuf&/ (with /-e-/
because /nm-/ is a non-permissible initial
cluster)
This pattern is very similar to the
pattern of masculine-feminine adjectives
described in Grammar Section 8.4b
(2)Feminine singular nouns ending
in /-&/ have a construct form ending
in /-&t/, sometimes with other
changes.
/saf&/ - /sf&t y&m/ "seashore"
(3)Alternates forms of other nouns in
this text so far are:
/b&it/ "house" - /bet/ or /biyt/
/iSa/ "wife" - /SSet/
/&in/ "eye" - /gyn/
/miSpax&/ "family" - /miSp&xat/

c.The main stress in the comparable nounnoun constructions in English is on the

251

UNIT

HEBREW

11
first noun; in Hebrew it is on the second.
In this text the primary stress of each
word is indicated, but a comparatively
louder stress will be heard on the second
noun - /nem&l teuf&/. When the stresses are
on contiguous syllables the first may
become unstressed - /bet sefer/, but /bet
hasefer/.

d.The definite article /ha-/ is


prefixed only to the second noun
in the construct state sequence.
The first noun, however, is still
treated as definite.
/yoic haSagrirut/ "the Embassy counsellor"

/misrfid haxuc/ "the foreign office"
TKtfD
/binyfin had6ar/ "the post office
building"

/misrfid hatayarut/ "the tourism office"

e.Adjectives modifying the first noun
of a construct state sequence follow
the entire construction.
/nem&l teuffi yafi vexadiS/ "a
beautiful and modern airport" Note that the
adjectives /yaf vexadiS/ modify /nemfil/
and are, therefore, masculine.
f.Three nouns may occur in a construct
state sequence, /kivua sffit hayfim/
"the direction of the seashore"
Sequences of four nouns occur but they
are rare and are often
paraphrased.
g.Hebrew construct state sequences are
not always translatable as English
noun-noun
constructions.
They
are
sometimes translated as prepositional
phrase constructions, usually with the
preposition "of".
/kivtin hayfim/ "the direction of the sea"
/Sagrirut
yisrafel/
"the
Embassy
of
Israel" or "the Israel Embassy"
Some sequences are translatable as
possessives. /Sl6m hamiSpaxfi/ "the
family's welfare"
On the other hand, English noun-noun
constructions are not necessarily translated
as construct state sequences in Hebrew.
/misrad hatayarut hamemSaltl/ "the
government tourist office" Here the Hebrew
has an adjective /memSalti/ modifying

252

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

/misrfid/ while English has the noun


"government" modifying "office".
A. Completion Drill - The instructor
gives the sentence and then the noun in
parentheses. The student responds by
giving the sentence with a construct
state sequence using the noun.
Instructor: He is in an office. (the
hotel) Student: He is in the hotel
office.
1.

hu nimca bemisrad. (hamalon).

.().

hu nimcfi berrisr&d harualon.


2.

3.

hu nimcfi bebinyfin. (haSagrirut).

.( ). .2

hfi nimcfi bebinyfin haSagrirut.

namfil nimcfi belud. (teuffi).

.( ) .

nemfil teuffi nimcfi belud.


5.rainu bfiit berex6v filenbi.

.
.

rainu bet kolnoa berexov alenbi.


.
hamSex fid lepinfi.
(rex6v filenbi).

.3

4.miSpaxfi tagia letSl aviv. (zahfivi).


.
(
4
.

)
. miSpfixat zahfivi
tagia letel aviv. .1

(kolnoa)
(

.1

.
6

hamSex fid
lepinfit rexov
filenbi.
.
B.
Transformation Drill Indefinite to

Instructor: You
saw a movie
house. Student:
You saw the
movie house.

1.rait
em
be
t
ko
ln
oa

253

HEBREW

UNIT

11
.
raitem
et bet
hakolno
a.

2.higfit
etmol
lenemfi
l
teuffi.
higfit
etm61
lenemfi
l
hateuff
i.


.

.

3.mfir Williams
hfi yoec
Sagrirut.
mfir
Williams hu
yoec
haSagrirut

4.lamfideti
ivrit bebet
sefer.
lamfideti
ivrit bebet
hasefer.

5.misrfid doar
nimca kfin
bapirtfi.
misrfid
hadoar nimca
kfin bapina.

6.hem rocim

lir'6t sffit
yfim.
hem rocim lir'6t et
sffit hayfim.


.

.

254

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

4.
9.5 Definite Article /ha-/ Prefixed to Adjectives
Examine the following underlined forms:

(1)mfir Williams hu yoec haSagrirut


haamerikfiit.
(2)pni kfin bapinfi hariSonfi yemina.
(3)bakiviin hazi?
Note that both the noun and the adjective
modifying it are preceded by the definite
article /ha-/. Whenever a noun is definite all
adjectives modifying it in the same phrase are
preceded by /ha-/. It does not matter how the
noun is made definite. (Cf. Grammar Section
2.5)
are:

Examples of nouns made definite in other ways

a.Nouns with a pronoun suffix: /iSto


hayaffi/ "his pretty wife"
b.Proper names: /tel aviv haxadiSa/
"modern Tel Aviv"
c.The first noun of a definite
construct state sequence (see
Grammar Section g.4d):
/misrfid hatayarut
hamemSalti/
Note
that
the
adjective
/memSalti/
modifies
/misrfid/
and
is,
therefore,
masculine. On the other hand, in Sentence (1)
above, the adjective /amerikfiit/ modifies
/Sagrirfit/ and is feminine.
Ambiguities may occasionally arise
when both nouns are of the same gender and
either may reasonably be modified by the
adjective, but context or paraphrasing
usually settles the matter.
When the adjective is not part of the
same noun phrase it is not preceded by /ha-/.
Thus, the following contrast may occur:
(a)/habfiit hagadol/ "the big hous^i1
(b)/habfiit gadol/ The house is big."

In
the
first
example
/hagadol/
modifies /hab&it/ in the same noun phrase.
In the other example /gadol/ modifies
/hab&it/, but it is in the second half of
an equational sentence and, therefore, is
not prefixed by /ha-/.
Demonstratives such as /ze/
"this" are prefixed with /ha-/ when

255

HEBREW

UNIT

11
they modify nouns as adjectives.
/bakiviin haze/ "in this direction"
In this example, as in Sentences 2
and 3 above, the /ha-/ preceding the
noun is contracted into /ba-/. See
Grammar Note 6.7
A. Transformation Drill - Indefinite to
Definite
5.

Instructor: I came
in a big airplane.
Student: I came
in the big
airplane.
1.b&ti
beavir6n
gadol
b&ti
baavir6n
hagad61.
2.rainu b&it
yaf4.
rainu et
hab&it
hayafi.
3 hamSixi yaS&r &d
rexov gad6l.
hamSixi yaS&r &d
harex6v hagadol.
4.haim ze
biny&n
xadiS?
haim ze
habiny&n
haxadiS?
5.oni& xadaS&
nimcet
banam&l.
haoni&
haxadaS&
nimcit
banam&l.
6.gam&ti Seze
misr&d
memSalti.
Samati Seze
hamisr&d
hamemSalti.
.1
.
.
. .2
.
.3
.

.
.4
?

?
.5
.

.
.6

256

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

6.

B.Transformation Drill - Definite to


Indefinite
Repeat Drill A in reverse.
C., Transformation Drill - Indefinite to
Definite
Instructor: I was impressed by a new
government office.
Student: I was impressed by the new
government office.
1. hitras&mti
mimisr&d
memSaiti
xad &s.
.1.


hitraS&mt
i
mehamisr&
d
hamemSalt
i
haxad&S.
.

2. hi g&ra
beb&it
gad61
veyafe.
.2.


hi g&ra
bab&it
hagadol
v
e
h
a
y
a
f
g
.
.

257

HEBREW

UNIT

11

3. hem baim
beoniot
gdo16t
vexadiSot
.
.3.

him baim
baoniot
hagdolot
vehaxadiS
ot..

4. Sam&ti
5eze
ma16n
gadoi
venaim.
.4

Sam&ti
Seze
hamal6n
hagadol
vehanaim.
.

D.Transformation Drill - Definite to


Indefinite
Repeat Drill C in reverse.

258

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

E. Transformation Drill - Indefinite to Definite


7.

8.

Instructor: Where is a government tourist


office? Student: Where is the government tourist
office?
1. e
y
f
o
m
i
s
r
f
i
d
t
a
y
a
r
u
t
m
e
m
S
a
l
t
i
.
i
y
f
o
m
i
s
r
f
i
d
h
a
t
a
y
a
r
u
t
h
a
m
e
m
S
a
l

ti.
2. mfir
Williams
hu yoec
Sagrirut
xadfiS.
. mar
Williams
hu yoec
haSagrir
ut
haxadf
iS.

3. raiti
misrfid
doar
gadol.
raiti et
misrfid hadoar
hagadol.
.
4. ze bet
sefer
tov.
ze bet hasefer
hatov.
5. higata
lenemfil
teuffi
xadiS.
higata
lenemfil
hateuffi
haxadiS.
6. raiti
oto
bebet
kolnoa
karov.
raiti oto bebet
hakolnoa
hakarov,
.
7. ani roe
binyan
Sagrirti
t gadol.
ani roe et
binyfin
haSagrirut
hagad6l.

259

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

11
.
Transformation DrillDefinite to Indefinite

.1: v

.2

.3 .

.4 .

.
.5 .

.
.6 .

. .

260

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

9.

Repeat Drill E in reverse.


Transformation Drill
Instructor:
I saw his
wiCe. She
is pretty.
Student:
X saw his
pretty
wii;e.
1.

2.

3.

4.

raiti e
t
raiti e
t
raiti e
t

iSt6. hi yaffi.

. .

i?t6 hayaffi.

raiti e
t
raiti e
t
raiti e
t
raiti e
t
raiti e
t
raiti e
t
raiti e
t

baalfi hatov.

baalfi. hu bSal tov.

eyneha. hin gdolot.


eyneha hagdolot.

misradxfi. hu xadfiS.
misradxfi haxadfiS.
arcexem. hi yaffi.
arcexem hayaffi.

. .

.
1

.
. .

.
3

.
. .

.
4

.
. .

The instructor may vary this drill by changing /raiti/ to /ani roci
lir1ot/.
H. Transformation Drill
Instructo
r: We saw
Israel.
It's
modern.
Student:
We saw
the
modern
Israel.

261

.
5

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
1.

rainu et yisrael. hi xadiSfi.

. .

rainu et yisrael haxadiSfi.


rainu et atfira. hi yaffi.

2.
3.

rainu et atfira hayaffi.


rainu et david. hu gadol.

4.

rainu et david hagadol.


rainu et avigdor. hu sameax.

. .; :

".
. .

rainu et avigdor hasameax.


rainu et dov. hu tov.

. .

rainu et dov hatov.

6.

rainu et sfira
vexfina.
hen
. .
amerikfiiot.
rainu et sfira vexfina haamerikfiiot.
.

REVIEW
CONVERSATIONS

10.

A:

ecle
xa

eyfo

bab

nimca

ait.

hasefer

A:

.
bee

B:

met

hasefer

nimca

B:

262

.
1

.
2

.
3

.
4

.
5
.
6

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

ken.

natati

lexa et

hasefer

haboke

r.

?
:

.
:

263

HEBREW

UNIT

11
. :

264

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

11.

C:

ata

roe et

bet
hakol
noa
hagad
ol?

D: lo.

eyfo.
C:

kan

bapin

a.
D: O,
ken.

265

HEBREW

UNIT

11
:
,
.

266

BASIC
COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

12.
:
.
: 1 :
. .
13.

G:

ken

rainu

et

bab

misra

ait

hag

hatay

ado

arut

haxad

veh

aS.

axa

H:

diS.

babai
t
hagad
ol?
G:

267

E: mexinim banana split bebruklin bar.


F: ma ata sax '.
E: ken. kmo beamerika.

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

11
:

.:

?
:
.

268

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

14.
:

Is

Samati

Sehabait
Sel dov
gadol

veyafe.
J:

ken.

raiti et

habait

etmol.

I: eyfo?
beramat

gan?

J: lo.

hem

garim

bexulon.

269

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

11
:
?

?
:.

.

270

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

10.1 Wandering through Tel Aviv (concluded)


PASSERBY

15.

After
you finish the
ice cream
continue
straight
towards the
seashore.
after, behind
you will finish
axariy Setigm6r et
haglida
tamSix yaSfir
lekivun
hayfim.
axariy
tigm6r
(m.s.)

271

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
16.

MR. WILLIAMS

17.

Yes-

18.
When
you get
to
Hayarko
n
Street
turn
right
and go
straigh
t
to
Mendele
Street.
when
(conjun
ction)
you
will
arrive

PASSERBY
kSetagia
lerex6v
hayark6n, tifne
yemina vetelex
yaSar Sd rex6v
mendele. kSetagia
(m.s.)

,
,

.

272

BASIC COURSE

19.

That is to say,
the
tourist
office
is
located
on
Hayarkon St. at
the
corner
of
Mendele?

HEBREW

UNIT

MR. WILLIAMS
z&t omeret Semisrfid
hatayarfit
nimcfi berex6v
hayark6n pinfit
mindele?

273

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
20.

Not
exac
tly
on
the
corn
er.
exactly
Turn right there
and go on to
the
tourist
office.

Is
it
poss
ible
to
go
by
way
of
BenYehu
da
Stre
et?
possible to go
way,
path,
through

of course.

Than
k
you,
Sir.
Good
bye.

definit
ely

PASSERBY
16

Yes,

WILLI
AMS
to
da
ra
ba
le
xa
,
ad
on
i.
Sa
lo
m.

b
e
d
i
y
u
k
b
a
p
i
n
f
i
.
bediyu
k
Sfim
tifne
yemina
vetele
x fid
misrfi
d
hataya
rut.
MR.
WILLIA
MS
haim
efSfir
lalixe
t
derex
rex6v
bin
yehtid
a?
efSfir
lalixe
t
derex
(f)

PASSER
BY
ken

beh
exl
et.
beh
exl
et
MR.

274

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC COURSE

..
,
: ,.

!,

275

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
It was nothing. Goodbye and good
luck, blessing
PASSERBY

al 16 davSr. Salom
uvraxS.
braxS (f)

276

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

21.
10.2 Wandering through Tel Aviv (concluded)
PASSERBY

22.

After
you finish
the ice cream
continue
straight
towards the
seashore.

axariy Setigmeri et
haglxda
tamSixi
yaSar
lekivun
haySm.

277

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

11
23.

MRS. WILLIAMS

24.
25.

-
PASSERBY

26.
When
you
get to
Hayark
on
Street
turn
right
and go
straig
ht
to
Mendel
e
Street
.

That is to
say, that the
tourist office
is located on
Hayarkon St.
at the corner
of Mendele?

Not exactly on
the corner.
Turn right
there and go
to
the tourist
office.

IA
MS

w
a
y

z6t

omiret
SemisrSd
hatayar
ut
nimcS

o
f
B
e
n
Y
e
h
u
d
a

berex6v
heyark6n

pinSt
inendel
e?
PA
SS
ER
BY

s
t
r
e
e
t
?

lo
bediyuk
bapinS.

Yes, of
course.

MR
S.
WI
LL
IA
MS

Thank you,
ma1 am.
Goodbye.

kSetagii
lerexov
Is
it
po
ss
ib
le
to
go
by

Sam
tifnf
yamfna
vetelxi
Sd
misrSd
hatayar
&t.

hayark6n

tifni
yamina
vetelxi
yaSSr Sd
rexov
mendele.
MRS.
WILL

haim
efSSr
lalixet
direx
rexiv
bin
yehtida
?
PA

278

Yes-

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC COURSE

SSERBY

kin.
behexlit.
MRS.
WILLIAMS

todS rabS lSx


gvirti.
Sal6m.

-



?


.


.

..

,
, ,.

279

HEBREW

UNIT

11

BASIC
COURSE

PASSERBY
It was nothing.
Goodbye and good luck.

Si lo davfir.
Salom uvraxS.

10.3 Vocabulary Drill


A variation of the stark and gentle imperative is the pattern of /tagia/. In this
pattern the masculine singular ends in /-Ctfa/ and the feminine plural ends in
/-Cfina/. The forms of /tagia/ are: m.s. /tagia/ m.pl. /tagiu/
f.s. /tagii/
f.pl. /tagSna/
[in the Basic Sentences of this unit the verb is used as a second person future.]
A. Substitution-Agreement Drill - Use the underlined words as cues. When you get to the
intersection turn left.

kSetagia
kSetagiu
kSetagii
kSetag&na

lahictalvut tifne smola.


lahictalvut tifnu smola.
lahictalvut tifni smola.
lahictalvut tifnena smola.

280

.
.
.

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

GRAMMAR NOTES

10.4 The Relative Conjunction /Se-/


a)Whenever an equational sentence, or a declarative sentence containing a verb, is
included within another sentence, but not as a direct quotation, then it is
preceded by the conjunction /Se-/.
Examine the following sentences:
1.habSit gadol veyafe.

The house is big and


beautiful." SamSti SehabSit gadol veyafe. I heard that the house
is big
and beautiful!'
2.arcenu m6cet xen beeynexa,
'You like our country."
ani mekavi Searcinu mocet
I hope you like our country."
xen beeynexa.
Note that although the conjunction "that" is optional in English the
conjunction /Se-/ is required in Hebrew.
b)/e-/ is used when prepositions precede such included sentences:
3.bSta hena.

"you came here." lifney SebSta


"before you came here"

hena
4.tigm6r et haglida.
axarey Setigmor et
haglida

and

You will finish the ice cream. "


"after you finish the
the ice cream"

The conjunction /kSe-/ is a contraction of the prefixed preposition /ke-/ "as"


/Se./
5.tagia lerex6v hayarkon.
"You will get to Hayarkon Street. "
kSetagia lerex6v hayark6n "when you get to Hayarkon Street"

c) When the included sentence is a question beginning with an interrogative,


the /Se-/ is optional, but after the interrogative.
27.

6.

eyfo bruklin bSr. atS


yodia iyfo Sebruklin bar?
(or) atS yodia eyfo bruklin
bar?
"Where is the Brooklyn
Do you know where
the Brooklyn Bar is ?"

Bar?"

281

HEBREW

UNIT

11

BASIC
COURSE

28.

7 heyxSn ata nimca.


atS 16 yodea heyxSn

"Where are you located?"


You don't know where you are?" atS nimca?

d) A sentence with an included sentence may in turn be included in a still


larger sentence.

8.

bSta hena.
lamSdeta ivrit lifney

You came here."


You studied
Hebrew before you came here."

Sebata hina.

282

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

t6v meod asita


Selamfideta ivrit lifney
Sebata hina.

You did well


to study Hebrew
before you came here."

It cannot be repeated too often that the above description refers to the
Hebrew sentences and not to the English translations. In sentences 4 and 5 the
English verb form changes; in sentences 5> 6 and 7 the word order changes; and in
Sentence 8 "you studied" changes to "to study". In the Hebrew, however, the
included sentences remain intact except for intonation patterns. There are
stylistic variations of word order in included sentences in Hebrew, but these are
relatively minor.

[Note: This conjunction is always written in Hebrew as a prefix to the following word. asita
lamadeta bata
Seasita Selamadeta Sebata ]

The following drills are expansion drills. The instructor gives a


sentence, and the student responds with a larger sentence in which the
instructor's sentence is included.
Instructor: tigmor et haglidfi.
You will finish the ice cream."
Student: ani roci Setigmor
I want you to
et haglidfi.
finish the ice cream."
A more literal translation would be I want that you should finish the ice
cream," but this is, of course, awkward English.
Instructor1 s sentences:
1.

mfir Williams gfir beramat gfin. .]

2.

iSto medaberet ivrit.

3.

miryam nimcet betel aviv.

4.

lamfideta bevit hasefer lesafot.

.
r.
1

haSagrirut nimcet al yad malon dfin."M

6. habinyfin xadiS.

.
4

.
5
.
6
.
7

7.

haSrec yaffi meod.

le
nt
A.

adds :
ani xoSev Se-

B.

ani mekave Se-

C.

hu roi Se-

D.

Samfinu Se-

E.

raiti Se-

283

.
2
.
3

Instructor's Sentences:

.
!

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC
COURSE

11
8.lamadeta ivrit.

9.gamata mimSr kfispi.



10.rainu et habait geio.
.

11.natati lemiryam et hasfarim..

Student adds:
29.
F.higata laarec lifney SeG.higfita hena axarey Se- .
- .

284

.8.
.9.
1

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

Instructor's Sentences:
12.natfita 16 et hasefer.
13.raita et hamisrfid.
.
1
3

14.higfita lamalon.
.
1
4

.12.
.

Student adds:
H.

mfi amfirta 16 kge1. mfi asita kSe-

.
- .

Additions H and I can be varied by changing /kSe-/ to /axariy e-/ or /lifniy


Se-/.
10.5 Adjectives used to Modify Verbs
a.The masculine singular form of
1.l&x yaSfir berex6v filenbi.

adjectives is used to modify verbs.


Go straight on Allenby Street."

2.fit medaberet yaf6 meod.

You speak very nicely."

3.t6v asita Selamfideta ivrit.


You did well to study Hebrew."
The following synonymous sentences illustrate the use of an adjective to modify
a noun or a verb.
4.atfi medabir ivrit yaffi
meod.

You speak a very beautiful Hebrew."

5.atfi medabir ivrit yafe


me6d.

You speak Hebrew very nicely."

b.When there is no noun antecedent in the context the masculine singular form
of the adjective is used.
6.kvar meuxar.

It's late already."

7.naim li meod lehakir otxfi. I am very pleased to meet you."


Although the English translations have pronoun antecedents for "late" and
"pleased" the Hebrew does not. In sentence 7 the form is /naim/ even when a woman is
speaking. See Section 2.2.
BASIC COURSE___HEBREW ___________________________________UNIT10
REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

A: axarey Setigmor leexoi et haglida :



teiex lemisrad hatayarut?

B: 16. laSagrirut haamerikait.

.:

.
.:

A: az tamSix LEKIVUN sfat hayam.

285

HEBREW

UNIT

11

BASIC
COURSE


B: ken. ani yodea.

.:

.
30.
C: eyfo nimca misrad hatayarut.
D: kan. bapina hariSona.
C: berexov ben yehuda?
D: lo. berexov mendele.

?:
. .

? :
. .

286

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

31.
E: ata medaber ivrit yafe meod.
Fs toda raba.
Es haim lamadeta ivrft lifney Sebata hena?
Fs lo. lamadeti ivrit axarey Sehigati leka
E: matay higata.
F: lifney xodSaim.
E: veata medaber kvar kmo israeli. ani
xoSev Seze tov meod.

G: raita et habinyan haxadaS Sel misrad


hatayarut?
H: lo. ax Samati Sehu xadiS meod.
Gs ken. xadiS vegadol. hu meod moce xen
beeynay.
. :
. :
? :
. . :
? :
. :
. :
.

? :
. . :
. . . :

287

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

11.1 Dinner Invitation


32.

M
r
W
.
i
W
l
i
l
l
i
l
a
i
a
m
s
,This Friday evening^

LLI
AMS
bel
el
SiS
i
hak
ar6

Yes.
m
s
,

w
h
a
t
a
r
e
y
o
u
d
o
i
n
g
F
r
i
d
a
y
e
v
e
n
i
n
g
?
*
d
o

v?
M

m
f
i

R
.

a
t
e
m

C
A

o
s
i
m

S
P

b
e
l
i
l

I
kin
.

S
i
S
i
.

night
sixth
MR.
CAS
PI
m
i
r

osi

(m.s.pres
.) lSyla
(m) SiSi
(m.s.)

,
MR

WI

288

BASIC
COURSE
UNIT

HEBREW

289

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

33.
I
h
ther
e is
not
to
us
plan
,
prog
ram
M
R
a
eyn
l&nu
toxnit

t
h
i
n
k
t
h
a
t
w
e
d
o
n

t
2 w
ant
to
eat
'br
eak
fas
t,
(mo
rni
ng
mea
l)
I
wan
t
to
eat
lun
ch.
(no
on
mea
l)
I
wan
t
to
eat
bru
nch
.
(10
a.m
.
sna
ck)

(f)

290

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
34.

We
wa
nt
to
in
vi
te
yo
u
fo
r
di
nn
er
.

is
suitabl
e
S
n
lehazmin
aruxi (f)
irev (m)

UNIT

M
t

to
inv
ite
mea
l
eve
nin
g

Thank
you.
We
will
be
very
happy
.

we
wil
l
be
hap
py
nismSx (1 pi. fut.)

MR. CASPI
haim

siva uSiosim

matim?
?
Seva

SloSim

mat'im (m.s.pres.)

Is
se
ve
nth
ir
ty
al
l
ri
gh
t?
sev
en
thi
rty

291

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

292

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
35.

UNIT

MR.
WILLIAMS
kin. ten
li et
haktivet
Selaxim.

[*Many speakers insist


that /lei SiSi/ is
properly Thursday
night and that Friday
night is /lei Sabat/.J

t
i
n
(
m
.
s
.
i
m
v
.
)
k
t
i
v
e
t
(
f
)

.
.

Yes. Give me
your address.
give address

293

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

MR. CASPI
36.

f
i
n
d

We
li
ve
o
n

t
h
e

M
o
z
k
i
n

p
l
a
c
e
wit
hou
t
dif
fic
ult
y.

S
t
r
e
e
t
,

we
will
find
plac
e

n
u
m
b
e
r

d
3
.

iff

number
three

icu
lty

11.2

t
h
i
n
k

ADDI
TION

t
h
a
t

AL

w
e

BULA

VOCA

RY

w
i
l
l

i
n
u
g

294

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
a
r
i
m
b
i
r
x
&
v
m
o
c
k
i
n
m
i
s
p
i
r
S
a
l
o
S
.

n
i
m
c
a

UNIT

e
t
h
a
m
a
k
o
m

l
e
l
o
k
o
S
i
.

mispir
(m)

al6

nimca
(1 pi.
fut.)

mak6m
(m)

k63i
(m)

MR
.
WI
LL
IA
MS

a
n
i
x
o
S
e
v
S
e
-

295

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

37.

.What

AWhat
Plea
What
se

ar
e

you doing Sunday?

ar
e

you doing Monday?

ar
e

you doing Tuesday?

..bey6m riSon bairev.


..bey6m Seni
bairev. ..beyom SliSi
bairev. ..bey6m revii
bairev.
..bey6m
ma atc os
beyom riSon.
xamiSi
bairev.
i
i
..bey6m SiSi
mf
atc os
bey6m Seni.
bairev.
..bemocaey
i i
i
Sabit. ..hairev. yiS
mf
atc
os bey6m SliSi.
linu
toxnit.
i

What ar
give e

you doing Wednesday?

What ar
me
e

you doing Thursday?

What ar
the
e
book

you doing Friday?

ma ati os
i

beyom SiSi.

What ar
.
e

you doing Saturday?

mf
i

os
i

beSabit.

What ar
ten

you doing today?

at
ci
mi at
. ci

os
i

hayom.

What ar
li,

you doing

e
e

beva

296

at
ci
mf at
i ci

?


?

??

.
?

os
i

beyom revii.

os
i

beyom xamiSi. ?

ma it osi

ani roce leexol


aruxSt
boker.
?

ani
roce
leexol
aruxfit
cohoriim.
ani
roce
leexol
aruxit iser.

?.
?


^


:

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
kaSa
, et
hase
fer.
tni

tnu
tenn
a

297

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

B.

Substitutio
n as cues.

BASIC COURSE

Agreement Drill

The instructor gives the underlined forms

give me your telephone


Please number.

ti
n
tn
fi
tn
i
te
n
tenna
tn
i

li
,
li
,
li
,
li
,
li
,
li
,

bevakaSS
,
bevakaSS
,
bevakaSS
,
bevakaSS
,
bevakaSS
,
bevakaSS
,

et mispSr
hatelefon
et mispSr
hatelefon
et mispSr
hatelefon
et mispSr
hatelefon
et mispSr
hatelefon
et mispSr
hatilefon

SelxS.

Selaxem .
.
SelSx.
.
SelxS,

Selaxen
.
Selax.

.
.

C. Substitution Drill
Don't give me any ice cream.
Si titin li
glidS.
titni titnu
titenna
D. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to
Negative
I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
o
r
:
G
i
v
e

298

!
.

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT
h
e
r
t
h
e
b
o
o
k
s
.
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
:
D
o
n
'
t
g
i
v
e
h
e
r
t
h
e
b
o
o
k
s
.

299

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

ten I e hasfarim.
S t
tnu I e hasfarim.
S t
tni I e hasfarim.
S t
tenna IS et hasfarim.
ten I
S
tni I
S
tnu I
S

e
t
e
t
e
t

S
I
S
i
S
i
S
i
S
i
a
l
a
l

hasfarim.
hasfarim.
hasfarim.

tite I e hasfarim.
n
S t
titn I e hasfarim.
u
S t
titn I e hasfarim.
i
S t
titenna la et
hasfarim.
titi I e hasfarim.
n
S t
titn I e hasfarim.
i
S t
titn I e hasfarim.
u
S t

E.Transformation Drill - Negative to


Affirmative
Repeat Drill D in
reverse.
F.Substitution Drill
Let me walk around
and see the city.
ten 11
letayel
velir'ot et
hair, tni
tinna tnu

.

300

.
,
.
.
. ,
:
.
.
.

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

11.4 Cardinal Numbers


a)The situation with respect to the cardinal numbers can be described as complicated. There are historically two sets of numbers - masculine and feminine.
However, the alternation of the forms is the opposite of what one would expect;
that is, the masculine appear to be feminine forms, and vice versa. For example:
alo (feminine) loS (masculine) Compare: karov (masculine) krovi (feminine)
b)In formal speech masculine numbers (i.e., those with the apparent
feminine shape) are used with masculine nouns, and feminine numbers
with feminine nouns. This usage is preferable at all levels of speech.
c)in counting and in reading off numerals the feminine form is used.
/axat, StSim, galog, arbk./
One, two, three, four."
/rexov mockin, mispfir al6S./
Mozkin Street, number 3."
d)in informal speech the two sets are often used interchangeably, with the
feminine numbers being the more frequent choice. One often hears hybrid forms
such as /gniymesre/ 'twelve' from /gneymasar/ and /Steymesre/. To complicate
matters a bit more, occasional new distinctions have developed in modern Hebrew
such as /arbk/ 'four' (masculine) and./irba/ (feminine).
zero (name of numeral only) efes (m)

301

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen

Feminine
axSt
gtaim
galog
arbi
xameS
Se
Siva
gmone
tea
iser
axit'esre
gteym'esre
lo'esre
arbiesre

Masculine
exid
gnSim
SloSa
arbai
xamigS
ig k
giv'S
gmoni
tig'i
asari
ax&d'asar
sneym'asar
glogaasar
arbiasar

fifteen
sixteen

xameS'esre
eesre

xamigSasar
gigaasar

seventeen
eighteen
nineteen
twenty

Sviesre
gmoneesre
tSaesre
esrim

giv'aasar
gmon&asar
tiS1aasar
esrim

A. Count

1
,


^-^
-

to twenty.

B. Recite

the masculine numbers one to twenty.

C. Read off the following


1
.
2
.
3
.
4
.
6
!

3 - 0 - 1

numerals.
7 0 - 8 -

15

5 - 8 - 8

8. 4 - 7 7 4

4 - 1 - 8 - 2

9 7 3 7

2 - 0 - 2
8 - 2 - 9
5 - 3 - 3 - 6

10. 8 - 7 K _ 0
11. 3 5 1
12. 1 - 1 - 0 GRAMMAR NOTES

115Contraction of Initial Syllables


Compare the following underlined forms:
I6x yagfir berexov filenbi.
finu garim birx6v mockin.
When the prefix /be-/ precedes a form beginning with the pattern
/CeCV-/ (with unstressed /e/) the two syllables may be contracted to
/biCCV-/.
This contraction, interestingly enough, is characteristic of the formal style,
but it is often heard in informal speech, also.
A similar contraction is made with the prefixes /le-/ ,to' and /ke-/ ,as1.
116/yS li/. /eyn 11/
a)A special grammatical construction is used to indicate possession. Examine the

302

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
following sentence;
yS lfinu toxnit.

UNIT

We have a plan."

b)The construction consists of the form /yeS/ "there is, there are" plus the
preposition /le-/ "to". (in the example above the preposition has a pronominal
suffix.) This construction translates the present tense forms of the English verb
"have" with the meaning "possess".
The negative of this construction consists of /eyn/ plus /le-/. eyn lfinu
toxnit.
We don't have a plan."
c)Though, strictly speaking, neither /y/ nor /iyn/ is a verb, the direct object
preposition /et/ is used before definite nouns which are "possessed".
yeS lfinu sefer.
We have a book."
yg lfinu et hasefer.
We have the book."
d)The word order of the construction may be inverted for emphasis or style reasons.
This inversion is frequent when a name follows the preposition.
ledavid yeS glidfi.
David has ice cream."
or
yS ledavid glida.
e)The preposition /le-/ occurs with the singular set of pronominal suffixes, with
the same variations that occur with /gel/: /lfix, lfinu, laxem, laxen, lah6m,
lahen/.
A. Substitution Drill
I have a house in Ramat Gan.
yeg li bfiit berfimat gfin. lexfi lfix 16 lfi lfinu laxem laxen lahem lahen

303

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Substitution Drill - Repeat Drill A in the negative. I


don't have a house in Ramat Gan.

6yn li bSit beramat gSn.

Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative


Instructor: I have Miriam's phone number. Student: I don't have Miriam's
phone number.

ye
g
ye
g
ye
g
ye
g
ye
g
ye

ye
g
ye
g

li et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.


...

eyn li , . .
lSnu et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.

eyn lSnu . ..
lSx et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.

4yn lSx ...


lo et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.

..

...

eyn 16 . . .
laxem et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.

eyn laxem . . .
IS et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.

...

eyn IS . . .
lexS et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.

...

eyn lexS . . .
lahem et mispSr hatelefon gel mirySm.

eyn lahem . ..

.:

Negative to Affirmative

Repeat Drill C in reverse.


E.Response Drill
Instructor:
Where do you live?

Student:
We have a house in Savyon.

s a v y o n .
a
v
a
v
a
v

v
y
v
y
v
y

y
6
y
6
y
o

6
n
6
n
o
n

n .
?

.
?

n .
?

.
?

n .
?

.
?

F.Transformation Drill
Instructor: The books are at my place. Student: I have the books.

304

...

...

atem garim.
ye lSnu bSit b e

hu g&r.
yeg 16 bSit b e s
hem garim.yeS lahem bSit b e s a
St gSra.
yeS li bSit b e s
gSr moge.
yeg lo bSit b e s a
atS gar.
yeg li bSit b e s
gSra lea.
yeg 1S bSit b e s a

...

D.Transformation Drill -

eyfo

eyfo
eyfo
eyfo
eyfo
eyfo
eyfo

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

hasfarim

nimcaim

ecll.

yeg

li et hasfarim.

hasfarim

nimcaim

eclo.

ye

16 et hasfarim.

*.

hasfarim

nimcaim

eclS.

yeg

1S et hasfarim.

hasfarim

nimcaim

ecel dov.

yeg

ledov et hasfarim.

hasfarim

nimcaim

eclenu.

ye

lSnu et hasfarim.

hasfarim

nimcaim

eclam.

yeg

lahem et hasfarim.

hasfarim

nimcaim

eclexa.

ye

lexS et hasfarim.

hasfarim

nimcaim

eclex.

yeg

lSx et hasfarim.

hasfarim

nimcaim

eclaxem.

yeg

laxem et hasfarim.

.
.

r :

G . Transformation Drill

Instructor: He doesn't speak Hebrew.


Student: He doesn't have a chance to speak Hebrew.

h6 16 medaber ivrit.
eyn lo hizdamnut ledaber ivrit. hm
lo medabrim ivrit.
eyn lahem hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.
ani lo medaber ivrit.
4yn 11 hizdamnut ledaber ivrit. atS
lo medaber ivrit.
eyn lexS hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.
Snu lo medabrim ivrit.
6yn lanu hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.
atem lo medabrim ivrit.
eyn laxem hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.
iSto 16 medaberet ivrit.
eyn leiSto hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.
hi lo medaberet ivrit.
eyn IS hizdamnut ledaber ivrit. St
lo medaberet ivrit.
eyn lSx hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.
atin lo medabrot ivrit.
eyn laxen hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.
hen lo medabrot ivrit.
eyn lahen hizdamnut ledaber ivrit.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

305

.
.

.
.

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

:
?

A: mS atem osim maxSr.


B: ani 16 yodea. ani xoSev
ge&yn lSnu toxnit.

:
.

.

A; anu rocim lehazmin otxem


lebruklin bSr.
B: todS raba. nismax meod.

:


.
. :

A: haim Se mat'im?
B: ken. behexlet.

.
:
?
. . :

306

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

C. ten li bevakaSa, et hasfarim hagdolim.


D: natSti lexS otSm etmol.
C:

UNIT

? :
. :

16. lo natSta et hasfarim 11. natata

,,;. , :
.

otSm lemirySm.

: . :

D: lemirySm eyn et hasfarim.


C: k6n. yeg IS et hasfarim eclS babSit.

, , :
.
. :
. :
. .
. :
. :
.

E: eyfo at6m garim.

.
? :
. :
_ . :
..
. :
?
:
.

F: yeg lSnu bait betel aviv.

E: tnu li bevakaga, et mispSr hatelefon


gelaxem.

: :
?
. . :

F: eyn lanu adSin telefon.

? :

E: az tnu li et haktovet gelaxem.

. . :

G: atS yodea eyfo gemisrSd hatayarut?


H: ze axarey habinySn hagadol haze.
G: todS. ani xogev genimcS et hamakom lelo
kogi.

I: eyn lanu toxnit lelel gig!. mS atem


osim.
J: anu rocim lalexet lir'ot et mir Williams.
I: haim mar Williams gar adSin bemalon dan?
J: lo. yeg lo bait berSmat gan.

I: ata yodea et hakt6vet gelo?


J: ken. yeg li et haktovet bamisrad.

307

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

12.1 Friday Evening Dinner


Hel
lo,
Mrs
.
Wil
lia
ms.
Hel
lo,
Mr.
Wil
lia
ms.
How
are
you
?

M
R
S
.
C
A
S
P
I

Salo
m
gver
et
Will
iams
.
Salo
m
mar
Will
iams
, ma
Slom
xem.

308

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

MR
.
WI
LL
IA
MS
Good Sabbath.

Hello.

galom. Sabcit Salom.


(Greeting used from

. .

Sabfit Salom
sunset Friday to sunset
Saturday)
MR
S.
CA
SP
I

I'm
very
happy
that
you
came.
ani
smexa
meod
SebSt
em.

309

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

MRS. WILLIAMS
Ho
w
co
ul
d
we
re
fu
se
?
we were
able to
refuse
eyx
yaxoln
u
lesare
v.
ya
x6
ln
u
le
sa
re
v

310

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

MRS. CASPI
L
e
t
'
s

e
w
i
n
e

g
o

f
o
r

t
o

K
i
d
d
u
s
h
.

t
h
e
t
a
b
l
e

p
o
u
r

l
e
t
'
s

w
i
n
e
(Sa
bba
th
cer
emo
ny)

we
will
appr
oach
tabl
e
M
o
s
h
e
,
p
l
e
a
s
e
p
o
u
r
t
h

h
&
v
a
n
i
g
f
i
S
l
a
S
u
l
x
f
i

311

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

n
.
hciv
a
niga
S
(l.p
l.fu
t.
Sulx
an
(m)
moSe.
m
e
z
o
g
b
e
v
a
k
a
S
a
e
t
h
a
y
a
i
n
l
e
k
i
d
u
S
.

,


.

mezo
g
(m.s
.imv
.)
yfii
n
(m)
kidu
S(m)

312

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

12.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY


Good evening.
erev tov.
Good morning.
boker tov.
Good night.
layla tov.
The
above
Hebrew
expressions
are
almost
identical to the English in
usage,
/erev/
'evening'
begins at sunset. In the
afternoon /Sal6m/ is used.
Happy holiday.

xag
sameax.

This greeting is used on


holidays,similarly
to
/Sabfit Salom/.
Happy New Year. Sana tovS. .

Congratulations. mazal tov.


.

luck mazal (m)

.
.
.

313

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

123 Vocabulary Drills

A. Transformation Drill
Instructor: We didn't come yesterday.
Student: We couldn't get here.
16
ba
nu
et
mo
l.
lo
bf
it
em
et
mo
l.
lo
bf

i
t
i

f
i
t
a

e
t
m
6
l
.

e
t
m
o
l
.

1
6

1
6

314

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
bf
it
et
mo
l.
16
bf
it
en
et
mo
l.
B.
Substituti
on Drill
lo yaxolnu
lehagia.
16
yaxoltem
lehagia.
lo yaxolti

lehag
ia.
lo
yax61
ta
lehag
ia.
16
yax6l
t
lehag
ia.
lo
yaxol
ten
lehag
ia.

315

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

316

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

Please pour the wine.


mezog bevakaSa et hayain.
mizgi
mizgu
mezogna

317

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

GRAMMAR NOTES
12.4 Cardinal Numbers with Nouns
a)Note in the following example that the number precedes the noun that is quantified.
lexi kearbafi rexov6t.

Go about four blocks."

With the exception of /exfid, axfit/ "one" which follow the noun, the cardinal
numbers precede the noun.
/y6m exfid/
/Slogfi yamim/

"one day"
"three days"

b)The number /gnfiim, Stfiim/ "two" has the alternate forms /Sny, Stey/ when
preceding the quantified noun.
/3n6y avironim/
/gtSy oniot/

"two airplanes"
"two ships"

Compare, on the other hand, the following:


/li y6S gney sfarim,
vegfim 16 yeg gnfiim./

X have a book,
and he has two, also."

c)Jn certain stereotyped expressions the singular form of the noun is


used after numbers higher than ten.
/eser Sanim/
/esrim ganfi/

"ten years"
"twenty years"

d)When the noun is definite the preceding number is treated as a construct state noun
itself. The masculine numbers "three" to "ten" have the alternate forms listed below.
Compare then:

/gloga batim/
/Sloget habatim/

"three houses"
"the three houses"

Some feminine numbers have alternate forms in formal speech, but otherwise they
do not. However, many speakers use the alternate, construct- state form of the
masculine numbers before feminine nouns which are definite.
/galog oni6t/
/gloget haoni6t/

"three ships"
"the three ships"

It should be remembered that there is wide variation in the use of numbers.


th
e
th
e
th
e
th
e
th
e
th
e
th
e
th
e

three...

/Sl6Set ha-/

four...

/arbfiat ha-/

five...

/xam^get ha-/

six...

/geget ha-/

seven...

/giv'fit ha-/

eight...

/gmonfit ha-/

nine...

/tiS'at ha-/

ten...

/as^ret ha-/

318

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

In the following drills some new plurals are introduced. Note that
some masculine plural nouns end in /-&t/ and some feminine plural nouns in
/-im/.
A. Transformation Drill - Student adds one.
Instructor: I have one
table. Student: I have two
tables.
y
S

Instructor:

l gulxfin exfid.
yeg 1 gny gulxanot.
.
'
1

i
y l gney gulxanot.
yeS l glogfi gulxan6t.
.
g
i
i

ye l glogfi gulxanot.
yeg l arbafi gulxanot.
.
g
i
i

ye l arbafi gulxanot.
yeg 1 xamigfi gulxanot.
.
g
i
i

ye l xamigfi gulxanot.
yeg l gigfi gulxanot.
.
g
i
i

yS 1 gigfi gulxanot.
yeg 1 giv'fi gulxan6t.
.
g
i
i

ye l giv'fi gulxanot.
yeg 1 gmonfi gulxanot.
.
g
i
1

ye 1 gmonfi gulxanot.
yeg l tig'fi gulxanot.
.
g
1
i

ye l tig'fi gulxanot.
yeg l asarfi gulxanot.
.
g
i
i

B. Transformation Drill - Repeat Drill A in reverse. Student subtracts one.


yeg 11 asarS gulxanot. Student: yeg li
tig'a gulxa,not.
. :

. :

319

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

The instructor may vary Drills A and B by selecting numbers at random.


C. Transformation Drill - Student adds one.
Instructor: We want to see one big city.
Student: We want to see two big cities.
finu rocim lir'ot ir axfit gdolfi.
finu
rocim
lir'ot
gtey
arim
gdol6t. finu rocim lir'ot gt6y arim gdol6t.
finu
rocim
lir'ot
galog
arim
gdol6t. finu rocim lir'ot galog arim
gdolot.
finu
rocim
lir'ot
firba
arim
gdolot. finu rocim lir'ot firba arim
gdolot.
anu
rocim
lir'ot
xameg
arim
gdol6t. finu rocim lir'ot xameg arim
gdolot.
anu rocim lir'ot geg arim gdolot.
finu rocim lir'ot geg arim gdolot.
anu rocim lir'ot geva arim gdolot.
finu rocim lir'ot geva arim gdolot.
finu
rocim
lir'ot
gmone
arim
gdolot. finu rocim lir'ot gmone arim
gdolot.
finu
rocim
lir'6t
tega
arim
gdolot. finu rocim lir'ot t6ga arim gdolot.
finu rocim lir'ot eser arim gdolot.

320

. 5
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

D.Transformation Drill - Repeat Drill C in reverse. Student subtracts one.


Instructor: finu rocim lir'ot ser arim gdolot.
Student: finu rocim lir'ot t6Sa arim gdolot.
The instructor may vary Drills C and D by selecting numbers at random.
E.Transformation Drill - Student totals numbers.
Instructor: I have four books, and he has seven.
Student: We have eleven books.

. -

-
.

yeg lfinu arbfiasar sfarim.


li yeg sefer exfid, vel6 yeg
arbfiasar.
yeg lfinu xamigfiasar sfarim.
li yeg tig'fi sfarim, velo yeg giv'fi.
yfig lfinu gigfiasar sfarim.
li yeg gmonfi sfarim, velo yeg tig'fi.
yg lfinu givfiasar sfarim.
li yeg asarfi sfarim, velo yeg gmonfi.
yeg lanu gmonfiasar sfarim. li
yg axfidasar sfarim, velo yeg gmonfi.

-
.

.-

. -

. -

. -

-
.

,
.

. -

, -

.[;
' .

li yeS arbafi sfarim, vel6 yeg giv'fi.


yeg lfinu axfidasfir
sfarim. li yeg gmonfi sfarim, velo
yeg arbafi.
yg lfinu sneymasar
sfarim. li yeg asarfi sfarim, velo
yeg glogfi.
yeg lfinu glogfiasar
sfarim. li yeg gmonfi sfarim, velo
yeg gigfi.

321

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

yeg lfinu tigfiasar sfarim. li yg glogfiasar sfarim vel6 yeg Siv'a. yeg lfinu
esrim sfarim.
F. Transformation Drill - Student total numbers.
Instructor: I saw four women speaking Hebrew,
and you saw seven. Student We saw eleven women speaking Hebrew.

ani raiti arba naSim medabrot ivrit,


veata raita eva
rainu axat'esre naSxm medabrot ivrit ani
raiti Smone naSim medabrot ivrit,
veata raita arba
rainu Steym'esre naSim medabrot ivrit ani
raiti iSa axat medaberet ivrit,
veata raita Steym"esre,
rainu SloS'esre naSim medabrot ivrit, ani
raiti xameS naSim medabrot ivrit,
veata raita tea
rainu arba'esre naSim medabrot ivrit ani
raiti eser naSim medabrot ivrit,
veata raita xameUT rainu xameS'esre naSim
medabrot ivrit ani raiti xameX'esre naSim
medabrot ivrit,
veata raita axat rainu Se'esre naSim
medabrot ivrit

,
.
(
7 -)

,
.
(-)

, ,
.-!:
(-)

,
.
(-)

,
.
(-)

, -
.
(-)

322

UNIT 12

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

,
ani raiti teSa naSim medabrot ivrit,
(- ).
veata raita Smone. rainu Svaesre naSim
,
medabrot ivrit. ani raiti Smone na&im
.
medabrot ivrit,
veata raita eser. rainu Smonaesre naSim
medabrot i
v
r
i
t
.
(

)
ani raiti Slogesre nagim medabrot ivrit,, -
veata raita .
, -

( ).
rainu tSaesre nasim medabrot
ivrit.
(

)
ani raiti svaesre naSim medabrot ivrit,
veata raita SaloS. rainu esrim naSim medabrot ivrit.
.

:
:

G. Transformation
Drill
Instructor: We
have two books.
Student: Give us
the two books.

UNIT 12

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

sney hasfarim.

SloSet hasfarim. .
arbaat hasfarim..
h

SeSet hasfarim.
Siv'at hasfarim.

xameSet

.
.

Smonat hasfarim. .
tiS'at hasfarim. .
ye

lan

ye

lan

lan

yes
' u
v
lan
ye
u
s
lan
ye
u
s
lan
ye
u
S
lan
ye
u
s
lan
ye
u
S
lan
ye
u
s

Sney
s tnu
sloSa
tnu
arbaa
tnu
xamiS
a tnu
SiSa
s tnu
siv'
a
tnu
Smona
tnu
ti'a
tnu
asara
tnu

far1m.
lanu et
sfarim.
lanu et
sfarim.
lanu et
sfarim.
lanu et
farim.
lanu et
sfarim.
lanu et
sfarim.
lanu et
sfarim.
lanu et
sfarim.
lanu et

aseret hasfarim. .


.
.

UNIT 12

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

H. Transformation Drill
Instructor: Yesterday I saw two ships. Student: Where did you see the two ships'
etmol raiti stey oniot.

eyfo raita
etmol raiti Salos oniot.
eyfo raita
etmol raiti arba oniot.
eyfo raita
etmol raiti xameS oniot.
eyfo raita
etmol raiti SeS oniot.
eyfo raita
etmol raiti Seva oniot.
eyfo raita
etmol raiti Smone oniot.
eyfo raita
etmol raiti tesa oniot.
eyfo raita
etmol raiti eser oniot.
eyfo raita
Stey
haoniot.
xameset
haoniot.
Smonat

et
et
et
et
et
et
et
et
et

haoniot.

Sloset

arbaat

haoniot.

haoniot
siv'at
haoniot.

Seset
haoniot.
tis'at

haoniot. aseret haoniot.


.


';

UNIT 15 HEBREW

12.5 Ordinal Numbers

BASIC COURSE

a) The ordinal numbers are adjectives. The numbers from "second" to


"tenth" have forms resembling the corresponding cardinal numbers. Ordinal
numbers "eleventh" and higher are identical in form to the corresponding
cardinal numbers, but they follow the noun as adjectives.

first
second
third
fourth
fifth
sixth
seventh
eighth
ninth
tenth
eleventh
twelfth etc.

Masculine
riSon
geni
SliSi
revii
xamiSi
SiSi
Svii
Smini
tSii
asirl
axad'asar
Sneym* asar

Feminine
riSonfi
Snifi
SliSit
reviit
xamiSit
SiSit
gviit
Sminit
tSiit
asirit
axat'esre
Steym'esre

-
-

b) The names of the days of the week are proper nouns. Thus, the following
distinction is made.
/bey6m riSon/
/bayom hariSon/

"on Sunday"
"on the first day"

The ordinal number may be used with the name of the


day. /bey6m riSon hariSon/

"on the first Sunday"

/Sabfit/ often has the definite article when


modified. /haSabfit hariSona/

"the first Saturday"

A. Transformation Drill
Instructor: Go four blocks.
Student: Turn right at the fourth street.
lex
lex
lex
lex
lex
lex

arbafi rexovot.
gney rexovot.
SloSfi rexovot.
SiSa rexovot.
Smona rexovot.
asarfi rexovot.
lex
xamiSa
rexovot
lex
Siv'fi
rexovot. lex tig'a
rexovot.
barexov harevii
pne yamina.
barexov hageni
pne yamina.
barexov hagligi
pne yamina.
barexov hagigi
pne yamina.

barexov hagmini pne yamina.


barexov haasiri pne yamina.
barexov haxamigi pne yamina.
barexov hagvii pne yamina.
barexov hatgii pne yamina.
. .
. .
. .
. .
.

326

BASIC
COURSE
This drill may be varied by making it an expansionHEBREW drill.

UNIT

instructor: lex arbafi rexovot.


,
student: lex arbafi rexovot, ubarexov harevii pne yemina.
.

327

B.

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Transformation Drill

Instructor: Go four blocks.


Student: Turn left at the
lexi fourth corner.
lexi

viit
lexi arba

pni
lexi fi

smol
lexi rexo

vot.
a.
lexi

bapi
lexi asar
.
fi
nfi
lexi

rexo
haas
lexi

vot.
irit

gney
pni

rexo
smol

vot.
a.
.
glog
bapi

fi
nfi

rexo
hagn

v6t.
ifi

xami
pni
.
gfi
smol

rexo
a.

vot
bapi

gmon
na

fi
haSl

rexo
iSit
.
vot.
pni

gigf
sm6l

i
a.

rexo
bapina

vot. haxamig

giv' it pni
.
fi
smola.

rexo bapinfi

vot. hagmini

tig' t pni

fi
smola.

rexo bapina
.
vot. haSigit

b
pni

a
smola.

p
bapina

i
haSviit

n
pni
.
f
smola.

i
bapina

h
hatSiit

a
pni

r
smola.
.
e

328

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

329

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

This
drill
may
be
varied
by
may
be
varied by making it
an expansion drill.
I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
o
r
:
l
e
x
i
a
r
b
a
f
i
r
e
x
o
v
6
t
.
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
:
l
e
x
i
a

330

BASIC
COURSE
r
b
a
f
i

HEBREW

r
e
x
o
v
o
t
,
u
b
a
p
i
n
a
h
a
r
e
v
i
i
t
p
n
i
s
m
o
l
a
.
C. Transformation Drill
I
n
s
t
r
u

331

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

c
t
o
r
:
H
e
l
i
v
e
s
e
l
e
v
e
n
b
l
o
c
k
s
f
r
o
m
h
e
r
e
.
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
:
G

332

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

o
u
p
t
o
t
h
e
e
l
e
v
e
n
t
h
s
t
r
e
e
t
.
hu gfir
axad'as
ar
rexovot
mikan.
l
ex ad
harexo
v
haaxad
'asar.
hu
gfir
&neym'
asar
rexovo
t
mikan.
l
ex fid
harexo
v

hagn
eym'
asar
. hu
gfir
glog
fias
ar
rexo
v6t
mikf
in.
l
ex
ad
hare
xov
hagl
ogaa
sar.
hu

333

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW
gar
arbfia
sar
rexovo
t
mikan.
l
ex fid
harexo
v
haarbf
iasar.
hu
gfir
xamigf
iasar
rexovo
t
mikfin
.
l
ex fid
harex6
v
haxami
gfiasa
r. hu
gfir
gigfia
sar
rexovo
t
mikfin
.
l
ex ad
harexo
v
hagigf
iasar.
hu gar
Sivfia
sar
rexovo
t
mikfin
.
l
ex ad
harexo
v
hagiv&

BASIC COURSE
asar
. hu
gfir
gmon
fias
ar
rexo
v6t
mikf
in.
l
ex
ad
hare
xov
hagm
onfi
asar
. hu
gar
tigf
iasa
r
rexo
vot
mika
n.
l
ex
fid
hare
xov
hati
gfia
sar.
hu
gar
esri
m
rexo
vot
mika
n.
l
ex
fid
harex
ov
haesr
im.

334

UNIT

HEBREW

335

BASIC
COURSE

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

336

UNIT

HEBREW

337

BASIC
COURSE

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

338

.
UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC
COURSE

339

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
.

340

.
UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC
COURSE

341

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 15 HEBREW

342

Drill
UNIT

HEBREW

Instructor: Yesterday I saw ten


ships.
Student: Yesterday I
saw ten ships
and today
I saw the
eleventh
ship.
-
>


.
.

.
.
.

.

.
.

, .
.
.
.
.
.


.
.
.
.
etmol raiti
eser oniot.
vehay
om raiti et
haonia
haaxat'esre.
etmol raiti

343

BASIC
COURSE

D. Expansion

UNIT 15 HEBREW
axat
'esr
e
onio
t.

et haonia
mo haSeS'esre.
l
etmol raiti
ra SeS'esre
it oniot.
vi
vehay
ehay ar om raiti et
om
ba haonia
rait 'e haSva'esre.
i et sr etmol raiti
haon e
Sva'esre
ia
on oniot.
haSt io
vehay
eym' t. om raiti et
esre
v haonia
etmo eh haSmone'esr
l
ay e
etmol
rait om raiti
i
ra Smone'esre
Stey it oniot.
m'es i
vehay
re
et om raiti et
onio ha haonia
t.
on hatSa'esre.
via etmol raiti
ehay ha tSa'esre
om
xa oniot.
rait me
vehayo
i et S' m raiti et
haon es haonia
ia
re haesrim.
haSl et
oS'e mo
sre. l
etmo ra
l
it
rait i
i
xa
SloS me
'esr S'
e
es
onio re
t.
on
vio
ehay t.
om
v
rait eh
i et ay
haon om
ia
ra
haar it
ba'e i
sre. et

BASIC COURSE

.1

344

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
E.

Expansion Drill
I live in the
second
house from
Student:
the corner.
I live in the
second house from
the corner, and
Hanna lives in
the third house.

345

UNIT

ani ga
r
ani ga
r

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
. 5
.
.

babait ha&eni mehapina. vexana gara


babait haSliSi.
babait harevii mehapina.

ani ga
r

vexana gara babait haxami&i.


babait haSiSi mehapina. vexana gara
babait haSvii.

ani ga
r

babait haSmini mehapina. vexana


gara babait hatSii.

ani ga
r

babait haasiri mehapina. vexana


gara babait haaxadasar.

. .
.
.
.
.
.
.

REVIEW
CONVERS
ATIONS

A : Sa16m avigdor.

matSy higSten!
1et4i avv. ?:

.


B:

HIG&NU

BEYOM

RIGON

. :

A:
cin

u
ro
cl

346

.
1
2

BASIC
COURSE
m
leh
azm
in
otx
em
lea
rux
St
coh
orc
Lim
.

HEBREW

mat
'im
?
B:
ken
.
beh

B:

exl
nism

it.

&x
meod

C:

h&v

lema

tciy

nig

&S

A:

laS
leha

ulx

y6m.

an.

haim
Stey
mesr

D:

16,
tod

347

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
Sim

S.

'i,

kvSr

mir

meux

ySr
&r.
n.

C:

mer
eyx

nah

at6m

^re

yexo

t?

llm

F:

lesa

16.

r^v?

16

D:

kol
slix

kx

ci.

cinu
muxr
axim

E:

E:

h&v
a

laru

nig

c.

SS
leb

348

BASIC
COURSE
rukl
in
b&r.
P:
tov.
hagl
xda
gSm
tov&
.

:
HEBREW

349

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

350

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC
COURSE

351

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

:
:

352

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC
COURSE

353

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

354

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

355

UNIT

13.1

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Friday Evening Dinner (cont'd)


MRS. WILLIAMS
The
fish
is
wonderful
, and so
is
the
chalah.
fish
wonderful
and so
chalah
(twist
bread)

Thank you very


much.

Mrs.
Caspi,
you must
give me
the
recipe
for the
fish.

toda
raba.

a
d
a
g
i
m
.

MRS.
WILLI
AMS

g
v
^
r
e
t

l
a
t
e
t
m
i
r
S
a
m
(
m
)

k
&
s
p
i
,
a
t

to give
recipe

Gladly.
I111 give
you the
recipe,
Mrs.
Williams.
desire,
willingly
I will
give

hadagim
nehedarim.
vex4n
haxalS.
dig (m)
nehedar
(m.s.)
vexSn

xali (f)
MRS. CASPI

M
R
S
.
C
A
S
P
I

m
u
x
r
a
x
a
be
ra
c6
n
et
en
la
x
et
ha
mi
rS
am
,
gv
er
et
Wi
ll
ia
ms
.

l
a
t
e
t
1
1
e
t
h
a
m
i
r
S
a
m
l

356

BASIC
COURSE
UNIT

HEBREW

)acon (m
berac6n

etn (1
)s.

,
.

!
,
.

357

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

It's
a
traditio
n in our
homes to
eat
on
Friday
evening
gefilte
fish.
i
t
,
t
h
i
s
t
r
a
d
i
t
i
o
n
f
i
l
l
e
d

zu
masoret
eclenu
babSit,
leexol
belel
SiSi
daglm
meroulai
m. zu

(f)

masoret
(f)
memulci

358

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

MRS. WILLIAMS

UNIT

Mrs.
Caspi,
please,
don't
give me
any
more to
eat.
more
food

gv4r
et
k&sp
i.
beva
kaSa
kl
titn
i li
yote
r
oxel
.
y
o
t
e
r
o
x
e
l
(
m
)

359

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
MRS. CASPI

But
y
o I ate
nothing
h
a a
x&l
ti
lo.
..k
lfi
m
MRS
.
WIL
LIA
MS

360

..
.

BASIC
COURSE

I'm on a
diet,
diet
HEBREW

Th
the
e
recipe
fo
.
Sheodwill

wa
g
the

s
recipe
ve
.

We ry
will

de
g
the
li
recipe
ci
.
ou (m)
They
s, (f) w
They
wa

w
s
very
delic
delici

ious,
ous.

tasty
very
tasty.

Thank you.

I'll start
on my diet
tomorrow.

ani bedieta.
dieta
(f)
UNIT

very

tasty.
h
.
a
h
a
M

I M
willa
t
b
begin
a
t
13.2
AD
e
DI
t
e
TI
t
e
ON
t
e
AL
VO
t
e
CA
t
BU
h
t
LA
e
RY
h
t
He will
e
h
gi
t
ve
e
he
r

361

BASIC COURSE

362

UNIT 15 HEBREW

UNIT

HEBREW


. .

363

BASIC
COURSE

13.3

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Vocabulary Drills
The adjective /memulfi/ is similar to /nimcfi/ "is found" in the pattern
of its forms

f.s. memulet
m.s. memulfi

m.pl. memulaim

f.pl. memulaot

Note that in the Hebrew spelling the third root consonant is , a s


i n /nimcfi/ .

The adjective /nehedfir/ is also similar to /nimcfi/. The feminine


singular
has
a /-t/ suffix with change
m.s. nehedfir
f.s. nehederet

of vowel.
m.pl. nehedarim

f.pl. nehedarot

A.Substitution Drill - Masculine Singular


The house is wonderful.

habfiit nehedar.
hamalon
hayfim
binyfin hadoar atfi hd
nemfil hateuffi
B.Substitution Drill - Peminine Singular
The chalah is wonderful,
haxalfi nehederet. haarec haglida ramat gfin hi
miryam dfilya sfat hayfim haaruxfi
C.Substitution Drill - Masculine Plural
The fish is wonderful.
hadagim nehedarim. atem
harexovot
hayeynot
habatim
haulxanot
kulam
hayamim

364

BASIC
D. COURSE

Substitution Drill -

HEBREW Feminine Plural

The chalahs are wonderful.


haxal6t nehedar6t.

hatocaot
aten
haarac6t hanaSlm hamiSpaxot haglid6t

Substitution - Agreement Drill - /nehedir/


E.

The country is wonderful.


ha&rec nehederet.
hamisrSd
haxala
hadagim
hay&in
atem
hatocaot
hamiSpaxck
haanaS m
hamisradlm

habatim
haoni6t
hamlon6t
haarux6t

Substitution - Agreement Drill - /axalti/ "1 ate" I haven't


breakfast yet.
ad&in 16 axSlti aruxat boker.
Sta - at - anu - atem an! veigti at4n - ani



- - -
- .
-

365

UNIT

eaten

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

GRAMMAR
NOTES 13.4 Consonant Alternation /k ~ x/
The consonant /k/ often alternates with /x/ when not initial in the
word.
/kn/
/vexen/

so, yes1
'and so'
,

This alternation occurs in a number of forms and is characteristic of roots


in certain verb patterns. In other cases it is optional, with the /x/-form
usually the more formal in style.
/lekfin ~ lexfin/

"to here"

This alternation is similar to that of /b ~ v/ described in Grammar


Note 5.6. The alternation is always spelled in Hebrew with the ambiguous
letter , and not with and
13.5 Formation of the Future Tense
As has been noted in the description of the gentle imperative, Grammar
Section 6.5, the second person future forms of verbs have a prefix of the
pattern /tV-/
Examples ares
/tifnS/ "you will turn
/telex/ "you will go"
/tigmor/ "you will finish" /tedaber/ "you will speak"
/tamSix/ "you will continue"/tomcir/ "you will say"
/taav6r/ "you will pass"
(Some verbs have /u/ as the prefix vowel, though none have occurred in this
text so far.)
Compare now the first person plural forms which have occurred so far:
nimcfi et hamakom lelo koSi. hfiva nigfiS laSulxfin. niten lfi et
hamirSam.
Note that these all begin with a prefix of the pattern /nV-/. (By
coincidence the vowel of the prefix in the three examples is /-i-/.) Thus it may
be seen that the future tense of verbs consists of a stem plus prefixes to
distinguish person, gender, and number. Some of the forms have suffixes, also.
/titfin/
"you
(m.s.)
will
give" /titni/ "you (f.s.) will
give
/titnfi/
"you
(m.pl.)
will
give"
/titenna/
"you
(f.pl.) will give"
These second person formis have been described in the section on the gentle
imperatives. The forms of the entire future tense of this verb are shown in the
following table:

366

BASIC
COURSE

1 s.

et6n
HEBREW

1 Pi.

nit6n

2 m.pl.

titnfi
titenn
a
yitnu

2 m.s.

tit6n

2 f.s.

titni

2 f.pl.

3 m.s.

yit6n

3 m.pl.

3 f.s.

titSn

3 f.pl.

UNIT

titenn
a

Extracting the stem /t6n/, the pattern of prefixes and suffixes in the
future tense is as follows s
[Note: The stem appears as /-tn-/ before the suffixes /-I, -6/. See
Grammar Note 6.9 ]
1. s.

1 Pi.

ni

2 m.s.

ti

2 m.pl.

ti

2 f.s.

ti_____i

2 f.pl.

ti

3 m.s.

yi

3 m.pl.

yi

3 f.s.

ti

3 f.pl.

ti

<
i
n
a
u
n
a

The following observations may be made which are characteristic of the


future tense of all verbs:
a.There is no gender distinction in the first person. (This is true of the
past tense forms, also. See Grammar Note 5.4)
b.The 2 m.s. and the 3 f.s. are identical in form.
c.The 2 f.pl. and the 3 f.pl. are identical in form. In some patterns
these two forms have a different stem vowel from that in the other
future tense forms - /tamSIxi, tamSxna/; /tagli, tag&na/. See
Vocabulary Drill, Section 10.3.
The following are general comments about the future tense:
d.The first person singular prefix is simply a vowel. In some verb
patterns it is the same vowel as in the other prefixes. This is
always so when the vowel is /o/ or /u/.
In other verb patterns the vowel of the first person singular is
different from that of the other prefixes. At this point the student
will have to drill the verbs in order to memorize which ones have a
different vowel. Verbs showing possible alternations have occurred in
the text. Examples are:
Alternation

1 s.

2 m.s.

/e- ~ ti-/
egm6r
tigm6r
/ee- ~ taa-/
eev6r
taav6r
/a- ~ te-/
adabr
tedab^r
Nevertheless, one frequently hears these first person singular forms with
the same prefix vowel as in the rest of the future tense - e.g., /edaber/ as
well as /adaber/.
When the first person singular prefix has a different vowel it will be
noted in the drills.
e.The suffixes /-i, -u/ are not stressed in the following cases:
1.When the stem vowel is /-1/: /tamSixi, tamSixu, yamSixu/

367

UNIT 15 HEBREW
BASIC COURSE
2.When the stem has the pattern /CuC/: /taguri. taguru, yaguru/ "will
reside"
3.In a small list of other verbs. Example: /tav6i, tavou, yavou/ "will
come"
,
f.Verbs such as /nimcfi/ "we will find" have an internal open juncture as
a third root consonant. At the end of a word it. is, of course, not
pronounced.
Before the suffixes /-i, -u/ it creates a
three-consonant cluster which is broken up by the insertion of /
e/
.
/timcfi/
"you
(m.s.)
will
find" /timce_j_i/ "you (f.s.)
will
find"
/timce'6/
"you
(m.pl.)
will
find"
/yimce'u/
"they (m) will find"
The juncture is usually replaced by a smooth transition in ordinary
speech. /timcei/, etc.
g. Some verbs have a n-.ore complicated future tense pattern, but these
have been described generally in the note on the gentle imperative. The full
set of future tense forms may be derived from the gentle imperative by
substitution of prefixes.
Example:
From 2 m.s. /tagia/ the following may be derived /agia, yagla, nagia/.
The 3 f.s. /tagia/ is identical in form with the 2 m.s.
From 2 m.pl. /tagiu/ the 3 m.pl. /yagiu/ may be derived.
The 3 f.pl. /tagfina/ is identical to the 2 f.pl., as in all verbs.
13.6 Use of the Future Tense
a. The future tense is used to indicate an occurrence later in time
than the present moment. This often corresponds to the English
construction "will_______".

368

b. The third person forms generally occur with an independent subject


unless
We told him that he should
4. ameirnu lo
speak
Seyedaber
ivrit
UNIT 12
HEBREW Hebrew in Israel."
BASIC COURSE
beisrail.
one is stated in a closely preceding context.
hfi yitgn lei et hamirSSm. aroarti
16 Seyit6n lei et hamirScim.
Independent pronoun subjects may be used with the first and second person
forms for emphasis, contrast, etc. Compare this with the similar use of
independent pronouns with past tense forms. See Grammar Note 5^
ani el6x maxSr, veatS tel6x bey6m Seni.
I'll go tomorrow,
and you'll go on Monday.'

c. The negative of the future tense is formed by using /16/ before the verb. In
UNIT 12

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

the second person this will contrast with the negative imperative in
which /&1/ is used.
16 telxi hay6m.
Si telxi hay6m.
A . Substitution Drill - /e- ~ ti-/

1'11 give the recipe to Miriam.


ani eten et hamirScim lemiry&m.
atS titn
St titni
d6v yit&n
16a tit6n
Snu nitn
atfem titnfi
atSn titenna
h6m yitnfi
h6n titenna
You won't go today."
Don't go today."

B.Substitution - Agreement Drill


UNIT 12

HEBREW

I won't let him speak English.


an! 16 eten 16 ledabgr anglit.
atci - dnu - yuec haSagrirut - hi
h6n - atn - yaak6v ved6v - atm
iSti veani - St - ani
C.Substitution Drill - /e- ~ ti-/
I will finish the meal.
ani egm6r et haaruxa.
at& tigm6r
cit tigmeri
hu yigm6r
hi tigm6r
Snu nigm6r
atem tigmertS
aten tigm6rna
hfem yigmeru
h6n tigm6rna

- - -
- - -
- -

)! . .
:

:

11
4

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

D.Substitution - Agreement Drill


I'll finish the book by tomorrow.
egm6r et hasefer fid maxfir.
atem - mfir k6hen
finu - hi at6n hfim - fit - hn
.
iStexfi - atfi -
baalex - ani

- - - E.Substitution Drill
- -- /e- ~ ti-/
-
I'll find the place

without difficulty.
emcfi et hamak6m lel6 koi. timcfi timcei hti
yimcfi hi timcfi nimcfi timceu timcfina hem
yimceti hn timcfina
F.Substitution-Agreement Drill
You'll find Moshe in the office.
timcfi et moS6 bamisrfid.
fit - hem - at6m - hi ani - finu - atn hn hi - fit - at6m - atfi
G.Substitution Drill - /e- ~ ti-/
I'll go to the Brooklyn Bar to have ice
cream.

.
- - -
- - - - -

372

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
egfig lebrtiklin bfir leexol glidfi.
tigfig
tigSi
david yigfig
atfira tigfig
nigfiS
tiggti
tigfiSna
h6m y'iggfi
hanagim tigfigna

373

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

H.Substitution Agreement Drill


We'll go see Mr. Williams.
niqfig lir'6t et mfir Williams.
ani - fit - atn - mo baalex igt6 - atfi - hn atem - d6v
veiStd - finu

.
- -
_ - -
- - -

I.Substitution Drill - /e- ~ ti-/


I'll be very happy to see them.
esmfix me6d lir'6t otfim.
tismfix
tismexi
h<i yismfix
hi tismfix
nismfix
tismexu
tismfixna
h6m yismexti
h6n tismfixna

.

,

J. Substitution - Agreement Drill


She'll be happy to live there.
hi tismfix lag6r Sfim.
atfi - finu - hayoSc haxadfig
at6m - h<i veit6 - aten - fit
ani - hamiSpaxfi - h6n - hi
K. Substitution Drill - /e- ~ ti-/
I'll turn at this corner.
ani efn bapinfi haz6t.
atfi tifnS
fit tifni
hfi yifn
hi tifnS
finu nifn6
atm tifnti
at6n tifnSna
h6m yifnfi
h6n tifnna

- - - -
- - - -

374

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT


.
- -
- - -
-

L. Substitution - Agreement Drill


We'll address Mr. Cohen in
Hebrew.
nifn6 lemSr k6hen beivrit.
hu - ani - at6n - gv^ret kSrmi
at6m - h6m - h6n - atS mSr
Williams - it - Snu

375

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Substitution Drill - /e- ~ ti-/


I'll open the door.

M.

ef tSx et hadSlet.
tiftSx
tiftexi
d6v yiftSx
xSna tiftSx
nif tSx
at&m tiftexd at6n
text! h6n tiftSxna

tiftSxna

hm

if


.
Mr. Zahavi will open the office this morning.

mSr zahSvi yiftSx et hamisrSd hab6ker.


ani - mirySm ved6v - gv6ret k6hen. atm

- sSra vellsa - at6n - Snu St - atS

mSr zahSvi

Substitution Drill - /e- ~ ti-/

I'll close the door.

ani esg6r et had^let.

atS tisg6r

St tisgeri

dov yisg6r

16a tisg6r
- Snu nisg6r
- at6m tisgerta
Substitution - Agreement Drill

N.

O.

at6n tisg6rna
hm yisgerti
h6n tisg6rna
Substitution - Agreement Drill

I'll close the office this evening.


ani esg6r et
david - atS
at6m - moS6
h6m - at6n -

hamisrSd hagrev.
- atSra - St
veani - h6n
ani

P.

376

BASIC
COURSE
UNIT

HEBREW

- - -
- -
- -

377

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

?:
.

Q. Substitution Drill - /ee- ~ taa-/

- -
- - -
-

I'll pass the embassy.


eev6r et haSagrirfit.
taav6r
taavri
h<i yaav6r
hi taav6r
naav6r
taavrti
taav6rna
h6m yaavrfi

h6n taav6rna
R. Substitution - Agreement Drill
We'll go past their house. naav6r
al yfid habfiit Selahgm.
mogfi - sfira - atfi veiStexfi - ani

at6n - fit - hi veiSti - hi vebaalfi


atfi - finu
S. Substitution Drill - /a- ~ te-/
I'll speak Hebrew, too.
gfim ani adfiber ivrit. atfi tedaber fit
tedabri h<i yedab&r hi tedaber finu
nedabfer at6m tedabrfl at6n tedabSrna h6m
yedabrG h6n tedabSrna
.

T. Substitution - Agreement Drill


I think you'll speak Hebrew on the phone.
ani xosfiv geatfi tedab6r ivrit b
Seh6m

.-
- 5ehayo6c

- haxadfiS
-
Seani
- Sehi
-
-,- Sehfen - Seatem
Sefinu
-
Sefit
-
vemiryfim
- Sefit

- Seatfi

378

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
U. Substitution Drill
I'll go to the Eden Theater this evening.
el4x leko.ln6a den harev.
tel6x
telxi
moS6
yelSx
sSra
telfex
Snu
nel6x
telxti telSxna
kulSm
yelxQ
h6n tel6xna
V. Substitution - Agreement Drill
I'll go as far as the hotel and no further.
e!6x Sd lama!6n ve!6 yotgr.
Snu - hu - hi - atS St - at6m - h6m - h6n
at6n - ani

UNIT


.
- -
-
- -
-
-

W. Substitution Drill
I'll sit in the office until 5:00.


.
- -

1_
-
-

e6v bamisrSd Sd xam63.


teS6v
teSvi
hu yeS6v
sSra te36v
neSev
tegvti
teS6vna
h6m yevu
h6n teSfevna
X. Substitution - Agreement Drill
We'll sit here until he arrives.
neSSv kSn Sd Sehfi yagia.
ani - atS - St - iSt6
kulSm - h6n - Snu - at6n
avigdor - atSm - Snu

379

UNIT 15 HEBREW

Y.

BASIC COURSE

Substitution Drill
What shall I say to Moshe?
mfi omfir lemoSe. tomfir
tomri hu yomfir hi tomfir
nomfir tomrfi tomfirna h6m
yomru h6n tomfirna
Substitution - Agreement

Drill
She won't tell Moshe

- - -
- -
- -
- -

anything.
hi 16 tomfir klum lemo6.
ani - xfina - finu - atfi
baalex - at6m - hem - ani
atn - david - h6n - hi

380

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

AA. Substitution Drill


I'll start eating before 6:00.
atxil leexol lifney i=e. tatxil tatxili moSe
tatxil
natxil tatxilu aten
tatxelna
hu veiSto yatxilu hen
tatxelna
xana

yatxil

-
- -
-
BB. Substitution Agreement Drill
I'll start
stroll'ng
after lunch.
atxil letayel
axarey aruxfit
hacohorfiim.
finu - atfi kulfim - david
gveret alon fit - at6n h6n at6m - iSti
veani - s&ra ani



.
-

-
-

381

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

CC. Substitution Drill


I'll arrive in Haifa on Tuesday.

- -
-

agia lexSyfa bey6m SliSi. tagia tag! i


mSr Williams yagia iSt6 tagia nagia tagiu
at6n tagSna h6m yagiu hen tagSna
DD. Substitution - Agreement Drill
I'll arrive in Tel Aviv tomorrow.
agia maxSr letfel aviv.
mSr k6hen - atS - hamigpaxS St - St vebaalex hu veani
h6m - gverSt zahSvi - at6n - h6n - ani
EE. Substitution Drill
I'll continue straight on this street.


.
- - -
- -
- -

amix yaSSr barexov haz.


tamix
tamSixi
hu yamix
hi tamlx
namSix
tamixu
tam6xna
h6m yamSixu
hn tamS6xna
FF. Substitution - Agreement Drill
We'll keep going towards the harbor,
namSix lalexet lekivun hanamSl.
ani - St - h6n - hu h6m - atS - hi - atem at6n Snu

.
- - - -

382

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

REVIEW
CONVERSATIONS

: .
.

A: ha6xel hayS taim me6d. B: todS

: .

rabS. 16 axSlt klum. A: an! bediita.

: .

B: z davSr axer.

C: zd mas6ret eclinu leex61


bel6l SiSi daglm memulalm.

:


.

D: hadagim teimlm me6d.


C: St rocS et hamirSSm?

D: k6n. tni li bevakaSS et hamirSSm.

C: berac6n.

:
?
. :

.
. :

383

UNIT 15 HEBREW

E:

BASIC COURSE

bevakaSS. Si titni lSnu yotr 6xel.

. :

F: lSma? atm bedi6ta?

: .

E: k6n.

??

F: tatxilu badifita maxSr.

. :
:
.

384

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

G: at6m rocim glidS?

Ks 16. tn II et mispSr

H: 16 todS. Snu rocim ySin.

hatelefon SelS.

Gs moS6. mez6g bevakaSS ySin,

L: 6yn II et mispSr hatelefon.

H: mizgi St, mirySm. haySin al yadfex.

K: ani xoS4vet SeemcS et


hamak6m.

Is d6v roc lehazmin et mSr al6n


learuxSt 6rev. matSy h6 yagia.

M: xSna. matSy telxi letaySl.

J: hfi yagia ha6rev.

N: axarey Seegm6r et haaruxfi.

I: gSm gveret al6n tagia?

M: ani xoS6v SegSm ani el6x.

J: ken. ani xoS&v kSx.

.
.

.
. ,

.

:

? .
. , :
? :
. .
:
K: hSva nigSS lir'6t et mirySm.
L: ySS lfix et hakt6vet SelS?

385

N: t6v. nelSx ySxad.

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 15 HEBREW

.
:

?
:

.
:

.
:

.
:

?
:

.
:

.
:

386

. .

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

O: mirySm tigSS lir'6t et moS6 haferev. P:

: .

beem6t? moS6 yismSx me6d lir'6t otS. O:

h6m yismexti me6d lehitra6t.

.
:
.

387

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Q: zu masoret eclenu leexol xalot belel


R: zu masoret yafa meod. haxalot teim6t.
Q: toda raba. ata roce dag1m?
R: ken. eyx ani yaxol lesarev.
Q: amcfrta Seata bedieta.
Rs adain lo. atxil maxar.


.
.
.
.
?
.
?
.
. .

:
:
:
:
:
:

388

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
14.1 At the Grocery Store /bexanut mak61et/
STOREKEEPER /xenvani/
Good morning,
Mrs. Zahavi.
What can I do
for you?
t
o
d
o
f
o
r
boker tov,
gveret zahavi.
ma ani yax6l
laas6t biSvil^x.
l
a
a
s
o
t
b
i
S
v
i
l

,
,! :


?

389

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

MRS. ZAHAVI
Pleas
e
give
me
200
grams
of
chees
e.
tw
o
hu
nd
re
d
gr
am
ch
ee
se

ten li
bevakaSS,
matSim
grSm
gvinS.
ma
tS
im
gr
Sm
(m
)
gv
in
S
(f
)


,

.

390

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

STOREKEEPER
Yellow
cheese
or
white
cheese?
y
e
l
l
o
w

(
m
.
s
.
)

w
h
i
t
e
gv
in
S
ce
hu
bS
,
o
gv
in
S
le
va
nS
.

c
a
h
o
v
(
m
.
s
.
)
l
a
v
S
n

391

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
Yellow
cheese. Are
the eggs
fresh? egg
fresh
MRS.
ZAHAVI

UNIT

gvinS
cehubS
.
habeyc
im
triot?
b
e
y
c
S
(
f
)
t
a
r
i
(
m
.
s
.
)

392

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

STOREKEEPER
Yes.
I received them
this morning.
I received
kSn.
kibSlti otSn
hab6ker.
kibSlti

393

;:

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

MRS. ZAHAVI
Then give me a
dozen.
dozen
Sz
ten
li
tre
ysS
r.
treysS
r (m)
STOREKEEPER

394

.0

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

Do you need
St crixS
any vegetables?
yerakot?
Fruits?
peyrot?
need, must, have to
vegetable fruit
carix (m.s.) yerek (m) pri (m)

395

?
?

UNIT

14

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

MRS. ZAHAVI
N
o
,

how
many
owe
1
6
,

t
h
a
n
k

t
o
d
a
.

y
o
u
.

z
&

T
h
a
t
'
s

h
a
k
6
1
.

a
l
l
.

k
c
i
m
a

H
o
w

a
n
i

m
u
c
h

x
a
y
e
v
e
t

d
o
I
o
w
e

l
e
x
S
.

y
o
u
?
eve
ryt
hin
g
how
muc
h,

396

hakol
kSma
xayav
(m.s.
)

,
.
.

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

STOREKEEPER
T
h
a
t
w
i
l
l
c
o
s
t
y
o
u
e
i
g
h
t
y
t
h
r
e
e
a
g
o
r
o
t
.

z
e

l
i
x
S
m
o
n
i
m
v
e
S
a
l
o
g
agoro
t.
yaal
6 (3
m.s.
)

gmon
im

agor
S
(f)

will
cost,
go up
eight
y
agora
(1/10
0
lira)

y
a
a
l

397

UNIT

14

HEBREW

Give
me
chang
e
from
a
lira.

t
o
d
a
y
sur .
plu
s xpe
Isr nsi
ael ve,
i dea
pou r
nd M
R
S
14.2
.
ADDIT
IONAL
Z
VOCAB
A
ULARY
H
A
The
V
veget
I
ables
are
t
cheap
6
today
n
.
c
l
h
i
e
a
6
p
d
T
e
h
f
e
v
m
e
i
g
l
e
i
t
r
a
a
b
.
l
e
s
a
r
e
e
x
p
e
n
s
i
v

398

BASIC COURSE

o
d
e
f
^
m
)
l
i
r
a

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

s.)
(
f
)

h
a
y
e
r
a
k
o
t
z
o
l
i
m

h
a
y
o
m
.
z6l
(m.
s.)
h
a
y
e
r
a
k
6
t
y
e
k
a
r
i
m
h
a
y
6
m
.
yak
cir
(m.

399

UNIT

14

HEBREW

[The
names of
vegetables
and fruits
in the
following
list are
given in
the
singular
or plural
depending
on how one
asks for
them in
the
question /
bekSma.../
How much
is/are..."
]

400

BASIC COURSE

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

radishes
salt
How much are the
beans?
bekcima
haSuit.
beans
geuit (f)

beet
selek (m)

cabbage
kruv (m)

carrot
gezer (m)

cauliflower
kruvit (f)

corn
tiras (m)

cucumbers
melafefonim m.pl.)

(
dill
gamir (m)

eggplants
xacilim

(m.pl
garlic
gum (m)

kohlrabi
kolerSbi (m)

lettuce
xsa (f)

olives
zeytim

)
(m.pl.
onion
bacSl (m)

parsley
petruzilia (f)

peas
afunS (f)

potatoes
tapuxey
(m.pl.)
adamS
scallion
spinach
squash
tomatoes
turnip
I want
to buy fruit.
to buy
How much are the
apples? apple
bananas
canteloupe
cherries
dates
figs
fig
grapefruits
grapes
lemons
oranges
peaches
pears
plums
pomegranates
watermelons
watermelon
Give me two
kilos of flour.
flour

sugar
How much is a bottle of
milk? cost bottle milk
oil
orange juice juice
How much is a can of
sardines?
can, box cans,
boxes
How much is a package of
butter? package butter
cnoni6t
(f.pl.)
bacSl
yarok
(m)
t6red
(m)
kiSuim (m.pl.)
agvani&t
(f.pl.)
cn6n
(m)
an! rocei likn6t
peyrot.
Iikn6t
bekcima hatapuxlm.
tapuax (m)
ban&not (f.pi.)
milon (m)

401

duvd
evan
im
(m.p
i.)
tmar
im
(m.p
l.)
teen
lm
(f.p
l.)
teen
S
(f)
eSko
liot
(f.p
l.)
anav
im
(m.p
l.)
limo
nlm
(m.p
l.)
tapu
zim
(m.p
l.)
afar
sekl
m
(m.p
l.)
agas
lm
(m.p
l.)
Sezi
fim
(m.p
l.)
rimo
nim
(m.p
l.)
avat
ixim
(m.p
l.)
avat
lax
(m)

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

t6n 11
Sn6y
kilo
k6max.
kemax
(m)
mlax
(m)
sukcir
(m)

m
u
c
h

ol
(m.s.pres.)
bakbuk (m)
xalciv (m)

j
a
r

gemen (m) mic


tapuzim mc
(m)

o
f
g
r
a
p
e
s
.

kSm
a
olS
c
i
n
c
&
n
e
t

o
f
s
o
u
r
c
r
e
a
m
?

kufsfi (f)
0
kufsa6t
(f.pl.)

j
a
r
sour
cream

k
i
l
o

i
s

kma 016
bakbuk
xalSv.

k&ma
olci
kufsfit
sardlnim
.

H
o
w

G
i
v
e

h
a
l
f
xavilci
(f) xem'
k (f)

402

cincen
et (f)

Samene
t (f)

jelly
mustard

m
e

kima olfi
xavilSt
xem'k.

a
m

n
e
t
.

half
half
of

r
i
b
S
(
f
)
x
a
r
d

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

14.3 Vocabulary Drills

S
l
(
r
o
)

Transfo

rmation

t
d
n

Drill -

/ "for"

/biSvil

Instruc

x
a
c
i

tor: I
want

k
i
l
o

ice

a
n
a
v
i
m
.

ani
roc6
glida
. atS
roc6
ySin.
St
rocS
xalSv
. hu
roce
mic.
hi
rocS
riba.
Snu
rocim
tapuz
im.
atim
rocim
dagim
.
atin
rocot
gvinS
. him
rocim

cream.
Student: I'll have ice
cream, (lit. For me
ice cream.)

x6ci
(
)
xaci
(cons
truct
)

Sam
ene
t.
h6n
roc
ot
kem
ax.
biSv
ili
glid
a.
biSv
ilxa
yain
.
biSv
ilex
xala
v.
bi&v
ilo
mfc.
bi^v
ila
riba
.
bi^v

403

ile
nu
tap
uzi
m.
biX
vil
xem
dag
im.
biS
vil
xen
gvi
na.
bi!
vil
am
Sam
ene
t.
bi^
vil
an
kem
ax.

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

B.

- -

- -

Subst

Subs

va

titu

ni

tion

Agre

ha

emen

se

le

Dril

k
ha
pe
yr
ot
ha
ye
ra
ko
t
ha
xS
sa
ha
te
ea
im
ha
be
vc
im
ha
xa
lS
v

l
/tar
i/
"fre
sh"
Is
the
milk
fres
h?
haim
haxa
lSv
tari
?

haag

vani

ot haag

i
t

o
n

A
g
r
e
e
m
e
n
t

D
r
i
l
l

404

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
/

Sabba

ca

th.

ri

ani carix liknot xaiot

x/

leSabSt.

"h

av
e
to
,
ne
ed
"
I
ha
ve
to
bu
y
ch
C.

al
ah
s
fo
r

:

iS
ti
he
n
ba
al
S
hi
Sn
u
hu
at
em
an
i

th
e

405

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

_____________________________
HEBREW
D. Substitution - Agreement Drill - / k i b S l t i /
_____________________________
UNIT 14
I r e c e i v e d "
I received a bottle

of wine from Dov.


kibSlti bakbflk

ySin

midov..

_ -

atm - St - Snu

atS - at6n - ani

E. Substitution Drill - /ee- ~ taa-/

Endings are similar to /tifnS/.

I'll go up to the Embassy this morning.


eele laSagrirut haboker.
taale
taali
hu yaal
hi taale
naal
atem taalu
at6n taalena
hem yaalu
hen taalena
F. Substitution - Agreement Drill
Let's go up to Miriam's this evening.
hSva naale lemirySm ha&rev.
St - d6v veiSto - atS veiStexS ani atS - xSna - at&n avigdor - h6n - hSva
.

- - - - -
- -

406

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

14.4 Cardinal Numbers. 20 - 1000


2-0
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

Numbers which are multiples of 10 do not show gender distinction.


esrim

SloSim

arbaim

xamiSim

SiSim

Siv'im

Smonim

tiS'im
,

The numbers ,one' to ,nine' follow the multiples of ten and are preceded
.by /ve-/, These numbers show gender distinction
smonim vesaios agorot/ "83 agorot/"
/esrim vexamiss sfarim/ "25 books"

The form /meS/ "hundred" and its multiples are also used before both
.masculine and feminine nouns
meS 100
matSim 200

407

BASIC
COURSE

_____________________________
HEBREW
300
_____________________________
400
UNIT 14
500

600
700
800
900
1000

16 me6t
arbci me6t
xamiS meot
S^S me6t
Svi me6t
Sm6ne me6t
tSS me6t

61ef

Numbers are given with the highest digit first, as in English. 1g65

/61e tSciireot SiSim vexamiS/


A. Read off the following numbers. Do not read the individual numerals.

1.
2.
3.
4.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10
.

82
73
64

46
37
28
19
90
101

13
14.
15
16.
17
18.
19
20.
21.
22.

217
458
336
789
265
924
593
847
670
104
0

B. The instructor asks each student for the year of his/her birth.
In which year
were you born?
you were born
beiyze San&
nollideta.
nolcideta

nolcideti
biSnit
elef tSa me6t arbaim
veSmone.
?


.

408

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

Conversational Response Drill


Instructor: How much are beets? Student: 30 agorot a kilo. Instructor:
Give me one and a half kilos. Student: That will be 45 agorot.
instructor: bek&ma hasgiek.
? :
student: siogim agor6t hakiio.
. :
instructor: ten 11 kilo vaxeci.
. :
Student: zS yaalS lex5 arbaim vexamiS agordt.
. :
The instructor and students may substitute other items, prices, and
quantities.

409

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

14.5 Colors
W
h
a
t
i
s
t
h
e
c
o
l
o
r
o
f
t
h
e
t
a

/
cvaim/
b
l
e
?
color
T
h
e
t
a
b
l
e
i
s
b
l
a
c
k
.
T

410

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
h
e
b
o
x
i
s
b
l
a
c
k
.

m
f
i
h
a
c
6
v
a
S

UNIT

1
h
a
S
u
l
x
&
n
.
c6va
(m)

h
a
S
u
l
x
i
n
S
a
x
6
r
.

411

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

h
a
k
u
f
s
S
S
x
o
r
S
.

412

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
The apple is red. The cherries
are red.

413

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

T
h
e

c
k
T
T
T
sky,
heav
en

c
a
r
r
o
t

T
h
e

T
T
h
a
h
h
h
gamf
iim
(m.p
l.)

i
s
o
r
a
n
g
e
.

BASIC COURSE

h
h

p
a

414

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
GRAMMAR

UNIT

NOTES

14.6 /o ~ u/ Alternation in Related Forms


Examine the following set of related

m.s.
f.s.
m.pl.
f.pl.

/yarok/
/yerukS/
/yerukim/
/yerukot/

forms:
"green"

This pattern is similar to the pattern of


/raxok ~ rexoki/ except that in the suffixed
forms the vowel /u/ occurs instead of /o/. This
alternation occurs in a limited but fairly
frequently used set of forms. The student will
have to memorize them since there are sets of
related forms which have /o/ when suffixed, as
/rexoki, gdolS/, and sets which have /u/ whether
suffixed or not, as /xum, xumci/ "brown".
Now
compare the following

/cahov/ forms.
pair of m.s.
"yellow"
f.s. /cehubi/

Forms which have this /o ~ u/ alternation


will also have the /v alternation, with the
/b/ occurring before the suffixes.
Similarly, the alternation /f ~ p/ occurs
in such forms, with /p/ occurring before the
suffixes.
The alternation /x ~ k/ may occur in related
forms with the /o ~ u/ alternation, with /k/
occurring in the
/arox/ forms.

suffixed m.s.
"long"
f.s. /arukS/

415

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

However,
some
forms
have
/k/
throughout, as /yarok/ "green". These latter
forms are spelled with , while those which
alternate /x ~ k/ are spelled with ~1 .
A.

Subst
ituti
on -

haxavilot - hakufsS - hasefer


habatim - hayin - hacincenet
hatapuxim

Agree
ment
Drill
The
apple
s are
red.
hatap
uxim
adumi
m.

- -
- -

416

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

B. Progressive Substitution Drill


In this drill the instructor gives a
substitution first from one column and then from
the other.
The wine is red.
haySin ad6m. haagvanici

yerukci
hatapuax
cah6v

habanSnot
xumot

hasefer
kat6m habakbukim

levanim
habinyfin
ad6m
haySin
Progressive Substitution Drill
The sky is blue.
C.

hagamfiim kxulim. haSezif


seg6l

haxacilim
gdolim
hacincenet
xum

habakbuk
yarok

hazfiit

Sax6r

hakufsa6t
haSamfiim

kxulot

14.7 Review of Negative Sentences


a. /16/ precedes past, present, and future verb
forms.
axfilti et haglida. I
ate the ice cream." lo

417

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

axfilti et haglida. I
didn't eat the ice
cream."
hi rocfi liknot per6t. She wants to buy
fruit."
hi lo rocS liknot
She doesn't want
to buy
per6t.
fruit."

hu yagia max&r.
hu lo yagia
maxSr.

e'11
tomorrow."

arrive
He

won't arrive tomorrow."


This corresponds to the negative, usually with
-n't. of the verb auxiliary in English.

418

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
b./16/ occurs between the main elements of an
equational sentence.
h<i amerikfii.
hfi 16 amerikcii.
American."

He's an American."
.
He's not an
.

c./eyn/, usually with a pronoun suffix, may


negate a present tense verb form or an
equational sentence. The use of /6yn/ instead
of /16/ in these cases is more formal in
style.
ani medaber ivrit. I speak Hebrew."
.
eynSni medabSr ivrit. I don't speak
Hebrew."
.
ani xadfiS bafirec.
I'm new in the
country."
.
eyn6ni xadfiS bafirec. I'm not new in the
c o u n t r y . "
.


Comparison of style:
ani 16 yod6a.
eyneni yodSa.
formal)

(casual, informal)
.
(less casual,
.

The suffixed, or contracted forms of /eyn/ +


the pronouns are:

419

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

eyn ani

eynSni

6yn atfi

eynxfi

yn fit

eyn6x

eyn hu

eynenu, eyno

6yn hi

eyn6na, eynfi

6yn finu

eynenu

Syn at&m

eynxem

eyn at6n

eynxen

4yn hem

eynfim

eyn hen

eynfin

/yn finu/ is usually not contracted. The other


sequences may be used in
the uncontracted form, but this generally
results in a very
formal or stiff expression.
eyneni yoda. (less casual, formal) .

6yn ani yodea. (formal, stiff)


.

d./eyn/ is the negative of /y6S/ "there is."


yeS li gvinfi levanfi. I have white
cheese."
. yn li gvinfi
levanfi. I don't have white
c h e e s e . "
.



e./fil/ negates the imperative.
tifne sm6la. Turn left."
.
fil tifne smola. Don't turn left."
.

A.Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative
....<'

420

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW
Instructor: I was very impressed by the
house. Student: I wasn't very impressed by
the house.
1. (16) hitrassmti me6d mehab&it. .1. (( !

1
6
)
.
2
)
ax&item et haxaii. .2.
((
16) .3) yax61ti lehagia beSSva.
.3. ((

1
6
)
.
4
)
kib&iti et hapeyr6t.
.4. ((
1
6
)
.
5
)
natsta 1i hizdamnut
ledabir.
.5. ((
16) .6) sam&ti et hak61.
.6. ((
7.ats (16) raita et hamisrSd Seianu.
.7
. )(
8.hadagim (16) hayfi teimim.
.8. )(

B.Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative


Repeat Drill A in reverse.
C.Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative
Instructor: I know where the Brooklyn Bar
is. Student: I don't know where the
Brooklyn Bar is.

1. ani

(16) yodea eyfo brukiin bar. .1. )(



2. gveret zahSvi (16) gara bet61 aviv. .2.
)(
3. h6n (16) medabrot ivrit. .3. )(
4. hi (16) mexinS dagim memulaim. .4. )(

5. haim haSrec (16). mocet x6n beeynexa? ?5.
)(
6. hu (16) roce lehagia ladoar
h
a
m
e
r
k
a
z
i
.
.
.
6
.

421

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

7. Snu
8. ani

BASIC COURSE

(16) medabrim ivrit. . )( .


(16) carix et haSuixSn.
.8. )(

D.Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative


Repeat Drill D in reverse.
E.Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative
Instructor: We'll go to the movies
tonight. Student: We won't go to the
movies tonight.
1. (16) nelex lakoln6a hairev. 1 >' - (


1
6
)
.
2
)
nig&S lexana hay6m.
.2. ((
3.hti (16) yaav6r ai y^d hab^it Sei^nu. .3. ( )

4.hem (16) yisgeru et haxanut beSeS. .111 4. ( )

5.gveret k&rmi (16) tiftix et hamisr^d. .5.
)(
6.sara vex&na (16) tagana max&r. .6. ( )

7.nu (16) natxii 1eex61 1ifn4y 868.
.( ).
8. (16 ) emc& ot6 bemisrad6. .8.
((

422

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

F. Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative


Repeat Drill E in reverse.G. Transformation Drill Affirmative to Negative.
Instructor: They're new in the country. Student:
They're not new in the country.

1
.

2
.
3

4
.

h6m (16) xadaSim


bafirec. iSti (16)
amerikSit. habfiit
Selahem (lo) yaf6.
haglidfi Sehi
mexinfi (16) tovfi.
nemfil hateuffi (16)
raxok mehair. haoxel
(16) hayfi taim.
)( .1
.
( ).2
.
( ).3
.
.4
.)(
( ).5
.
)( .6
.

61

423

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative In


this drill the sentences are negated by /yn/.

ani (eyneni ) yodea et


hakt&vet SelS. atfi
(eynxfi) gfir kar6v
laSagrirut. fit (eynex)
yodfiat ledaber ivrit.
hu (eynenu) roce
lehazmin et mirySm. hi
(eyn4na) rocS lehazmin
oto. (eyn) finu yod'im
eyfo Sehem garim. atem
(eynx&m) xadaSim
bafirec. lfima aten
(eynx6n) bediita. hm
(eynfim) xoSvim
Semeuxfir. hen (eynfin)
crix6t liknot dagim.
)( .1
.
)( .2
.
)( .3
.
)( .4
.
)( .5
.
)( .6
.
)( .7
.
( ).8
?
)( .9
.
)( .10
.

1
.

2
.
3.
4.

6.

7.
8.
5.

10
.

424

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

RE
VIEW CONVERSATIONS A: mfi ani

yax61 laasot biSvilex. B: ten


li bevakaSfi, gvinfi. A: eyze
gvinS St rocS. B: gvinS levanS.
? :
. , , :
? :
. :

425

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

C:

BASIC COURSE

habeycim

triot?
D: ken,
gvirti. triot
meod.

C: kama 016
treysSr?
D: SiSim
agorot.
C: az ten li

Sney treysSr.
:
?
, , :
.
:
?
:
.
:
.

426

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

E:

St crixS yerakot, gvirti?

F:

kin. ani crixS melafefonim.

E:

hamelafefonim zolim hayom.

UNIT
Substitute other foods, prices,
etc.

? , :
. .:
. :

F: tov me6d. ten li kilo.

. . :
G: adoni, ata xaySv li kilo agvaniot.

,:

H. natSti lSx et haagvaniot etm6l.

G: ken. Sx hen lo hayu tovot.

. :

H: ze davSr axer. etin lax axerot.

: . . :

I: matSy kibSlta et hazeytim.


J:

. .

kibalti otSm etmol. at roca zeytim?

I: him teimim?

: ? :

J: k&n. teimim meod.

.
? :?
. . :

X: &z tin li arbS meot grSm.


K:

. :

bekSma hakolerSbi.

L: esrim agorot hakilo.

: ? :

K: ze yakSr meod.

. : .

L: zl 16 yakSr. ze zol.

. . :

M: bekfima haselek.

: ? :

N: xamiSim agorot hakilo.

: . : .

M: ten 11 loS kilo.

. :

N: ze yaali lax lira vaxeci.

427

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

15.1 At a Coffee House /bebit kafi/


Hello,
David.
What's
new?

is
he
ar
d
ATA
RA
Sa
lo
m
da
vi
d.
mS
ni
Sm
S.
niS
mS
(m.
s.)

428

,
.
?

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

Let
's
get
a
cup
of
cof
fee
,
and
I'l
l
tel
l
you
eve
ryt
hin
g.

tel
l
DAV
ID

b
6
i

l
i
S
t
o
t

asapir (1 s.fut.)

k
o
s
t
o
d
r
i
n
k
d
r
i
n
k
i
n
g
g
l
a
s
s
c
o
f
f
e
e
I
w
i
l
l

(m)

k
a
f
e
.

v
e
a
s
a
p
e
r

l
S
x

e
t
h
a
k
o
l
.
b6
(m.
s.i
mv.
)
lig
tot
kos
(f)
kaf
i

429

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

ATARA
Good idea.
Where's the
coffee
house? idea
rayon tov.
eyfo bet
hakafe.
ra
yo
n
(m
)

430

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

DAVID
Here on the corner, here
(in the coffee house)

Wa
it
er
,
tw
o
coffees,
please.

,.,
:
..

w
a
i
t
e
r
w
a
i
t
r
e
s
s
tim
e
(oc
cur
ren
ce)
DAV
ID

po
bapina.

p
o

ys

melc&r paamSim
kafe
bevakaSa.
me
lc
ar
(m
)
me
lc
ar
it
(f
)
p&
am
(f
)

431

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

With or without
milk?
with or
without
WAITER
im o bli xalav. im
o bli

432

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

I'll have

espres
so
with
milk.

bigvil
i
espres
o w
xalav.

A
T
A
R
A

433

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

And I'll
have cafe
au lait.

reversed,
inverted
DAVID

vebigvili kafe
hafux.
hafux

434

(m.s.
)

BASIC
COURSE
UNIT

HEBREW
WAITER

.
)

D
o
a
p
a
n

h
o
I
a
t
u
g
ATARA

. ,
.

e
WAITER

y
ATARA
u
DAVID

g
ATARA
h
a
xam
)(m.s.

hizaher
(m.s.im
)v.

DAVID
a
a
x

435

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

15 2 ADDITIONAL

VOCABUL
ARY
G
i
v
e
m
e
a
g
l
a
s
s
o
f
w
a
t
e
r
,
w
a
t
e
r
G
i
v
e
m
e
a
g
l
a
s
s
o
f
s
e
l
t
z
e
r
,
c
l
u
b
s

o
d
T
T
T
T
L
e
restau
rant
t
i
m
f
s
o
h
h
h
h
b
o
m
i

436

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

437

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

153 Vocabulary Drills


A.Substitution Drill - /b6/ "come"
Come see our house.
boi
lir'ot
et


,
habait gelSnu. b6u b6 bona

B.Substitution Drill - /al tav6/ "don't come"


Don't come in the afternoon.
al tavo axarey hacohorSim.
tavoi tavou tavona
C.Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative
Instructor: Come with Tamar.
Student: Don't come with Tamar.

438

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

b6 im tamSr.
b6u im tamar.
b6i im tamSr.

bona
tamar.
Si
tavo
tamSr.
tavou
tamSr.
tav6i

tamSr.
tav6na

im
im
Si
im
Si
im
Si
im

tamSr.

.

.

.

.

439

UNIT

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

D.Tranformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative


Repeat Drill C in reverse.
E.Substitution Drill - /avo/ I will come"

I'll come to her office tomorrow.


avo lemisrada maxar.
tavo
tavoi
david yav6

sSra tavo
navo
atem tavou
aten
tavona
kulSm
yavou hen
tavona
F.Substitution - Agreement Drill He'll come for
dinner.

hu yav6 learuxSt erev.


ani - hagveret umSr Williams
St veatSra - hen - atem Snu atS - iSto gel dov - St
- hu

.
- - -
- - - -

440

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

G. Substitution Drill - /a- ~ te-/


I'll tell Atara everything.

asapir leatSra et hak61.


tesapir


.!

tesapri
david yesapir

sSra tesaper
ani veiStf nesapir
atim tesapru
aten tesaperna
hem yesapru
hin tesaperna
H. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /asapir/ I will tell"



.
- -
- -
- - - -

Moshe till 5:00.

axake lemoSe Sd xamiS.


texaki

texaki
dov yexaki
hi texaki
Snu nexake
atem texaku
atin texakena
hem yexaku

hen texakena

We'll tell them


the good news.

nesapir lahem et
haxadaSot
hatov6t.
atim - atSra
vedavid - hin hfi ani - atin sSra - St atS avigdor - hu Snu
I. Substitution Drill
- /a- ~ te-/
I'll wait for

441

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

J. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /axaki/ I will wait"


(Use the forms of the verb /edv/"sit" as cues.)
I'll sit in the hotel and wait for him.

eSev bamalon
neSev
teSvu
yeSiv
teSiv
14a teSiv
yevu
hin teSevna
teSvi
atin teSivna

veaxake 16.
(venexaki)
(vetexakti)
(veyexake)
(vetexaki)
(vetexaki)
(veyexaku)
(vetexakena)
(vetexaki)
(vetexakina)

^
,

(

'
(
,
(^

)

)(( )
(

442

BASIC
COURSE
HEBREW

UNIT

K. Substitution Drill - /hizahir/ "be careful"


Be careful; the cup is hot.

hizahir. hak6s xamfi.


hizahari
hizaharu
hizahirna

haxalfi
haytfi
ha6xel
hayfi
habeyci
m
hayu
haugfi
haytfi
hakafi
hayfi hayerak
6t
hayfi
haagvan
i6t
hayfi hamfiim
hayu
M. Substitution - Agreement Drill
- /kfir/ "cold"
The milk was cold.

haxalfiv
hayfi kfir.
h
a
g
l
i
d
a
h
a
y
t
f
i
h
a
d
a
g
i

443

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

m hayfi
haeSkoli6t
hayfi hamic hayfi
hagvinot
hayu haavatixim
hayu

h
a
k
a
f
i
h

In Grammar Section 6.9 it was pointed out that the final stem vowel is dropped
in verb forms beginning with a stressed vowel. However, when the second root
consonant is h . as in /hizahir/, the sequence /-hr-/ results, and the vowel /a/ is
inserted.
The /-h-/ is often replaced by a smooth
transition in ordinary speech - /hizaari, hizaaru/ Compare the forms of
/memahir/ "hurry" in Section 8.3.
In the following drills L to P the instructor supplies the verb form with the
noun substitution.

L. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /xam/ "hot" The


water was hot. hamfiim hayu xamim.

haSaminet
haytfi haxalfiv
hayfi
N. Substitution - Agreement Drill
- /mfir/ "bitter"
The coffee was bitter.
hakafi hayfi mfir.
hateenim
hayu hatiy hayfi
hayeyn6t
hayu haribfi
haytfi
haeSkolit
haytfi haanavim
hayu
hagvinot
hayu -

a
y
f
i

.
-

-

-
-

.
-

-

-
-

444

BASIC
COURSE
UNIT

HEBREW

.
-
- -

445

UNIT 15 HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

0. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /xamuc/ "sour" The


grapes were sour.
haanavim hayu xamucim.
haxalSv hayS - haSaminet haytS
hadagim hayu - hagvinS haytS
hay&in hayS - hateenim hayu
haug6t hayu - haanavim hayu

.
-

-
-
-

P. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /mat6k/ "sweet"


The plums were sweet.
hagezifim hayu metukim.
hay&in hayS - haavatixim hayu
haribS haytS - haekoli6t hayu
haxalot hayu - harim6n hayS
haxalS haytS - haSezifim hayu

. ;

-
-
-
-

The instructor may vary the above drills by supplying only the noun
substitution, with the student making the necessary changes in the verb
/hayS, haytS, hayu/.
GRAMMAR NOTES
15.4 Roots
Examine the following sets of related forms and note that in each set
there is a sequence of consonants which recurs in all the forms;

1.

/ledaber/
/daber/
/adaber/
/medaber/

"to speak"
"speak"
I will speak"
"speaks"

2.

/sameax/

"happy"

/nismcix/

"we will be happy"

/ slixS/

"pardon" (noun)

/tisl&x/

"you will pardon"

/sider/

"arrangement, order"

/yesudcir/

"it will be arranged"

3.

4.

In group 1 the sequence /d-b-r/ recurs, with the basic meaning "speak"; in group
2 the sequence /s-m-x/ recurs, with the basic meaning "happy"; in group 3 the
sequence /s-l-x/ recurs, with the basic meaning "pardon"; and in group 4 the
sequence /s-d-r/ recurs, with the basic meaning "arrange". Such sequences, called
roots. have been hinted at in the preceding units. Hebrew roots generally consist of
three consonants. Roots of four consonants, such as /t-r-g-m/ in /targim/
"translate", are fairly common. Roots with only one or two consonants, such as /b/
in /b&/ "come" and /r-c/ in /laruc/ "to run", are less frequent. Roots of five
consonants also occur, but infrequently, and they are generally technical, or slang
coinages, such as /letalgrif/ "to telegraph".
These root consonants are often called radicals. and dictionaries list verbs

446

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

according to these radicals. Roots of less than three radicals are "supplied" with
additional radicals to make three for purposes of listing. The particular
consonant supplied is usually based on the Hebrew spelling of one of the forms.
The patterns are rather regular but complicated, and they will be discussed as the
opportunity presents itself.

15.5

Patterns Occurring with Roots

Examine the following groups of forms and note that in each group there is a
recurring sequence of vowels, and, in some of the groups, of consonants also:

447

15

UNIT 15 HEBREW

6
.

BASIC COURSE

/xoev/
/omer/
/moce/
/roce/
/ole/
/ose/
/roe/

"thinks"
"says"
"finds"
"wants"
"costs"
"does"
"sees"

/medaber/

"speaks"

/memaher/
/mekave/

"hurries"
"hopes"

/lamfideti/
/amfirti/
/axfilti/
/Samfiti/
/natfiti/

I
I
I
I
I

studied"
said"
ate"
heard"
gave"

/natxil/

"we will begin"

/namSix/

"we will continue"

In group 5 the sequence /-o-4-/ indicates the present tense, while in group 6
the sequence /me-a-i-/ carries this meaning.
In group 7 the sequence /-a-fi-ti/ carries the general meaning I _________
(past tense), with the root consonants indicating the basic verb meaning.
In group 8 the sequence /nai-/ carries the meaning "we will _______________
and the radicals /t-x-1/ and /m-S-x/ indicate the basic verb meanings.
Thus it may be seen that the roots carry the basic meanings, and the patterns
of vowels, prefixes, and suffixes indicate the precise meanings of the forms as
they occur in sentences, such as present tense, etc.
Up to this point the emphasis in the grammatical drills has been on prefixing,
suffixing, and other changes which occur regardless of the pattern occurring with
the root. For example, the present tense verbs /xoSev/ and /medaber/ show similar
changes for the feminine and plurals.
m.s.
f.s.
m.pi.
f.pl.

/xoSev/
/xoSevet/
/xoSvim/
/xogvot/

/medabir/
/medaberet/
/medabrim/
/medabr6t/

:
:

in

However, though the /-o-4-/ and /me-a-i-/ patterns both indicate present tense
they are of different verb patterns and the other tenses will show differences,
also. The future tense forms of these verbs are, for example, /taxSov/ and
/tedaber/.
If the student learns the various patterns with a few representative roots, he
will be able to derive all the forms of a new root by analogy from one or two
forms. For example, the following forms of the verb "to speak" have occurred:
infinitive:
m.s.imv.
f.s.imv.
1 s.fut.
3 m.pl.fut.
m.s.pres.

/ledaber/
/daber/
/dabri/
/adaber/
/yedabru/
/medaber/

448

"to speak"
"speak"
"speak"
I will speak"
"they will speak"
"speaks"

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

Forms of two other roots with the same pattern have occurred so far: /asaper/
I will tell" and /letayel/ "to walk about". From these the matching forms may be
derived: (The derived forms are listed to the right.)
infinitive m.s.imv. f.s.imv. 1 s.fut. 3 m.pl.fut. m.s.pres.
/
asaper/ /
yesapru/

/
mesaper/

/lesaper/
/
saper/
/sapri/

449

/
letayil/

/
tayel/
/tayli/ /
atayel/ /
yetaylu/
/metayel/

15

BASIC
COURS
E

HEBREW

UNIT

As a further illustration, the root of /xoSev/, xSv. occurs with the pattern
of /dabir/ with the somewhat different meaning "to calculate" instead of "to think".
The corresponding forms ares
infinitive
m.s.imv.
f.s.imv.
1 s.fut.
3m.pl.fut.
m.s.pres.

/lexaSev/
/xaSev/
/xaSvi/
/axaSiv/
/yexagvti/
/mexaSiv/

"to calculate"
"calculate"
"calculate"
I will calculate"
"they will calculate"
"calculates"

It is not all so simple as the above illustrations might make it appear. For one
thing, even the simplest pattern with an unvarying root may have over twenty
different forms of which the student must have automatic control. This requires a
tremendous amount of drill, and the student should not be lulled into a feeling of
confidence simply because he finds it easy to "encode" the correct form with some
reflection.
Second, there are quite a few different verb patterns alone, not counting
variations for phonological reasons. Mastery of these represents the major task for
the beginning Hebrew student. In the following units a great deal of attention will
be paid to it in the drills.
15.6 Alternating Radicals

1
.
2.

3.

/pni/

Compare the related forms in the following groups:


"turn"

/tifni/

"you will turn',"1

/ptax/

"open"

/tiftSx/

"you will open"

/b6/

"come"

/tav6/

"you will come"

The first member of each group has a root varying slightly from the apparent root
of the second member. In the first two groups /p/ alternates with /f/, and in the
third /b/ alternates with /v/. In addition, some roots have /k/ alternating with /x/
as one of the radicals.
These alternations have been mentioned before, and they are quite frequent in
verbs. The patterns of alternation often depend on the pattern occurring with the
root, but a few generalizations may be made at this point.
a) At the beginning of a word the alternants /p/, /b/, and /k/ occur:
/pne/ "turn"

/b6/ "come"

/kin/ "yes, so"

b)At the end of a word the alternants /f/, /v/, and /x/ occur:
/cahov/ "yellow"
/direx/ "way"
c)After a stressed vowel the alternants /f/, /v/, and /x/ occur:
/sefer/ "book"
/Seva/ "seven"
/6xel/ "food"
d) As the second consonant of an initial two-consonant cluster the
alternants /f/, /v/, and /x/ occur:
,
,
/sfarim/
b
o
o
k
s

450

yX"

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

/gvii/

15

There is a close correspondence in the Hebrew spelling of radicals that alternate


and those which do not:
/k/ alternating with /x/ is spelled
.
/k/ not alternating with /x/ is spelled P /x/ not alternating with /k/ is
spelled .
Thus, for example, initial /x/ will be spelled always with . /xoUv/
Final /k/ will be spelled with p .
/yar6k/

/v/ alternating with /b/ is spelled . /v/ not alternating with /b/ is spelled
In listing the roots b, and k will be used for the alternating radicals. The
student should learn these roots by drilling the forms. Attention to the Hebrew
spelling will be of help in roots with /k/ and /x/.
Thus, the root of /sefer/ "book" will be listed as spr, the same as for /saper/
"tell".

15.7 Alternating Patterns


Patterns alternate in a number of ways, and some of these have been described
already. Alternations such as the /a/ in /memaharim/ m.pl.pres. "hurry" depend on the
particular consonants which comprise the root. Other pattern alternations are the
result of historical or phonological changes in Hebrew which leave forms similar in
one part of a pattern and different in other parts. For example, the future of the
roots /p-t-x/ "open" and /s-m-x/ "be happy" are very similar - /eftax/ I will open"
and /esmax/ I will be happy". However, the present tense of the former is /poteax/
and the corresponding form of the latter is /samiax/, which has been treated as an
adjective.
The student should not try to memorize a huge series of rules, but he should drill
the patterns as they occur and use the descriptions in the notes as an aid. Summaries
will be provided from time to time for further assistance.

15.8 Designation of Patterns


In previous units we have discussed patterns by using the symbols C for
"consonant" and V for "vowel". For ease in discussing patterns we will designate them
by using the arbitrary root p'1. The choice of this root is dictated by Hebrew
grammatical tradition. Other roots which are often used by grammarians for this
purpose are q t 1 and g m r.
The choice of p'1 has the disadvantage that the internal open juncture /'/ is
usually replaced by a smooth transition. The roots q t 1 is often used as a symbol for
the /k/ which never alternates with /x/) and Smr do not have this disadvantage;their
consonants do not vary. However, the use of p'1 will allow the student to be a bit
conversant in the traditional Hebrew description of Hebrew as taught in Israeli
schools.
An advantage in using p'1 is that the will occur as /f/ in the patterns where
it is called for and give the student an additional aid in deriving forms.
Thus, for example, the form /kibel/ will be said to be a pi'el form
(pronounced /pi'el/ or /piil/1. The form /slixa/ will be said to be a p'il& form
(pronounced /pe'ilS/ or /peilS/ since /p'/ is a non-permissible initial cluster).
NOTE: This section and the following one are not grammatical explanations. They are

451

BASIC
COURS
E

HEBREW

UNIT

explanations of grammatical terms used in this text.


15.9 Designation of Radicals
The root p'1 consists, in the Hebrew spelling, of the letters /pey/,
/iin/, a n d / l a m e d /
. Since most Hebrew roots consist of three
consonants or can be spelled with three letters when they consist of less, the
radicals are named after these letters. The first radical is called the "/pey/" of
the root, the second is called the "/ain/", and the third is called the "/lSmed/".
We will use these traditional designations as well as C with subscript numerals in
discussion of roots and patterns .
In Grammar Note 8.4a the term /lamed hey/ was used. This means that some forms of
these roots are spelled in Hebrew with the letter /hey/ as the third consonant.
Actually, there is no third consonant in their pronunciation. The root consists of
two consonants with the second always followed by a vowel. The /hey/ is an instance
of a third "consonant" being added to regularize the designation.
More specifically, the dictionary listing of the root is usually the third person
masculine singular past tense form of the verb. The verb "to be" would be listed
under the root hyh since the 3 m.s. past is /hayS/ . This verb, also, is a lcimed
hey verb.
Below is a partial list of the roots which have occurred in the text and
some representative forms illustrating the root. Note that the internal open
juncture /'/ may function as a radical.
Verbs listed with h as the third radical may be assumed to be lamed hey verbs.
Verb roots in which the final radical is the consonantal aspirate /h/ are very few in
number and will be specifically designated when they occur. They are listed in
dictionaries in their normal alphabetical order.
The student need not memorize the following list. It is included here only for
illustration of the grammatical points discussed in this unit.
Root
dbr

/daber/

"speak"

/davar/ "thing"

mc1

/moc'im/

"find"

/nimca'im/ "are found"

Sm'

/gim'i/
/niSmci/

"hear"
s.imv.) /Sam&ti/ I heard"
(f.
"is heard"

mSx

/hamSex/

r'h

/lir'ot/

"continu
e
"to see"

" /tamSix/ "you will continue"

sh

/laas6t/

"to do"

'kl

/leexol/

"to eat"

sgr

/ sgor/

"close"

/esgor/ I will close"

ptx

/ptax/

"open"

/eftax/ I will open"

/ro6/ "sees" /raiti/ I saw"


/ose/ "does" /asiti/ I did"
/ax&lti/ I ate" /6xel/ "food"

qzm

/tagzim/ "you will exaggerate"

gdl

/gad61/ "big"

sdr

/yesudfir/ "it will be arranged" /sider/ "order"

zhr

/hizaher/ "be careful"

452

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

kns

15

/lehikanes/ "to enter"

[Note: In this text abstracted root consonants are indicated by underlining.


Transcriptions of spoken forms are indicated by slash lines. Thus, for
example, the statement "b occurs as /v/" would mean that a radical b, which
alternates between /b/ and /v/, occurs as /v/ in the particular form being
discussed.
Root Sbr 3 m.s. past /Savar/ "he broke" ]

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

?-
?

? ; !:

?
?
?
A:

bo nig&S liStot kos

:
.

B: 6yfo bet hakafe.


A: g&m bapinci.
B: esmax meod.
REVIEW
CONVERSATIONS

? :
. :
. :

kafe.

453

BASIC
COURS
E

C:

HEBREW

hatiy x&m. hizahari.


D: hu 16 xctm. hu kvar kHr.
C: at rocS xalciv latey?
D: 16. ani rod limon vesukar.
. . :
. . :
? :
. . :

454

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

E: meicarit. tni 11 k6s maim karim, b

15

n l ! j 3
F: ata roce 6d magehu?
E :

k e n .


P :

b a n a n a

? :
s p l i t .

. .

t o v

a d o n i .

b e r a c o n .

K: tov. nexake lo kfin fid

G: matiy tavo lir'ot ot&nu. H: avo haerev, im atem rocim.

Seyagia.
G:

tov. bo im hamigpaxS.

H:

rayon tov. lehitraot haerev.

:; , :
. :

? :

? :

. :

. :
, :
.

. . :
. . :

? :

X: saper li. heyxSn raita et

. :

xfina.

. . :

J: raiti otfi birx6v filenbi.


I: mfi hi osfi betil aviv.
J: hi bfia lekfin kol Savua.
X: im ken, carix lehazmin otfi
learuxfit irev.
K: haim moSe yav6 hina hayom?
L: ani xoSev Seyavo bexamiS.

455

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

16.1 Conversation in the Coffee House /sixfi bebit hakafi/


DAVID

I met
Moshe this morning.
I met

appointed
pagaSti
et moSe hab6ker.
pagfiSti
ATARA

Really? What did


he say to you?
he told

He
told
me
that
he
got
a
lett
er
from Mr. Williams.
he received
letter

From
wher
e
did
he
send
the
lett
er?
From
the
U.S.
?

bee
mit
?
mil
hu
sipir lexfi.
sipir (3
m.s.past)
DAVID
hu
sip
ir
li
Seh
u
kib
il
mix
tav
mimfir Williams.
kibel
(3.m.s.past)
mixtfiv (m)

h
u
n
i
t
m
a
n
a
l
e
y
o
e
c
haSagrirut
haamerik&it.
nitma
na (3
m.s.p
ast)

ATARA

he sent

mefiin
hu
2ala:L
et
hamixt^
v,
meamiri
ka?

?alax(3
m.s.past)

DAVID

No. From Tel Aviv.

lo. mitil aviv.


From Tel Aviv?
What is he doing there?

He was appointed
Counsellor of
the American Embassy.
he was

ATARA
mitil
aviv?
ma hu
ose
Sam.

DAVID

456

HEBREW

UNIT

. .

?
?

457

BASIC COURSE


? ?

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

When
did he arrive?
he
arr
ive
d
ATARA

higia

(3

m.s.past) DAVID

matfiy hu
higia.

458

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

beSavua Seavar.
he passed

avfir (3 m.s.past)

Last week.

459

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

Moshe went
to Tel Aviv
and saw him.
he travelled
he saw
nasei (3 m.s.past)

ra& (3 m.s.past)

moSe nasi
letil aviv
veraS ot6.

460

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

ATARA
How does he look?

is seen,
appears
eyx h(i nir1 4.
nir'
(m.s.pres.
)

461

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

Moshe said
that he
looks
good.
he
sai
d
DAV
ID
m
o
S
e
a
m
S
r
3
e

h
u
n
i
r
'
e
t
6
v
.
arr
iSr
(3
m.s
.pa
st)

462

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

ATARA
Does
he
still
speak
Hebrew?

hti od
rredabir ivrit?
DAVID
Yes. He spoke Hebrew
with Moshe.
he spoke
kin.
hu
diber
ivrit
im
moSe.
dibir (3
m.s.past)

?

.
.

463

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

16.2 ADDITIONAL
VOCABULARY
She received a
letter. They (m)
received a letter.
They (f) received a
letter.
She sent a letter.
They sent a letter.
What did she say?
What did they say?
She went to Haifa.
They went to Haifa.
She arrived
yesterday. They
arrived yesterday.
She saw him. They saw
him.

.
.
.
.
.
? .
?

.
.
.
.
.
.


.

He arrived here last


year.
hi kiblS mixt&v. him
kiblu
mixt&v.
hin
kiblu mixtSv.
hi
galxa
mixteiv.
hem Salxu mixt&v.
mS hi amrS. mi hin
amrfi.
hi nas'a lexciyfa.
hem nas'u lex&yfa.
hi higia etm61. hin
higiu etmol.
hi raata oto.
hem rau oto.
hu higia hena
beSana SeavrS.

464

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

16.3 Vocabulary Drills

A. Response Drill - /pagaSti/ I met"


Instructor: When did you meet Atara?
Student:' I met her this morning.
matfiy pagfigta et atfira.
matfiy
pagagtem
et
atfira. matay pagfigten et
atfira. matay pagfiSt et
atfira.
pagfigti
otfi
haboker.
pagfignu otfi haboker.
pagfignu otfi haboker.
pagfigti otfi hab6ker.
?
! ?
?
?

465

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

B. Substitution Drill - /nir'e/


When the present tense pattern has a /ni-/ prefix the feminine singular
ends in /-t/, even with lamed hey verbs. This is the exception to the general
lfimed hey present tense pattern.with /-a/ feminine mentioned in the note to
Grammar Section 8.4a.
hu nir'e t6v.
nir'et
nir"xm
nir 1 ot

He looks well.
.

"appears
"
C. Substitution - Agreement Drill

How does Moshe look?

eyx nir'e moge .


habfiit gel dov - gveret zahavi
haoniot haxadaSot - hamalon
hatapuxim - hayerakot haSagrirut haugot - migpaxat
kfirmi - moge
Individual Response Drill
Instructor: How does the new hotel look?
Student: It's very beautiful.
eyx nir'e hamalon haxadfig. hu
yafe meod.
eyx
eyx
eyx
eyx
eyx
eyx

nir
nir
nir
nir
nir
nir

et iSto Sel david.


im harexov&t.
e habfiit gel xana.
ot haagvaniot.
et sffit hayfim.
k. bet hakafe.
?

-
- - -
- -

466

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

. . :

.GRAMMAR NOTES

16.4 Third Person Past Tense Verb Forms


Examine the following verb forms:

hu kibel
hi kibli
hem kiblu
hen kiblu

"he received"
"she received"
"they (m) received"
"they (f) received"

hfi Salax
hi Salxa
hem Salxu
hin Salxu

"he sent"
"she sent"
"they (m) sent"
"they (f) sent"

hu aroar
hi amr&
hem amru
hen amru

"he said"
"she said"
"they (m) said"
"they (f) said"

Note, first of all, that the third person plural forms are the same for both genders.
This is true of all past tense verbs, regardless of conjugation.
Note further that the feminine singular has the suffix /-a/, and the plural has
suffix /-u/. The preceding vowel is dropped as with the /-i/ and /'-u/ suffixes in the
future.
In addition to these characteristics there are variations depending on the typ3 of root.
Some of these variations will be illustrated in the following drills. After the third person
forms are drilled the corresponding first and second person forms will be described and
drilled.
In the following drills the instructor gives a sentence with a 3 m.s. past tense verb.
The students repeat the sentence. The instructor then gives the substitution cues, and the
students give the sentence with the necessary changes.
Some of the verbs have not occurred in the third person past tense previously, but the
student should have no trouble recognizing them.
a. Ordinary Roots
These are roots whose final two radicals do not require any additional variations.
The consonants which may require variations in the third person pattern are /'/> /h/> and
/x/. The possibilities of these variations will be described as they occur.
A. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /kibel/ "received" He received
a letter from Mr. Cohen.
hu kibel mixtav mimar kohen.

. ,

xana hem - moSe - hin


mSr karmi - hu veiSto - hi - hu

- - cn
- - -

467

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

B.Substitution

- Agreement Drill - /sipir/

- - -
- - -

He told Miriam the news.

"spoke"

hu siper len-,jr &p et haxadagot.


s&ra - david - hen - gveret kohen hi vebaaladov - moSe vedov - hu
C.Substitution

- - -
- -

- Agreement Drill - /diber/

He spoke Hebrew in the office.

"sent"

hu diber ivrit bamisrad .


hen - xSna - david - hem

- - - -
-

sara velea - gveret Williams - hu


D.Substitution

- Agreement Drill - /galax/

"forgave"

He sent a package to America.


hu Salax xavilci leamerika .
moSe veiSto - miryam - hem dov - hen - atara
- hu
E.Substitution

- Agreement Drill - /salax/

hu salax lemiryam al hamixtav .


x&na - kulcim - moSe - hi mcir k&spi - hen hu
- Agreement Drill - /amcir/

- - - -
-

"passed"

He said it was cold yesterday.


hu amlir Sehayli k&r etmol .
hem - s&ra - davfd - hen gveret kSrmi - hi - hu
G.Substitution

- 30 - - -
-

"said"

He forgave Miriam for the letter.

F.Substitution

- Agreement Drill - /avar/

He passed by the office this morning.


hu avar al yad hamisrcid haboker .
hem - avigdor - atara - hen moSe - hi - dov
veiSto - hu
"told"

468

- - - -
- -

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

H.Substitution - Agreement Drill - /xaSv/ "thought"

He thought that today was Friday.

hu xaS&v Sehayom yom SiSi .


hi - him -gviret kohen hin
- yosif - s&ra - hu
I.Substitution - Agreement Drill - /patcix/ "opened"
He opened the door. hu
patax et hadilet.
hi - moi ved6v - hin s&ra - m&r kohen - him
.
h
u

- - -

- -

- - - - -

469

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

.
J. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /sagSr/ "opened"

He closed the door.


hu sag&r et hadilet.
hen - david veatSra - hi mar
kcirmi - him - sira - hu

K. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /axal/ "ate"


He ate watermelon.
hu axal avatiax.
him - hi - s&ra vexana avigdor
- gviret kaspi - hu
L. Substitution - Agreement Drill /natan/ "gave1
He gave me all the food.
hu natan li et kol haoxel.
igto gel haxenvani - hamelc&r hem
- mogi - igtexa - hd
M. Substitution - Agreement Drill /pagSS/ "met"
He met her in America.
hu paqaS otk beamerika.
.

- - - - -

- - - -

- - - -

470

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

atSra - hin - m&r zahavi gviret zahSvi - him - hu

471

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

N. Substitution - Agreement Drill /hitraSim/ "was impressed"


He was impressed by the new building.
hu hitraSim mehabinyfin haxadfiS .
gviret Williams - him - atfira
baalfi - hin - hi - hu

.
- -
- -

0. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /lamfid/ "studied"


He studied in this school.
hfi lamfid bebit hasifer hazi .
xfina vebaalfi - baalix - lia
him - david - hi - hu

.
- -
- -

b. Verbs with Third Radical or x


There are two sub-classes of verbs whose third radical is or x. The and x
of one sub-class are spelled in Hebrew with and , respectively, and the ^
and x of the other sub-class are spelled with and .
The first sub-class has the same general pattern as ordinary verbs.
Examples are: /maca/ "he found" /moce/ "finds" , /himSix/ "he
continued"
In verbs of the latter sub-class the vowel /a/ must immediately precede the radical
when it is final in the word. This is true even in the case of which is spelled
but not pronounced, as i n
/ y o d e a /
" k n o w s

.
^/ / f ^h e , 10* precedes it anyway, then there is no problem. Examples are
/yada/ "he knew" ,/pata'x/ "he opened" ,/Sala'x/ "he sent"

When f > ! P

,-,
+

-4

1 *a
*
C

n
.

p. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /nasi/ "traveled" He went to see Haifa.


hfi nasfi 1ir6t et xfiyfa .

. :

hi - him - moSi - sfira


d6v vemiryfim - hin - hu

- - -
- -

Q. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /yadfi/ "knew"


He didn't know that Miriam is in Tel Aviv.
ha 16 yadfi Semiryfim betii aviv .
gviret k6hen - moSi - iSti
him - sfira - hin - hu

472

.
-
- -

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

R. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /macS/ "found"

He didn't find the bottle. hu 16 macS et


.

habakbuk.
gviret k&hen - moSi - iSti
- hin him - yaak6v hi - hu
- - .
- - -

473

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

S. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /SamS/ "heard"


He didn't hear the news this
evening.
hu 16 SamS et haxadaS6t
hairev .
iSt6 - d6v - him - yaak6v
hin - gviret 6ren - hti
c. lamed hey Verbs
Examine the pattern of the
following forms:

- - - -
-

474

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

/hayS/
/hayt&/
/hayu/
The pattern of
the third
person
endings is: 3
m.s. /-&/ 3
f.s. /-tV3
Pi. /
u/

HEBREW

UNIT

"he
was"
"she
was"
"they
were"

These endings follow the second radical


regardless of the conjugation of the verb. The
third radical is listed as h, but this is only a
spelling convention.
The 3 m.s. ending may be confusing at first
since it resembles the 3 f.s. of ordinary verbs in
pronunciation and spelling. It is also similar in
pronunciation to verbs with third radical \
T. Substitution - Agreement Drill /hayS/ "was"
He was in Jerusalem yesterday.
hu hay beyeruSal&im etm61 .
iSto Sel david - moSe ved6v - hin yaakov
- hi - hem - lea - hu
U. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /asS/ "did
What did he do in Jerusalim?
m& hu as& beyeruSalaim .
hi - him - iStexIL - hin gviret 6ren baalix - hu

- - -
- -

- -
- - - -

475

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

V. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /pank/ "turned" He turned


left at the intersection.
hu pana smoia bahictaivut.

.
haiSa - hanaSim - moSe veraxil

- -
hi - avigdor - hem - hu

- - -
W. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /kivi/ "hoped"
He hoped for a good result.
hu kiva letocaa tova.
gveret zah&vi - yosef - hem iSto Sel d6v - miryam velea - hu

X. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /raca/


"wanted
"

He didn't want to eat so early.


hu 16 racS leexol kol kctx mukdSm.

him - scira - david veatira avigdor - hanagim - hi - hu

- -
- - -

d. Verbs with Second Radical ]_ or h


Whenever the conjugation pattern or other verb
pattern wo1:7.d result in a second radical /'/ or /h/
occurring immediately before a consonant, the vowel /a/
is inserted between them. Other examples of this have
been drilled previously, such as /memaher "*memaharim/ and
/hizaher "hizahari/.

The root of the verb "to see" is r'h, a lamed hey verb.
Accordingly the third person past tense would be: 3 m.s. /ra'V
"he saw" 3 f.s. */ra'ta/ "she saw" 3 pi. /ra'u/ "they saw"
In the 3 f.s. the second radical /'/ occurs before a
consonant - the suffix /tk/. The form is then /ra'ata/.
In ordinary speech the /'/ is replaced by a smooth
transition, and the forms are:
3
m
.
s
.
/
r
a
a
/

476

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

"
h
e
s
a
w
"
3
f
.
s
.
/
r
a
a
t
k
/
"
s
h
e
s
a
w
"
3
p
i
.
/
r
a
u
/
"
t
h
e
s
a
w
"
Y. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /raa/ "saw"

477

BASIC

15

HEBREW

UNIT

COURSE

He saw the new house.


hu rak et hab&it
iSti - hanaSim Selanu - david him
haxadaS .
- gviret kohen - hu

.

- - -
-

- -
- -

478

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

e. Verbs with Unstressed Third Person Suffixes

cases:

The 3 f.s. and the 3 pi. endings /-a, -u/ are unstressed
in the following
1)When the 3 m.s. is one syllable and the vowel is
/fi/. /rfic/ "he ran"
/
r
f
i
c
a
/
"
s
h
e
r
a
n
"
/
r
f
i
c
u
/
"
t
h
e
y
r
a
n
"
2)When the final vowel of the conjugation pattern is
/i/. /himSix/ "he continued"
/
h
i
m
S
i
x
a
/
"

479

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

s
h
e
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
"
/
h
i
m
S
i
x
u
/
"
t
h
e
y
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
"
This latter conjugation is traditionally called the hif'il
Z. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /rfic/ "ran"
He ran after the bus.
hfl rac axarey haotobus.

. CI 3

hi - hem - moge - raxil

- - -
yosif veiSto - h e n - h u

--

480

"

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

AA. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /bfi/ "came"


He came to see the house.
cases:

hfl bfi 1ir'6t et hab&it.

. 1
gviret zahfivi - y i c x f i k - h i

-
him - lia - h i n - h u

-- -

BB. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /himSix/ "continued"


He continued seeing her every day.
hfi himSix lir'ot otfi k6i yom.
1 1 ,-

.ci 1

mfir kfirmi - sfira - d6v - hen

- - , -
iSti - him - gviret 6ren - hu

- - -
CC. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /hitxil/ "began"
He becja'i the diet this morning.
hu hitxil badieta haboker.

.
gviret kohen - moSi - iSti

- -
sfira veyosSf - hi - hin - hu

- - -

481

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

DD. Substitution - Agreement Drill - /hizmin/ "invited" He


invited them for dinner.
hu hizmin otam !earuxat erev.


hi - dov veiSt6 - xSna - hen

- - -
yaakov - yaak6v vemiryam - hu

- -
The root of the verb /higia/ "arrived" is listed as
ng'. The vowel /a/ precedes the third radical whenever it is
final in the word. See Section 16.4b above. The third person
past tense forms are: 3 m.s. /higia/ for */higi'/

3 f.s. /higia/ for /higi'a/

3 pi. /higiu/ for /higi'u/

By coincidence, therefore, the 3 m.s. and 3 f.s. are


identical in ordinary speech.
EE. Substitution - Agreement Drill
He arrived in Israel last week.

hu higia leisrael begavua Seavar .

hi - hem - iSti - hanaSim


- - -
david - hamiSpaxa Selo - hu
- -
RAPID RESPONSE DRILL The following questions are based on the

conversation of this unit.


1.matSy pagis david et moSe.

?1. !
2.siper moSe ledavid.

? TIG 2.
3.mimi kibel moSe mixtSv.
4.meSin Salax
h

mhr
m

?3.

Williams et
i

482

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

5.ma ose mar Williams betel aviv.

UNIT

?5.

6.matSy higia mar Williams leisrael.

?6.

7.lecin nasa moSe.

?7. 2

8.heyx&n raa mo2e et m&r Williams.

?8.

9.eyx

nir'e mar Williams.

10.beeyze safS hem dibru.

483

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

REVIEW
CONVERSATIONS

A
A
B

484

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

A. hfi siper li Sehti sagfir et hamisrfid


Sel6.

.
.
.

C.Samfiti Semiryfim
gfira

betel

aviv.

D.mimi

Samfit

C.mimo

Se. hu

Samfi

et z6t

mid6v.

D.hu

natfin

lfix

et

hakt6v
et

Selfi?

485

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

486

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

c. 16. fix hu yiten li et haktovet


m
f
.
.

a
i

x
r
.

.
,

E. axfilti glidfi

k
l

i
r

P
.

487

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

i
.

488

HEBREW

UNIT

489

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

F. gfim iSti axlfi Sfira veamrfi


Sehaglidfi tovfi.

.

.
G.d6v rafi et menaxim
haboker.
H.eyf6
hu rafi
oto.
G.
kSehCi
veiSto
tiyelfi
birxov
alenbi
him
pagSu
oto al
yfid
haSagrir
ut.

490

.
.

?
.

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

I. aviva
hizmin
a
otfinu
learux
fit
irev
ley6m
SiSi.

J. beemet?
hi
amrfi
Sehi
tazmin
gfim
et
yaakov
,

I. nismfix
meod
lir'ot
ot6.
matfiy
hu
higia
lexfiy
fa.

. .
.

J. hu od lo higia. hu yagia maxfir.

491

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

K. x&na
vebaa
l&
avru
al
yad
hab&i
t
gel&n
u
habok
er.

Sel
&.

M.
atS
ra
hit
raS
ma
meo
d
meh
ab&
it
hax
ad&
S
gel
yos
ef.

L. beemit?
m&
hero
amru
lexa.
K. hem
sipru
li
Sedib
ru im
s&ra.

L. iyfo
nimce
t

N. g&m
ani
hit
ra
g&
mt
i.
ha
b&
it
ga
dol
ve
xa
dig
.
M.
ma

sSra?
K.
bex&y
fa.
hem
natnu
li et
misp&
r
hatel
efon

492

t&
y
rai
t et
ha
b&

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

it.

lam

N. raiti

d&

et

g&m

hab&i

O.

mat

Silg6
&y
m.

hi

M. g&m
lam
at&ra

d&

raat&
g&m
et

hab&i
P.
t

ani
xog

SilSo
eve
m.

O.

Sel
ifn

lam&d

iy

iiv

San

ivrit

&.

bebet

Q.

hasef
er
lesaf
6t.
P.

g&m
d&lya

493

hai
nu
ha
ga
vu
a
be
nat
&n
ya.

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

R. beeyze
yom
haite
m
g&m.
Q. ani
haiti
beyom
geni
veyit
er
hamig
pax&
hayt&
beyom
SliSi
.

S.

david
nas&
leami
rika.

T.

mat&y.

S.

lifniy
gavua
.

T.

haim
iSto
g&m
ken
nas'&
?

S.

ken.
hem
nas'u
y&xad

494

HEBREW

UNIT

?
.

.?

.
.

495

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC

15

UNIT

COURSE

.
.

..

? .

496

HEBREW

UNIT


?
..

497

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

17.1 At the Post Office

I
want
to
send
this
lett
er
to
the
Unit
ed
Stat
es,
to
send
lett
er

By
regu
lar
mail
or
by
air
mail
?

a
n
i

m
i
x
t
a
v

W
I
L
L
I
A
M
S

r
o
c
e
usu
al,
hab
itu
al
air

By
air
mail.

It
will
cost
you
thirt
yfive
agoro
t.
ago
ra
(IL
0.0
1)

How
long
will
it
take

l
i
S
l
o
a
x

time
(dura
tion)
it
will
take
he
took
M
R
.

l
i
S
l
o
a
x
e
t
h
a
m
i
x
t
a
v
h
a
z
e
l
e
a
m
e
r
i
k
a
.

(
m
)
C
L
E
R
K

b
e
d
o
a
r
r
a
g
i
l
o
b
e
d
o
a
r
a
v
i
r
.

r
a
c
[
1
1
(
n
i
.
s
.
)

498

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

a
v
i
r
(
m
)

v
e
x
a
m
e
S

a
g
o
r
6
t
.

R
.
W
I
L
L

ar
avir

L
E
R
K

z
e
y
a
a
l
e
l
e
x
a
S
l
o
s
l
m

W
I
L
L
I
A
M
S

bedo

a
g
o
r
a

k
a
m
a

z
m
a
n
z
e
y
i
k
f
i
x
.

M
R
.

fut.
)
laka
x

(
f
)

UNIT

z
m
a
n
(
m
)
yika
x

(3

m.s.

499

BASIC

15

HEBREW

UNIT

COURSE

500

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

l
e
g
r
a
m
,

I
d
o
n
'
t

T
h
a
t
'
s

a
w
e
e
k
.

That's a

i
d
e
a
.

u
l
a
y

W
h
e
r
e

MR.
WILL
IAMS

i
s
the
t
e
l
e
g
r
a
p
h
o
f
f
i
c
e
?
i
d
e
a

y
o
d
e
a
.

S
a
v
u
a
.

g
o
o
d

A
week?

l
o

u
l
a
y

ma
yb
e,
pe
rh
ap
s

If
it
's
so
ur
ge
nt
,
se
nd
a
te

a
n
i

urgent
send
telegram

M
a
y
b
e

lo
ng
ti
me
,
mu
ch
,
ma
ny

telegra
ph
office
CLERK

i
f

k
n
o
w
.

UNIT

ze

S
a
v
u
a
?
h
a
r
b
e
z
m
a
n
.
h
a
r
b
e
CLERK

501

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

b
e
i
m

ivrak
(m)
MR
WILL
IAMS

z
e

z
e

k
o
l

r
a
y
o
n

k
a
x

t
o
v
.

d
a
x
u
f
,

h
e
y
x
a
n

S
l
a
x

h
a
m
i
v
r
a
k
a
.
rayon
(m)
mivraka
(f)

m
i
v
r
f
i
k
.
b
e
i
m

d
a
x
u
f
(
m
.
s
.
)
S
l
a
x
(
m
.
s
.
i
m
v
.
'
m

502

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

CLERK
H
e
r
e
.
O
n
t
h
e

UNIT

s
e
c
o
n
d
f
l
o
o
r
.
story

m
a
(
f
)
M
R
.
W
I
L
L
I
A
M

T
h
a
n
k
y
o
u
v
e
r
y
m
u
c
h
.
k
a
n
.
b
a
k
o
m
a
h
a
S
n
i
a
.
k
o

S
t
o
d
a
r
a
b
a
.

503

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

504

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

17.2
ADDITIONA
L
VOCABULAR
Y
Give me
five
postal
cards.

(f

postal
)

card
Give me
five
envelope
s

envelope
ig

er

Give me
five air
letters.
Give me
five
tenagora
stamps.
Send the
letter
special
delivery
.
Send the
letter
by
register
ed mail.

ten
li
xameS
gluyot.
ten
li
xameS
maatafot.
ten
li
xarrte!!
igrot
avir.

gluya (f)

et
letter

(f

stamp
)

reco
rded
,
list
ed

UNIT

. ten li xamiSa bulim 2el


eser agorot.
bul (m)
8lax et hamixtav
ekspres.
iilax et hamixtav
bedoar raSum.
raSum (m.s.)

maatafa

505

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

I7.3 Vocabulary Drills

A.Substitution-

y
i
k
a
x

Agreement Dri 11
- /ragil/
"habitual"
He is used to
eating on time.
hu ragil leexol
bazman. xana - kulam
sara veatara ani - hu
B.Substitution
Drill /e - ~ti /

I'll take the


package.
e
k
a
.
c
e
t
h
a
x
a
v
i
l
a
.
a
t
a
t
i
k
a
x
a
t
t
i
k
x
f
h
u

h
i
t
i
k
a
x
a
n
u
n
i
k
a
x
a
t
e
m
t
i
k
x
u
a
t
e
n
t
i
k
a
x
n
a
h
e
m
y
i
k
x
u
h
e
n
t
i

506

BASIC

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC COURSE


.
- -
-
- -

507

k
a
x
n
a

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

C.Substitution-Agreement Drill


We'll take Miriam as far as Haifa.
nikax et miryam ad xayfa.
mar oren - ani - hem - aten raxel - hen
- atem - at gveret kohen - ata - anu
D.Substitution Drill /Slax/ "send" Send
him a post card.
Slax 16 gluya.
Silxx
Silxu
Slaxna

- - - -
- - - -

508

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

GRAMMAR NOTES
17-4 Past Tense of pi'el
The complete past tense pattern of ordinary pi'el verbs with three- consonant
roots is as follows: (dashes indicate root consonants).

1s. /-i-a-ti/
2m.s./-i-i-ta/
2f.s.
3m.s.
/-! a /

3
f.s.

spr
siparti
siparta
sipart
siper
sipra

s^r
1pi /-i-a-nu / siparnu
2m.pl. /-i-a-tem/ sipartem
2f.pl. /-i-a-ten/ siparten
3pi
/-iu / sipru
Note that the 3 m.s. has the vowels /-i-e-/ and the first and second person
forms have the vowels /-i-a-/.
A. Substitution-Agreement Drill /siper/ "told"
He told me about the dinner.
hu siper li al aruxat haerev.

xana - atem - moSe vedov at - ata - sara hu


B.Substitution-Agreement Drill - /kibel/ "received"

5 0
.
- - -
- -

I received a telegram this morning.

kibalti mivrak haboker.


hem - atem - david anu - gveret karmi - ani

- -
- -

C.Substitution-Agreement Drill /miher/ "hurried"

She hurried to the telegraph office, hi mihara

- -
- - -

lamivraka.
ani - ata - iSti vegveret kaspi anu - atem - yehuda - hi
D. Substitution-Agreement Drill /tiyel/ "strolled"
We took a walk on Allenby Road.

tiyalnu berexov alenbi.


aten - avigdor veatara - ani at vedov - ata - anu

17.5

- -
- -

Past Tense of kal (pa'al)

The complete past tense pattern of ordinary kal verbs


with three-consonant roots is as follows:

/-a-a-ti/
/-a-4-t /
/-a-a /

1s.
2m. s.
2f.s.
3m.s.
3 f.s.

/-a-a-ta/
/-a-a- /

1pi.
/-a-anu /
2m. pi. /-a-atem/
Mix
2f. pi.
Salaxti
/-a-a-ten/ Salaxta
3pl/
a Salaxt
u /
Salax

Six
Salaxnu
Salaxte
m
Salaxte
n Salxu

Salxa

509

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

E.Substitution-Agreement Drill /Salax/ "sent"

When did they sent the package?


matay hem Salxu et haxavila .
atem - haxenvan - at xana hen - ata - mar kaspi
- hem
F.Substitution-Agreement Drill /mazag/ "poured"

I poured the wine into the glasses.


mazagti et hayain lakosot.
iSti - at - ata moSe anu - baalex hen - ani
?
-

-
-

.
-

510

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

G. Substitution-Agreement Drill /maca/


"found" She found the package on the third
h! maca
g

et haxavii^ bakoma
t
.
.

floor.
h
a

ani - hem - ata - avfgdor at iSto - hu - hi


-

511

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

512

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

Verbs such as /rac/ "ran" are traditionally listed as pa'al conjugations. They resemble
the ordinary pa'al verbs in the past tense in that the same vowel /a/ occurs in all forms:

1s.
2m.s.
2f.s.
3m.s.
3 f.s.

/racti/
/racta/

/ra;ct7
/
rac/
/raca/

"I ran" "you


"you ran" "he
"she ran"

ran"
ran"

1pi.
/racnu/
2m. pi.
/ractem/
2f. pi.
/racten/
3pi.
/racu/ we
ran "you ran" "you
ran" "they ran"

513

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

Note that the stress remains on the infixed /a/ in the 3 f.s. and the 3 pi.: /raca/ "she
ran"

/racu/ "they ran"

Verbs such as /rac/ have only two consonants in the root, but are listed in dictionaries
with vav ( ) or yud ( ) as the second root consonant. Thus, /rac/ will be listed
alphabetically under
The verb /ba/ "he came" is listed under . its pattern is similar to /rac/ except that
it has only one consonant. All forms, though, are spelled with .

Substitution-Agreement Drill /rac/ "ran"

Dov ran to the office this morning.

H.

dov rac haboker lamisrad .


anf - ata - mar kaspi - at anu - raxel - raxel
vesara - dov
.
- - - - 50 - -

514

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

Substitution-Agreement Drill /ba/ "came"

David came to the office yesterday.


david ba etmol lamisrad

ata - at - hanaSim - ani hem - anu atem -hi - david


.
- - - - - -

I.

515

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

17.6 Past Tense of hitpa'el


The hitpa'el is characterized by a prefix of the pattern
the prefix is usually /h/ in the past tense.

/cit-/.

The first consonant of

The hitpa'el resembles the pi'el in that the second stem vowel is /e/ in the 3 m.s.
and /a/ in the first and second person in verbs with three root consonants.
/hitraSamti/ /hitraSem/
The first stem vowel is either /a/ or

/of.
/hitraSem/ /hitkonen/

" I was impressed" "


he was impressed"

" he was' impressed"


" he planned"

516

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

The complete past tense pattern of the hitpa'el is as follows:


/hit-a-a-ti/
f.s
.

m.s.
f.s
.

/hit-a-a-ta/
/hit-a-at / /hit-ae- / /hit-a
a /

hitraSamtl
hitraSamta
hitraSamt
hitraSem
hitraSma

1.
2.

2f.pl. /hi
t-a-a-ten/
3pi.
/hi
t-au/

hitraSamnu
hitraamtem
hitra&amten
hitraSmu

517

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

J. Substitution-Agreement Drill
/hitraSem/ "
We were impressed by the new
stamps.
hitraSamnu mehabulim haxadaSim .
haamerikaim - atem - an! - iSti
at - baala - ata - gveret kohen

K. Substitution-Agreement Drill
/hitkonen/
He got ready to move to a new
house.
hu hitkonen laavor lebait xadaS.
ata - anu - miSpaxat zahavi
hayoec haxadaS - ani - him
- cit

as impressed"

- - -
- - -
.

"got ready"

- -
- - -

518

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

17.7 Past Tense of hif'il.


The hif'il conjugation is characterized in the past
tense by the prefix /hi-/, /he-/, or /ho-/.
Verbs whose first root consonant is x (spelled with
but not x when spelled with ) or will have the prefix
/he-/.

/hexlit/ "he decided"


- root xlt
/he'evir/ "he brought
over" - root 'vr
The full pattern of the past tense

as an example).
s.
m.s
.
f.s
.
m.s
.
f.s
.

mSx

two root
These verbs
( ) or yud

himSaxti
himSaxta
him&axt
himSix
himSixa

The prefix /he-/ also occurs


with some verbs whose first root
consonant is :.

Verbs with only


consonants also have the prefix /he-/.
are listed in the dictionary with vav
( ) as the second root consonant.
/heric/ "he caused to
run" - root r-c
/hekim/ "he set up" root k-m

Roots listed with yud ( ) as the first consonant will have the prefix
/ho-/, with a vav replacing the yud of the root.
/hodia/ "he informed" - root yd'
/ho%lv/ "he seated" - root yv

The root hlx "go" also has the prefix /ho-/ in the hif'il , with the
vav replacing the h of the root.
/holix/ he led" - root hlx

All other verbs have the prefix /hi-/.


/himSix/ "he continued" - root mSx

/hizmin/ "he invited"


- root zmn
/higzim/ "he exaggerated" - root gzm .
If the first of the three consonants is n, then the n
will be dropped in the hif'il conjugation.
/hikir/ " he recognized" - root nkr
/higia/ "he arrived"
- root ng'

/hia-ti/
/hiata/ /hia-t/

1pi.
2m.pl.
2f.pl.

/hi17
/hi-a/

519

/hi-a-nu/
/hia-tem/
/hia-ten/

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

3pi.

/hi-u/

is as follows: (The prefix /hi-/ is used


mx
himSaxnu
himSaxtem
himSaxten
himSfxu

520

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

Note that the stress remains on the infixed vowel in the third person
forms:
/himSixa/ "she continued" /him&ixu/
"they continued"

L. Substitution-Agreement Drill /him!


x/"continued".
He continued studying in Israel.

hu himSx nimod baarec.

gveret Smith - yonatan - hem

- -

- -

ani - at - anu - kulam - atem

- -

it veani - ata' - hu

- -

M. Substitution-Agreement Drill

- - -
- - -
- - 7 -

/hitxil/ "began"
Yosef started eating an hour ago.

yosef hitxil leexol lifney Saa .


raxel - moSe - ani - ata anu - atem
- hem - xana hen - aten - at - yosef

N. Substitution-Agreement Drill
/hizmin/ "invited" Mr. Zahavi
invited them for dinner.
mar zahavi hizmn otam learuxat erev.

hen - anu - iSto - ani

yaakov - atem - at - hi

- -
- - -

aten - ata - hem - mar zahavi

- -

521

BASICL COURSE_HEBREW________________________________UNIT 17

0. Substitution-Agreement Drill /hikir/ "recognized, knew" He was introduced to her


in the Brooklyn Bar.
hu hikxr ota bebrukiin bar.
xana - at - ata - anu
dov - ani - hen -hu

.
- - -
- - - 1

P. Substitution-Agreement Drill /higia/ "arrived"


The counsellor arrived in Tel Aviv this morning.
hayoec higia letei aviv haboker.

anu - atem - sara veyosef


hi - ata - hem - at - hayoec

- -
- - - -

Q. Substitution-Agreement Drill /higzlm/ "exaggerated" He exaggerated his


story.
hu higzlm basipur geio.

hem - ata - ani - at


menaxem - atara - atem - hu

- - -
- - -

R. Substitution-Agreement Drill /hexlit/ "decided"


(Note: In the first and second person forms an /e/ is inserted before the
suffix - /hexlateti/.)
He decided not to go by ship.
hu hexlit 16 Unsoa beonia.

- - -
- - - -

atem - ani - haxenvani - hi


ata - hem anu - at - hu

S. Substitution-Agreement Drill /heric/ "caused to run" He had us running the


whole morning.
hu herlc otanu koi haboker.

hi - atem - at - yonatan
ata - hem - atara - hu

- - -
- - -

T. Substitution-Agreement Drill /hodia/ "informed"

He told Yonatan that he didn* t get the telegram.


hu hodia !eyonatan Seio kibei et hamivrak. .
ani - atara - atem - at
- - -
sara veani - hem - ata - hu
- - -

522

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

17*8 Past Tense of lamed hey verbs


Regardless of the conjugation (binyan) these verbs have the following
similarities:
a)The vowel before the 1st and 2nd person suffixes is /--/ or /-e-/. In
the kal and pi'el the vowel is /--/ In the other binyanim it is /-e-/.
b)The 3rd person forms are a^ described in Grammar Section 16.4c. 3 m.s.
-a
3 f.s
ta
3 pi-u
A cora^leie past. ten^e is ao follow^: (The verb
illustrated /xika/
s. /-V-1ti/
m.s. /-V-1ta/
f.s. /-V-t /
m.s. /-V-a /
f.s. /-V-ta /
/-V

nu/
ten/ /-V-d/

xikti
xikta
xikt
xika
xikta

1 pi.
2m.pl
.
2
f.pl.
3Pi.

"vvai i.ed")
/-V-tem/

523

xikmu
xikitem
xikiten
xiku
/-V-

U Subdtitucion-Agreement Drill /kiva/ "hoped"


I hoped to go to Haifa.
kiviti linsoa le^ayfa.
yonatan - ra.^el - hen - at anu - ata - aten
- ani
.
- - - - - -

524

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

V Substitution-Agreement Drill /xika/ "waited"


I waited and waited for Friday to come.
xikiti vexikiti leyom Sifa Seyavo.
anu - ata - hem - h moSe - at - aten - sara atem
- dov vexana - am

- - - - - -
- -

525

W. Substitution-Agreement Drill /raca/ "wanted" I


wanted to go to the tourist office. racti
lalexet lemisrad hatayarut.
aten - at - iSt veani - m
ata - avigdor - atara - hem
mar Williams - atem - ani
.
- - - - - -
- -

526

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

X. Substitution-Agreement Drill /asa/ "made, did" I did


well to get here early.
toy asti Sehigati mukdam .
at - davd - ata - lea anu hem - aten - ani
.
- - - - - -

527

Y. Substitution-Agreement Drill /kana/ "bought"


He bought a new house.
hu kana bait xadaS .
anu - xana vebaala - anf
gveret kohen - atem - hf ata yosef - hem - hu

- - - - - . - -

528

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

Z. Substitution-Agreement Drill / raa/ "saw" He saw


her this morning, hu raa ota haboker.
L - at - h
aten - hen - yonatan ata
iSto - hu

- - - - - - -

a
n

an
u

529

AA. Substitution-Agreement Drill /pana/ "turned"


He addressed him in English.
hu pana elav beanglit .
at - hayoec haxadaS -^ata ani
-gveret kaspi - hem - hu

.
- -
- - -

530

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

BB. Substitution-Agreement Drill /Sata/ "drank"


I didn't drink the water.
lo Satiti et hamaim .
anu - atem - hem - dov aviva hen - sara - ata haamerikaim at - ani

- - - - - - - -

531

CC Substitution-Agreement Drill /ala/ "went up"


We went up to the third floor.
allnu lakoma haSliSit.
ani - kulam - atem - at mar
alon - l&texa - hem ata - aten
- hu - anu

- - - - - - - -

532

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

DD. Substitution-Agreement Drill /nitmana/ "was appointed"

We were

appointed as advisers in the foreign office.

nitmanenu keyoacim bemisrad haxuc.

.2 1 3

atem - hem - mar kohen . t


/. / hen - hi - at - anu
- - - - -
-

an
i

533

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

EE. Substitution-Agreement Drill /haya/ "was"


The verb /haya/ poses problems other than the lamed hey pattern. In ordinary
speech the /h/ is often dropped, and the /y/ is often a very slight glide between
the surrounding vowels. A spelling consistent with other lamed hey verbs would be
as in the left-hand column.
Transcriptions of frequently heard pronunciations are in the middle and
right hand columns.
hayti

s.
m.s

f.s
.
m.
s
f.s
.

hayita
hayit
haya
hayta

/hati/ or
/haita
o
' /hat/ r
o
r

/ati/
/aita/
/ay a/
/ayta/

/anu/
/aitem
/
/aiten
/
/ayu/
In previous units the transcriptions in the middle column have been used
since they represent the most generally acceptable pronunciation.
1pi. hayfnu
2m.pl.
hayitem
2f.pl.
hayiten
3pi. hayu

/hainu/
or /haitem/
or /haiten/
or

I was in Haifa a week ago.


haiti bexayfa lifney Savua.
hem - baala - moSe anu aten - xana - ata at hi - hen - dov - an

- - - -
- - - -
-

534

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

FF. Substitution-Agreement Drill /nir'a/ "seemed, was seen"


This binyan, nif'al, will be discussed in detail in Unit 19 However, the
forms of /nir a/ may be drilled here as an example of a lamed
hey
verb. The prefix /ni-/ is the same in all forms.
You looked well yesterday, nir'et
tov etmol.

ata - sara - hu - am anu


- xana vemoSe - hi david
- atem - hem - at
- - - -
- -
-
-

535

BASIC

HEBREW

15

UNIT

COURSE

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

.1 ?
.2 ?
.3
?
.4 ?
.5 ?
.6 ?
.7 ?
.8 ?

536

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

.9 REVIEW CONVERSATIONS
A: ani roce ligloax et haxavila hazot letel
aviv.
B: eyx ata roce ligloax ota. ragil o
expres.
A: kama zman yikax bedoar ragil, vekama
beekspres.
B: ragil yikax xamiga yamim, beekspres
yomaim.
A: in kax, glax et haxavila ragil. ze lo kol
kax daxuf.
. :
? , :
? , :
. , :
. , :
.

537

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

ten li bevakaSa, xameg. igrot avir.


ken. bevakaSa. kama ze ole.
Sloslm vexameS agorot kol axat.
yaxad lira veslv'1m vexameS agorot.
. , :
. . :
? :
. :
.

538

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

kibainu haboker giuya mimi^paxat z

ma hem kotvim.

UNIT

hem kotvim Seyavou lir'ot otanu b

tov

meod.

hem

lo.
u

ax

hem

G: ani carix bulm. eyfo ani yaxol liknot


otam.
H: bulim efgar liknot badoar.
G: eyfo hadoar?
H: hadoar nimca birxov alenbi, lo raxok
mikan.
G: ad eyze aa hadoar patuax.

H: ad xameS.
. :
?'
. :
? :
. , :
? :

. :

539

matay

yiSlexu

Sehem

mivrak

katvu

lifney

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

NOTE ON TRANSCRIPTION
In the remainder of the book the stress mark _ is used only when a syllable other than the last in
a a word is stressed.

540

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

541

BASIC

HEBREW

15

UNIT

COURSE

5 ...

542

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

18.1 Telling Time


DOV ma
What
time
is
it?

hour

haSaa.

Saa
(f)
AVIVA

It1 s
a
quarte
r to
seven.
quarter
haSaa
reva
le&eva
.

-
.

rev
a
(m)

D
O
V

543

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

Whe
n
are
(yo
ur)
par
ent
s
sup
pos
ed
to
arr
ive
?

he stood

m
a
t
a
y
o
m
d
i
m
h
a
h
o
r
i
m
l
e
h
a
g
1
a
.

amad

horim
(m.pl
)

A
V
I
V
A

544

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

I
a
n
S
e
nidme
(m.s.
pres.)


.
.

545

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

P
l
e
a
s
e

ia
xa
ci
Sa
a
li
fn
ey
ha
zm
an
.

c
h
e
c
k
w
h
e
n
the
pla
ne
wil
l
arr
ive
.
I'd
lik
e
to
get
(th
ere
) a
hal
f
hou
r
ahe
ad
of
tim
e.

bada
k
mato
s
(m)

.


.

DOV

he
examine
d
airplan
e

bidki
bevak
a&a,
matay
Seham
atos
yagia
.
hayit
i
roce
lehag

546

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

AVIVA
Al
l
ri
gh
t.
I
wa
nt
to
go
wi
th
yo
u,
to
o.
t
o
t
r
a
v
e
l
h
e
t
r
a
v
e
l
e
d
w
i
t
h
m
e
b
e
r
a
c
o
n
.

o
c
a
l
i
n
s
o
a
i
t
x
a
.
linsoa
nasa

g
a
m
a
n
i
r

547

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

DOV
1
'
1
1
t
a
k
e
h
a
v
e
t
o
th
ey
cl
ea
r
yo
u.

he
ne
ed
ed
,
ha
d
to
cu
st
om
s
to
v,
ek
ax
ot
ax
.
ni
ct
ar
ex
le
xa
ko
t
a
d

S
e
h
e
m
y
a
a
v
r
u
e
t
h
a
m
e
x
e
s
.

Good
,
We'
11
wait
customs.
unti
l

548

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

We have
enough time.

AVIVA

enough
he made it in time

ye lanu maspik zman.


maspik hispik

549

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

I hope so.
Call up right
away.
he got in touch
immediately
DOV
ani mekave
kax.
hitkasSri
miyad.
hitkaSer miyad
.
.

550

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

18.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY


The following are several of the expressions for
telling time. The feminine numbers are used with /dakot/
"minutes", and the masculine numbers with /regaim/
"minutes".
/haSaa/ may be omitted in the reply.
What
time
you have?

do

T
h
e

t
i
m
e

t
i
m
e

i
s
t
e
n

i
s
t
e
n

m
i
n
u
t
e
s

m
i
n
u
t
e
s

a
f
t
e
r

b
e
f
o
r
e

s
e
v
e
n
.

s
e
v
e
n
.
mi
nu
te

The
time
is

7: 1
0.
The
time is
7:15.

The time is
ten to
seven.
The time is
ten to
seven.

h
e

le
ss

I11

meet
her
at
9:00
A.M.

1*1
1
mee
t
her
at
3:0
0
P.M
.
I1
1
mee
t
her
at
8:0
0
P.M
.
1'11 arrive at
mid
nig
ht.
mid
nig
ht
It'
11
tak
e
us
24
hou
rs
to
get
the
re.

24
hour
period

Wait a
minute.
minute
,
moment
ma

551

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

haSaa
eclexa?

haSaa
eser dakot
lifney
Seva.
daka (f)

haSaa
asara

leSeva.
haSaa
Seva paxot
asara.
paxot

haSaa
eser dakot
axarey
Seva.

haaa
Seva

veasara.
hagaa
Seva vareva.

efgoS ota

efgoS ota
beSmone
baerev.
agia bexacot.
xacot
yikax lanu
yemama
lehagia.
a

efgoS ota
beteSa
baboker.

beSaloS axarey h

yemam
a (f)

xake rega.

rega

552

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

My watch is slow.
retarded
My watch is fast.
The big hand is on
the five, and the little
hand is on the three.
dial hand
(plural)

haSaon Seli
mefager.
mefager
(m.s
haSaon Seli
memaher.

hamaxog hagadol
al xameS,
vehamaxog hakatan
al SaloS.
maxo
g
mexu
gim

.
pres)

553

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

18.3 Vocabulary Drills

A. Substitution-Agreement Drill /omed/ "stand" (pres.) He is


standing next to the movie. hu omed al yad hakolnoa .
at - hem - sara vebaala - hi ani - hanaSim ata - hu

- - - - - -

554

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

B. Substitution-Agreement Drill /amad/ "stood" (past)


He stood on the corner all morning.
hu amad bapina kol haboker .
hem - ani - atem at hi - moSe - anu
- hu

- - - - - -

555

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

C. Substitution Drill /bdok/ "examine" (imv.)


Check all the doors.
bdok et kol hadlatot. bidki bidku bdokna

D. Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative


(The first column may be done as a substitution drill first.)
Don't examine the packages.
al tivdok et haxavilot. bdok et haxavilot. al tlvdeki
et haxavilot. bidki et haxavilot. al tivdeku et
haxavilot. bidku et haxavilot. al tivdokna et
haxavilot.bdokna et haxavilot.
. : .
. .

556

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

E. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative Do Drill D in reverse.

557

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

F. Substitution Drill /e - ~ti -/


1'11 check his phone number.
evdok et mispar hatelefon Selo. ata
tivdok at tivdeki dov yivdok hi
tivdok nivdok tivdeku tivd6kna hem
yivdeku hen tivdokna
. 0

558

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

G. Substitution-Agreement Drill

David will check the mail.


david yivdok et hadoar.
ani - xana - hem - ata anu at - atem - mi aten - hen - hi
- david
.

- - - -
- - - -

559

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

H. Substitution-Agreement Drill /badak/ "examined" He checked the address in the phone book.

hu badak et haktovet besefer h

hi - ata - anu - ani hem yosef - at - hu

- - -
- - -

560

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

I. Substitution Drill /e - ~ti -/


I'll have to get to Lydda by five o'clock.
ectarex lehagia lelud ad xameS.
tictarex
at tictarxi hu
yictarex
hi
tictarex
nictarex
atem
tictarxu
aten
tictarexna hem
yictarxu
hen
tictarexna
.

561

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

J. Substitution-Agreement Drill
He'11 have to send the letter special delivery.
hu yictarex uSioax et hamixtav e

anu - aten - raxel - hem


at - ata - ani - hen - hi
atem - mar kaspi - hi - hu

- - -
- - - -
- - -

K. Substitution-Agreement Drill /hispik/ "he had the time to" Dov


didn't have time to eat breakfast.
dov lo hispik leexol aruxat boker.

ani ata - iSto - baala hem - anu - at - dov

- - -
- - -

562

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

L. Substitution Drill
I won't get a chance to see the whole city.
lo aspik lir'ot et kol hair, lo taspik lo
tasplki hu lo yaspik hi lo taspik lo naspik lo taspiku
aten lo taspekna hem lo yaspiku hen lo taspekna
.

563

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

M. Expansion Drill
Instructor: I didn't get a chance to see
Student : I didn't get a chance to see

him.

him, I'11 have to come tomorrow.


lo hispakti lir'ot oto.
lo hispciknu lir'ot oto.

ectarex lavo maxar.

nictarex lavo maxar.

xana lo hispika lir'ot oto.


hi tictarex lavo maxar..

ata lo hispakta lir'ot oto.


tictarex lavo maxar.

hem lo hispiku lir'ot oto.


yictarxu lavo maxar.

lo hispakta lir'ot oto.

tictarex lavo maxar.

aten lo hispakten lir'ot oto.


tictarexna lavo maxar.

hen lo hispiku lir'ot oto.


tictarexna lavo maxar.
at lo hispakt lir'ot oto.

tictarxi lavo maxar.


.
.

.
.

. !
.
.

564

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

Substitution Drill

. .

Call right away; it's urgent.

hitkaSer miyad. ze daxuf.


hitkaSri
hitkaSru
hitkaSerna

0 Substitution Drill

/e- ~ ti
/

I'll get
in touch
with Mr.
Caspi.
ani
etkaSer
im mar
kaspi.
ata
titkaSer
at
titkaXri
hu
yitkaSer
hi
titkaSer
anu
nitkaSer
atem
titkaSru
aten
titkaSer
na
hem
yitkaSru
hen
titkaSer
na

565

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

it

P. SubstitutionAgree

am

ment

ha

Drill

ga
vu

1
'
1
1
c
a
l
l
t
h
e
m
t
h
i
s
w
e
e
k
.
e
t
k
a
S
e
r

a.
mo
Se
ve
iS
to
do
v
sa
ra
at
a
at
en
an
u
hi
at
he
n
at
em
an
i

566

BASIC

HEBREW

UNIT

BASIC COURSE

-
-

567

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

Substitution-Agreement Drill
/hitkaSer/ "he contacted" He got in
touch with Mrs. Cohen this morning.

hu hitkaSer
im gveret
kohen
haboker.

s
e
f

a
n
i

a
t
h
e
m
s
a
r
a

h
e
n
h
u


.

-
-
- -

- -

a
t
a
a
t
e
m
i
S
t
o
h
i
a
n
u
y
o

568

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

S. Expansion Drill
/ "with me"

HEBREW

UNIT

/iti

I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
o
r
:
I
'
1
1
g
o
t
o
s
c
h
o
o
l
.
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
:
1
'
1
1
g
o
t
o
s
c
h
o
o
l
,
a

569

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

n
d
M
o
s
h
e
w
i
l
l
g
o
w
i
t
h
m
e
.

570

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

ani elex lebet hasefer,

UNIT

vemoSe yelex iti.

ata telex
dov yelex

itxa.
ito.

xana telex
anu nelex
hem yelxu
atem telxu
at telxi
aten telexna
hen telexna

ita.
itanu.
itam.
itxem.
itax.
itxen.
itan.

.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

The unsuffixed form of this preposition is /et/, identical to the preposition /et/ indicating
a direct object. The unsuffixed form /et/ is used with the mean- ing "with" only in special
literary styles. In ordinary Hebrew the preposition /im/ is used, and /et/ is used for the direct
object. With the pronominal suffixes all three are in common use: /oti/ "me", /iti/, /imi/ "with
me".

T. Substitution Drill /iti ~ imi/


The student repeats the sentence, substituting the preposition /im-/. The drill
may then be done in reverse.

telex ita lakolnoa.


(ima)
tikxu et moSe itxem.

Yonatan will go with me this evening.


yonatan yelex iti haerev.
yonatan yelex imi haerev. axeilti
ito aruxat cohoraim. (imo)
mi hitkaser itxa haboker. (imxa)

(imaxem)
hen lo tikaxna et hasfarim itan.
(iman)
haim hem lamdu itax bebet hasefer? (imax)
haim hen garot itxen bebait exad? (imaxen)

Salaxnu et haxavila itam.


(imam)
hu roce linsoa itanu lexayfa.

(imanu) iSti

571

BASIC

15

HEBREW

UNIT

COURSE

)(

.
.
.

)(

?
.

) (

) (

.
.

)(

)(

)(

)(

?
?

)(

572

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

18.4 Clock Drills


A. The students cover this page, and the time
on the clocks.

instructor asks at random for the

What time is it on clock____________.

ma haSaa al Saon ___

573

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a
haSa
a

esrim dakot lifney axat.

Staim vareva.

Smone vaxec i.

reva leeser.

xameS dakot lifney SaloS.

eser dakot axarey arba.

esrim dakot lifney Staim.


xameS (bediyuk).
esrim vexameS dakot lifney
xameS.
axat'esre vareva.

.
.( )

.
.

reva leteSa.
esrim vexameS dakot axarey
Seva.
xameS dakot leaxat'esre.

.

.
.

xameS vexamiSa.

eser veasara.
Sm6ne veesrim.

.
.

teSa.
asara leSmone.
eser dakot axarey SeS.

.
..
.

Staim vaxeci.

574

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

GRAMMAR NOTES
18-5

The Expected Future


Note the following sentence from the Basic Conversation of this units

matay omdim hahorim lehagia. "when are your parents supposed to arrive?"
The construction /omdim lehagia/ (literally "stand to arrive") may also be translated
"expect to arrive". It is a paraphrase of the future with the added meaning of expectation.
The first verb, "stand" may occur in the past tense /amad/ in this construction. It then may
be translated "was supposed to have", and usually implies that the second verb did not
occur. hem amdu liknot bait, (velo kanu). "They were supposed to have bought a house.
(but didn't)" With the present tense it may mean "about to".
/hu omed lehagia./ "He is about to arrive."
A. Substitution-Agreement Drill
He's supposed to go to America, hu omed linsoa leamerika.
gveret zahavi - anu - hen ani dov - xana - hu

- - - -
-

575

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

B. Transformation Drill
Instructor: She'll receive a letter today.
Student: She's supposed to received a letter today.
.

.
hi tekabel^mixtav hayom.
hi omedet lekabel mixtav
hayom. moSe veiSto yiknu bait.
moSe veiSto omdim liknot
bait. hamiSpaxa tagia beod
xodeS.
hamiSpaxa omedet lehagia beod
xodeS. mar Williams yiSlax et
haxavila.

mar Williams omed liSloax et haxavila .


hanaSim tagana lifney .
.
xameS
hanaSim omdot lehagia lifney xameS .
.

576

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

C. Transformation Drill
Instructors I sent him a telegram. Student: I was supposed to
have sent him a telegram, but I didn't.
Salaxti lo mivrak.
amadeti liSloax 10 mivrak, velo Salaxti. kibalti et hagluya.
amadeti lekabel et hagluya, velo kibalti. hu kibel xavila haboker.
hu amad lekabel xavila haboker, velo kibel.
kaninu bait benatanya.
3
.P
3
!

amadnu liknot bait benatanya, velo kaninu. hem


higiu leiud etmoi.
.
hem amdu^lehagia lelud etmol, velo higu . sara
avra lebait xadaS.
.
sara amda laavor lebait xadaS, velo avra.. david
axal itanu haerev. / . david amad leexol itanu haerev,
velo axal..

577

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

18.6 /matay Se- /


Compare the following sentences:

/matay yagia hamatos./ "when will the plane arrive?"


/bidki matay Sehamatos yagia/ "check [as to] when the plane will arrive."
This is another example of an included sentence. [See Grammar Note 10.4 ] in this case the
included sentence is a question beginning with the interrogative /matay/"when". When the subject
is an independent noun, as /hamatos/ in the example above, the word order in the included
sentence, may differ from that of the original sentence.

/matay tagia hamiSpaxa Selxa./ "When will your family arrive?"


/emor li matay Setagia hamiSpaxa Selxa./ llm , , , ., . or / , .
* / Tell me when your family will arrive.
J
/emor 11 matay sehamispaxa selxa tagia./

v - v
1

A. Transformation Drill /matay ~ matay Se - /


In the following drill the instructor will ask a guestion beginning with /matay/
"When?". The student will respond by paraphrasing the same question with a sentence
beginning with /emor li matay Se-/ "Tell me when..."
Example: Instructor: matay tagia hamiSpaxa Selxa. "When will your family Student:
emor li matay Setagia ha;.:iSpaxa Selxa. "Tell me when yc
family will arrive".

arrive?"
your

The instructor may vary this drill by having the students respond with the feminine
form /imri/ or with a plural form /imru/ or /emorna/.

1.matay tavo.

?1.

.
2.matay nigaS lemoSe.

?2.
3 .
a
d
a
S
a
.

matay neiex lir'ot et haxanut h


a
x
?
3
.

4 . . matay
lamadeta ledaber ivrit.
?4.

matay tatxii bedieta.

?5.

.
6.matay raita et miryam.
3.matay ata roce

?6.

usioax mivrak.

.
?

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

578

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

REVIEW
CONVERSATIONS
A: ma haSaa. B: haSaa
Se bediyuk. A: toda

: ? :
.
. :

raba.

C:

lins
oa

matay

itxa

hahori

lexa

yfa.

Selxa

F:

omdim

tov.

lehagi

bera

a.

con.

D: beod

E:

yomaim

beey

ze

C: hem

Saa

hitka&

tisa

ru

. F:

itxa

beSe

telefo

va

nit?

vare

D: lo,

va.

hem
Salxu

G:

mixtav

mata

y
cari

E: ani

roca

moSe

579

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

lehagi

e.

a. H:

Is yeS

ani lo

lexa

yodaat

maspi

bediyu

k. G:

zman.

hu lo
hitkaS
er
itax?

H: lo,
hu
amar
SeyiSl
ax
mivrak
.

Is ata
nosea
lelud
haboke
r? J:

Ks
ani

meka
ve
Selo

nictar
ex
lexa
kot
harb
e
zman
.

L:
gam
ani
meka
va
kax.
K:
kama
zman
yikax
lahem
laavo
r et
hame
xes.
Ls

ken.

kexa
ci
Saa.

Is
beeyze
Saa
ata
nosea.

Ks
xaci
Saa?
ze lo
harbe
zman.
:

J:
beSmon

580

HEBREW

UNIT

:.

:.

.
:

581

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC

15

UNIT

COURSE

?
:.
:

?
:

.:

.
:

.
:

?
:

.
:
?

582

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

M:

bidki

matay

Sehama

tos

omed

lehagi

a.

N: ken.

etkaSe

miyad.

M: ani

xoSev

SebeSa

a SeS.

N: gam

ani

xoSeve

t kax.

583

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

O:

matay

omedet

hamiSpaxa
Selxa
lehagia.

P:

.
:

hamiSpaxa

Seli tagia

beod xodeS

yamim.

O: heyxan

taguru?

P: yesudar

avurenu bait

beramat gan.

O: ramat gan

hi ir yafa
meod.

.
:


.

584

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

Q: ma

lo
t
yi
ka
x
Sa
a,
Sa
at
ai
m.

at
xo
Se
ve
t?
yi
ka
x
le
mo
Se
ha
rb
e
zm
an
la
av
or
et
ha
me
xe
s?

R:

ke
n.
ki
ye
S
lo
ha
rb
e
xa
vi
lo
t.

Q: O

ke
n.
na
xo
n.
ad
Se
yi
vd
ek
u
et
ko
l
ha
xa
vi

585

BASIC

15

HEBREW

UNIT

COURSE

?
:

586

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

1 9 1 Calling Long Distance

A
t
a
r
a
,
d
o
y
o
u
k
n
o
w
t
h
e
t
e
l
e
p
h
o
n
e
n
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
U
n
c
l
e
R
e
u
v
e
n
?

C
a
l
l
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
.
D
i
a
l
"
z
e
r
o
"
.
information(servic
e)
he
dialed
zero
Y
O
N
A
T
A
N

a
t
a
r
a
.
a
t
y
o
d
a
a
t
e
t

N
o
.

m
i

s
p
a
r
h
a
t
e
l
e
f
o
n
S
e
l
h
a
d
o
d
r
e
u
v
e
n
?

dod (m)
doda (f)
ATARA

l
o
.
h
i
t
k
a
S
e
r
i
m
m
o
d
i
i
n
.
x
a
y
e
g
e

587

HEBREW

BASIC

15

UNIT

COURSE

fes.

mo
di
in
(m
.s
).
xi
ye
g
ef
es
,

.
.

588

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

H
e
l
l
o
,

R
e
u
v
e
n

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
?

D
u
v
d
e
v
a
n
i
,

P
l
e
a
s
e
g
i
v
e
m
e

J
a
f
f
a
S
t
r
e
e
t
7
6
.

a
n
u
m
b
e
r
i
n
H
a
i
f
a
.
T
h
e
n
a
m
e
i
s

T
h
e
n
u
m
b
e
r

d
i
a
l
d
i
r
e
c
t
o
r
t
h
r
o
u
g
h
l
o
n
g
d
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
,
n
u
m
b
e
r
1
9

YON
ATA
N

i
s
2
7
6
4
0
.
Y
o
u
c
a
n

UNIT

direct
conversation

h
a
l
o
,
m
o
d
i
i
n
?

589

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

t
n
i
l
i
b
e
v
a
k
a
S
a
m
i
s
p
a
r
b
e
x
a
y
f
a
.
h
a
&
e
m
h
u
reuven
duvdevani
. rexov
yafo
Siv 1 im
veSeS.
Sem (m)
Semot
(m.pl.)

.s.
)
six
a
(f)
.


-
,

-
.

INFORMA
TION

hamispar
hu
Staim
Seva SeS
arba
efes. ata
yaxol
lexayeg
yeSirot o
derex
sixot xuc
mispar
t&a'esre.

y
a
S
i
r
(
m

590

BASIC

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

T
h
a
n
k
y
o
u
.
I
'
l
l
m
a
k
e
t
h
e
c
a
l
l
t
h
r
o
u
g
h
n
u
m
b
e
r
1
9

e
m

UNIT

YONA
TAN

t
o
d
a
r
a
b
a
.
a
z
m
i
n
e
t
h
a
s
i
x
a
b

591

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

LONG DISTANCE sixot xuc.


Long
distance.
Hello.

. .

Salom.
P
l
Y
O

t
L
O

m
S
e

What is your number?

592

BASIC

BASIC COURSE

One moment.

HEBREW

. .

The line is
busy.
LONG DISTANCE
xake
rega.
hakav
tafus.

UNIT

line
occupied

kav
(m)
tafus
(m.s.
)

593

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

reads
Hello, Haifa
27640?
Tel Aviv
calling. Go
ahead please.

halo - xayfa
,
Staim
Seva
SeS
arba
e
f
e
s

koret.
.
dabru bevakaSa.
.
kore (m.s. pres.)

19-2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY


calls,

A call from a phone booth


costs 20 "grush",
booth
(old name for agora)
Tokens are sold
in every post office.
token
is
sold
he
sold

lehitkaSer im xuc
laarec xayeg
Smone'esre.

.

In order to find out what


time it is dial 15
To call
outside the country dial
18.
sixa mita telefon ola
esrim gruS.
ta (m) in order to
he
found
out
When the phone is out of order dial
16.
xayeg

.-


.-

-
.

out of
order he
damaged
gruS
(ittj)

asimonim nimkarim
bexol misrad doar.
asimon (m)
nimkar (m.s.)
maxar
kedey levarer ma
haSaa
xayeg xameS 1 esre.
kedey
birer
kSehatelefon mekulkal
esre.
mekulkal (m.s.) kilkel

594

tei aviv

BASIC COURSE

19.3

HEBREW

UNIT

Vocabulary Drills

A. Substitution-Agreement Drill
This drill may be done as a substitution drill using either verb as a
cue and also as an expansion drill.
Dial 15 and check the time.
xayeg xameS 1 esre ubdok ma haSaa.
xaygi vebidki
xaygu vebidku
xayegna ubdokna
(Both /u-/ and /ve-/ have been used


. -,,
. -
. -^
to illustrate possible variations).

595

BASIC COURSE_________________________________HEBREW ________________________________________UNIT

19

B. Substitution Drill / a - ~ te - /
I'11 dial direct to Rehovot.
axayeg yeSirot lerexovot.
at
hu
hi

texayeg
texaygi
yexayeg
texayeg
nexayeg
texaycju

at
em
at texayegna
en
hem yexaycju
hen texayegna

C. Substitution-Agreement Drill /xiyeg/ "he dialed"


He didn't dial the right number.
hu lo xiyeg et hamispar hanaxon . hi - ani
- at - hu hem - anu - ata - hi atem - hen hu

- - - - - -
- -

596

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

D. Substitution-Agreement Drill
The root of this verb is kr'
Miriam is calling us. Hurry.
miryam koret lanu. maharu.
"
k
o
r
e
/

dov - hem - hi - hen moSe


veiSto - hu - miryam

"
c
a
l
l
s
/
and it is conjugated like " find ".
, c

. .

- - - - -

597

E. Substitution-Agreement Drill /birer/

"he found out" We found

out Mrs. Zahavi"s address.


birarnu et haktovet Sei gveret zahavi.
atem - at - hu - hi
hem - ani - moSe - ata
xana - hen - anu

F. Substitution Drill

- - -
- - -
- -

/a - ~ te -/

I' 11 find out if the bus goes to Lydda.

tevarer

avarer im haotobus nosea leiud.

tevareri

hu yevarer
hi

tevarer
nevarer

ate
m

tevareru

aten tevarerna
he
m

yevareru

he
n

tevarerna

G. Substitution-Agreement Drill
She'll find out if Miriam is going.
hi tevarer im miryam nosaat .
ani - anu - hen - hu ata at - hem - hi

- - - - - -

598

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

H. Substitution-Agreement Drill


.
~

Moshe is checking when the plane arrives.


moSe mevarer matay Sehamatos megia. sara
mevareret anu mevarerim hen mevarerot
GRAMMAR NOTES
19.4 Adverbs

Adverbs or adverbial phrases are of several types.


(a)

The masculine singular form of the adjective is often used,


/at medaberet yafe./ "You speak beautifully " /tov asita./
"You did well "
This was discussed earlier in Grammar Note 10.5

(b)

The /t/ feminine singular of some adjectives ending in / - i / is used.


This is so with the ordinal numbers.
/Senit/ "secondly"
/SliSit/ "thirdly"
Note that the feminine singular form of the adjective "second" is /Snia/. There are some
adverbs of this type which have no corresponding masculine singular form.
/reSit/ "first" (cf. /riSon/)

(c)

The feminine plural adjective is sometimes used,


/xayeg yeSirot./ "Dial directly."

(d)

(e)

Some adverbs have unique forms, though with recognizable roots,


/kodem/ "early, preceding" (cf. /mukdam/) /heytev/
"well"
(/cf. /tov/)

The preposition /be-/ is often used with a corresponding noun.


/bekol/
"loudly"
/beemet/
"really"
/bediyuk/
"exactly"
/beracon/
"willingly"
/behexlet/ "decidely"
/bekarov/ "shortly"

(f)

Other prepositions are sometimes used,


/miyad/ "immediately"

19.5 The nif'al Conjugation - Present and Past Tenses


Compare the following forms.
/moxer/ "sells"

/nimkar/ "is sold"

599

/moce/ "find"
/roe/ "sees"

/nimca/ "is found"


/nir'e/ "is seen, seems"

Note that the meaning of the forms on the right is the passive or
intransitive of the verbs on the left.
Most nif'al verbs have a counterpart in the pa'al with the
corresponding active meaning. A few have active counterparts in the pi'el or
hif'il. The correspondence of form is sometimes remote in the English
translations, but the Hebrew speaker has a definite feeling for the basic
meaning of the root.
1. Prefix of the nif'al:
The present and past tenses of the nif'al have a prefix to the root. The
prefix is / ni - / except in the following cases:
(a) If the first consonant of the root is / x / ( ) then the prefix is
/ne-/.
/nexav/ "is considered"

b)If the first consonant of the root is / / ( or ) then the form begins
/ne'e-/ with the /'/ usually replaced by a smooth transition.
/ne'exal/ or /neexal/ "eaten"

c)If the first consonant is /'/ represented by , the form may begin /na'a
or, with smooth transition, /naa-/.
/naase/ "done, made"

d)If the first consonant of the root is /h/ then the form begins /nehe-/.
/nehedar/ "wonderful"

(e) If the f irst consonant of the root is y;


coalesce to /no-/, spelled _ _. compare this with
informed" in Grammar Note 17*7
/yada/ "he Knew"

/yalda/
/noda/ "known"

/nolda/

then the prefix and the y


the comment on /hodia/ "he
"she gave birth"
"she was born"

2. Alternation of root consonants in the nif'al:'


(a) If the first radical is n , then it is dropped in the present and past
tenses
/natan/ "he gave"
/nitan/ "was given" for */nintan/
(b)If the first radical is b or , then it

occurs as /v/ or /f/, respectively.

/badak/ "he checked"


/nivdak/ "was checked"
/patax/ "he opened"
/niftax/ "was opened"

600

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

[Note the designation /nif*al/ itself.]


(c)If the first radical is k, spelled , then it occurs as /x/. However, the prefix is /ni-/, not
/ne-/ as with /x/ spelled

/nixnas/ "he entered"


but /nex^av/ "is considered"
(d)If the second radical is b or , then it occurs as /b/ or /p/,
respectively.

/niSbar/ "was broken"


/niSpax/ "was spilled"

(e)If the second radical is k, spelled , then it occurs as /k/.


/nimkar/ "is sold"

There is an exception to rules (d) and (e). If the second radical is preceded by /nee/ or
/no/ then the variants /v/, /f/, and /x/ occur.
/neevad/ "lost"
/neefe/ "baked"
/neexal/ "eaten"

There are other relatively minor features of the present and past tense
forms of the nif'al which should be learned by the student as they are met, but
which need not be discussed here. A more complete description of the consonant
alternations is given in Unit 23
19-6 The Present Tense of the nif'al

The pattern of the present tense is as follows: (The prefix is given as /ni-/ since this is the
most frequent form.)
m.s.
/ni - f.s.
/ni - m.pl. /ni - f.pl. /ni - -

a
e
a
a

/ nimkar
et/ nimkeret
im/ nimkarim
ot/ nimkarot

The feminine singular always ends in /-t/, even in lamed hey verbs.
m.s. /nir'e / "seems"
f.s. /nir'et/

This is the exception to the f.s. /-a/ endings mentioned in Grammar Note
8.4a and section 16.3, Drill B. It avoids confusion with the 3 m.s. past tense
form /nir'a/ "he seemed".
When the third root consonant is
(V ) or x ( ) the feminine singular
has
the suffix / - at/. Cf. m.s. /Somea/ f.s. /Somaat/ "hears"
m.s. /niSma/ "is heared"

f.s. /ni&maat/

601

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

) the feminine singular ends in /-et/.


When the third root consonant is (
m.s. /nimca/ "is located"
f.s. /nimcet/

- -

is eaten"

A. Substitution-Agreement Drill /nimkar/

.
- -
- -

Tokens are sold in the post office.


asimonim nimkarim badoar .
bulim - gluyot - igrot avir maatafa - bul - gluya
- asimonim

is heard"

B Substitution-Agreement Drill /neexal/ Chala is

Ml 1

.
- - -
- - -

eaten on the Sabbath.


xala neexelet beSabat .
dagim memulaim - ugot - basar beycim melafefonim - xala

"is considered"

C Substitution-Agreement Drill /niSma/

He is heard well over the phone.

- - -
- -

hu niSma tov batelefon .


iSti - hem - ata - aten yonatan - sara - atem hu
,

s e e m s

D.Substitution-Agreement Drill /nexSav/ She is


.

considered a good teacher.


hi nexSevet lemora tova.
ata - kulam - sara veatara iStexa - anu - hu - hi

E.Substitution-Agreement Drill /nir'e/ They don 1 t


look well today.
hem lo nlr'im tov hayom .
at - sra vexana - ata baalex - hi - aten - hem

is s

.
- - -

602

- - -
- -

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

Substitution-Agreement Drill /nimca/ "is located" The books are in my house.

hasfarim mmcaim bebeyti.


.
haoxel - haSulxanot - haxala - habakbuk
- - -
hateenim - hakufsa - haxavilot - hasfarim - - -

The following drills require the student to transform a sentence with the verb in the kal
(pa'al) conjugation into a more-or-less eguivalent sentence with the verb in the nif'al
conjugation. The drills should also be done in reverse.
The native English speaker is often stunned when the Hebrew speaker assumes, for example,
that the meaning of
/histadirnu tov./
"we got along wel] "
should be clear from /seder/ "order". The astonishment is increased when he adds, " You know
/yesudar/ ,will be arranged) don't you'" The point is that the Hebrew speaker is primarily aware
of the consonant sequence s-d-r, and the English speaker is not.
English has only a few comparable patterns (sing - sang - sung - song), but each of these is
unigue. (There is the pattern ring-rang-rung, but not rong.) Similarities of spelling tram the
English speaker to be unaware of others, such as democrat - democracy , which do not share a
single vowel in pronunciation in corresponding syllables.
It cannot be emphasized too strongly that the student must learn to handle the roots,
conjugations, and paradigms with great ease. Most students will learn to "encode" the forms
without much trouble, but drilling should be continued until correct forms and sentences are
produced rapidly and automatically.

G. Transformation Drill
Instructor: [They] sell tokens at the post office. Student: Tokens are sold at the post
office.

.( g
.

1.moxnm asimonim badoar.


asimonim nimkar1m badoar.

.( h
.

2.moxrim gluyot badoar.


gluyot nimkarot badoar.

.( i
.

3 moxrim igrot avir badoar.


lgrot avir nimkarot badoar.

.( j
.

moxrim maatafa badoar. maatafa


nimkeret badoar.

.( k
.

5 moxrim bul badoar.


bul nimkar badoar.
6. moxrim gluya badoar.
gluya nimkeret badoar.
7 moxrim bulim badoar.
bulim nimkar1m badoar.

.( e
.
.( f
.

603

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

H.Transformation

Drill

Instructor: We eat chala on the Sabbath.


Student: chala is eaten on the Sabbath.
I.anu oxiim xaia beSabat.
xala neexelet beSabat.
2.

.1.
.

anu oxiim basar beSabat.


basar neexal beSabat.

3 anu oxiim dagim memuiaim beSabat.


beXabat. .

. 2.

.3. dagim memuiaim neexalim

4. anu oxiim ugot beSabat.


ugot neexalot beSabat.

.4.
.

5 anu oxiim perot beSabat.


perot neexalim beSabat.

.5.
.

6. anu oxiim beycim be&abat.


beycim neexalot beSabat.

.6.
.

19-7 The Past Tense of the nif'al


1.s. /nia-ti/ niSlaxti
2.m.s. /nia-ta/ niSlaxta
f.s. /nia-t / niSlaxt
m.s. /ni--a- / ni&lax
f.s,. /ni
a / niSlexa

The pattern of the past tense is as follows: Six


"I was sent"
"you were sent" 2.
"you were sent" 3
"he was sent" 3
"she was sent"

1 . pi. /nia-nu/
2 . m.pl./nia-tem/

niSlaxnu'
ni^laxtem
f.pl./nia-ten/ niSlaxten
3pi. /ni
u/
ni&lexu

"we were sent"


"you were sent" 2.
"you
were
sent"
"they were sent.

There are no surprises at all in the above chart. The first and second person forms differ
only in the suffixes, as described back in Grammar Note 5*4. The pattern of the third person
forms is quite regular, as described in Grammar Note C.9 and 16.4. The / - e - / in 3 f.s. and
3 Pi /niSlexa , niSlexu/ is introduced to break up the three-consonant cluster which results
in these forms.
The past tense of lamed hey verbs has the vowel / e / before the suffix.
/nir'eti/ "I was seen"

A. Substitution-Agreement Drill /niSlax/

"was sent" I was sent to the grocery store.

niSiaxti lexanut hamakoiet.


hem - moSe - dalya - anu
ata - at - atara - ani

- - -
- - -

B. Substitution-Agreement Drill /nifgaS/ "met" We got together with


Dov this morning.
.

nifgaSnu im dov haboker.


ani - aviva - baali - hen

cy

- - -

604

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

- - -

ata - atem - hem - anu

C. Substitution-Agreement Drill /nigaS/ "approached"


(This verb is irregular in that in the present and past tenses it is conjugated in the nif'al , but in
the imperative and future it is conjugated in the pa'al . The future was drilled in Grammar
Section 13.6, Drills G & H.)
I went to the main post office.
n i g a S t i

l a d o a r

h a m e r k a z i .

hi - dov - atem - anu


at - david veyonatan -ani

- - -
- -

The following drills should be done in reverse, also. D. Transformation Drill /niSlax/ "was sent"
1
Instructor: They sent me to the store. Student: I was sent to the store.

605

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

Salx
u
Salx
u
Salx
u

oti laxanut.

niSlaxti laxanut.
otxa laxanut.

niSlaxta laxanut.

et moSe laxanut.

otanu laxanut.

otxem laxanut.

. :

lea niSlexa laxanut.


otax laxanut.

Salx
u

otan laxanut.

Salx
u

otam laxanut.

Salx
u

otxen laxanut.

Salx
u

oti laxanut.

et lea laxanut.

Salx
u

niSlaxtem laxanut.
Salx
u

niSlaxnu laxanut.
Salx
u

moSe niSlax laxanut.


Salx
u

niSlaxt laxanut.

hen niSlexu laxanut.

hem niSlexu laxanut.

niSlaxten laxanut.

niSlaxti laxanut.

E. Transformation Drill /nifgaS/ "met" Instructors I met Yael the day


before yesterday.
Student: I got together with Yael the

day before yesterday.

pagaSti et yaei SiiSom.


.
nifga&ti im yael SilSom.
.
iti pagSa et yaei SiiSom.
.
i S t i n i f g e S a i m y a e l S i l S o m . .
hu pagaS et yaei SiiSom.
.

606

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

hu nifgaS im yael SilSom.


.
pagaSta et yaei S
i
i
S
o
m
.
.

nifgaSta im yael SilSom.


.
atem pagaStem et yaei SiiSom.
.
a t e m n i f g a S t e m i m y a e l S i l S o m . .

pagaSnu et yaei^SiiSom.

nifgaSnu im yael SilSom.


pagaSt e t y a e i S i i S o m .

mi nifgaS im yael S i l & o m .


p a g S u
e t
y a e i
S u S o m . .
hem nifge&u im yael Sil&om.
pagaSten et yaei S
i
i
S
o
m
.
.

nifgaSten im yael SilSom.


pagaSti e t y a e i ^ i i S o m .
n i f g a S t i i m y a e l SilSom.

.
?

nifgaSt im yael SilSom.


mi pagaS et yaei SiiSom.
h e m

F. Transformation Drill /niSma/ "was heard"


Instructor: We heard well over the
phone. Student: We were heard well over
the phone.

Samanu tov batelefon.


niSmanu tov batelefon.
Samatem tov batelefon.
niSmatem tov batelefon.
Samati tov batelefon.
ni&mati tov batelefon. moXe
Sama tov batelefon.
moSe niSma tov batelefon. hem
Sam'u tov batelefon.
hem niSme'u tov batelefon.
Samat tov batelefon.
niSmat
tov
batelefon.
iStexa Sam 1 a tov batelefon.
iStexa niSme'a tov batelefon.
Samaten tov batelefon.
niSmaten tov batelefon.
Samata tov batelefon.
ni&mata tov batelefon.
.

607

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

G. Transformation Drill /nir'a/ "was seen"


Instructor: He saw me in the Dan Hotel.
Student: I was seen in the Dan Hotel.
hu raa oti bemalon dan.
nir'eti bemalon dan.
hu raa otxd bemalon dan.
nir"eta bemalon dan.
hu raa otanu bemalon dan.
nir'enu bemalon dan.
hu raa otax bemalon dan.
nir'et bemalon dan.
hu raa et moSe bemalon dan.
moSe nir'a bemalon dan.
hu raa otan bemalon dan.
hen nir'u bemalon dan.
hu raa et sara bemalon dan.
sara nir'ata bemalon dan.
hu raa otxem bemalon dan.
nir'etem bemalon dan.
hu raa otxen bejnalon dan.
nir'eten bemalon dan.
hu raa otam bemalon dan.
hem nir'u bemalon dan.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.

608

.
.

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

H. Transformation Drill /nivdak/ "was checked"


Instructor: The doctor examined us. Student:
We were examined by the doctor.
harofe badak otanu.
.
nivdaknu al yedey harofe.
.
harofe badak et baalex.
.
baalex nivdak al yedey h
a
r
o
f
e
.

harofe badak otxem.


.
nivdaktem al yedey harofe.
.
harofe badak oti.
.
nivdakti al yedey harofe.
.
harofe badak otax.
.
nivdakt al yedey harofe.
.
harofe badak otxa.
.
nivdakta al yedey harofe.
. =
harofe badak et kulam.
. 5
1
kulam nivdeku al yedey harofe.. harofe badak et
isto.
.
iSto nivdeka al yedey 1
^
0
*
6
.

harofe badak otxen.


.
nivdakten al yedey harofe.
.
harofe badak otan.
.
hen nivdeku al yedey h
a
r
o
f
e
.
.

609

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

I. Transformation Drill /nisgar/ "was closed"


Instructors They locked me in the office.
Student: I was locked in the office.

.
.
.
dov veata nisgartem bamisrad. sagru et baala Sel
.

xana bamisrad.
.
baala Sel xana nisgar bamisrad. sagru otanu
.:
bamisrad.
.
nisgarnu bamisrad. sagru otax bamisrad.
.
nisgart bamisrad. sagru otxen bamisrad.
.
nisgarten bamisrad. sagru et moSe veet david
.
bamisrad.
.
moSe vedavid nisgeru bamisrad. sagru ota
.
bamisrad.
.


hi nisgera bamisrad. sagru oto bamisrad.
.
hu nisgar bamisrad.
.
.
.
.
J. Transformation Drill /nexSav/ "was considered"

sagru oti bamisrad.

nisgarti bamisrad. sagru otxa veet dov bamisrad.

Instructors They considered you a good teacher.


Students You were considered a good teacher.

xaSvu otxa lemore tov.


nexSavta lemore tov.
xaSvu otax lemora tova.
nexSavt lemora tova.
xaSvu otam lemorim tovim.
hem nexSevu lemorim tovim.
xaSvu otxen lemorot tovot.
nexSavten lemorot tovot.
xaSvu otxem lemorim tovim.
nexSavtem lemorim tovim.
xaSvu ot^nu lemorim tovim.
nexSavnu lemorim tovim.
xaSvu oto lemore tov.
hu nexSav lemore tov.
xaSSvu et iti lemora tova.
iSti nexSeva lemora tova. xaSvu et
sara veet raxel lemorot tovot.
sara veraxel nexSevu lemorot tovot.
xaSvu oti lemore tov.
nexSavti lemore tov.

610

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

RAfiIC COURSE

HEBRE
W

R
E
V
I
E
W

C
O
N
V
E
R
S
A
T
I
O
N
S


A: ? ?
at yodaat et
mispar
hatelefon
Sei david

. :

611

UNIT

19

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE


. .
B:
10

K AX

ASIMON
VEHITKASER IM
MODIIN

:

?
A: ?
eyn kan
sefer
telefonim

:

.
B: .
ani 10 roa
sefer
te1ef6nim

C:

x
o

ma
haS
aa.

D:
ani

S
e
v
e
t

612

BASIC

SeS

eS.

C:

xay
egi
xam
eS'
esr
e
veb
idk
i.
D:

m
S
e
S
'
e
s
r
e
.

E;

ama
rti
lax
Seh
aSa
a
SeS
.

E:

h
i
t
k
a
S
a
r
t

hat

ele

fon

mek

ulk

al.

F:

a
k

hit
kaS

a
v

613

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

taf
us.

F:

e
f
S
a

xay

gi

od

hap

aam

G;

k
a

hiz

man

ti

six

lex

eyf

a.

Hs
lam
a
lo
hit
ka&
art
a
ye&
iro
t?

Gs

o
t
l
e
x
e
y
f
a
?

H
:

614

BASIC

e
ken

beh

o
S

exl

et.

I:

lea
n

i
n
o
t

ata

hol

ex?

l
a

J:

niS

lax

ti

lex
anu
t

m
a

ham
ako
let
.
I:
mi

a
s
i
t
a

Sal
ax
otx
a?

JS

h
a
b

niS

lax

ti
al
yed

e
r

615

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

n
i

g
a

g
a

S
t

:
i
e

f
o

b
e

616

BASIC

N
a

M:

hit
kaS
arn
u
etm
ol
im
xay
fa.

N:
eyx
hem
niS
meu
?
M:

Sam
anu
ota
m
hey

i
b
a
r
t
e
m
?
M
:

d
i
b
a
r
n
u
i
m
k
o
l

617

BASIC

15

HEBREW

UNIT

COURSE

ham
iSp
axa
.

:1

?
:

.
:

.
:

618

619

.
:

.
:

.
:

BASIC

15

HEBREW

UNIT

COURSE

620

.
:

?
:

.
:

?
:

:
?

?
:

? :

621

UNIT

15

HEBREW

COURSE

?
:

622

BASIC

.
O:
nod
a
lan
u
Sea
t
nim
cet
bet
el
avi
v.
Ps

mea
in
nod
a
lax
em?
O:

a
n
i
g
a
r
a
S
a
m
.
Qs
ey
fo
ha
it
a
et
mo
l
ba
la

nir

yl

'et

a.

bem

R:

alo
n
dan
.
P:

ni
sg
ar
ti
ba

ken

mi

623

BASIC

15

HEBREW

UNIT

COURSE

sra

d.

Q:

eyx
ze

kar
?a

?
:

624

hade let
nisgera velo
yaxoiti nftoax
o
t
a
.
:

T
S
T
S

S:

nexSa

625

R:

vti
lemor
e
tov.

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

20.1 Hot weather


W
h
a
t
a
h
o
t
d
a
y
I

A
xom (m)

hea
t

hitraxe
c
YONATAN

ze
raayon
mecuyan

lisxo
t
saxa

to
swim
he
swam

betax
lavetax
xamsin
(m)

Y
e
s
.
I
t
'
s
f
o
r
s
u
r
e
a
c
h
a
m
s
i
n
.

D
sure for sure
desert heat wave

DAVID
bo nelex
lehitrax
ec
bayam.

Come let" s
go
bathing
in the ocean.
he bathed

T
h

idea
excellent

r
a
m
e

D
o
D
A

626

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

xy
an
(m
)
sa
xy
an
it
(f
)

Y
e
Y
O
N
A
T
A
N
W
h
a
t

ur
op
in
io
n
we
wi
ll
go
(b
y
ve
hi
cl
e)

d
o
y
o
u
t
h
i
n
k
Fine.
T
h
e

a
b
o
u
t

b
e
a
c
h

g
o
i
n
g

t
h
e
r
e

t
o
H
e
r
z
l
i
y
a
h
?

i
s
v
e
r
y
p
i
n
i
o
n
y
o

n
i
c
e
.

.
.
?

swimme
r
swimme
r

beac
h,
shor
e,

627

.:

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

YONATA
N
ma daatxa
Menisa
leherceli
ya?

c
o
a
s
t
b
e
a
c
h
e
s
,
s
h
o
r
e
s
,
e
t
c
.

UNIT

atxa
nisa
DAV
ID
b
e
r
a
c
o
n
.
h
a
x
o
f
S
a
m
y
a
f
e

d
e
a
(
f
)
d
a

m
e
o
d
.

xof
(m)
xupi
m
(m.p
l)

628

BASIC

20.2

COURSE

weather

cold

i
s
RUT
H
k
YOS

v
a
r

h
i
g
i
a winte
.r
xoref (m)

RUT
H

EF
k
e
D
o
e
s

i
m
y
o
r
e
d

s
n
o
w

k
a
n

f
a
l
l
h
e
r
e
?

At times.
When
it's
very
cold.

UNIT

I
t

h
a

HEBREW

descend
ed snow

S
e
l
e
g
?
yar
ad

Sele
g

(m)

Y
O
S
E
time times F

at times

629

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

l
e
i
t
i
m
.
k
S
e
k

a
r

t
i
f
u
l

l
i
k
e
s
n
o
w
v
e
r
y
m
u
c
h
.

he
liked,
loved

Yes.
I
t
"
s
a
b
e
a
u

m
e
o
d
.

et (f)

itim

leitim

s
i
g
h
t
.

sight,
vision
lovely,
nice

H
a
v
e
y
o
u
e
v
e
r
s
e
e
n
s
n

630

BASIC

o
w
?

COURSE

RU
TH

ani
meo
d
ohe
vet
Sel
eg.
ahav
YO
SE
F
ken.

ze
mar 1
e
nex
mad
.
mar' e
nexmad

R
U
T
H

HEBREW

UNIT

h
a
i
m
r
a
i
t
a
S
e
l
e
g
?
Y
O
S
E
F

3D
K

.
.

631

UNIT

15

HEBREW

BASIC

COURSE

Sure. Once.
In Jerusalem.

betax. paam
axat.
beyeruSalai
m.

20.3
ADDITIONAL

VOCABULARY

The

sun

is

shining.
sun
it shined
The wind is blowing.
wind (it)
blew
haSemeg zoraxat.
SemeS (f)
zarax
haruax noSevet.

ruax (f)
naSva(3f<s)

632

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

The sky is clouding up.


The sky is cloudy.

The clouds are gray.

haananim afurim.
a
n
a
n

clo
ud
gra
y

(m.s.)

In a little while it
will rain.
a little, few
rain
It's bitter cold.
col
d
dog
The weather is
strange.
temperament weather
odd, strange
It's very hot
here in the
summer.

(
m
)
haSamaim
mit'anenim.

haSamaim
meunanim.

a
for

od meat
yered
geSem.
kor klavim.

meat
geSem
(m)

kor (m)
kelev
(m)

summer
mezeg haavir meSune.
mezeg (m) mezeg
avir
meSune (m.s.)

kan xam meod bakaic.


kaic (m)

633


.
.

HEBREW

UNIT

15

BASIC

20.4 VOCABULARY DRILLS

In the following drills verbs are presented in tenses other thanCOURSE


those of the Basic Sentences. The student should learn to assimilate consonantal
root patterns. A resume of the tenses of each binyan will be given later. In the
meantime the student should thoroughly drill the verbs as they occur.

(a)

/hitraxec/ "he bathed"

The root of this verb is rxc , and in the kal it means "to wash something".
In the hitpa'el it is reflexive and means "to wash oneself, bathe, etc.," In ordinary
speech it is completely regular. In deliberate speech some forms have an inserted /a/:
/hitraxci ~ hitraxaci/ (f.s. imv.)

A. Substitution Drill
Get washed. It's latel

B.

hitraxec. haSaa meuxeret".


hitraxci
hitraxcu
hitraxecna

1 .

Substitution Drill /e - ~ ti - /
I'11 bathe in the ocean tomorrow.

etraxec bayam maxar.


titraxec
. titraxci
hu yitraxec
hi titraxec
nitraxec
atem titraxcu
aten titraxecna
hem yitraxcu
hen titraxecna
veraxel - hu - ani

C. Substitution-Agreement Drill

I bathe in cold water every day.

.!

- -
- -

ani mltraxec bemalm karim kol boker.


hem - avva - kol hamiSpaxa sara

D. Substitution-Agreement Drill
We bathed in the ocean when we were in Herzliah.
.

hitraxacnu bayam kSehaynu behercelia.


kSehaiti - kSehu haya - kSehait
klehaita - k^ehayta - k^ehayu
kSehaiten - kehatem - kSehainu
- - -
- - -

634

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
/mecuyan/ "excellent"

haoxel Sam mecuyan.


haglida - hadagim - haugot
haxala - haavir - haxof

E. SubstitutionAgreement Drill

The food there is excellent.

- - -
-

F.Substitution-Agreement Drill /nexmad/ "nice"


Miriam's husband is very nice.
h a b a a l

S e l

m i r y a m

n e x m a d

m e o d .


iSto - kulam - kol hanaSim
hayoec haxadaS - hadod Selax

- -
-

G.Substitution-Agreement Drill /afor/ "gray"


The building is gray. habinyan afor.
haSamaim - haonia - hamaatafot habulim - habait Sela hakelev

H. Transformation Drill
Instructor: What do you think of the weather?
Student: What is your opinion about the weather?

-
-

.1

1.ma ata xoSev al mezeg haavir.


ma daatxa al mezeg haavir.
2.ma hem xoSvim al mezeg haavir.
ma daatam al mezeg haavir.
3 ma hi xoSevet al mezeg haavir.
ma daata al mzeg haavir.
ma aten xoSvot al mezeg haavir.
ma daatxen al mizeg haavir.
5 ma hen xoSvot al mizeg haavir.
ma daatan al mizeg haavir.

.2

? .3

? .4

? .5

? .6

6. ma

at xoSevet al mezeg haavir.


ma daatex al mezeg haavir.
7. ma atem xoSvim al mizeg haavir.
ma daatxem al mizeg haavir.
8 ma hu xoSev al mezeg haavir.
ma daato al mezeg haavir.

? .

? .8

.9

9. ma xoSevet iStexa al mizeg haavir.

ma daat iStexa al mezeg h

635

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

GRAMMAR NOTES

20-5 Further Remarks on lamed hey Verbs


It has been noted in previous units that lamed hey verbs
have many features in common regardless of the binyan. The
following are other characteristics of this type of verb.
(a) Infinitives
Compare these two columns:
"

/l i r ' o t /

,,

to

finish"

see"

pi' el

/l e x a k o t / " t o w a i t

/ledaber/"to

hif' il
/lehazmin/"to invite" /lehar
o t / " t o s h o w "

kal

speak"

/ligmor/ "to


hitpa'el /lehitraxec/"to bathe" /lehitmanot/"to be
appointed"
Note that the lamed hey verb infinitives on the right
resemble other infinitives of the same binyan except that
they have the ending /-ot/ after the second root consonant.

A. Transformation Drill
Instructor: He sees the
building. Student: He wants
to see the building.
1 . hu

roe et habinyan.
hu roce lir'ot et habinyan.
2 . hu pone eiav beivrit.
hu roce lifnot elav beivrit.

.1.
.

.2.
.

3 ani nitmaneti laSagrirut betel aviv.


ani roce lehitmanot laSagrirut betel

.3.
aviv.

4. h e m

s o x i m b a y a m h a y o m .
. 4 .

h e m r o c i m l i s x o t b a y a m h a y o m . .

5 a l i n u l a a r e c h a S a n a .

.5.

anu rocim laalot laarec haSana.

6. hu hera 1i et hasefer h

636

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

hu roce lehar'ot li et hasefer


haxada.
7 ani lo axake ad Sehem yagiu.
.7.
ani lo r o c e l e x a k o t a d S e h e m y a g i u . .

8.a n u n i t r a e m a x a r b e S t a i m .
.8.
a n u r o c i m l e h i t r a o t m a x a r b e S t a i m . .

9.ma at kona?
m a

a t

r o c a

l i k n o t ?

637

?9.

UNIT

UNIT

(b) y .

BASIC

HEBREW

22

as

COURSE

third radical of lamed hey verbs.

In earlier grammar notes lamed hey verbs were treated as verbs with only two root
consonants. Since the 3 m.s. past tense form of these verbs always ends in hey ()
traditional Hebrew grammar treats it as the third radical. However, note the following
pair of forms:

/saxa/
"he I

swam /saxyan/"s w I
I

imme r
The latter form has a third consonant /y/ before the suffix /-an/. In derived
forms of lamed hey verb roots the consonant /y/ is often used as a third radical.
The first and second person past tense forms are spelled with a yud
though it represents a vowel in pronunciation, e.g., /kaniti/ .

( ),

B. Transformation Drill
Instructor: He swims well. Student: He is a good swimmer.
.

.1


2. haim at soxa tov?

? .2

haim at saxyanit tova?

. .3

3 atem soxim tov meod.


atem saxyanim tovim meod.
4. atara vexana soxot tov meod.
atara vexana saxyaniot tovot m
e
o
d


.
.

638

.4

1. hu soxe tov.
hu saxyan tov

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

20
20 .6 Verbs with Initial Radical ^
Some of the verbs whose first root consonant is have irregular characteristics in the infinitive, imperative and future tense of the kal. In these forms
the y does not occur, and the prefix and stem vowels are /e/.
/yered geSem./ (literally) "Rain will come down".
(The /y/ in this example is the 3 masc. prefix, not part of the root.) The
stark imperative of this verb is simply:
m.s. /red/
f.s. /redi/
m.pl. /redu/
f.pl. /redna/
The infinitive of these verbs has this pattern:
la C2e C3et /laredet/ "to go down"
The rest of the kal conjugation is regular:
present: /yored/
past : /yarad/
Other verbs of this type which have occurred so far are:
ySv "sit " - infinitive: /laSevet/ yld "give birth" - infinitive:
/laledet/
The verb hlx "go" is similar to these, except that in the present and past
tenses the first radical is h, rather than y : Infinitive /lalexet/
The verb yd' "know" is similar to these, also, except that the stem vowel
is /a/ because of the third radical which is spelled with .
Imperative: /da/ Infinitive: /ladaat/
[Remember - these verbs have vav ( )in other binyanim : ]
11
/nolad/ "was born"
brought"

II II
/horid/ "brought down" /hoSiv/ "caused to sit /holix/ "led,
II

/hodia/ "informed"

A. Substitution Drill
Go down there, and don't come up.

/1 _ / _ / 11 _ I _____________3 11
I

. ,
)

639

()
()
)!
(

red Sama, veal taale.

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

B. Response Drill
Instructor: Come down with me.
Student: I don't want to go down
red iti. ,
ani lo roce laredet itxa.
.
redi iti, /
ani lo roca laredet itxa.
.
redu iti. .
anu lo rocim lare'det itxa.
.
redna iti. ^
anu lo rocot lare'det itxa.

COURSE

with you.
.

C. Response Drill
Instructor: Where will you sit? Student: I like to sit near the door.
eyfo teSev.
, ?
ani ohev laSe'vet al yad hade'let. . eyfo
t e S v i . , , , ?
ani ohevet laSe'vet al yad hade'let. .
eyfo^teSvu.
?
anu ohavim laSevet al yad hade'let. .
eyfo^teSevna. ? anu ohavot laSevet al yad hadelet..

D. Response Drill
Instructor: When are they going? Student: They have to go right now.
?

matay hem holxim.


hem
crixim
lalexet
miyad. matay hi hole'xet.
hi crixa lalexet miyad.
matay ata holex.
ani carix lalexet miyad.
matay hen holxot.
hen crixot lalexet miyad.
E.

?.

Substitution Drill
da lifney mi ata omed.
de'i (at omedet)
de'u (atem omdim]
dana (aten omdot)

(
(
()

Know before whom you are standing.



F. Substitution-Agreement Drill
I'11 know the results

tomorrow .
ani eda et hato caot
640

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
maxar. &ta - hu - at kulam inu
- aten - atem - hen hayoec iSto Sel dov - ani
.

- - -
- - -
- -

641

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

20.7 Loss of n before consonants


Compare these two columns:
/natan/ "he gave"
/yiten/ "he will give"
/nasanu/"we travelled" /nisa/ "we will travel"
The forms on the right illustrate a frequent occurrence - namely the loss of n
immediately before another consonant. The rule may be formulated thus:
*-VnCV- -VCVThis loss of n most frequently occurs in verbs whose first root consonant is
n. For example, the forms on the right might have been expected to be
*/yinten/ and */ninsa/.
(In the first and second person past tense forms of /natan/, the
radical n is lost: /natati/, instead of */natanti/. However, this
only verb in which a third radical n is dropped before a suffix. In
infinitive /latet/ both n's have been lost.;

third
is the
the

This loss does not generally occur in the infinitive of these verbs:/linsoa/ "to
travel" and it does not occur if the second root consonant is h or : /yinhag/ "he
will drive".
The n is missing in the stark imperative of some of these verbs:
m.s. /sa/ "travel"
f.s. /se'i/ m.pl. /se u/
fpl. /sana/
[This loss of n has been noted earlier. In Grammar Note 17^7 it was noted
for hif'il forms: - /hikir/ "he recognized",from the root nkr . In Grammar Note 195 it was noted for nif'al forms: /nitan/ "was given", instead of */nintan/. ]
A. Substitution-Agreement Drill
We'11 go to Safed if the weather will be hot.
nisa liefat im m^zeg haavir yihye xam.

ani - atem - hem - gveret kohen


aten - at - hem - hen
hu - dov veiSto - hi - anu

- - -
- - -
- - -

B. Substitution Drill

Go to Safed. The air there


is excellent.

642

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

. 1
?
. 2 ?
. 3 ?
. 4 ?
. 5
?
. 6
? . ?
. 7
?
. 8
? .10
?

sa licfat. haavir Sam mecuyan. se' i se' u sana


. .

RAPID RESPONSE PRILL

?1.ma amar yonatan al mezeg haavir


2.lean roce david lalexet? 3 ma
?xoSev yonatan al ze
?haim yonatan yodea lisxot
?5 haim gam david yodea lisxot
?6. haim haxof beherceliya hu yafe
?7 matay yored Seleg
?8. lama ohev yosef et haSeleg
?9 kama peamim raa yosef Seleg
?10. heyxan hu raa et haSeleg

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

: .
: . .
: . .
:

: .
: . .
:

, . .

: , .
:

: .
:

. .

643

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

: ?
: , . . : .
: ?
: ..
: . ?
: . .
: . : . .
: . : .
: .
: ?
: . ,. ; .
: .
: , .

644

UNIT

22

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
21.1 Going to the Theater
YONATAN
Hello, Atara
Hello David.
How are you?

Salom
atara,
Salom
david. ma Slomxem.
DAVID

Thank you.
We're
fine.
How
are you?

toda raba. Slomenu tov.


ma Slomxa ?

,
.

?
.
.
?

YONATAN
Fine,
thank
s.
What
are
your
plans
for
Satur
day
night
?
tov
toda.
ma
hatox
niyot
Selax
em
lemoc
aey
Sabat
?

645

UNIT

UNIT

HEBREW

22

DAVID
I
t
h
i
n
k

a
n
i

showed
film,
ribbon

x
o
S
e
v

w
e
'
1
1
g
o
to
the
Mugra
bi
Theat
er.
They'
re
showi
ng a
good
film
there
.

S
e
n
e
l
e
x
lekol
noa
mugra
bi.
mecig
im
Sam
seret
tov.
mecig
show
(m.s.p
res.)

hicig
seret
(m)

ATARA
J
u
s
t

ust,
it
so
happ
ens
show
,
pres
enta
tion
a
n
i
d
a
v
k
a

w
a
n
t
t
o
s
e
e
a
s
h
o
w
.

i
r
'
o
t
h
a
c
a
c
j
a
.
davka
hacaga (f)

r
o
c
a
j

646

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

c
a

YONATAN
Y
o
u
'
1
1

decided
informed
because,
that he
joined

d
e
c
i
d
e

t
a
hexlit
hodia
ki
hietaref

a
n
d
l
e
t
m
e
k
n
o
w
w
h
e
r
e
y
o
u
'
r
e

g
o
i
n
g
b
e

647

UNIT

UNIT

HEBREW

22

648

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
DAVID
Gladly.

beracon.

.
649

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

ATARA
ani xoSevet
Senelex lebet
habma.

I think
we'11
go
to the
Habima.

habim
a

Hab
ima
{Te
l
Avi
v
the
ate
r)

m
y
h
o
u
s
e
a
n
d
c
a
l
l
f
o
r
m
e
.

i
v
r
u
a
l

e
k

he
called,
read

y
a
d
b
e
y
t
l
v

650

YONATAN
Come past

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

20
l
i

.
kara
D

.
.

AVID
tov.
bese
der.
Y

ONATAN
W
h

hour
value
appr ox

b
e

tely

D
A
V
I
D

b
e
t
a
a
l
Saa ( f )
erex(m)
beerex

beSaa
Smone.
Y
O
N
A
T
A
N
See you

S
a

651

UNIT

HEBREW

22

BASIC
COURSE

DAVID
he forget Saxax
a
l

21.2
VOCABUL
ARY
DRILLS
E
xplanat
ory
notes
are
include
d in
the
followi
ng
drills
to
point
out to
the
student
s
various
feature
s of
the
verbs.
However
, the
student
should
not try
to
memoriz
e these
notes,
but to
drill
the
verbs
until
he does
not
need
the
explana
tion.

652

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
(a)/ka
ra/
"he
cal
led
,
rea
d"

The
roo
t
of
thi
s
ver
b
is
kr'

,
and
it
is
con
jug
ate
d
lik
e
mc'

"fi
nd"
.
A.
Su
bs
ti
tu
ti
on
Dr
il
l
Ar
a/

653

UNIT

UNIT

22

HEBREW

"r
ea
d,
ca
ll
"

Re
ad
th
e
ne
w
bo
ok
.

kir'
u et
has
efer
hax
ada
S. .

kir
'i

654

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

20
kra

kra
na

/e -

B.

Sub
sti
tut
ion
Dri
ll
X'1
1
rea
d
the
let
ter
thi
s
eve
nin
g.

ekra et
ham
ixt
av
hae
rev
.
tikra
tikre'i
hu
yik
ra
hi
tik
ra
anu
nik
ra
tikre'u
aten
tik
ran
a
hem
yik
re
u
hen
tik
ran
a
(So
me
spe
ake

655

~ ti
.

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

rs
say
/ti
kre
na/
for
2
and
3
f.p
l.)
C.

Exp
ans
ion
Dri
ll
In
st
ru
ct
or
:
I'
ll
go
pa
st
hi
s
ho
us
e.
St
ud
en
t:
I'
11
go
pa
st
hi
s
ho
us
e
an
d
ca
ll
hi
m.

.
.

.
.
.
. ,
.

.
.
. ,

In
the
above
drill

656

e
e

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
the
imper
ative
forms
may
be
used
in
the
secon
d
perso
n
subst
ituti
ons.

taavor al yad
beyto vekra
lo.

D.
Substi
tution
Agreem
ent
Drill
/kore/
"reads
"
H
e
r
e
a
d
s
H
e
b
r
e
w
l
i

657

UNIT

UNIT

22

HEBREW

k
e
h
e
s
p
e
a
k
s
H
e
b
r
e
w
w
i
t
h
d
i
f
f
i
c
u
l
t
y

658

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
.
h
u
k
o
r
e
i
v
r
i
t
k
m
o
g
e
h
u
m
e
d
a
b
e
r
i
v
r
i

659

UNIT

UNIT

22

BASIC

HEBREW

COURSE

t
.
b
e
k
o
g
i
.

660

h
i

UNIT

21 _HEBREW ____________________________BASIC COURSE

E. Substitution-Agreement Drill

/kara/ "he read, called" He read Moshe's telegram.

hu kara et hamivrak mimoSe .

ani atem - iSti - at


anu - ata - hem - dov
aten - kulam - hi - hu

- - -
- - -
- - -

(b) /Saxax/ "he forgot"


The root of this verb is Skx , Three things should be noted about it at this
point:
1) The second radical, k , has the k/x alternation in the various tenses. In the
future it is /k/; in the present and past it is /x/; and in the stark imperative it
varies in some of the forms.

2) The third radical is x . Therefore, the vowel /a/ must precede it when the x is
at the end of the word. See Grammar Note 16.4b. In the infinitive /liSkoax/
and the m.s. pres. /Soxeax/ an unstressed /a/ is inserted. Similar verbs
are /patax/ "open", /salax/ "forgive", and/alax/"send".

3) Whenever the sequence /-xx-/ would otherwise occur in the conjugation the vowel
/e/ is inserted to break up the cluster, e.g., /Saxexa/ "she forgot".
F. Substitution Drill
Forget what he said.

sxax ma Sehu amar.


Sixexi
Sixexu
Sxaxna

(/Skax/ and /Skaxna/ are often heard for the m.s. and f.pl.)
G. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative.
Instructor: Forget what you heard. Student: Don't forget what you heard.

Sxax ma SeSamata. ai tiSkax ma S


e
S
a

Sixexi ma SeSamat. ai tiSkexi ma S


e
S

Sixexu ma SeSamatem.
al tiSkexu ma S
e

Sxaxna ma SeSamaten.
ai tiSkaxna ma S
e

661

m
a
t
a
.
.

a
m
a
t
.
.

S
a
m
a
t
e
m
.

S
a
m
a
t
e
n
.

UNIT

22

HEBREW

The drill should also be done in reverse.

662

BASIC

COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

/e - ~ ti -/

H. Substitution Drill
I won't forget the Hebrew that I learned.

.
)

(
)

I. SubstitutionAgreement Drill
We won't
forget to come
tomorrow.
lo niSkax lavo
maxar.
ata
hem

(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(

ivrit
Selamadeti.
(Sel
amad
eta)
(Sel
amad
et)
(Sel
amad
)

(Selam
da)
(Selam
adnu)
(Selam
adetem
)
fSelam
adeten
)
(Selam
du)
(Selam
du)
ani lo eSkax
et ha ata lo
tiSkax at lo
tiSkexi hu
lo yiSkax hi
lo tiSkax lo
niSkax lo
tiSkexu lo
tiSkaxna hem
lo yiSkexu
hen lo
tiSkaxna
a
n
i
d
a
v
i
d
h
e
n

663

UNIT

UNIT

22

atar
a
at atem
hu aten
anu

HEBREW

BASIC

-
- -

J. Substitution
Drill
He forgets
what he is
told.
hu Soxeax
ma Seomrim
lo.
hi Soxaxat
(la),
hem Soxexim

hen
Soxexot
(lahen)

.
( )

()

()

(lahem)
a
t
e
m
a
t
m
o
S
e
s
a
r
a
h
a
t

K SubstitutionAgreement
Drill
I forgot
to read
the book.
Saxaxti
likro et
hasefer.
ata anu -

664

COURSE

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE


-
-

20
almidim
aten hu hiani


.
- -

665

UNIT

22
(c)

/hodia/
informed1

HEBREW

BASIC

"he

I
I

COURSE

The root of this


verb
is
yd'

"know". In the hif'il


it means "to cause to
know",
i.e.,
"to
inform,
tell,
etc."
Two things should be
noted here:

(1) The first

radical y is
replaced in the
hif'il with vav
and is
pronounced /o/
throughout the
binyan. See Grammar
Note 17-7

(2) The

third
radical is . This
is never pronounced
when the pattern
calls for it to be
at the end of the
verb
form,
but
nevertheless
the
vowel
/a/
will
occur
after
the
stem vowel /!/ in
such cases, e.g.
/hodia/
for
/hodi'/. This verb
will, therefore, oe
similar to /higia/
"arrived".
For
example:
Future
:
2
m.s. /
tagia/
2 f.s.
/tagii
/
2
f.pl.
/tagan
a/

666

/todia/
/todii/
/todana
/
/hodati/
/hodia/
/hodia/

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

Past:
/
3 m.s.
/higia
/
3
f.s. /
higia/

UNIT

s.
/higati

The student will


now realize more fully
the need to master
completely and
automatically the verb
paradigms which have
occurred so far in the
course. If there is
any hesitation on the
part of the student in
responding with the
correct form, the
instructor should not
hesitate to go back to
earlier units and to
do the pertinent
drills again.

L. Substitution-Agreement
Drill
I'll tell Dov the new
address.
odia ledov et haktovet
haxadaSa.
ata - sara - yonatan - at
atem - anu hen - hem

aten - david
- hi - ani

M. Substitution-Agreement
Drill
He told Mr. Alon
that he got the

667

UNIT

22

HEBREW
letter. hu hodia
lemar alon Sekibel
et hamixtav.

(The verb/kibel/ should also be changed.)

668

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

20
GRAMMAR NOTES
21. 3 Generalizations
Study the following sentences:
/eyx omrim table beivrit./
"How do you say , table' in Hebrew?"
/moxrim asimonim badoar./
"Tokens are sold in the post office."
/mecigim Sam seret tov./

"They're showing a good film there."

In these sentences the subject is not expressed and the verb is in the
masculine plural present tense. This is the most frequent way in which generalized
statements and questions are made in Hebrew.
The English translations are varied in structure.
In the first sentence the English has an unstressed 'you' as the subject.
In the second sentence the Hebrew is translated as a passive.
In the third sentence the English has an unstressed they' as the subject.
There are other ways of expressing generalizations in English, and the
student should be aware of the alternate possibilities in translating. For example
the first sentence may also be translated as "How does one say table' in
Hebrew?" or "How do they say table' in Hebrew?" (with unstressed , they').
The inclusion of a pronoun subject in the Hebrew will often be taken to mean
that a particular statement is being made rather than a generalized one.
medabrim anglit beisrael. "English is spoken in Israel."
hem medabrim anglit beisrael."They (in particular)speak English in Israel.
A. Translation Drill
The English translations given here are intended as examples. The instructor
should accept alternate possibilities as described above. When doing the drill in
reverse, i.e., from English to Hebrew, the instructor should be careful not to stress
the pronoun subjects of the verbs.
1.English is spoken throughout the c o u n t r y .
.
1
.

2.cheese is sold in grocery stores. . 2. 3 what


time do they start to perform? ? 3.

One doesn't swim when it's r

5 People stroll a lot along the b

669

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

6.There is no traveling on S

COURSE

7.They eat big lunches in I

t u

r d

a
a

y .
e

6 .
l

They're
sending me to H
a
i
f
a
.
.
8
.
9
YOU forget the language if you don't speak it. . 9.
8

21.4 The pi'el Conjugation

[ In this section and in following units a resume of the binyanim will be


given. The examples will illustrate the major types of verbs, and irregular but
frequently occurring verbs will also be included. In order to test the student's
mechanical control of the conjugations new roots will be included in drills. The
student need not memorize their meanings at this point, though there is no objection
to this, since the verbs occur in later units.
The order of forms will be as follows: infinitive, stark imperative, future,
present and past tenses.Various ways are used to indicate the root consonants with the
patterns of prefixes, infixes and suffixes. If there is any question as to which root
consonant is meant, then the designation C1C2C3 will be used. Occasionally traditional
grammatical terms will be introduced, e.g., lamed hey 1 .
(a) The pi'el is traditionally listed as the third binyan after the kal and nif'al.
It is drilled first here because in modern Hebrew there are fewer consonant
alternations in the tenses of this binyan. The vowel patterns are also simpler to
memorize. Except for the past tense the infixed stem vowels are /-a-e-/. Remember that
the /e/ is dropped before certain suffixes. If .he sequence /-hC3-/ or /-'C3-/ would
result, then /a/ is inserted: /mahari/.
In order to illustrate the pattern of the pi'el the stems in the following !art
are printed in capital letters and the prefixes and suffixes are separated.

670

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

Forms with vowel


Infinitive:

l
e

Imperative:

DABER

m. s

f.s.
m.pl.
f.pl
.
s.

Future: 1

2 m.s.

3 m.s.
f.s.

1 pi.

2 f.pl
.

3 f.pl
.
m.
s.
f.s.

Present:

DABER

t
e

DABER

y
e
t
e
n
e
t
e
t
e
m
e
m
e

t
e

DABR

2 m.pl.

t
e

DABR

3 m.pl.

y
e

DABR

DABER
DABER
DABER

DAB1R

na

na

DAB^R
DABER
DABFJR

et

the distinguishing feature is the

s.
m.s.
f.s.
m.
s.

DIBXR

1 pi.
2 m.pl

DIBAR

.
2 f.pl
.

DABR

2 f.s.

f.pl.

1
2
2
3

DABR

na

DAB^R

m.pl.

In the past tense

suffix

DABER

m DABR im
e
m DABR ot
e
stem vowel /i/

ti
ta
DIBAR t
DIBER
DIBAR

DIBAR

nu
tem

DIBAR

ten

3 f-s.

DIBR a

3 pi

DIBR u

In the following drills the instructor will give a sentence containing a time
word such as /maxar/ "tomorrow", /axSav/ "now", /etmol/ "yesterday".
The class repeats this sentence. The instructor then supplies either a
substitution for the time-word or for the subject. When the instructor supplies a
time-word, the student then changes the verb to the suitable tense form.
Example: Instructor: moSe kibel mixtav etmol. "Moshe got a letter yesterday"
Student: moSe kibel mixtav etmol.

671

UNIT

UNIT

22

HEBREW

BASIC

Instructor: maxar.
"tomorrow" COURSE
Student: moSe yekabel mixtav maxar."Moshe will get a letter tomorrow".
When the instructor supplies a new subject the student responds by changing the
verb form to the correct person while maintaining the tense.
Example: Instructor: moSe yekabel mixtav maxar."Moshe will get a letter tomorrow"
Student: moSe yekabel mixtav maxar.
Instructor: miryam.
"Miriam".
Student: miryam tekabel mixtav maxar."Miriam will get a letter

tomorrow".

These drills require the students to pay very close attention because the
shifts are quick. If the student gives correct sentence but not the response called
for by the cue, then the instructor should give the cue again without discussion.
This will keep the drills moving rapidly. The entire responses of some drills are
given below in Hebrew. These sentences may be used as a reading drill, also.
A. hu medaber axSav im haxenvani. "He's speaking with the storekeeper now."

672

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

.
1

.
2
.
3

! .
.
.
.
.
.
.

axSav

dalya

13

etmol

14.

atem

15

axSav

16
.

mar kaspi

17

etmol

.
19

xcina

18
.
19

.
20
.
21
.
22
,
.2
.
24
.
25
.
26

maxar

20.

hem

21.

axSav

22.

hi

23

etmol

24.

ata vemoSe

25

maxar

26
.

hu veiSto

27

axSav

28.

anu

29

.4
.5
.6
.
.8
.9
.
10
.
11
.
12
.
13
.
14
.
15
.
16
.
17
.
18

.
27
.
28
.
29

'raxel

1.

etmol

2.

aten

axSav
hem
maxar
hen
etmol
hu
maxar

4.
5
6.
7
8.
9
10.

anu

11.
12.

20

[fiote: /axSav/^occurs with the future and past tenses, also, but with a change
"of meaning, /dibarti ito axSav./ "I have just spoken with him.
/adaber ito axSav. / "I'll soeak with him now." However, in these drills
]/axsav/ is used only as a cue for the present tense.

673

BASIC

UNIT

HEBREW

COURSE

22

"B. hu meSalem lo axSav et hakesef. "He's paying him the money now.

.8
.

.9
.10
.11
.12
.13
.14
.15
.16
.17
.18
.19
.20
.21
.22
.23
.24
.25
.2.6
.27
.28

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
^ .
.
.
.
,
.
.
.

R,;: :/
1.

sara
etmol
2.
yaakov
3
axSav
4.
hen
5
maxar baboker
6.
anu
7
baSavua Seavar
8.
ani
9
10. axSav
11. hem
12. beod xodeS
13 at
14. lifney yomaim
15 hu
16. axSav
17 aten
18 baSavua haba
19 ata
20. lifney Saa
21. ani
22. berega ze
23 raxel
24. beod Saa
25 mlSpaxat zahavi
26. SilSom
27. yael
28 axSav

.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.

.6

.

.7

"C. hu mekabel et haxavila axSav. "He's receiving the package now.

674

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

.1

.3
.4

.2

.5
.6
.7
.8
.
.
10
.
11
.
12
.
13
.
14
.
15
.
16
.
17
.
18
.
19
.
20
.
21
.
22
.
23
.
24
.
25
.
20
.
27


'

.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.


.
.
.

675

20

hi
baSana Seavra
at
axSav
hem
beod xodeS
hen
lifney Savua
mo&e
axSav
lSa
maxar
ata
lifney x6deS
atem
axSav
ani
bekarov
aten
lifney yomaim
yaakov
axSav
miryam
beod yomaim
gveret jones
etmol
ata

1.
2.
3
4.
5
6.
7
8.
9
10.
11.
12
13
1^.
15
16.
17
18
19
20.
21.
22.
23
24.
25
26.
27

BASIC COURSE_________________________HEBREW ____________________________UNIT

21

(b) Alternating first radicals


When the first root consonant Is b, or k (spelled ) the consonant will
vary. Xn prefixed forms the consonant is /v/,/f/, and /x/ respectively. In other
forms it is /b/, /p/, and /k/. The chart below illustrates this alternation.
Prefixed forms
Infinitive: le VakeS
Imperative:
BakeS etc.
Future: a vakeS

te vakeS etc.

Present: me VakeS etc.


Past: BikaSti
BikaSta etc.

Some roots have /v/ (spelled ) throughout the conjugation:/viter/ "he


conceded" . There are not many of these verbs, and no verbs have /b/ throughout.
Some slang verbs have /f/ throughout the conjugation: /fisfes/ "he missed (the
target)".
The k/x alternation poses a problem, although once the student has learned to
read he can use the spelling to help fix the alternation, or lack of it, in his speech
habits.
Some verbs have /k/ in all forms of the binyan. /lekabel/ "to receive".
These are spelled with .
Some have /x/ in all forms: /xilek/ "he
distributed". These are spelled with

(c) Verbs with four radicals


Verbs with four root consonants occur in the pi'el. The pattern is similar to the
regular verbs but with the two middle consonants taking the place of the second
consonant of the three-consonant verb roots.
m.s. imv. / ta rg em/ "translate" / da
b er/ "speak"
In one respect these four-consonant verbs are simpler than the three- consonant
verbs. In the forms with a vowel suffix the dropping of the precedinc vowel would cause
a three-consonant cluster to result. The /e/ would then occui anyway. Thus, the stems of
these verbs are constant throughout the tenses.
2 m.s. /tetargem/ "you will translate"
2 f.s. /tetargemi/
|jtn the following drill the time word is put first in order to avoid an ambiguity J)
D. axav hu mevakeS midavid lavo bazman. "NOW he's asking David to come on time."

676

.
1

.2
.3

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
11
.
12

.4

.5
.6
.7

.8
.9
.
10

.
13

raxel

1.

etmol
atem
axSav
hem
maxar
hen
etmol
hu
maxar

2.

anu

.
HEBREW 14
UNIT 21
.
.
15
is a list of substitutions to be used in drilling the sentences
.
.

16

etmol

miSpaxat alon

etmol

SoSana
maxar
hem
ax&av

ata vemo&e

maxar

haxayalim
axSav

maxar hu yefahek bakita.


"

.
.
.
.
.
.
;: .
.
.

.
11

.
12
.
13

maxar

at

!: .
.

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
.
10

.
14

.
15
.
16
.
17
.
16
.
19
.
20
.
21
.
22
.
23
.

sara

1.

etmol
yaakov
axSav
hen
maxar baboker

2.
3

anu
etmol baerev
ani
axSav

hem

677

11
.

18
.
19

20
.
21
.
22
.
23

24
.
25

26
.
27

28
.
E.
1

.
18
.
19
.
20
.
21
.
22
.
23
.
24
.
25
.
26
.
27
.
28

10
.

.4

8.
9

mar kaspi

.
17

.
1
.2
.3

5
6.
7

17

II

4.

12 axSav
.
13 dalya

14 etmol
BASIC .COURSE
15 aten
The following
axSav
1
6

Tomorrow he'11 be yawning in


class
.

5
6.
7
8.
9
10
.
11
.
12
.
13

lifney yomaim

hu
axSav
aten

maxar
ata
lifney Saa

anu
berega ze

raxel
Saa

beod

15

16
.
17

18
.
19

20
.
21
.
22
.
23

24

Some of the substitutions will produce sentences which may seem strange out of
context. It should be remembered that the translations of the three Hebrew tenses need
not be simple and rigid. Thus, the sentence /lifney Savua hu gidel perot banegev/ may
be translated "A week ago he was growing fruit in the Negev. [This week he's working in
an office in the city}", rather than the awkward "A week ago he grew fruit in the
Negev." In any case,the goal is to control automatically and with ease all the forms of
the binyan with any root.


.
.

.
.

.
.

.

.

.
.

.
.


.
.


.
.

A.He is setting the clocks.


B.He* s ruining the program.
C.He refused to eat the meal.
D.He passed up the ice cream.
E.He's wiping the glasses.
F.He's straightening the house.
G.He telephoned Mr. ^aspi.
H.He told him the truth.
I.He embarrassed Moshe.
J. He didn't visit his house.
K. He's strolling on the beach. L. He's not
hurrying to the office.
M. He translates from English to Hebrew. N.
He broadcasts the news on the radio.
O. He grows fruit in the Negev. P. He runs
the school.

678

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

Q. He folds the letters. R. He distributes the mail.


For further drill the instructor should combine sentences to make an expansion drill.
For example:
Instructor: hu nigev et hakosot. Student: hu nigev et
hakosot vesider et habait. Instructor: hi nigva et hakosot. Student:
hi nigva et hakosot vesidra et habait. Other suggestions for
combinations are:
. .
.

21-5 lamed hey verbs in the pi'el conjugation

The following chart illustrates the conjugation of a lamed hey, verb in the pi'el.
Note that the stem is / xak/ in all forms except in the past where it is /xik-/. To
these stems are added the regular prefixes (if any) and the endings characteristic of
all lamed hey verbs.
Infinitive: le xak OT
Imperative: m.s. xak E f.s. xak I
Future: I s - a xak E 2 m.s. te xak
E
2f.s. te xak I
3m. s. ye xak E 3 f.s.
te xak E
Present: m.s. me xak E f.s. ne xak A

Past: 1 s. xik ITI 2 m.s. xik fTA


2"f.s. xik IT

3m.s. xik A 3 f-s. xik


i

TA

m.pl. xak U f.pl. xak


NA
1pi. ne .:ak E
2m.pl. te xak U
2f.pl. te xak 1nA
3m.pl. ye xak U
3 f.pl. te xak NA
m.pl. me xak IM f.pl.
me xak OT
1pi. xik fNU
2m.pl. xik fTEM
2f.pl. xik fTEN
3pi. xik U

The list of substitutions from the preceding page should be used with the following
drill sentences:
A.He's waiting for a letter from the government.
B.He's hoping for good news.
C.He changed his mind.

.
.
.

This last drill may be varied by having /daato/ changed to agree with the subject or
not.
/ani Sinlti et daati/ " I changed my mind." /ani Siniti

679

21

et daato/ " I changed his opinion."


21.6 Stem Vowel Variations in the pi'el
a)In the past tense of some pi'el verbs whose second root consonant is
or r the first stem vowel is /e/ rather than /i/, and the 3 m.s. stem has the
vowels /-e-a-/ instead of /-i-e-/.
/berarti/ "I found out"
/berar/ "he found out"
This usage is more like classical Hebrew, and some instructors will insist on it as
more "correct" than the regularized form /birer/. The latter, however, is commonly used
and has been cited in this text.
b)Some pi'el verbs have /of as the first stem vowel throughout the binyan. These verbs
are listed under roots with second radical vav ( )or yud ( ) or under roots whose
second and third radicals are the same.
/komem/ "he re-established"
/Sorer/ "he sang"
/sovev/ "he circled"

root kvm
root Syr
root sbb

Some roots have two pi'el types with different meanings:


The root kvm has the pi'el form /kiyem/ "he fulfilled" as well as /komem/
" he re-established".
The root k v n ? has the pi'el form /konen/ " h e
a s / * k i v e n / " h e directed".

established" as well

The list of substitutions in section 21.4 should be used with the following
sentences:

.
.
. .
.
.

A.He circled the building.


B.He sang in the show.
C.He encouraged the students.

c) When the third radical is (spelled ) the /'/ is dropped at the end of a word or
before a consonant. The first and second person past tense forms have the stem vowels
/-i-e-/.

680

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Imperative:

Past:

2
2
3

m. s

f.s.

male

mal' i

s.
m.s.
f.s.
m.s.
f.s.

mileti
mileta
milet
mile
mil' a

m.pl.

mal' u

f.pl.

malena

2
2

pi.
m.pl.
f.pl.

milenu
miletem
mileten

pi.

mil' u

D.He filled the bottles.

E.He made sure

of the address.

21.1 Verbal Nouns of the pi'el


A noun may be derived from pi'el verbs in one of two patterns, or both.
C1iC2uC3 /kivun/
/s ipur/
/kibul/

"direction"
"story"
"capacity"

C1ac2ac3a /kavana/
/bakaSa/
/kabala/

"intention"
"request"
"reception"

The first type is masculine, and the second is feminine.


It cannot be predicted for a particular verb which of these types will
occur, nor can the exact meaning be predicted. Compare the derived nouns of these
verbs:
/kiven/ "he directed"

/kivun/ "direction"

/kavana/ "intention, aim"


/kibel/ "he received"
/kibul/ "capacity"
/kabala/ "reception"

/bikeS/ "he requested"

/bikuS/ "demand" (opp. of supply)


/bakaSa/ "request"

In trying to form (guess) a verbal noun, the student should try the pattern C!
iC2uC3 first. There are more verbal nouns of this type than of the C1aC2aC3a type.

681

UNIT

21

.
.

In lamed hey verbs /y/ is used as the third consonant. See Grammar Note 20.5b.
/Sinuy/ "change"

In verbs whose second radical is (spelled ) or r the first type has the
vowels /-e-u-/. Cf. Grammar Note 21.6a,
/Serut/ "service"

A. Transformation Drill
Instructor: He visited Haifa. Student: The visit was yesterday.
.

. . D

. . E

. . F

. . G

682

BASIC COURSE 21-8 The pu'al ConjugationHEBREW


Compare the forms in the following

__________________pairs:
UNIT 21

/yesader/
"he will arrange"
/yesudar/ "it will be arranged"
/mekalkel/ "damages"
/ m e k u l k a l /

7
" d a m a g e d

Note that the second form of each pair has the stem vowel pattern /-u-a-/ where the
other form has the pattern /-a-e-/ which has been drilled in the previous sections of this
unit. Note further that the second form is the passive of the first.
These passive forms are part of a conjugation traditionally called the pu'al (since the
3 m.s. past has that pattern.) The pu'al is very simple in structure. It is exactly like
the corresponding pi'el except that the vowels /-u-a-/ occur throughout in place of the
pi'el stem vowels. The /-a-/ will be dropped before suffixes beginning with a stressed
vowel: /yesudru avurenu batim/ "Houses will be arranged for us".
The f.s. present has the pattern: C!uC2eC3et /mesuderet/ "arranged"
The pu'al, however, is comparatively restricted in use. Not all pi'el verbs are so
easily transformed into passives. In theory they could be, but idiomati- cally other
constructions or conjugations are often used, for example, hitpa'el: /lehitkabel/ " to be
received"; the generalized statement:/medabrim ivrit kan/ "Hebrew is spoken here"; etc.
With some verbs only third person or impersonal subjects make sense in the pu'al:
/dubar/ "it was said".'

The present tense forms of certain verbs are in very frequent use, and these forms are
often treated as adjectives. Examples from the units so far are:
/meuxar/
/mecuyan/
/mekulkal/
/me'unary
/meSune/

"late"
"excellent"
"damaged"
"cloudy"
"strange"

When the second radical is spelled (spelled ) or r_, the stem vowels are /-o-a/.
These roots were discussed in Grammar Note 21.6a.
/mefo'ar/ "luxurious"

The following drills should be done in reverse, also. A. Transformation Drill

683

UN*T

22

_________________________
HEBREW
_________________________
Instructor: He will arrange a house for us.
Student: A house will be arranged for us.

BASIC COURSE

. .
1
.

2
.

3
.

4
.

5
.

.
.

B. Transformation Drill
Instructor: He set up the house.
Student: The house was set.

.1 .

.2 .

.,3 .
.4 .
.5 .
.6 .

.
.
.
.
C. Transformation Drill

Instructor: He is straightening up the house.


Student: The house is in order.

.1 .

.2 .

.3 .

.4 .

.5 .

684

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

. 1 ?
. 2 ?
. 3 ?
. 4 ?
. 5 ?
. 6 ?
REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

:
:
:
:
:
:

, . ?
, . .
?
. .
? 0 , .
, .

,: , ? : . .
? :
. : ? : , . :
. : ..
: ?
: . , . :
.
: ?! .
: . : ?
: . :
? : . . ?! : .
: , ? : . : ?! ? :
. :? ?
: ? , .

685

UNIT

HEBREW

22

BASIC
COURSE

22.1 At the Box Office /bakupa/


DAVID
Sir.
Ple
ase
giv
e
me
thr
ee
tic
ket
s
for
toa
ior
row
.

adoni
ten li
bevaka
Sa
SloSa
kartis
im
lemaxa
r.

tic
ket
,
car

k
a
r
t
i
s
(
m
)

686


^^

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

Good seats,
please.

mekomot tovim
bevakaSa.

CASHIER /kupai/ !
I have
three
ticket
s
in
the
balcon
y.
yeS li
Sl
oS
a^
ka
rt

isim
bayac
ia.

y
a
c
i
a
(
m
)

balcony

DAVID
In the center?

baimca
?

middle, center

emca
(m)

CASHIER
A

bit on
the side,
but
it's
possible
to
see
well.

s
i
d
e

baca
d,
aval
efSa
r
lir'
ot
tov.

c
a
d

b
u
t

(
m
)
a
v
a
l
e
f
S
a
r

p
o
s
s
i
b
l
e

kcat

DAVID
In which row?

row

beeyze Sura?
Sura (f)

687

UNIT

UNIT

HEBREW

22

BASIC
COURSE

CASHIER
Ar
e
yo
u
in
te
re
st
ed
in
th
e
se
ve
nt
h
ro
w?
a
t
a

n
y
a
n
b
a
S
u
r
a
h
a
S
v
i
i
t
?

intere
sted

m
e
u

meuny
an(m.
s.)

DAVID
These are

the
las
t
tic
ket
s?

elu
h
a
k
a
r
t
i
s
i
m
h
a
a
x
a
r
o
n
i
m
?

elu
axaron

thes
e
last

688

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

689

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

CASHIER
Yes, sir.
Do you want them?

ken, adoni.
ata roce otam?

. ,
?

DAVID

eyn li brera. ekax


otam. kama ani
xayav lexa?
brera (f)

All right. I have no choice. I'll


take them. How much do I owe you?

tov.

choice

.
.
.
?

CASHIER

Eighteen liras.

22.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY


Give me three
seats in the orchestra.
hall, orchestra
I'm interested
in good seats
on the aisle.
aisle
There
are
seats on the
left or on the
right.
left right
The seats are near the
stage.
stage, platform
The seats are near the
entrance.
entrance
The seats are near the exit.
exit
There is a parking place.
parking
They charge for parking.
fee,payment
The parking is free.
free
ten li Slo^a

Smone'esre lirot.

kartisim baulam.
ulam (m)
ani meunyan
bemekomot tovim
al yad hamaavar.
maavar (m)
yeS mekomot bacad
hasmali o bacad
hayemini.
smali (m.s.)
yemini
(m.s.)
hamekomot krovim
labama.
bama (f)
hamekomot krovim
laknisa.
knisa (f)
hamekomot krovim
layecia.
yecia (f)
ye'S mekom xanaya.
xanaya (f)
haxanaya betaSlum.
taSlum (m)
haxanaya xofSit.
xofSi (m.s.)

690


.

.

.
.
.
.

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

22-3 The kal (pa'al) Conjugation


Though its name means "easy" this conjugation requires more drill to master
than the pi'el because there are more stem patterns for the tenses and more
consonant alternations. However, if the student has thoroughly learned the Basic
Sentences and verb drills of the preceding units he will find that he has already
mastered the most frequent variations and that the following charts will merely
diagram this knowledge.
At this point the student should review the phonological rules discussed in
Grammar Note 6.9* In the following charts the stems are indicated in capital letters,
but the euphonic vowels which break up the threeconsonant clusters are in lower-case letters.
A completely regular verb will
introduced one by one afterwards.

be

given

first,

be and the variations will

(a) Regular verb pattern


Forms with vowel suffix
Infinitive:
Imperative:

li
GMOR
GMO
R

m.s
.

f.s.
m.pl.

GM6R na

f.pl.

1
2
3
3
1

s.

e GMOR

GMeR i
m. s.2 f.s.titiGMOR
m. s.
yi GMOR
ti GMOR
F.s.
2m.pl. ti GMeR u
pi.
ni GMOR

3m.pl. yi GMeR u
ti GM6 R na

2 f.pl.
3 f.pl.

ti

691

m6r
na
G

GiMR i
GiMR u

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

A. hu yigmor et hahaxanot maxar. "He'll finish the preparations tomorrow."

GOMR im
GOMR ot

GAMR a

GAMR u

m.pl.
Present:
f.pl.

m.s.
f.s.

GOMER

Past:

s.

GAMXR

ti

GAMAR

ta

GAMAR

GAMAR
GAMAR
GAMAR
GAMAR

nu
tem
ten

3 f.s.

3 Pi-

2 m. s.
2 f.s.
3 m. s.
1 pi. 2
m.pl. 2
f.pl.

et

GOMR

692

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.8

.9
.
10
.
11
.
12
.
13
.
14
.
15
.
16
.
17
.
18
.
19

.
.

etmol

2.

ata

ax&av

4.

david

maxar

6.

atem

etmol

8.

iSto
axSav

9
10.

hen

11.

maxar

12.

aten

13

etmol

14.

anu

15

axSav

16.

hem

17

beod xodeS

18.

at

19

ani

201.

"B. hu sagar et haxanut etmol. "He closed the store yesterday.

693

BASIC

HEBREW

COURSE

.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
.
10
.
11
.
12
.
13
.
14
.
15
.
16
.
17
.
18
.
19

UNIT

22
at
beod xodeS
hem
axSav
anu
etmol
aten
maxar
hen
axSav

1.
2.
3
4.
5
6.
7
8.
9
10.

.
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

11.

i&to

etmol

12.

atem

13

bekarov

14.

mar kohen

15

axSav

16.

ata

17

SilSom

18.

ani

19

b) verbs with future stem vowel /a/

) and certain other , not Verbs whose third root consonant is or x ( spelled
verbs have /a/ as a stem vowel in the imperative and future, instead of /o/. The
) when these are at ( ) or( student is reminded that the vowel /a/ must precede/x/
"the end of the word: /Soleax/ "sends
li Sloax

m s.
.
f pi.
.
1 s.

ti

2 m. s.

SLAX
na
etc.

SLAX
SLAX
SLAX

Infinitive:
Imperative:

Future:

The following is a list of substitutions to be used in drilling the


sentences below. The substitutions may be varied similarly to the list in Unit
21.

694

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

C.Yesterday he sent the package by air mail.


D.Yesterday he found the post office without any
trouble.
E.He"s listening to the broadcast now.
F.She's washing the bottles now.
G.Now she reads Hebrew easily.
H.Tomorrow 1'11 learn how to make ice cream.

. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .

695

UNIT

UNIT

HEBREW

22

BASIC
COURSE

c) Alternating first radicals


In Grammar Note 21.4b we saw that the consonants /b/,/p/ and /k/(spelled )
alternated with /v/, /f/ and /x/ when they were the first root consonant of the verb.
The same rules apply in the kal as in the pi'el: In prefixed forms the consonant
is /v/, /f/ and /x/ respectively. In other forms it is /b/ /p/ and

A/

In some respects the. alternations in the kal are simpler to remember. First of
all, there are no roots with v ( )as the first radical. Thus, all /v/ is the result
of the b/v alternation.
Second, the prefix before A/ (spelled )is /ti-, yi- / etc., and the prefix
before /x/ (spelled ) is /ta-, ya- / etc.
/tixtov/ "you will write"
/taxSov/ "you will think"
Prefixed forms
Infinitive:

liVdok

Imperative: m.s. Bdok


f.s. Bidki etc.,

I s . evdok 2 m.s. tivdok 2 f.s. tiVdeki


etc.

Present: m.s. Bodek


f.s. Bodeket etc.,
Past: I s . Badakti
2 m.s. Badakta etc.,

I. We checked the program yesterday.


J. Moshe opened the new store a week ago.
K. Atara will write to her tomorrow.

. .
.
.
. .

L. I'11 think about it tomorrow.

. .

M. They tied up the packages yesterday.

. .

696

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
N. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative
Instructor: Check the boxes right now.
Student: Don't check the boxes now, wait till tomorrow.

.
.

,
.

,
.

,
.

697

BASIC
COURSE

UNIT

HEBREW

22

O. Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative


Instructor: Don't open the windows. It's cold outside.
Student: Open the windows. It's hot in the house.

. .

. .

. .
. .
. .
.

. ,

698

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
P. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative
Instructor: Write him a letter.
Student: Don't write him a letter. Phone him.

. .
. .
. .
. ,

Q. Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative


Instructor: Don't work right now. It's still early.
Student: Get to work right away. Otherwise the time will
pass.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

699

UNIT

22

HEBREW

The above drills should also be done in reverse.

700

BASIC
COURSE

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

(d) Alternating second radicals


To complicate things a bit more, the three consonants b, and k ( )
alternate when they are the second radical of the verb. In prefixed forms the
second root consonant is /b/, /p/ and /k/ and in the unprefixed forms they
are /v/, /f/ and /x/. !1his is the reverse of the pattern described in the
predecing section for the alternating first radical.
Prefixed forms
Infinitive:

Future:

1 s.
2 m. s.
3 m.s.
3 f.s.
1 pi.
2 m.pl.
2 f.pl.
3 m.pl.
3 f.pl.

lisPo
r

Imperative:

m.s.
f.s.
m.pl
.
f.pl
.

sFor
siFr
i
siFr
u
sFor
na

esPor
tisPor
yisPor
tisPor
nisPor
tisPeru
tisPorna
yisPeru
tisPorna

In the stark imperative of some verbs the student may hear vacillation between forms,
for example, /Sxax ~ Skax/ "forget". (See section 21.2, Drill F) This can result when the
speaker drops the /ti**/ of the gentle imperative /tiSkax/ to make a regularized stark
imperative /Skax/. Similarly one might hear /Sikxi/ as the feminine singular instead
of /Sixexi/.
Such regularizations are not surprising, but they are often deplored by
educated speakers.
The division of the conjugation into prefixed forms and unprefixed forms is merely
a handy device to help the student in doing the drills of these verbs. The general
rules for the b/v, p/f and k/x alternations in verbs are complex and are no benefit
to the student at this point.
In any event, the student should not try to memorize rules but must keep drilling
the correct forms until, for example, /timkor/ and /moxer/ just sound right, and the
incorrect forms */timxor/ and Smoker/ jar his ears.

701

UNIT

BASIC

UNIT

HEBREW

COURSE

soFer

m s.
.
f s.
m pi.
.
f.pl.

saFarti

1 s.

saFarta

2 m.s.
2 f.s.
3 m.s.
3 f.s.
1 pi.
2 m.pl.
2 f.pl.
3 pi.

soFeret
soFrim
soFrot

saFart
saFar
saFra
saFarnu
saFartem
saFarten
saFru

22
Present:

Past:

R. He counted the jars the day before yesterday.

.
. 1 .
.
.
. 2

. 3 .
1

. 4 .
.

.
. 5
2

.
. 6
.

. 7 .
3

. 8 .
.
. 9 .

4
. 10 .
5
.
. 11
!6
.
. 12
.7
. 8 . 13 .
.
.9 . 14
. 15 .

.
.
. 16
10
. 17 .
. 1 1
.
. 18
.
. 19 .
12
.
. 20
.
13
.
S. He broke some of the jars yesterday morning.
14
. .
15 .
. .
.
16 .
. .
.
17 . .
.
.
18 . .
. .
. .
.
. .
T. He sold the tickets yesterday evening.

L .

702

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

.
1
.
2
.
3
.
4
.
5
.
6
.
7
.
8
.
9
.
10
.
11
.
12
.
13
.
14
.
15
.
16
.
17
8
.

703

20

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

U. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative Instructor: Please count the nuts


for me.
Student: Don't count the nuts. I already know how many there are.
. .
. .
. .

. ,
. ,
. ,
. 3 0 ,

. .
V. Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative
Instructor: Don't sell the house. Student: Sell the house.
.
.
.
.

W. Substitution Drill

.
.
.
.

Break something else but not the glass.

. ,

(e)verbs with first radical _


[The following remarks pertain to most, not all, verbs whose first radical is .
Verbs different from those described in this section are not too frequent, and the
student can learn them as he meets them.^
A distinction must be made between verbs whose first radical is ( )and those
whose first radical is ( ) . The charts below illustrate the patterns of two ,such
verbs.
In the present and past tenses there is no distinction, and both types have the
regular vowel patterns of the kal in these tenses.
If the second radical is b, or k ( )then only the alternants /v/,/f/ and /x/
occur. The rules described in the preceding section (d) do not apply. The examples
chosen for the charts illustrate this.
The main feature to observe in the following charts is the prefix of each type.
The future stem vowel of the first type is /a/: /toxal/ "you will eat", and the
future stem vowel of the second type is /o/:/taavor/ "yu will pass".

704

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
Infinitive:
Imperative:
m. s.
f.s.
m.pl.
f.pl.

LEExol

LAAvor

Exol
ixli
ixlu
Exolna

Avor
ivri
ivru
Avorna

Oxal
TOxal
TOxli
YOxal
TOxal
NOxal

EEvor
TAAvor
TAAvor
YAAvor
TAAvor
NAAvor

2 m.pl.
2 f.pl.
3 m.pl.
3 f.pl.

TOxlu
TOxalna
YOxlu
TOxalna

TAAvru
TAAvorna
YAAvru
TAAvorna

Present:
m.s.
f.s.
m.pl.
f.pl.

oxel
oxelet
oxlim
oxlot

over
overet
ovrim
ovrot

Past:
1 s.
2 m.s.
2 f.s.
3 m.s.
3 f.s.

axalti
axalta
axalt
axal
axla

avarti
avarta
avart
avar
avra

1 pi.

axalnu

avarnu

axaltem
axalten
axlu

avartem
avarten
avru

Future:
1 s.

2 m.s.
2 f.s.
3 m.s.

3 f.s.
1 pi.

2 m.pl.

2 f.pl.
3 Pi-

infinitive of /amar

/is /lomar/ "to say", spelled

Use the list of substitution cues given

in section 22.3(b),

X. I told him not to wait for me.


Y.

. 1
.

ate it aii because it's good.

Z. I liked to stroll in the evening.

AA. X passed by the cafe.

.!> i^J ( f) lamed hey verbs in the kal

lamed hey verbs in the kal have the features common to all such verbs, and the

705

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

student should find them quite familiar. In the past tense of the kal the stem vowels
are /-a-i/ in the first and second person: /kaniti/ "I bought".
In addition to the features of lamed hey verbs, the first and second root
consonants may cause the alternations described in Sections (c) to (e). For
example:
pnh " turn" has the first radical alternation described in Section (c): /pne/
/tifne/.
'lh " go up, cost" has the features of a first radical ( )described in
Section /(e): /eele/ ~ /taale/
bkh " cry" combines the alternations of Sections (c) and (d): /yivke/
~ /baxa/.
Infinitive:
Imperative:

Future:

liknOT
m s.
.
f s.
.
1 s.

kne

2 m.

tikne

2
3
3
Present:

Past:

s.
f.s
.
m.
s f.s
.
m.
s.
f.s
.
1
s.

2
m.

2
f.

3
m.

m pi.
.
f pi.
.
1 pi.

nikne

2 m.pl.

tiknu

tikni

2 f.pl.

tiknena

yikne

3 m.pl.

yiknu

3 f.pl.

tiknena

kone

m.pl.

konim

kona

f.pl.

konot

1 pi.

kaninu

kni

ekne

1
1

tikne

kaniti
s

kamta

kanit

kana

3 s
f-

knu
knena

2 m.pl.

kanitem

2 f.pl.

kaniten
kanu

3 Pi1 1

kanta

706

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20Us
BB
.

e
Sh
e

CC
.

Sh
e

DD
.

Sh
e

EE
.

Sh
e

the list of substitution cues given in

Sectio
n

22.3 (b):

saw the storekeeper outside the store. .

bought flour and sugar.


.

went up to the house and set things up.


.

turned at the second intersection.

FF. He wanted to swim.

. He swam in the new pool.

GG

. He cried when he heard the news.

HH

ayin v a v

( ) verbs

A frequently occurring type of verb is the ayin vav verb, whose second radical
is listed as vav ( ) in the dictionaries(hence the term ayin vav), although it
does not represent the consonant /v/ but rather the vowel /u/.
The chart below illustrates what is traditionally called the kal conju- gation
of these verbs. This classification as kal is based on historical reasons and the
fact that it is the simplest conjugation of this type of verb.
Some verbs resemble the ayin vav verbs in all respects except that they have
yud, representing /i/, instead of the vav. These verbs are called,
appropriately, ayin y u d ( ) " verbs.

707

(g)

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22
Imperative:

m. s .

Infinitive:

1 s.

m. s.

f.s.

3
3

kum '

la kum

m.pl.

f.pl.

a kum 1

1 pi.

kum i 1

f.s.
Future:

COURSE

ta kum

m.pl.

ta kum i '

f.pl.

m. s.

ya kum |

m.pl.

f.s.

ta kum

f.pl.

Present: m. s.

kum

kum na
n
a
t
a
t
a
y
a
t
a

kum
kum u
kum na
kum u
kum na

kam |

m.pl.

kam im

f.s.

kam a

f.pl.

kam ot

Past: 1 s.

kam ti 1

1 pi.

kam nu

m.pl.
f.pl.

kam tem
kam ten

2
2
3
3

m. s.
f.s.
m. s
f.s

kam ta
kam t
kam
kama

2
2

pi.
kam u
3
1
A frequently heard variant of the 2 and 3 f.pl. forms is /takomna/ in the
ayin vav verbs and /taSerna/ in the ayin yud verbs.

The verb /lavo/ "to come" is an ayin vav verb, but with /o/ as a stem
vowel. It is listed in the dictionaries under . The first radical alternates
between /b/ and /v/ as described in Section (c).
II.

Use the substitution cues given in Section 22.3 (b).

I stayed at the Savoy Hotel yesterday.

JJ. I got up early yesterday.

.
.

K I ran to the bus yesterday.


K.
LL I came to the theater yesterday.
.
M I sang in the show yesterday.
M.
22.4 Verbal Noun of the kal

The verbal noun of the kal has the following pattern: /C1C2iC3a/
These nouns are feminine and have the plural pattern: /C1CaiC3ot/
Examples which have occurred in the text are:
/slixa/ "pardon"
six
/knisa/ "entrance" kns
/yeci'a/"exit"

(in the third example the /e/ breaks up the beginning cluster /yc-/.)
As with verbal nouns of all conjugations it is hard to predict the exact

708

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

shade of meaning which it might have. The translations, therefore, may cover a wide
range.
The root kns occurs in the nif1al with the meaning "to enter", but the verbal
noun is still in the kal.
The verbal nouns of lamed hey verbs have yr as the third root consonant. Cf.
Grammar Note 21.7 However, since the glide from the vowel /i/ to the vowel /a/
produces the /y/ anyway, the nouns are transcribed without the /y/:
/knia/ "purchase" knh (kny)
In ordinary speech verbal nouns of roots whose third consonant is are often
pronounced with a smooth glide: /yecia/ as well as /yeci'a/.
When the first root consonant is h or x, then the pattern is:/CiaC2iC3a/
/,axila/ "eating"
A. Translation Drill
(The instructor reads both parts of the

meet in a cafe.
sentence before the student translates)

1.The doctor examined him, and the


examination was quick.

, . 1
.

2.He went to Eilat, and the trip was long.

, . 2
.

3 He opened the store,


and the opening was beautiful.

, . 3
.

4. He walked six kilometers, but the walk


was easy.

, . 4
.

5 They went to eat, because it came time


to eat.

, . 5
.

6. He wrote one letter,


and it took a long time to write.

, . 6
.

7 We swim every day, because we like to


swim.

, . 7
.

8. They went to Israel in the last


immigration.

. . 8
. .S
.

9 He sold the jelly. The jelly was on


sale.

, .10
.

10. I'm going to meet Miriam, and we'll


RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

? .1
? .2
? .3
? .4
? .5
? .6

709

UNIT

BASIC
COURSE

UNIT

HEBREW

22
REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

: , ? : . ? :
. : .
: . . : .:
. . : ?
: . . 6 . : .
: . :?
: .
: ?
: .
: .
: .
: . . .
: .
: . . : ?
: . .
: . : ? ? :
. : .
: . : ?
: . : ? : .
.

710

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

23*1 Before The Play

Atara,
I see that
you have won again.
again
he won

atara,
ani roe SeSuv nicaxt.
&uv
niceax
YONATAN

,
.

ATARA
I
ani
generally
win
menacaxat,
because I have
a good husband.

bederex klal

ki yeS li
baal tov.


generalization klal (m)

DAVID
Do you want to
drink anything?
he drank
something
chocolate

atem rocim
ustot ma'Sehu?
gata
maSehu (m)
Sokolad (m)

ATARA
No, thanks. I'm
not thirsty. Oh the bell is
ringing.
thirsty
bell
rang

lo toda. ani
lo cmea. o hapaamon
mecalcel.
came
paamon (m)
cilcel

.
.
.

YONATAN
bou nigaS lamekomot Selanu.

Let's go to
our seats.

DAVID

anu yoSvim
bayacia.

We're sitting in the balcony.


ATARA

711

UNIT

UNIT

HEBREW

22

The seats

BASIC
COURSE

are pretty good.


enough

da
y

harnekomot

day tovim.

712

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

20
DAVID

What do you want


for six liras? To
sit
in the front row?
ma at roca beSeS

lxrot, laSevet
baSura hariona?

ATARA
Quiet.

Seket .
Don't disturb.
he disturbed

al tafria.

hifri
a

The curtain's going up.


curtain

luncheonette
hamasax ole.
masax (m)

The first act is over.


act

hamaaraxa hariSona
nigmera. maaraxa (f)

There's an intermission for


ten minutes.
interruption he
interrupted

yeS hafsaka leeser


dakot.
hafsaka (f)
hifsik

You're not allowed to smoke


inside.
forbidde
n
he
smoked
interior

asur leaSen bifnim.


asur (m.s.)
iSen
pnim (m)

23.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY

Smoking is permitted in the


lobby.
lobby
Use the ashtray.
I'm hungry.

ani raev.
hungry

ashtray

Where's the snack bar?


raev (m.s.)

mutar leaden
bamisderon.

misderon (m)

hiStame)bamaafera.
maafera (f)

eyfo hamiznon?
miznon (m)

.
?

/came/ "thirsty"

23.3 VOCABULARY DRILLS


A. Substitution-Agreement Drill

. .
/raev/ "hungry"

- - -

He's not hungry; he's thirsty.

B. Substitution Drill /hiStameS/ "use" Use the exit on the

right.

713

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

23.4 VERB DRILLS


The student may soon begin to feel overwhelmed at the large number of different
forms that a verb root may have in the various conjugations. He will be required to
conjugate fully almost every new verb that occurs. A shift in tense, person, gender,
or number - and the form learned in the Basic Sentence is incorrect in the new
sentence.
However, the task is not nearly so difficult as it may seem at this point. The
student will find that the regularities of the system are very great and that a few
patterns take care of the large majority of verbs which actually occur in ordinary
speech. Conscientious overlearning of these drills will bring an increasing measure of
confidence.
In previous units the different forms of new words have been drilled in the
Vocabulary Drill sections. In this and following units new verbs will be drilled in
special Verb Drill sections. These will serve as a constant review of the binyanim
and verb types. Pertinent comments for individual verbs will be made from time to
time.

(a) ./nicax/ "he won"


The third root consonant of this verb is x ( ) , and the vowel /a/ must
precede it at the end of a word.
A.Substitution-Agreement Drill - Past Tense

I'm happy that I've won again.

- - - - - - -
- -
(This drill may be varied by varying /sameax/ to agree with the alternations of
/nicaxti/: /ata sameax SeSuv nicaxta/, /anu smexim SeSuv nicaxnu/, etc.)
B.Substitution-Agreement Drill - Present Tense

I generally win.

. 1
- - - - -

C. Substitution-Agreement Drill - Future Tense


1 hope you'll win tomorrow.

- - - - - -
-
D. Substitution-Agreement Drill - All Tenses

. .

We win every time.


We won yesterday,
and
we'll
win
today.

-
-
- - - - -

714

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
(b)/cilcel/ "rang"
This verb is conjugated exactly like /kilkel/ "he damaged". The pi'el is used in
both the transitive meaning /cilcalti bapaamon/ "I rang the bell" and the intransitive
meaning /hapaamon cilcel/ "the bell rang".
E.Substitution-Agreement Drill - Past Tense
we rang the beii on time.

- - - - - - -
-

F.Substitution-Agreement Drill - Present Tense


we ring the beiis at noon.

G.Substitution-Agreement Drill - Future Tense


when will he ring the beii?

- - - - - -

(c)/ien/ "he smoked"


H.Substitution-Agreement Drill - Past Tense
she smoked aii morning.

- - - - - - - -

I.Substitution-Agreement Drill - Present Tense


x smoke in my free time.

- - - - - -

J. Substitution-Agreement Drill - Future Tense


We'll smoke during the second intermission.

- - - - - - -

715

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

(d) /Sata/ "he drank"


This is a lamed hey verb of the kal. It is conjugated exactly like /kana/ "he
bought" . The 3 fs. past tense is /^ateta/
K. Transformation Drill - Affirmative to Negative
Instructor: Drink tea.
Student: Don't drink
coffee.

tea.

Drink

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.

L. Transformation Drill - Past to Future


Instructor: I drank the milk. Student: I'll drink the milk.

M.

. . .
. . . . .
. .
.
This drill should be done in reverse,
. .
.
. .
.

.
.
.
also.

Substitution-Agreement Drill - Present Tense Do you


drink plain .water?

716

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

235 The nif'al Conjugation


The present and past tenses of the nif'al were drilled in Unit 19 and should be
quite familiar to the student. The future tense is simple in struc- ture, but in verbs
whose first or second radical is b, , or k ( ), the alternation of consonants may be
confusing at first. Care should also be taken not to confuse the future tense pattern
of the nif'al with that of the pi'el.
In the charts below, the vowel of the prefix in the imperative and future is
separated from the consonant of the prefix in order to point out more clearly the
differences from the pi'el. Euphonic vowels are in lower case when they occur within a
capitalized pattern.
The following charts will have some forms which would make sense only in rather
contrived contexts: For example, the imperative /hisager/ "be locked in". However, they
are included in order to illustrate the complete conjugation.
As with the pu'al (see Grammar Note 21.8) some forms make sense only in the third
person. No general rules can be given to predict these, but the student can usually
rely on his own judgment, though English idiom can be misleading. For example, "I will
be finished" meaning "I will finish" is rendered in Heorew in the kal: /egmor/. The
nif'al form /egamer/ would be a slang inno- vation.
(a) Pattern with unchanging root consonants:

717

UNIT

UNIT

BASIC

HEBREW

22

COURSE

Forms with vowel suffix


Infinitive:
Imperative:

le h ISAGER
m.s*

ISAGER
f.s.
m.pl
.

h ISAGR i
h ISAGR u

f.
s.

t ISAGR i

ISAGER na

m.pl
.

t ISAGR u

ISAGER na

3 m.pl

y ISAGR u

3 f.

ni SGeR a

3 pi.

ni SGeR u

ISAGER na
f.pl.
Future:

s.

m.s.

m. s.
f.s.

pi.

m.s.

n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i

m.pl.
f.pl.
1

s.

2.M.s.
2

f.s.

m.s.

ISAGER
ISAGER
ISAGER

.s.

ISAGER

3 f.pl.

Past:

ESAGER

3
3

2 f.pl.

Present:

SGAR
SG1SR

et

SGAR im
SGAR ot
SGAR

ti

SGAR ta
SGAR t
SGAR
s.

A.

pi.

m.pl.

f.pl.

n
i
n
i
n
i

SGAR nu
SGAR tem
SGAR ten

Expansion Drill
Instructor: I will hurry.
Student: If I don't hurry I will be locked in the building.

718

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

!.

,
,


.
,

20

.
, .

B. Transformation Drill - Future to Past


Instructor: He will be locked in the building. Student: He was locked in the building
yesterday.

0 "1.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
The drill should be done in reverse, also.

) (b) Alternating root consonants b,p, k f


The pattern of root consonant alternations in the n i f 1 a l is different from that in
the kal. In the nif'al all forms have a prefix, and therefore,the handy rule about
prefixed and unprefixed forms would not be applicable.
However, if the /ni-/ of the present and past tenses is disregarded, then the rule
for the alternations is exactly the reverse of the kal. The following charts will
illustrate this more clearly.

719

UNIT

Prefixed Unprefixed

Prefixed Unprefixed
(disregard /ni-/)

yiVdok

yiBadek
ni Vdak

Badak
Future:
Past:
k/x
Future:
Past:

COURSE

Alternating first radicals (1 )


kal
nif'al

b/v
Future:
Past:

E/f

BASIC

HEBREW

22

yiFtax

yiPatax
Pa tax

yiXtov

Katav

ni Ftax
yiKatev

ni Xtav

C. Substitution-Agreement Drill

- - - - -
- - -

.
. .
.
.
. .
.
. .
D. Transformation Drill Past to Future
Instructor: The building

You will be examined tomorrow morning.

was examined yesterday. Student: The building will be


examined tomorrow.

. ,
. .
. .
.
. .
.
.

Do this drill in reverse, also.

E. Transformation Drill - Past to Future


.
.
. .
.
.
.
Instructor: The door was opened

an hour ago. Student: The door will be opened in


an hour.

.
. .
.
.
. .

Do this drill in reverse, also.

F.Substitution Drill
The following greetings are used on the Hebrew New Year, Rosh Hashana. The verb
forms are Classical Hebrew and are slightly different from the ordinary modern
Hebrew forms.
May you be inscribed for a good year.
leSana tova tikatev.
tikatevi
tikatevu

720

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

tikatavna
G.Substitution Drill
come into the office, please.

. ,

(in ordinary speech the shortened forms /kanes, kansi/ etc., will often be
heard.)

721

UNIT

H. Substitution-Agreement Drill
The following drill can be varied by leaving off the phrase /lak^xat et
hamixtavim/.
I will go into his office tomorrow to get the letters.

1.
2.

4
.
5

6.

I:
9

.
10

.
11
.
12

13
.
14

15

.
16

17

.
18

.
. 19 .
,

.
.
20 ,

21
.
.
.
22

23
.
24

25

.
1

scira

.

etmol

.
yaakov
.2

.
maxar
baboker

axSav
.

.3


hen

.4

. anu.
baavua
Seavar .
.5

.
.6
ani
.
.7
hayom

hem
.
.8

beod xodeS .
.9

.
.
at

lifney yomaim
10

.
.
hu


11


. 12

.
axSav aten .

.
baSavua haba .
13


.
ata .

14
lifney Saa .


nu

.
berega ze .

15

raxel beod ...
.
mi^pSxat
zah&vi aa
16


.

.
17

ilom .
.

yael
.
18
hayom
.

19

Affirmative to Negative
.
X. 20 Transformation Drill
Instructor: Come in, please.
.2 1
Student: Don't come in. 1'11 come out.
.
22
. . . .
.
23
)J. Expansion Drill . (Keep the tense the same in both parts of the response
24
. .

.
.
. .

25
. . .

.
.
.

26
Instructor: He went into the house.
he came right out.

.
Student: He went into the house, but
.
27
.
28

.
.
.
.

.
26

27

.
28

722

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
BASIC COURSE_______________________________HEBREW________________________________________UNIT 23

.K. Expansion Drill (Reverse of Drill j) Instructor: He came out of the house

Student: He came out of the house, but he went right bac in.
k
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.

. Substitution-Agreement DrillI
He'll get together with David this evening.

.
- - - -
- - - -

M. Transformation Drill
Instructor: He'11 meet David this evening. Student:
He'll get together with David this evening.
.
. .
.
.
. . .
.

together with Atara in the cafe. Student: We


Atara in the cafe.

.
.
. .

723

.
.
. .
.
. .

Future to
Past

N. Transformation Drill
Instructor: We'll get
got together with

.
.
. .
.

Do this drill in reverse, also.

724

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
(2) Alternating second radicals

b/v
Future:
Past:

Prefixed

kal

yi&Bor

E/l

Future: Past:

k/x

Future:

nif'al Prefixed
Unprefixed
(disregard /ni-/)
yiSaVer
ni SBar

Unprefixed

SaVar

yiSPo
x

yimKo
r

yiSaFe
x

SaFa
x

ni

ni
Spax

yimaXe
r

maxa mKar
r

Some exceptions to the pattern


in the column on right ("unprefixed") have
already been noted. In Grammar
Note 195 it was noted that the second radical
is /v/, //, or /x/ if the prefix is /nee-/ or /no-/. For example:
/neexal/ "eaten"

0. Substitution-Agreement Drill The

- -
- -

glass will break.

P. Substitution-Agreement Drill The glass broke.


- - - -

Q. Transformation Drill - Future to Past


Instructor: The glass will break. Student: The glass broke.

725

UNIT

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Do this drill in reverse, also.

726

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
UNIT 23_______________________________HEBREW_______________________________BASIC COURSE
R. Transformation Drill
Instructor: Be careful that you don't break the glass. Student: Be careful that
the glass doesn't get broken.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

This drill may be varied by putting the first part in the feminine or plural:
.
S. Substitutions-Agreement Drill
The house will be sold by tomorrow.

.
- - -
- - -

T. Substitution-Agreement Drill
The house was sold before 1 got there.

.
- - - -
- -

U. Transformation Drill - Future to Past


Instructor: The tickets will be sold today.
Student: The tickets
have already been sold.
.
. . -: .
.
. .
. reverse, also.
Do this drill in

V. Transformation Drill
Instructor: They have sold the vegetables already. Student: The vegetables have
already been sold.

727

UNIT

.
.

.
.
.

.
9

W. Transformation Drill

Instructor: He will sell his house. Student: His house will be sold.

.
.
.
.

(c) Verbs with first radical r, x, ( ) , or h


If the first root consonant of the verb is r, x ( ) , or h then the vowel of the
prefix in the infinitive, imperative and future is /e/7 rather than /i/. Examples are:
/

/
/
/
/
In
tense
/ni-/.

leheraSem/ "to be recorded" /yeraSem/ "it will be recorded"


/lehera'ot/ "to be seen" /yera'e/ "he will be seen"
lehexa&ev/ "to be considered" /yexaSev/ "he will be considered"
lehe* axel/ "to be eaten" /ye'axel/ "it will be eaten"

lehe'asot/ "to be done" /ye'ase/ "it will be done"

lehehanot/ "to enjoy" /yehane/ "he will enjoy"

(See 24.4(c), p.282)

Grammar Note 19-5 it was noted that the present and


past
than
prefix of the last three types is /ne-/, rather

X. Substitution-Agreement Drill The bread will be eaten first.


- - - - -

- - -

- -

Y. Substitution-Agreement Drill

728

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
The cheese was eaten first.

729

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20

DD. Transformation Drill - Future to Past


Instructor: You'11 look better after the vacation. Student: You looked better
before the vacation.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

Do this drill in reverse, also.

(e) Verbs with first radical Y

If the first root consonant (as listed for the kal) is y .< then it occurs as v
(spelled ) in the nif1al. In the present and past tenses the forms begin
with /no-/. See Grammar Note 195< part 1(e): /nolad/ "born"
In the infinitive, imperative, and future this root consonant is pronounced /v/
and the vowel pattern is the same as with regular verbs. For example:

/yivaled/ "it will be born" root yld


/yivada/ "it will be known" root yd'
(The future tense of these verbs will not be drilled here, but the drills on
the past tense in Unit 19 may be reviewed.)

The following are drills on the nif'al of various verbs which have occurred in
the text.

EE. Expansion Drill


Instructor: Speak louder.
Student: Speak louder; then you'll be heard better.

. . .

.
.
.
.

730

UNIT

BASIC

UNIT

HEBREW

COURSE

the play over? Student: What time will the play


?be over

?
?
?
?

22

?
?
?
?

FF. Transformation Drillpast to Future

GG. Substitution-Agreement Drill

Instructor: What time was

Moshe is being careful not to break the glasses.

.
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.
.8
.9
.
10
.
11
.
12
.
13
.
14
.
15
.
16
.
17
.
18
.
19
.
20
.
21
.
22
.
23
.
24
.
25
.
2.
6
.
27
.
28

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

hayom

dalya

etmol

aten

hayom

maxar

27 haxayalim

28 hayom
.

731

raxel
etmol
atem
ax&av
hem
maxar
hen
etmol
hu
maxar
anu

mar keispi
etmol
SoSlina

maxar

hem
hayom

miSpaxat alon
etmol
ata umoSe

1.
2.
3
4.
5
6.
7
8.
9
10
.
11
.
12
.
13

14
.
15

16
.
17

18
.
19

20
.
21

22
.
23

24
.
25

26
.

UNIT

HEBREW

22
HH. Substitution-Agreement Drill
I will be sent to Israel next year.

732

BASIC
COURSE

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

.1 ?

.2 ?

.3 ?

.4 , ?
.5 ?
.6 ?

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

: , . :
. . :
, . : ,
.
: . :
. . :
. : ! .

733

UNIT

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

20
. : . .
: ?
: .?
: .
:! .

734

HEBREW BASIC COURSE

: ? :
. ? :.
. :
. :
.
: , .
. : .:
. .
: . .
: . :
? . :,
.:
, .
: .
: ? :
.

735

UNIT 22

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

24.1 Discussing the Show


Come, let's go

to the Kasit
and get a cup
of coffee.
(name of a
coffee
shop)
ATARA

bou nigaS
lekasit
veniSte
kos kafe.

kasi
t

DAVID
Good
idea
.
We'
11
see
the
acto
rs
ther
e.
pla
yer
,
act
or
pla
yer
,
act
res
s
r

a
a
y
o
n
t
o
v
.
n
i
r
'
e
S
a
m
e
t

h
a
s
a
x
k
a
n
i
m
.
sax
kan
(m)
sax
kan
it
(f)

YONATAN
Atara,
atara,
how did you enjoy
ex nehenet
the performance?
mehahacaga?
he enjoyed,
deri
ved
bene
fit

nehen
a

ATARA
I
had
a
ver
y
goo
d

t
i
m
e
.
T
h

e
s
t
a
g
e

736

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

se
tti
ng
was
won
der
ful
,
and
the
act
ors
wer
e
goo
d.

a
n
i

t
i
f

o
r
a
h
a
y
t
a

st
ag
e
se
tt
in
g
wo
nd
er
fu
l,
fa
sc
in
at
in
g

m
e
o
d

m
a
k
s
i
m
a
,

v
e
h
a
s
a
x
k
a
n
i
m

h
a
y
u

t
o
v
i
m
.
tif'ora
(f)
maksim
(m.s.)

n
e
h
e
n
e
t
i
.

h
a

YONATAN
d
etail
especi
ally
g
a
m

a
n
i
n
e
h
e

n
e
t
i
.
b
i

f
r
a
t
m
i
m
i

737

UNIT

20

UNIT

28

HEBREW

prat
( m)

ryam
narkis
.

I
'
m

o
o
)

n
o
t

l
o
w
.

c
r
a
z
y
a
b
o
u
t
h
e
r
.
S
h
e
'
s
o
l
d
,
a
n
d
h
e
r
v
o
i
c
e
i
s
(
t

v
e
h
a
k
o
l
he
went
crazy
after
me old

low
,
sho
rt
(he
igh
t)
DAV
ID

S
e
l
a
n
a
m
u
x
.
hi^tagea
axaray zaken
(m.s. namux
(m.s.

a
n
i

l
o

m
i
S
t
a
g
e
a

a
x
a
r
e
h
a
.
h
i
z
k
e
n
a

BASIC COURSE

738

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

UNIT

20


.
ATARA
You're sorry that you
went?
he regretted

hitxare
t

ata
mitxaret
^ehalaxta?

739

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

DAVID
No,

.
I would
have
enjoyed

B
u
t

l
o
.

I
w
o
u
l
d

a
x
h
a
i
t
i

h
a
v
e

n
e
h
e
n
e

e
n
j
o
y
e
d

y
o
t
e
r

b
e
t
t
e
r

m
i
s
e
r
e
t

a
g
o
o
d

t
o
v
.
haiti
nehen
e

m
o
v
i
e
ATARA
Y
o
n
a
t

a
n
,
I

740

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

'
m
s
u
r
e
t
h
a
t
y
o
u
r
p
a
r
e
n
t
s
w
o
u
l
d
h
a
v
e
e
n
j
o
y
e
d
t
h
e
s
h
o
w
v
e
r

y
m
u
c
h
.
sure, certain

y
<
5
n
a
t
a
n
,
a
n
i
b
t
u
x
a
S
e
h
a
h
o
r
i
m
S
e
l
x
a
h
a
y
u
n
e
h
e
n
i
m

741

UNIT

20

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

a
c
a
g
a
.
batua
x
(m.s.
)

m
e
o
d
m
e
h
a
h

YONATAN
Yes,
it's
too
bad
that

ken,
xaval

this
was

Sezu
hayta

the
last
perfor
mance.
hahaca
ga
haaxro
na.
.

742

it'
s
too
bad
tha
t

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

xav
al
Se

this
zu (f)

24.2

ADDITI
ONAL
VOCABU
LARY
T
h
e

w
a
h
e
T
l
i

s
h
o
w

I
h
e
L
h
e
L
h
e
h
a
h
h
i
l
x
a
h
h
i
b
h
i
b

w
a
s
b
o
r
i
n
g
.
h
e
b
o
r
e
d
(
s
.
o
.
)

743

20

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

o
n
i
t
k
a
r
e
v
l
a
b
a
m
a
.
hitka
rev
bama
(f)

744

UN"24

__________________

BASIC COURSE

_HEBREW

24.3 VOCABULARY DRILL


"/zaken/ "aged

A. Substitution-Agreement Drill

)(in the feminine and plural forms the initial cluster /zk-/ is pronounced /sk-/

He's not so old.


7

- - .

"B. Substitution-Agreement Drill /namux/ "short, low


.

The table is low.

- - -

C Substitution-Agreement Drill

I'm sure it's aii right.

- - - - -

D Expansion Drill
Instructor: The Dan Hotel is on Hayarkon Street.
Student: I'm certain that the Dan Hotel is on Hayarkon Street.
! .

.
6

.
9



.

.

.
2
.
3
.
4
.
5
.
6

745

UNIT

28

HEBREW

The instructor may vary this drill further by having


the students respond with plural forms /cinu btuxim/
or /anu btuxot/, or by varying the subject in the
response sentence. For example: /xana btuxa Sehialon
dan nimca birxov hayarkon.E. Substitution Drill
/axarey/ "after"

They arrived after me.

746

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW


F. Expansion Drill


.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

Instructor: I arrived first.


Student: I arrived first and they came after me.

. .
. .
. .
. .
. .

747

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

24.4 VERB DRILLS


(a) /nigaS/ "he approached"
This verb is unusual in that it is conjugated in the kal in the infinitive
imperative, and future, and in the nif'al in the present and past tenses. The
infinitive is /lageSet/ .

A . Substitution Drill Come to the window. (Some speakers



.

say / geS, geSna /)

B Transformation Drill - Future to Past


Instructor: He'll come to the embassy.
Student: He came to the embassy.

. .
. . .
. .
.
Do this drill in reverse, also.

C. SubstitutionAgreement Drill She is

- - -
- -

coming to the window.

(b) /)
i'amem/ "he bored (some one)"

The root of this verb has four consonants S'mm.


All forms of this
verb have the consonant sequence / -'m-/, and therefore the /a/ is inserted. The
juncture /'/ is often replaced by a smooth transition: /Siamem/ as well as / i
amem/.

D. Substitution Drill
Don't bore us so much.

748

.
.
.

.
.
.
.

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW


E. Substitution-Agreement Drill

)
(

)
(

()

)
(
If you
contin
ue
this
way,
you'll
bore
them
to
death.

)
(

)
(

()

p. Substitution-Agreement Drill
He's very

boring.

- -

G
Substitutio
n-Agreement
Drill I
think you
bored them.

- -
-
-

-
- -

(c) /nehena/ "he enjoyed"


Most speakers conjugate the
infinitive and future tense of
/nehena/ in the kal instead of in
the nif'al. The difference is
mainly in the vowel of the
unstressed syllable.

Infinitive:
Future: 1 s.
m.s. tehene
etc.,

lehenot
ehene 2

kal
nif
'al
etc.,

749

lehehano
t
ehane
tehane

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

H
Substit
utionAgreeme
nt
Drill
'You
ll
enjo
y
the
hike
very
much
.

- - -

- -
-

750

you enjoy the


movie? Student: I
enjoyed the movie
very much.

?
J.
Response
Drill
Instruc
tor:
How did

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

24.5 The hitpa'el Conjugation


In English the distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs, between
active, passive, and reflexive verbs is often made by changing the structure of the
sentence rather than the form of the verb. For example, in the sentences "He cooled the
coffee" and "The coffee cooled" the verb forms are identical, but in the first sentence
there is a subject-verb-object construction, and in the second sentence just a subjectverb construction. The verb in the first sentence is usually said to be "transitive",
that is, having a direct object; and the verb in the second is said to be
"intransitive".
Sometimes the verb forms are quite different and without any obvious relationship. For example, "to bring (something) near" and "to approach" do not show any
overt relationship, though the latter may be paraphrased as "to bring oneself near".
This latter construction is said to be"reflexive."
In Hebrew the intransitive, reflexive and passive counterparts of verbs are often
conjugated in the hitpa'el.
/kibel/
/hitkabel/

"he accepted"
"he was accepted"

/ciref/
/hictaref/

"he joined (two things together)"


"he joined (himself to other people)"

/Sina/
"he changed (something)"
/hiStana/ "he changed, became different"
The characteristic feature of this binyan is the prefix /hit-/. In the future and
present tenses the /h-/ is dropped after other prefixes.
There are no root consonant alternations in the hitpa'el .
Infinitive
:
Future:

Present:

m.s.
f.s.

le hit kaSer
1 s.

2 m. s.

3 m.s.

3 f.s.

1 pi.

2 f.pl.

3 f.pl.

m it kaSer
m it kaSer et

e
t
i
t
i
t
i
t
i
t
i
t
i
t

2 f.s. t it kaSr i

kaSer

Forms with vowel suffix

kaSer

2m.pl. t it kaSr
u

3m.pl. y it kaSr

kaSer

kaSer
kaSer
kaSer na
ka&er na
m.pl. m it kaSr im
f.pl. m it kaMr ot

751

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Some verbs have the prefix /nit-/ in the past tense. These verbs are more clearly
the passive counterparts of pi'el verbs, but there is no general rule for predicting
which verbs will have /nit-/ instead of /hit-/.
1 s.
2 m.s.
2 f.s.
3 m. s.
3
1 pi. f.s.
2 m.pl.
2 f.pl.3

PI .

hit kaSar
hit kaSar
hit kaSar

ti
ta
t

hit kaSer
hit kar a
hit kaSar nu
te
m
hit kaSr
hit kaSar
te u
n

/mina/ "he

hit kaSar

appointed"

/nitmana/ "he was appointed"

Some verbs have either possibility, depending on the context: /hitkabel/ "he was
received" /nitkabel/ "he was received"
/hitkabel/ is usually followed by a prepositional phrase such as "at the
university, for an interview, etc.," and /nitkabel/ is usually followed by /al yedey/
"by" : /hu nitkabel al yedey hamenahel/ "he was received by the director."
Verbs which have the stem vowels /-o-e-/ in the pi'el will have /-o-e-/ in the
hitpa'el, also.
/konen/ "he established"

/hitkonen/ "he set himself up (to do something)"


The /t/ of the prefix coalesces with a first radical t or d.
(b) Verbs with first radical s, c, z
When the first root consonant is s, or c, then the /t/ of the hitpa'el prefix
follows it:
/his tader/ "he got along"

sdr
/hig tagea/ "he went crazy" /hi_taref/ "he joined"

[Note that the /t/ of the prefix is spelled when preceded by /c/ J
When the first root consonant is z then the /t/ of the prefix not only follows
the /z/ but becomes /d/:
/hiz__damen/ "he had the opportunity" /hiz daken/ "he
grew old"
]

A. Substitution-Agreement Drill
1 was impressed by their program of s
t
u
d
i
e
s
.

752

HEBREW

UNIT 24
.
1
.
2
.
3
.
4
.
5
.
6
.
7
.
8

.
9
.
1
0
.
1
1

.
1
2
.
1
3

BASIC
COURSE

ani

hem

at

anu
hu
ata
atara
iSti veani
hayoec
hatalmidim
hamenahel veata
at vedalya

atem

B. Substitution-Agreement Drill
(Use the underlined words as cues.) I think
you'11 regret it if you don't go.

753

C. Expansion Drill

Instructor: Tell him when you're going.


Student: Tell him when you're going, and
he'll join you.

754

.
.

.
7

7 .
.

HEBREW

BASIC
COURSE

D. Substitution-Agreement Drill
He calls his family
every evening.

UNIT 24

- -
-

(c) lamed hey verbs in the hitpa'el


In the past tense the first and second
person forms have the vowel /e/ before the
pronoun suffixes:
/hiStane'ti/ "I changed"
lehiStano
t

755

Infinitive:
Future: 1 s.

eStane

2 m.s. tiStane, etc.

Present: m.s. miStane

Past:

f.s. mi&tana, etc. (Many speakers use


the f.s. form /miStanet/)

hiStaneti, etc.
3 m.s. hi&tana 3 f.s. hiStanta 3 pi hiStanu

756

UNIT 24______________________________________HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

E Substitution-Agreement Drill
You haven't changed a bit.

.
- - -
- - -

F.Substitution-Agreement Drill
They will be appointed to the Embassy in Tel Aviv.
.
- -
- - - -

G.Transformation Drill - pi'el to hitpa'el


Instructor: The program didn't
interest me. Student: I wasn't
interested in the program.

.

.

.

.

Do this drill in reverse, also.


H Transformation Drill
Instructor: I was cold
outside. Student: I caught
.cold outside

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

757

I. Transformation Drill

Instructor: We were tired from the


hike. Student: We got tired hiking.
.
.
.
.
.
.

758

, .

.
.

BASIC COURSE_________________________HEBREW________________________________UNIT 24

J. Transformation Drill
Instructor: The director will receive him tomorrow.
Student: He will be received tomorrow.

. .


. .
. .
, . .
. .
.







.

Instructor:School bores me.

I get bored in
Student:
school.
.

. .

.
.
.

K. Transformation Drill - pi'el to hitpa'el

Do this drill in reverse, also.


L. Substitution Drill
.

G O away from the window.

M. Expansion Drill
Instructor: I'm going out for a walk.
Student: I'm going out for a walk, but I won't go far from the house.
, .
.
,

,
. ,
.
, .
.
,
N. Expansion Drill
Instructor: I don't let him go out.
Student: I don't let him go out because he goes far from the house.

759

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

0. Expansion Drill

Instructor: We didn't see the ship.


Student: We didn't see the ship until we came close to the port.
.
.
.
.
. ,

24.6 verbal Noun of the hitpa'el


The verbal noun of the hitpa'el has the pattern /hitC!aC2C3Ut/.
/hitra&mut/ "being impressed"
/hitkarvut/ "approaching"

/hitraxakut/ "estrangement"

These nouns are feminine and have the plural pattern /hitC!aC2C3uyot/.
/hitkaSruyot/ "relations, connections"
/hitraSmuyot/ "impressions"

When the first root consonant


prefix follows.
/hictalvut/
/hizdamnut/

is s^, S, , or z

the /t/ (or /d/) of the

"intersection"
"opportunity"

760

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

.1 ?
.2 ?
.3 ?
.4 ?
.5 ?
.6 ?
.7 ?
.8 , ?
.9 ?

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

: . : ?
: . : .
: .
: ,? : . :
?
: . : .
: . . . :
.
: . : . . :
. :? .
: . :
. : . . :
.
: . : ? .:
, . :? ? : . ,
.

761

____________UNIT 27
___________________
HEBREW________BASIC
COURSE

: . :
. .:
, . :
.
: .
: .
. : .:
. . .

762

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW


25.1 Leaving the Cafe

ATARA
David,
Le
t'
s
go
ho
me
.
It
's
la
te
.

davi
d,
bo
nele
x
haba
yta.
kvar
meux
ar.

(to
)
hom
e

hab
ayt
a

DAVID

Wait a
while. I
want to
drink
another cup
of coffee.
xaki rega.
ani roce
liStot od
kos kafe.

763

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

ATARA
No. Come. We have to get up early tomorrow.
YONATAN
You're
leaving
already?
It's
still
early.
atem
kvar
holxim?
od
mukdam.

ATARA

.
.

lo. bo. carix


lakum maxar
mukdam.

What do you mean 'early' It's midnight.


midnight
YONATAN
I'm
going
to
stay a
while
longer
.
Maybe
I'11
meet
some
friend
s.

ani
eSa
er
od
kca
t.
ula
y
efg

o
S
x
a
v
e
r
i
m
.
he
st
ay
ed
fr
ie
nd

ma mukdam'.
kvar xacot.
xacot

niS'ar
xaver
(m)

DAVID

764

!?

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

As you wish.

How much is the bill?


bill, account

UNIT 27

kirconxa. ma
haxeSbon.
xeSbon

YONATAN
Don't worry. It's
on my bill.
he worried
al tid'ag ze al
xeSboni.
da' ag

(m
)

.
.

765

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

y6natan. DAVID
leyl
menuxa.
menuxa
(f)

Thank you very


much. So long,
Yonatan. Sleep
well.

rest
toda raba. Salom

YONATAN

Good
night
.
Thank
s for
the
pleas
ant
compa
ny.

layla
tov
laxem.
toda

nig
ht
com
pan
y

25.2
ADDITIONAL
VOCABULARY
It's 3
o'clock in
the morning.
near,
before

a
v
u
r
h
a
x
e
v
r
a
h
a
n
e
i
m
a
.

layla

dawn.

I'm tired.
tired
I want to
sleep.
Pleasa
he
nt
slept
dreams
I'm falling
.
asleep.
d
he fell
r
asleep
e
a
I'm dozing.
m
he
dozedhaSaa SaloS
1ifnot boker.
I wake up at
lif

h
e
w
o
k
e
u
p
d
a
w
n

(m
xevra
(f

not
ani

a
y
e
f
.
a
y
e
f
(
m
.
s
.
)

ani roce
liSo
n.
yaSa
n

766

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

ani nirdam.
nirdam
ani
menam
nem.
nimnem
ani mit'orer
im Saxar.
hit'orer
Saxar (m)
xalomot
neimim.
xalom (m)

.
&

25.3 VOCABULARY DRILLS


A.Substitution-Agreement Drill /xaver/
"friend"

He's a good friend of ours.


.
-
-

B.Substitution-Agreement Drill /ayef/


"tired"

Are you tired?


?

767

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

768

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

25.4 VERB DRILLS


(a) /niS'ar/ "he remained"

The vowel /a/ is inserted in forms which


would otherwise have the sequence /-,r-/: For
example: f.s. imv. /hiSa'ari/.
A.Substitution Drill
Stay here. I'll go.
.

B.Substitution-Agreement Drill
HOW MUCH longer will we stay?
?

C.Substitution-Agreement Drill
She stays late every Monday and
Thursday.
.
1
- - - -

D.Transformation Drill - Future to Past


Instructor: I'll stay a little while
longer. Student: I stayed a while
longer and then I left.


.

769

.

.

.
.

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE


.


.


.


.


.


.

.

(b) /da'ag/ "he worried"

The second root consonant of this


verb i s
' _ ,
also. The future
stem vowel is /a/ - /tid'ag/. The
infinitive is /lid'og/.
E. Substitution Drill
Don't worry about us.
.

F.

Substitution-Agreement
Drill
He worries about
each and every
student.



.
-
- -

770

UNIT 25

HEBREW

G. Transformation Drill - Future to Past

.

.

.

.

.

.

Instructor:
I'll see about
getting
the
tickets.
Student: I took
care of getting
the tickets.

(c) /yaSan/ "he slept"

The future of this verb has the stem


vowel /a/ and is regular except for a couple
of minor features: The prefix and first root
consonant sometimes coalesce: /tiySan
tiSan/. This difference is hard for an
English speaker to hear and is unimportant,
anyway. The first person singular is /iySan/
"I will sleep".
The present tense is /yaen/, and the
feminine is /yeSena/. This is similar to
/sameax *
smexa/, which has been treated
as an adjective. Many speakers, however, use
the present tense forms /yoSen~ yoSenet/
based on analogy with other kal verbs.

H. Substitution-Agreement Drill

He will sleep at the


a
h
a

i
771

BASIC COURSE

BASIC COURSE

28

HEBREW

UNIT

- -
-
- - -
-

- -
-

J. Substitution-Agreement Drill

she slept aii night.


.
- -
- -

(
d
)

/
n
i
r
d
a
m
/

"
h
e

772

UNIT 25

HEBREW

f
e
l
l

a
s
l
e
e
p
"

K
.

E
x
p
a
n
s
i
o
n

D
r

773

BASIC COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

28

UNIT
i
l
l

Instructor: Give him some rest.


Student: Give him some rest; he'11 fall
asleep right away.
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
. .
.
.

774

UNIT 25

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

L. Expansion Drill
Instructor: He studies the whole night.
Student: He studies the whole night,
and in the morning he
falls asleep in class.


.


.


.


.
M. Expansion Drill
Instructor: I was bored.
Student: I was bored and fell asleep.

,
.
.

Wake up, it's late '.

(e) /hit'orer/ "he woke up" N.


Substitution Drill

,

0 Expansion Drill
Instructor: I don't have an alarm clock.
Student: I don't have an alarm clock, but

I get up early anyway.

.
,
. .
P. Response Drill
Instru
ctor:
When
did
you
get up
this
mornin
g?
Studen
t: I
got up
at
dawn.

775

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

28

UNIT

.
?
.
?
? .

?
.

776

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

25.5 The hif'il conjugation


The hif'il conjugation has the basic meaning "to cause (whatever the root
means] to happen". This is evident to an English speaker in many cases:
"h
e
causative
meaning is
/hif il/
"h
not apparent either because the

e
English translations of the
/yada/
"h
roots in various conjugations
e
are so different or because the

/hodia/
"h
causative meaning has changed

in Hebrew itself.
e

/gadal/
"h
The pattern of the hif'il

e
is comparatively simple. The
/higdil/
"h
characteristic feature is a

prefix of the form /h-/ or the


e

infixed vowel /i/ or both, as


/katav/
"h

in
the
e
ran"

name
/hixtiv/
"h

/hif'il/
e
"he
caused
to
r
u
n
"
itself.
/axal/
"h

In the
e
/he"exil/
"h
e
/rac/
"h
e
/heric/
"h
e
past tense the prefix is /hi-/, /he-/, or /ho-/ depending on the consonants of
the root. These prefixes were described in Grammar Note 17.7 and the student
should review them at this point.
In other cases, however, the

/pa'al/

In the infinitive, imperative, future, and present the vowel of the prefix is
/a/, except for pey yud verbs, such as yd', in which case the prefix vowel becomes
/o/ : /yodia/ "he will inform."
The stem vowel /i/ is not dropped in any of the suffixed forms of the
hif'il. Except for the present tense, the suffixes are not stressed.
(a) General pattern of the hif'il
(Note the stem vowel /e/ in the underlined forms.)
Infinitive:
le
hamSix

777

UNIT

28

Future:

HEBREW
m.s
.f.s.

hamSex
hamSIx

1 s.

amSix

2 m. s.

1 pi.
2 m.pl.

2 f.s.
3 m. s.

y amSix

3 m.pl.

t amS
ix
m amSix

f.pl.

m.s.
f.s.

Past:

f.pl.

t amS
ix
t amSix i

3 f.s.

Present:

BASIC COURSE

m
amSix

2 f.pl.

...

m.pl.

f.pl.

hamSix u
hamSex na
n
amSix
t
amSIx
t
amSx

amSix
t
amSex
m amS
ix
m
amSix

na

na
im
ot

'

3 1 s.
f.s.

himSix
himSax ati

2 m.s.

himSax ta

2 f.s.
3 m.s.

himSax t
himSix

!-I.
1
2 m.pl.
2

f.pl.

3 pl-

himSix

nu

himSci
x
himSax
himSix

tem

ten
u

If the first radical is n, then the n is dropped in the hif'il. (similar dropping
of a radical n was noted for the nif'al).
/yakir/ "he will recognize" - root nkr
/yagia/ "he will arrive"
- root ng'
Occasional variations from the above pattern will be heard, for example, /mekir/
"knows" as well as the regular /makir/.

A. Substitution Drill
Start speaking. Everybody is waiting.

. .

B. Substitution-Agreement Drill
1'n start speaking Hebrew when 1 get there..

- - - -
- - -
- - -

C. Transformation Drill - Future to Past


Instructor: I'll start working as soon as I get there. Student: I
started working as soon as I got here.
.
.

778

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

Do this drill in reverse, also.


D. Substitution-Agreement Drill.

starts working at 9 : 0 0

- - -

E. Substitution-Agreement Drill
we'll move up the meeting to 3 : 0 0 .
.



F. - - - - - - - -
Transformation Drill
Instructor: He comes early every day.
Student: Every day he comes earlier (than the day before).
.
.

.

.
.
. .
.

G. Transformation Drill - Future to Past


Instructor: I'll go to the office early this
morning. Student: I got to the office early this
morning.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .

Do this drill in reverse, also.


H. Transformation Drill - Future to Past
*

when to go. Student: I haven1t yet


decided when to go.
.

.
.
.
.
.

Do this drill in reverse, also.

779

Instructor:
1'11 decide

(b) Verbs with first radical

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

In the past tense the forms of these verbs begin with /he'e-/; For
example:
/he'exil/ "he fed"
In the other tenses the forms begin with /ha'a-/ or /-a1 a-/ if
there is a pronoun prefix. For example, /ha'axel/ "feed" (m.s. imv.)
/ya" axil/ "he will feed."
There is no difference between verbs spelled with or in this
respect.

780

BASIC COURSE HEBREW


Imperative:
Future:

Infinitive:

m.s.
1 s.
2 m.s.

Present:

m.s.

Past:

1 s.
m. s.
f.s.
3 pi.

ha

axel

a
t
a
m
a
he

axil
axil

he
he
he

axil
exal t
i
exil
exil a
exil u

UNIT 27

le ha'axil

f.s.

ha1axil

etc.

1
1
2
etc.

f.s.

t a'axil i

etc.

etc.

J
I. Substitution Drill

.
.

.
.

.
j. Transformation Drill Future to Past

Feed the children. They're hungry.

Instructor: She'11 feed the children.


Student: She fed the children.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Do this drill in reverse, also.

K. Transformation Drill
Instructor: He eats at my house. Student: I give him to eat.
.
,
,
.

,
.

.
.
.

L. Substitution Drill
Put the table over here.


.
- - - -

? -:

- - -
M. Substitution-Agreement Drill
He'11 put the table near the window.

!; . ?

781

UNIT

28

?
?
?
N. Transformation Drill Future to Past

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Instructor: Where will you put the coffee?


Student: Where did you put the coffee?
?
?
?
?
?

Do this drill in reverse, also.

782

UNIT 27____________
___________________
HEBREW________BASIC

(c) Verbs with first radical b, p, k, ( )


If the first radical is b, p, or k ( )then
it occurs
as /v/, /f/, or /x/ throughout the hif'il conjugation.

COURSE

/hivdil/ "he distinguished"


/hif'il/ "he caused to operate"
/hixtiv/ "he dictated"

0 Transformation Drill
Instructor: My clock isn't
working. Student: I'11 start
the clock.

. .
. . .
.

Do this drill in reverse, also.

!
P. Transformation Drill
Instructor: My clock is working now.
Student: I started the clock.


;

. -
.


. .
.
-
.. cn .



- _

.

.

.
.

Do this drill in reverse, also.


Q. Transformation Drill
Instructor: I'11 write a letter for
him. Student: He111 dictate a
letter to me.

783

_
.

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

j
.



784

UNIT

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

Do this drill in reverse, also.R.


Transformation Drill
Instructor: I wrote a letter for him.
Student: He dictated a letter

:ro

Do this drill

.
to me.
.
. . .
.
. . .
.!

Instructor: Do you write letters?


Student: No, I dictate them.


?
?

/he'evir/
/he'efil/
/he'exil/
"he

/hovil/
/hofia/
/hoxiax
/

in reverse, also.

.S. Response Drill

. ,
,
, .
, .
.

(d) verbs with second radical b, p,


k (

or k ( )then it occurs as /b/, /p/, or /k/

If the second radical is


throughout the hif'il conjugation.

b,

/hisbir/ "he
explained" /hispik/ "he
had an opportunity"
/hizkir/ "he reminded"
However,
if
the
first
radical is or (spelled second 2
radical occurs as /v/, /f/,
or

/x/.
brought over"

"he darkened"

"he fed"

in the hif'il) then the

"he transported"
"he appeared"
"he proved"
T. Substitution Drill

785

UNIT

28

HEBREW


,
.

(The

sequence

assimilated

to

/-sb-/

is

/-zb-/).

Explain it to me, please.

786

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW


U. Transformation Drill

Instructor: He knows about it.


Student: He'll explain it to us.

>.P

.
.

.
.
.
.

V. Expansion Drill
Instructor: I read the story.
Student: I read the story and
explained it to them.

.

.

onAgreement
Drill I'11
bring over
the books.

787


.
-
- - -
- -

W.
Substituti

UNIT

28

.
-

-
-

HEBREW

X.
Substitut
ionAgreement
Drill
David
brought
over the
books.

(e) lamed hey verbs in the hif'il.


In the past tense of lamed hey
verbs the vowel preceding the pronoun
suffixes is /e/: /hifneti/ " I
t u r n e d " - . The rest
of the conjugation has the typical
pattern of such verbs.

788

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW


Infinitive:
Imperative:

l
e

hafnot

m.s.

hafne

1 1

f.s.

Future:

1 s.
2 m. s.

af ne
tafne

2 f.s.

Present:

m.s.

mafne

f.s.

Past:

1 s.

hifneti

etc.
3 in. s.
pi.
3

hif na
hifnu

haf ni

etc.

tafni

etc.

maf na

etc.

1 1

3 f.s.

hifneta

Y. Substitution Drill
Turn your face to the
audience.

()

()


.
()
()
()

Z. Substitution
Drill Show me your

hands.

AA. Substitution Drill


Bring up the books to the third floor.

BB. Substitution-Agreement Drill


1 1 1 show him the way.

.
- - - -
- - - - -

CC. Transformation Drill - Future to Past


Instructor: 1'11 show him the way. Student: I showed him the way.

789

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

. . . .
. . . .

DD. Expansion Drill


Instructor: The tourists come to him.
Student: The tourists come to him, and he shows them the city.
.

.

.

.

790

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

(f) ayin vav verbs in the hif'il


In previous units these verbs have been described as having only radicals, with a
vav ( )or yud ( ) supplied to make three radicals for dictionary listings.
In the hif'il the pattern of these verbs is the same as verbs with three radicals
except that in the present and past tenses the prefix vowel is /e/.
If the first radical is b, , or k ( > ) then it occurs as /v/, /f/, or /x/
just as with verbs with three radicals.
/hevin/ "he understood"
/hefic/ " he spread"
/hexin/ "he prepared"
Infinitive:
Imperative:

Future:

Present:

Past:

le havin
m s.
.
f s.
.
1 s.

Root

haven

m.pl.

havin

havin i

f.pl.

haven

na

avin

1 pi.

n
avin
t

2 m. s.

t avin

2 m.pl.

2 f.s.

t avin i

2 f.pl.

3 m.s.

y avin

3 m.pl.

3 f.s.

t avin

3 f.pl.

m.s.

m evin

m.pl.

f.s.

m evin a

f.pl.

1 s.
2 m.s.
2 f.s.

hevan ti
he
ta
van
hevan t

3 m.s.

hevin

3 f.s.

hevin a

avfn

t
aven
y
avfn
t
aven
m
evin

na

ot

na
im

1 pi.
2 m.pl.

evin
hevan
hevan

2 f.pl.

hevan

ten

pi.

hevin

nu

tem

EE. Expansion Drill


Instructor: Explain it to him.
Student: If you explain it to him well, I'm sure he'll understand.
. HT
. DT
.
.
..
PP. Expansion Drill
Instructor: You explained it to him very well.
Student: You explained it to him very well but he still didn't understand.

791

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

GG. Substitution Drill

UNIT

,
.


.
.

Prepare the food, we're starved.

HH. Substitution-Agreement Drill

- - - -
- - - -

?Who will prepare the meal

II. Substitution-Agreement Drill


They prepared a banana split
exactly as in America.

- - - - -
-

.
- 1 -' -
- - -
JT. Substitution-Agreement
Drill I put up the house.

KK. Transformation Drill - Past to Future


Instructor: I put up the house. Student: I will put up the house.
. ?

. ,
. .
? . .

.
.
.

.
.
.
.
. .
. .
.
. .

Do this drill in reverse, also.

Transformation Drill - Past to Future (The vowel


preceding the suffix in the first and /heveti/ "I

792

second person forms is /e/:


. Grammar "filled

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW


Cf. /mileti/ brought".
)"1 Note 21.6c
Instructor: I brought the
chalas for Shabbat.
Student: I'll bring the
chalas for Shabbat.

793

UNIT 27____________
___________________
HEBREW________BASIC
COURSE

25.6 Verbal Nouns of the hif'il


There are two verbal noun patterns of the hif'il:

a)heCiC2eC3 - /hesber/ "explanation"


/hemSex/ "continuation"
These nouns are masculine, and their plurals end in /-im/ :
/hesberim/"explanations"
b)haC1C2aC3a - /hatxala/ "beginning"
/hazmana/ "invitation"
/hagzama/ "exaggeration"
/haxlata/ "decision"
/hakdama/ "introduction"
/hoda'a/ "announcement"
/havana/ "understanding"
/haxana/ "preparation"
These nouns are feminine and their plurals end in /-ot/:
/hatxalot/"beginnings"
Some verbs have nouns of both types:
/heker/ "indication"
/hakara/ "recognition"

As with the verbal nouns of the other binyanim it is difficult to predict which type
will occur or what its precise meaning will be.
Some of these verbal nouns occur only in stereotyped expressions:
/behexlet/"certainly"

/behekdem/"as soon as possible"


The verbal nouns of lamed hey verbs usually have /'/ ( )as the third radical:
/ha*ala'a/"promotion"

A. Transformation Drill
Instructor: He began yesterday. Student: The beginning was yesterday.

. . .
.
.

.
. .
. .

B. Transformation Drill
Instructor: He explained it yesterday.
Student: I didn't like the explanation.

. .
. .
25-7 The hof'al Conjugation
The passive of the hif'il is the hof1al conjugation. This conjugation is
traditionally considered a separate binyan, but it is a simple change of the
hif'il and does not have an infinitive or imperative.

794

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

The prefix and stem vowels /-ua-/ occur throughout the conjugation in
place of the hif'il vowels. All rules about root consonants, lamed hey verbs,
ayin vav verbs, etc., are the same as for the hif'il.
The vowels suffixes are stressed in the future and past tenses.

Future:

Present
:

1 s.

uzman

1 pi.

2 m.s.

t uzman

2 m.pl.

2 f.s.

t uzmen i

2 f.pl.

3 m.s.

y uzman

3 m.pl.

3 f.s.

t uzman

3 f.pl.

m.s.

m uzman

m.pl.

f.s.

m uzman a

f.pl.

n uzma
n
t uzme
n
t uzma
n
y uzme
n
t uzma
n
m uzma
n
m uzma
n

u
na
u
na
im
ot

[With some verbs the present tense has a /-t/ feminine: /mukdemet/. With some verbs both
types are in use /muzmenet/ as well as /muzmana/.]

Past:

1 s.

2 m.s.
2 f.s.
3 m.s.
3 f.s.

huzma
n
huzma
n
huzma
n
huzma
n
huzme
n

ti

1 pi.

ta

2 m.pl.

2 f.pl.

3 Pi

huzma nu
n
huzma tem
n
huzma ten
n
huzme u
n

With some verbs the prefix vowel is /o/: /hor'a/ "it was shown" . In modern
Hebrew many of these have been regularized to the /-ua-/ pattern. For example, though
the name of the binyan has the /of vowel, hof'al, the passive of the verb /hif'il/ "he
caused to operate" is /huf al/ "it was put into operation."
In theory all hif'il verbs have a passive counterpart in the hof'al. However, in
ordinary speech the hof'al is not in frequent use, and the active construction is used.
The hof'al is more frequent in written Hebrew such as newspaper style, etc.
The present tense forms of certain verbs are in very frequent use, and these forms
are often treated as adjectives, nouns, or verb auxiliaries.
/mukdam/
/muxan/
/muvan/
/muxlat/

"early"
"prepared, ready"
"understood"
"decided, definite"

/mu'amad/

"candidate"

/muxrax/

"must"

795

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

28

UNIT

[Compare the description of the


hof'al with the description of the
pu'al conjugation in Grammar Note
A. Transformation 21.8.

Drill - Active to Passive

Instructor: He moved up the


meeting. Student: The meeting

was moved up.


.
. m .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
.

796

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

B. Transformation Drill - Active to Passive


.

.

.

.
t
h
e
i
c
e
c
r
e
a
m
,

.
Instructor:
I
prepared
Student: The
ice cream

i
s
r
e
a
d
y
.

797

BASIC COURSE

28

HEBREW

UNIT

C. Transformation Drill - Active to Passive

.

.
.
.

Instructor: I'll dictate the letter.


Student: The letter will be
.
dictated.
.
.
.

D. Substitution-Agreement Drill We were invited


to the embassy.
- - - - - -
-

E. Transformation Drill - Future to Past


Instructor: The food will be prepared by
five o'clock. Student: The food was
prepared by five o'clock.


.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

798

UNIT 27
RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

.1 ?
.2 ?
.3 ?
.4 ?
.5 ?
.6 ?
REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

: . :? .
: ?! . : ?
: .
: ? : . ,? :
, . :
. : .
.
: ? : ,?
: . .
: , . .
: ..
: ?
: .
: ?
: .

799

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

: . .
: ?
: . . .
: ?
: .
:? .
: . .
: .
: , .
: .
: . .
: . .

800

28

UNIT

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

26.1 Military Service

H
e
l
l
o
,
A
v
i
g
d
o
r
.
I
t
'
s

.
he
hid
(hims
elf)
M
R
.
W
I
L
L
I
A
M
S

a
v

b
e
e
n
a
l
o
n
g
t
i
m
e
s
i
n
c
e
I
'
v
e
s
e
e
n
y
o
u

801

UNIT

28

HEBREW

r. ze
harbe
zman
Selo
raxti
otxa.
eyfo
ata
mitxab
e.
mitxab
e

802

BASIC COURSE

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

I'
ve
be
en
se
rv
in
g
in
th
e
ar
my
a
ye
ar
al
re
ad
y.

he
se
rv
ed
mi
li
ta
ry
se
rv
ic
es
AVIG
DOR
ani
meSaret
bacava
kvar
Sana.
Seret
cava (m)

MR.
WILLIA
MS

803

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

In
wh
ic
h
br
an
ch
ar
e
yo
u
se
rv
in
g?
bra
nch
of
ser
vic
e
beeyze
xail ata
me^aret?
xail (m)
AVIGDO
R

804

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

I
'
m
s
e
r
v
i
n
g
i
n
t
h
e
a
i
r
f
o
r
c
e
.
And
how
is
your
siste
r
Miria
m?
siste
r

f
i
h
i
a
order
conscript
ion

UNIT 27

a
n

M
R
.
W
I
L
L
I
A
M
S
u

AV
IG
DO
R
S

S
h
e
'
s
f
i
n
e
.
S
h
e

805

UNIT

28

ha
gi
mn
as
ia
ha
ka
ic
.

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

g
i
m
n
a
s
i
a
(
f
)

ve
hi
me
xa
ka
le
ca
v
gi
yu
s.
ca
v
(m
)
gi
yu
s
(m
)

806

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

Wonde
rful.
The
whole
famil
y
will
be in
servi
ce.
H
o
w
m
u
c
h

A
M
S
yofi.
k
o
l
h
a
m
i
S
p
a
x
a
t
i
h
y
e

t
i
m
e

y
o
u

b
a
c
a
v
a
.

h
a
v
e

y
o
f
i

t
o

(
m
)

d
o

s
e
r
v
e
y
e
t
?

k
a
m
a

M
R
.
W
I
L
L
I

z
m
a
n
a beaut
t y
a

c
a
r
i

807

UNIT

28

HEBREW

x
o
d
l
e
S
a
r
e
t
.

808

BASIC COURSE

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

AVIGDOR

Another year and a


half.

od Sana vaxeci.

809

UNIT

28

HEBREW

And
how
long does
Miriam
have
to
serve?
Miriam
serve
a
and
a
Girls
less.

will
year
half.
serve

daughter
girls,
daughters
less, fewer
MR. WILLIAMS
vemiryam
kama
zman
crixa
leSaret?

AVIGDOR
miryam teSaret
Sana vaxeci.
banot meSartot paxot.
bat (f) banot
(f.pl.) paxot

.
.

810

BASIC COURSE

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

26.2 ADDITIONAL
VOCABULARY
He's a soldier.
She's a soldier.
He's serving in the
navy.
He's serving in the
army.

dry land, continent


He's a parachutist.
He's an officer.
He's only a private.
only private
We'11 be discharged
next year.
we
he was freed

hu xayal.

hi xayelet.
hu meSaret bexeyl
hayam.

hu me&aret bexeyl
hayabaSa.

yabaSa (f

hu canxan. hu
kacin. hu rak
turai.
rak
turai (m)
anaxnu ni&taxrer
baSana habaa.
anaxnu hiStaxrer

.
.

811

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

26.3 VOCABULARY DRILL


A.Substitution-Agreement Drill /xayal/ "soldier"
Moshe is a good soldier.
.

- - -

B.Substitution-Agreement Drill /kacin/ "officer"


He's an officer in the air force.

- - .
-

812

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

26.4 VERB DRILLS


(a) /hitxabe/ "he hid himself"
The third radical of this verb is (). In the first and second person forms
of the past tense the stem vowel before the suffix is /e/: /hitxabeti/ " I hid
myself". This pattern is similar to that of /mileti/ " I filled" See
Grammar Note 21.6(c).
A. Substitution-Agreement Drill
. ,

David is hiding behind the house.


- - -

B. Transformation Drill - Past to Future


Instructor: I!was hiding on the other side of the building.
Student: 1'11 hide on the other side of the building.
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
.
.
. .1
.
.
.
.
Do this drill in reverse, also.
(b) /Seret/ "he served"
The first and second person forms are spelled with only one - etc. In
ordinary speech /^erateti/ is heard more frequently than /Seratti/.
Some speakers have regularized the past tense to /liret/ etc. See Grammar Note
21.6(a).
C. Transformation Drill - Future to Past
Instructor: We'11 serve in the navy. Student: We served in the navy.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Do this drill in reverse, also.

813

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

D. Substitution-Agreement Drill
In which branch are you serving?
- - -

(c) /guyas/ "he


was drafted"
. This is
the pu'al
of /giyes/.
E.
SubstitutionAgreement Drill
I was drafted a
month ago.


.
- -
- - -

814

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

28

UNIT

] F. Transformation Drill - Past to


Future
Instructor: I was drafted a month
ago. Student: 1'11 be drafted next
month.

.
.

.
.

.
.

815

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Do this drill in reverse, also.

G Transformation Drill
Instructor: I'm waiting
for a draft notice.
Student: 1'11 be drafted
soon.
. .
.
.
(d) /hitgayes/ "he registered for the
draft"
H. Substitution-Agreement Drill

He registered for the draft


yesterday.
- - - -
-


;
.
.

816

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

(e) /hiStaxrer/ "he was freed"


The root of this verb has four consonants, Sxrr
/t/ of the prefix follows the }
. As with
four-consonant roots in the pi'el the second
and third radicals take the place of the
middle radical of three-conso- nant roots:
/hicta r ef/ "he
joined"

/hiSta xr er/ "he


was freed"

.
-

- -
- -
I. SubstitutionAgreement Drill
We will be
discharged
next year.

817

In the hitpA'el,
the

UNIT

28

HEBREW

-
-
- -
-
J.
SubstitutionAgreement
Drill
I was
discharged
just the
day before
yesterday.

818

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

.
;:
.

.

K.
Transformation
Drill - pi'el
to hitpa'el

.
Do this drill in reverse, also.

819

Instr
uctor
:
'They
11
disch
arge
me
next
week.
Stude
nt:
I'11
be
disch
arged
next
week.

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

L.
Transformation
Drill - pi'el
to hitpa'el
Inst
ruct
or:
They
disc
harg
ed
me a
year
ago.
Stud
ent:
I
was
disc
harg
ed a
year
ago.

820

.
.
.

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

Do this drill in reverse, also.

821

UNIT

28

26.5

HEBREW

Members of the Family (a)

Parents and children

/horim
veyeladim/

(b) Grandparents and grandchildren

822

BASIC COURSE

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

are as

(m
.s
.
yo
ur
(f
.s
.
hi
s
fa
th
er
he
r
fa
th
er

father
father

father
father
father
father
Lf

LI

1CI.
your (m.s.)
(m.s
your (f.s.)
.
his brother
(f.s
her brother
.
our brother
your (m.
(m.s.) brother
your s.
(f.s.) brother )
their brother )
(f.s
(m.pl. brother
thei .
(f.pl.
r
fathers mothers
sons
daughters
brothers
sisters
grandfathers
grandmothers
grandsons
granddaughter
s
great-grandsons
greatgranddaughters
The suffixed forms of /av/ "father"
my father your

823

/avot/
/imahot/
/banim/
/banot/
/
axim/ /
axayot/
/sabim,savim/
/sabtot, savot/
/
nexadim
/
/nexado
t/
/ninim/
/ninot/
follows:
/
avi/
/avixa/

UNIT

28

HEBREW

The plurals of the nouns in the preceding charts are:


/avix/
/aviv/
/avxha/
/avxnu/
/avixem/
/avixen/
/av'hem/
/avihen/
/axi/
/axixa/
/axix/

/axiv/
/axiha/
/axinu/
/axixem/
/axixen/
/axihem/
/axihen/

our
father
your
(m.pl.)
your
(f.pl.)
their
(m.pl.
their
(f.pl.
The suffixed forms of /ax/ "brother" are similar to those of /av/:
my brother
brother
brother

BASIC COURSE

824

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

The forms /em/, /bat/ and /ben/ have the variants /im-/, /bit-/,
and /bn-/, respectively, before the singular set of pronominal
suffixes:
my mother
your (m.s.) mother
my daughter
your (m.s.) daughter
son
my son your (m.s. his son her son
our son your (pi.) the ir son
son
*[These forms have an inserted /i/ to break up the beginning threeconsonant cluster /bnx-/.|

/imi/ /
1mxa/

etc
/biti/ .
^itxa/etc.
/bni/
/binxa/
* /bno/
/bna/

/bnenu/
/binxem/ *
/bnam/

825

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

and /lma/xox are used to address one's The forms /aba/


parents. In ordinary conversation they are used before the
preposition /el/ instead of /haav/ and /haem/, e.g. /aba elxa/ "your
father", /una TSelxa/ "your mother".
A. Response Drill

?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

Instructor: How is
?your father
Student: He's fine.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

B. Transformation Drill

.

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
Do this drill in reverse, also.

C. Transformation Drill
My brother is a good student.

:
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
Do this drill in reverse, also.

.

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

My father is a good teacher.

D. Transformation Drill . My mother likes to bake.

:
. .
>. . .
.
Do this drill in reverse, also.

826

UNIT

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

E. Transformation Drill
His daughter is a big girl.
:

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Do this drill in reverse, also.




CDI

F. Transformation Drill
My son is studying Hebrew.
:
.
. .
.
. .

G. Conversational Exercise
The instructor asks each student the following questions, and
the student gives the correct answer pertaining to himself..

.
.

.
.

.
.

?
. _

How many brother do you have?


I have _ brothers.
How many sisters do you have?
X have _ sisters.

?
. _

How many children do you have?


I have _ children.

?
. _

How many sons do you have?


I have _ sons.

?
. _

How many daughters do you have?


I have _ daughters.

?
.
? parents have?

How many grandchildren do your

How many grandchildren does your

grandfather have ?
My father's father has _____
,grandchildren
and my mother's father has _____
.grandchildren
your?

&

, _________
.

. How many great-grandchildren does


grandfather have
My grandfather has _______
. __________
great-grandchildren .
:

'

D n

827

grandchildren.

BASIC COURSE

28

HEBREW

UNIT


.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

.

H. Transformation Drill

My parents live
outside the city.
:

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.
Do this drill in
reverse, also.

828

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

I. Transformation Drill

.

.
.
.
.

.
.
)(Note the form /exav/ "his brothers".
My brothers are serving in the navy.
:


also.

829

.

.
.


.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
Do this drill in
reverse.

BASIC COURSE

28

HEBREW

UNIT

)pronominal suffixes.
:

.
.

.
.
.

j. Transformation Drill
(Note the variant /axyot-/ before My
sisters finished high school.
:

.
.
.

.
.

830

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

Do this drill in reverse, also.K. Transformation Drill


(Note the variant /bn-/ before the second and third person plural
suffixes.) My sons received their draft notice.
:

. . . .

(c) Inlaws

/mexutanim/

/xamot/
mother-inlaw

/gisa/ sister-in-law

In addition to the above terms Hebrew has two additional terms which
must be paraphrased in English:
/mexutan/ "son's /xatan/
(or daughter's)
sonfather-inlaw" /mexutenet/ in-law
"son's (or /kala/
daughter's) daughterin-law
mother-in-law"






!


Some speakers use /xoten/
"father-in-law"

in-law.

.
.
.
,
.
,
.
.

The plural of /xamot/


is /xamayot/ L. Completion
Drill
Instructor: My wife's father
is ___________________________.
Student: My
wife's father
is my father831

.
.

.
.
.
.

UNIT

28

HEBREW

The instructor may vary this drill by changing the pronoun


s
u
f
f
i
x
:
.

832

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 27

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

.1 ?
.2 ?
.3 ?
.4 .
.5 ?
.6 ?
.7 ?
REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

: ?
: .
:? ? 18
: .19 : .
: ? !

: ,
: . . :?
. : .
: .
: .

: ?
: .
: ?
: .
: .
: ,?
: .

833

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

. : ? :
. : ? :
.

: ,?
: . .
: ?
: , .
: ?
: .
: . .

: ?
: .
: .
: ?
: .?
: .
: .

: , ?
: . .
: ?
: .

834

28

UNIT

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

27.1 At the
Barbershop

UNIT 27

.
MR. WILLIAMS
ani roce lehistaper
velehitgaleax.
histaper
hitgalea
x

Hello, sir.
What can I
do for you.
I'd like a
haircut and a

shave.
he got a
haircut he
shaved
(himself), got a
shave
/bamaspera/
BARBER
/sapar/

S
a
l
o
m
a
d
o
n
i
.
m
a
a
n
i
y
a
x
o
l
l
a
a
s
o
t
b
i
S
v
i
l
x
a

835

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Please sit down. I'11 be free right


away.
he became unoccupied
What kind of haircut do you want?

hairdo

BARBER

Sev bevakaSa, ani miyad mitpane


elexa.
hitpana
eyze tisporet ata roce.

tisporet (f)

836

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

MR. WILLIAMS
short

tisporet kcara.
kacar (m.s.)

Do you want a shampoo?


BARBER

shampoo

ata roce xafifa?


xafifa
(f)

A short haircut.

837

UNIT

28

HEBREW

No, but
trim the mustache.

he
shortened
mustache

MR. WILLIAMS
lo. aval
kacer li et hasafam.
kicer safam (m)

.
.

838

BASIC COURSE

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

BARBER
ani mekave

Seata sva racon
,
adoni .
.
sva racon (m.s .)

I hope
you're satisfied, Sir.
satisfied

839

UNIT

28

HEBREW

Yes. Thank you.


How much do I owe you?
Two
liras
for
haircut and one
for the shave.

the
lira
shave

MR. WILLIAMS ken.


toda.
kama ani xayav lexa. BARBER
Stey lirot hatisporet, velira
axat hagiluax.
giluax (m)

. .
?

840

BASIC COURSE

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

27.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY

ani
I want
a
.
shampoo
and
xafifa
set.
vesidur.
want to dye my
gray hair.
he dyed hair a
hair hair,
hairs gray

roca

ani roca licboa et


saarot haseva Seli.
cava
sear (m.s.)
seara(f.s.)
searot seva
(f)

841

UNIT

28

HEBREW

How much is a hairdo?


hairdo
I want a permanent.
kama ola tisroket.
tisrok
et (f)
ani roca permanent.
?

842

BASIC COURSE

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

How much is a
permanent wave?
curling
permane
nt
kama ole silsul
tmidi.
silsul
(m)
tmidi
(m.s.)

?

843

UNIT

I want a
manicure.

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

ani roca manikyur.


27-3 VOCABULARY DRILL
A. Substitution-Agreement Drill /kacar/ "short" The day is short.
- -
- - - -
B. Substitution Drill

/sva racon/ "satisfied"

I'm satisfied with the service.

. -

-
-

C. Substitution-Agreement Drill
Are you pleased with the

food?

- - - -

844

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

274 VERB DRILLS A.


Substitution-Agreement Drill
I'll get a haircut on
Friday.
/histaper/ "he got a
haircut" 0
.
- - - -
- - - -

845

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

B. Substitution-Agreement Drill
I get a haircut every two weeks.
- - -

.
- - - -
- - -
C. Substitution-Agreement
Drill I got a haircut only
last week.

846

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

D. Substitution-Agreement Drill I'll

shave just before Shabbat.


/hitgaleax/ "he shaved"

- - - - -

E. Substitution-Agreement Drill
Sometimes I shave twice in one day.
- - -

F. Substitution-Agreement Drill I

- - - - -

shaved last night.

G. Transformation Drill - hitpa'el to pi'el


Instructor: I got shave at the barber's. Student: The barber shaved me.
.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

Do this drill in reverse, also.

847

UNIT 27____________
___________________
HEBREW________BASIC
H. Expansion Drill

COURSE

Instructor: I'm waiting.


Student: I'm waiting until the barber is ready for me.
.


.
'

.

.

I. Substitution-Agreement Drill
Just today I got some free time to write letters.

.
- - -
- - - -

J. Substitution Drill

/cava/ "he painted, dyed"

paint the house.


.

K. Transformation Drill - Negative to Affirmative


Instructor: Don't paint the house. Student: Paint the house.

.
.
.
Do this drill in reverse, also.

L. Substitution-Agreement Drill

.
.
.
.

I paint the house every


three years.


.
- - - -

848

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

M. SubstitutionAgreement Drill When


did she dye her
hair?


?
- - -

849

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

"/kcer/ "he shortened

. .

)(

N. Substitution Drill

Shorten the way. Go straight.

)(

))

O. Expansion Drill
Instructor: I'll go straight.
Student: If I go straight, I'11 shorten the way.
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .

, .

P. Substitution-Agreement Drill

He writes briefly .

- - -

Q. Substitution-Agreement Drill
1 shortened the letter.

.
- - - -
- - - -

R. Transformation Drill - Future to Past.


Instructor: I'11 cut my hair short. Student: I cut my hair short.

.
.
.
.
.
~ 1 .
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
GRAMMAR NOTES

850

Do this drill in reverse, also.

UNIT

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

27.5 /haya/ " he was"


The pronunciation of the forms of /lihyot/ "to be" will vary, depending on the
rate of speech- In slow, deliberate speech the vowel /i/ or /e/ may be inserted
between the /h/ and a following consonant: /tihiye/ "you will be". In more rapid
speech the /h/ will be dropped: /tiye/.
In the past tense a definite y- glide is heard only in very careful speech.
There is always some glide from the /a/ to the /i/ but in ordinary speech it is
rather weak: /hg^.ti/. See Grammar Note 1 J . 8 , Drill EE.
/haya/ is a lamed hey verb conjugated in the kal. In the
following chart the root consonants h are shown throughout as though it were a
regular verb. The student should note the instructor's pronunciation of the forms
and also be aware that in pronouncing the forms carefully the instructor will tend
to say,for example, /eheye/ "I will be" rather than /eye/.
Infinitive:
1ihyot
Imperative:

m.s.
f.s.

Future:

1 s.

ehye

m.s.
f.s.
m.s.
f.s.

tihye
tihyi
yihye
tihye

2
2
3
3
Present:
Past:

he ye
heyi

m.pl.
f.pl.

heyu
heyena

1 pi.

nihye

m.pl.
2 f.pl.
3 m.pl.
3 f.pl.
2

tihyu
tihyena
yihyu
tihyena

See below
1 s.

hayiti

1 pi.

2 m.s.
2 f.s.

hayita
hayit

2 m.pl.
2 f.pl.

3 m. s.

haya

3 f.s.

hayta

1 1

pi.

hayinu
hayitem
hayiten
hayu

In poetry the form /hove/ is sometimes used as a present tense form


meaning "exists". Otherwise, there is no present tense of this verb. See Grammar Note
2.4 Eguational Sentences.
The word /hove/ is also the grammatical term for "present tense"


.:

A. Substitution Drill Be
at school at 8:00.

851

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

B Expansion Drill
Instructor: Don't be there at 9:00.
Student: Don't be there at 9:00; be there at 8:00.
.
.
.
.

Do this drill in reverse,.

.
.

._

also

C. Substitution Drill

(The instructor supplies only the verb form. The student should make
the necessary changes in /muxan/.)
x'li be ready at 7:00.

)(
)(
)(
()( )
)(
)(
)(
) )

D.Substitution-Agreement Drill
Rachel will be at home this evening.

- - - - -
- - - - -

E.Substitution-Agreement Drill
yaakov was a student in the language s

- - - -
- - - -

F. Transformation Drill - Future to Past


Instructor: Rachel will be at our house next week. Student: Rachel
was at our house last week.
.
.
.
. .

852

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

.
.
. .
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
, .
.

Do this drill in reverse, also.

853

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

27.6 " I had" , "I will have"


In Grammar Note 11.6 the construction /yeS li/ " I have" was described. In
the past and future tenses the verb /haya/ replaces /yeS/. The negative /eyn/
is replaced by /lo haya/, etc.
The forms of /haya/ must agree in gender and number with the objects possessed.
/haya li sefer/
"I had a book"

/hayta li e&kolit/ "I had a grapefruit"
/hayu li sfarim/
"I had
books"

Though the object possessed is the grammatical subject of the Hebrew
construction the preposition /et/ is used by many speakers when this object is
definite:
/haya li et hasefer/ "I had the book"

A. Transformation Drill - Present to Past, Masculine Singular


Instructor: I have a book. Student: I had a book.
:

- - - - - - - -
- -

B. Transformation Drill - Present to Past, Feminine Singular


Instructor: I have a lira. Student: I had a lira.
.___________ :

.__________ :

- - - - - -

C. Transformation Drill - Present to Past, Plural


Instructor: I have two telegrams. Student: I had two telegrams.
.______________ :

.___________ _' :

- - - -
- - -
D. Transformation Drill - Present to Past
Instructor: I have a good boss. Student: I used to have a good boss.

854

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

____________ :

.__________ :

- - - - -
-
Drills A to D should be varied by changing the sentences to negative sentences:
Instructor: I don't have a house.
.
Student: I didn't have a house.
.

855

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT
E. Expansion Drill

Instructor: I bought a house.


Student: I bought a house because I didn't have a house.

.
.

.
.

Note: This drill may be varied by changing the subject of the


verb /kaniti/: Instructor: Moshe bought a house.
Student: Moshe bought a house because he didn't have a house.

.
F. Expansion Drill

856

Instructor: She bought fruit.


St

u
d
e
nt
:
S
h
e
b

UNIT 27

o
u
g
ht
fr
ui
t.
b
ec
a
us
e
sh
e
di
d
'n
t
h
a
v
e
a
n
.y

857

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

G. Transformation Drill - Present to Future, Masculine Singular

Instructo
r: I have
a book.
Student:
I'11 have
a book.

- - - - -
- - - -
H. Transformation Drill - Present to Future, Feminine Singular
Instructor: I have
an appointment.
Student: I'11 have
an appointment.
: _____________.
: __________.
- - -
- - -

858

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

Future, Masculine Plural

.____________ :

- -
- -
I. Transformation Drill - Present to
Instructor: I have two telegrams. Student:
I'll have two telegrams.
.__________
-

859

UNIT

28

HEBREW

Future, Feminine Plural

BASIC COURSE

J. Transformation Drill - Present to

.______________ ;

- - -
: - -

Instructor: I have good news.


Student: I'll have good news.
.____________

K. Transformation Drill - Present to Future


Instructor: I have three tickets.
Student: I'll have three tickets.
.______________ :
._____________ :
- - - -
- - - -
- - -

L. Transformation Drill - Past to Future


Instructor: I had a parking place.
Student: I'11 have a parking
place.

860

UNIT 27

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

:.

.: :.

861

BASIC COURSE

28

HEBREW

UNIT

Do this drill in reverse, also.RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

.1 ?
.2 ?
.3 ?
.4 ?
.5 ?
.6 ?
.7 ?

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

: , , . :?
? : . ,? :
. .

: ?
: . .
: ?
: .

: , .
: , .
: , .
: . , .
: , . .
: . .
: . .

862

UNIT 27

: . .
:.

: , .
: . .
: , . .
: .

: ,?
: .
: ? ?
: .
: . .

: ?
: .
: ?
: . .
: ?
: .

863

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT

28

HEBREW

28.1 At the Cleaner's


Ma'am
, I
want
to
put
in
thes
e
clot
hes
for
clean
ing.
he
deli
vere
d
garm
ent
he
clea
ned
MR
S.
WI
LL
IA
MS
gvir
ti,
ani
roca
lims
or
et
habg
adim
leni
kuy.

BASIC COURSE

/
bamaxbesa/

masar
beged
(m)
nika

864

BASIC COURSE HEBREW

UNIT 27

CLERK /pkida/

piece

xatixa (f)

MRS. WILLIAMS
T
w
o

v
e
S
n
e
y
zugot
mixnas
aim.

s
u
i
t
s
a
n
d
t
w
o
pairs
of
pants
.

trou
sers
,
slac
ks
S
t
e
y

sui
t
pai
r

xalif

a (f)

zuc[.
(m)

m
i
x
n
a
s
a
i
m
(
m
.
d
u
.
)

x
a
l
i
f
o
t
CLERK
Yes. I see .

ken, ani roa.

: .

MRS. WILLIAMS

865

UNIT

P
a
y
a
t
t
e
n
t
i
o
n

28

HEBREW

o
t
h
e
s
t
a
i
n
s
.

BASIC COURSE

sim
i
lev
lak
tam
im.

sam

le
v
(m
)
ke
te
m put heart
he
(m
)

CLERK
Do you know

what the stains are


from?

MRS. WILLIAMS
a
n
i
x
o
S
e
v
e
t
S
e
h
a
k
t
a
m
i
m
a
l
h

a
m
i
x
grease
n
a
s
a
i
m
h
e
m
m
i
&
u
m
a
n
.

at yodaat mima
haktamim?
Suman
(m)

866

,
.

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

CLERK
haSaket?

And the stains


on the jacket?
vehakta
mim al

j
acket
Oh, they"re from
pomegranate juice.
MRS. WILLIAMS

Saket
(m)

o - hem mimic
rimon.
-
,

CLERK
Do you know that
pomegranate
juice
doesn't
come out easily?
at yodaat

Semic rimon
lo yored
bekalut.
kalut (f)

eas
e

MRS. WILLIAMS
Yes, but try
to get them
out as best
as you can.
he tried
he brought
down the
best
ability
ken.
aval
We"11
try
to
get
it
clean
.

When
do
you
need
the

h
e
s
t
r
o
v
e
c
l
e
a
n

nasi
lehoridam
kemeytav
yexoltex.

nisa
horid

h
y
e
n
a
k
i
.
hiSta
del
naki
(m.s.
)

C
L
E
R
K

n
i
S
t
a
d
e
l
S
e
y
i

le
ma
ta
y
at
cr
ix
a
et
ha
bg

867

1 .

.

meytav

vexolet (f)

c
l
o
t
h
e
s
?

hey11 be ready.

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

adim?

UNIT32

For
the
week end
Will they
be ready?
MRS.
WILLIAM
S

lesof
haSav
ua.
hem
yihyu
muxan
im?

sof
(m)

.

?

CLERK
ken. hem yihyu muxanim.

. .

en
d

868

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

28.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY


hasimla
lenikuy
yaveS.

I took the
dress in to
be dry
cleaned.

masarti

dress

Simla
(f)

yaveS

et

I brought in
the skirt
with the
pleats to be
pressed.

s
k
i
r
t
p
l
e

heveti
et
haxacai
t im
hakfali
m
legihuc
.

I brought in
the "linen" to
the laundry.
sheets
underwear, etc.
lau
ndr
y
masarti et
halvanim

efSar

x
a
c

kv
is
a
(f
)

l
e
v

It1s
possible to
wash this
with soap.

ait
(f)
kef
el
(m)
gih
ec

at he
presse
d

an
im
(m
.p
l.
)

lekvisa.
.

he
la
un
de
re
d
so
ap

le
xa
be
s
et
ze
be
sa
bo
n.
kibes
sabon
(m)

869

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32

28.3 VOCABULARY DRILLS


A. Substitution-Agreement Drill /naki/ "clean"

The table is clean.


- - - -
- -

B. Substitution-Agreement Drill /yaveS/ "dry"

The weather is dry.


- - - -
- -

28.4
DRILLS

VERB

(a)

/masar/

delivered,

"he

transmitted"

A. Substitution Drill
Take the clothes to
the cleaners.

870

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

teacher.

- - - - -
- - -

28

UNIT

B. Substitution-Agreement Drill
My brother will get the books to the

C. Transformation Drill - Future to Past


?
.
.
.

,
.
.
.

..

Instructor: Who will take in the laundry? Student:


?who took in the laundry
?
. c .

.
.
. .
.
Do this drill in reverse, also.

D. Substitution-Agreement Drill
He's delivering the message.
.

- - -

"(b) /nika/ "he cleaned


E. Substitution Drill
clean the windows.

F. Substitution-Agreement Drill
we'll clean the tables.

- - - - - - -
-

G. Substitution-Agreement Drill
1 clean the house every day.

- - -

871

UNIT pfi_hebrew
_______BASIC COURSE

H. Transformation Drill - Future to Past

Instructors She will clean the clothes.


Student: She cleaned the clothes.

.
. .
.
. .
.
Do this drill in reverse, also.

(c) /sam/ "he put"


This is an ayin yud verb and is conjugated like /Sar/ "he sang",
I. Substitution Drill
Pay attention, please.

0. SubstitutionAgreement Drill

- - - - - -

I'll put the fruit on the table.

K. Substitution-Agreement Drill

He puts everything in its place.

- - -

L. Expansion Drill
Instructor:I didn't hear.
Student: I didn't hear because I wasn't paying attention.

3^872

hebrew

UNIT32

BASIC COURSE

.
.
"(d) /nisa/ "he attempted
M. Substitution Drill
Try your best.

))( )( (

N. Substitution-Agreement Drill
He'11 try to finish on time.

^ .

- - - -
- - -

0 Substitution-Agreement Drill
(change the form /yexolti/,
)also
I try my best.

? .

- - -
- - -

P. Expansion Drill
Instructor: I didn't go.
Student:I didn't go nor did I even try togo.

.
.
.
.
.
.

"(e) /horid/ "he brought down


Q. Substitution Drill "This is the hif'il of /yarad/ "he descended
Take the men down to the first floor.
.

873

UNIT pfi_hebrew
_______BASIC COURSE

R. Substitution-Agreement Drill

1 1 1 get the spots o

- - - - -

3^874

hebrew

UNIT32

BASIC COURSE

S. Expansion Drill
Instructor: I brought up the box.
Student: I brought up the box and took down the
bottles.

.
.

.
.
.

'.

T. "(f) /hiStade1/ "he strove


.

Substitution Drill Try to come

early.

Agreement Drill 1'11

try to visit him

- - -
- - - - -

today.

U. Substitution-

V. Substitution-Agreement Drill
: .

- - - -

W. Substitution-Agreement Drill

)(change the form /yaxolti/, also.


.

t1 tried to understand you, but 1 couidn


.

- -
-
-

875

UNIT pfi_hebrew
_______BASIC COURSE

hitpa'el

X. Transformation Drill - pi'el to

Instructor: He
persuaded me to study
Hebrew. Student: I
tried to learn Hebrew.

We try
harder.

3^876

basic course
28

hebrew unit

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
. "(9) /gihec/ "he pressed

Y. Substitution Drill
Press all the dresses.

Z* Expansion Drill

Instructor: I'll clean the suits.


Stuuent: I'll clean and press the
suits.

.
^1 .

.
.
.

.
.
.
.

nicely.
-
.

-
-
-

AA. Substitution-Agreement
Drill They
press very

BB. Exx^ansion Drill


Instructor: He cleaned the skirts.
Student: He pressed the skirts that he
cleaned.

3^877

UNIT pfi_hebrew
_______BASIC COURSE

3^878


.

.

.

.

.

.

basic course
28

hebrew unit

"(h) /kibes/ "he laundered


The first root consonant alternates k/x. CC. Substitution Drill Wash the laundry.
!
.

DD. Expansion Drill - Negative to Affirmative


Instructor: Don't wash the clothes in hot water.
Student: Don't wash the clothes in hot water, wash them in cold water.
. .

.
.
. .

. .
EE. Substitution-Agreement Drill
We'll wash the laundry with soap.

- - -
-
-

FF. Substitution-Agreement Drill


My wife does the laundry once a week.
.

- - - -

DD. Transformation Drill - Future to Past


?Instructor: When will you do the laundry
?Student: When did you do the laundry
? ?
?
?

! ! ?

?
?
?
?
?

3^879

?
?

Do this drill in reverse, also.

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

28.5 Object Suffixes of Verbs


Examine the following sentence from the Basic Conversations
/nasi lehoridam kemeytav yexoltex./ "Try to t,et them out as best as you
can". Compare this sentence with the following paraphrase: /nasi lehorid
otam kemeytav yexoltex./
Note that the form /lehoridam/ is a contraction of /lehorid otam/. Such
contractions are made with a verb form plus the following suffixes: (Except
for the first person singular they are the singular set of pronominal
suffixes.)
1 s.

/oti/ -

2 m.s.

/otxa/

2 f.s.

/otax/

3 m.s.
3 f.s.

/oto /
/ota/

, ~

eni
/
xa
/
ex
/

a /
enu
/
xem
/
xen
/
am/
an/

1 pi.

/otanu/

2 m.pl.

/etxem/

2 f.pl.

/etxen/

3 m.pl.
3 f-pi.

/otam/
/otan/

-/

If the verb form has a vowel suffix then the object suffixes are as follows:
Is.
2 m.s.
2f.s.
3m.s.
f.s.
1 pi.
2 m.pl.
2f.pl.
3m.pl.
3f.pl.

/
/
/
/
/

/
/
/
/
/

ni/
xa/
x /
hu/
ha/

nu/
-xem/
-xen/
- m /
- n /

/yekabluni/
/yekabluxa/
/yekablux /
/yekabluhu/
/yekabluha/

"they
"they
"they
"they
"they

will
will
will
will
will

receive
receive
receive
receive
receive

me"

you"

you"

him" 3
her"

/yekablunu/ "they will receive us"



/yekabluxem/ "they will receive you"
/yekabluxen/ "they will receive you"

/yekablum/ "they will receive them"


/yekablun/ "they will receive them"

After the 1 singular past tense the suffix / - 0/ has the variant / - v/:
/kibaltiv/ " I received him."
Note that the stress remains on the vowel suffix. However, the stress will
generally be on the suffix if there is no vowel suffix to the original verb form.
The verb forms will be changed under certain conditions, and these changes
complicate the patterns.
In the pi'el, the stem vowel /e/ will be dropped for all object suffixes:

880

basic course
28

hebrew unit

/yekabel otxa/ /yekablexa/ "he will receive you" (The /e/in the
contraction breaks up the resulting /-blx-/ cluster).
In the infinitive of the kal the /o/ shifts back to precede the second root
consonant:
/ligmor oto/ /legomro/ "to finish it"

3^881

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

Other changes in the verb form will occasionally occur:


/lakaxti otxa/ /lekaxtixa/ "I took you"
Other forms of some of the object suffixes exist, but the student can learn
them as he meets them.
Such contractions are characteristic of the literary or formal styles
of Hebrew, but they are used in informal speech, also. The uncontracted
forms (with /ot-/) are correct in all styles, but the student should be
acquainted with the contracted forms, too.
The following drills will familiarize the student with the more freguent
types of contractions. It should be remembered that the differences are
stylistic and that some contractions are never made because of the awkwardness
of the resulting forms.

Each of the following drills are to be done in three ways. First, as a


substitution drill in which the student repeats the contracted forms. Second,
as a transformation drill in which the instructor gives the contracted form
and the student responds with the full paraphrase. Third, the reverse of the
second way, in which the instructor gives the uncontracted forms and the
student responds with the contraction. The instructor may further vary the
drills by selecting sentences randomly.

a.

Substitut
ion Transfor
mation
Drill He
will
receive
me right
.away

.

.

.

882

basic course
28

hebrew unit


.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

B Substitution _Transformation.Drill I received you yesterday.

.
.
.
""! .
.
.
.

3^883

.
.
,
,
.
,
,
.

C.

UNIT pfi_hebrew
_______BASIC COURSE

Substitution -Transformation
Drill They will count me in
class.


.
!* .
:
.

D. Substitution - Transformation
Drill They counted me in class.

3^884

hebrew unit

.
; .
.
.
.
.
.
.
: .
.

basic course
28

E. Substitution - Transformation Drill


He'll take me down to the first floor.

3^885

pfi_hebrew


.:
.
.

.

.
.


;.
::
;
:
.

,

.


.
.

;:

.

UNIT

BASIC COURSE

_______

!

.

F. Substitution_Transformation Drill
I recognized you right away

. .
. .
.
.

3^886

basic course
28

hebrew unit

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

. 1 . ?
. 2 ?
. 3 ?
. 4 ?
. 5 ?
. 6

? .
?

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

,
:
.
?
:
:::
:
:. .
.
:
, ! .
:
.
.
:

3^887

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

.
:
? : . :
?
, . ?
:
: .
:
: .
. ? :
:
.
. .
:
.
:
. .
:
:
:
:
:
:

?
.
? ,?
?
? .

:
:
:
:

?
.
?
.

:
:
:

! .
! ?
.. , .

888

28

UNIT

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32

29.1 At the Shoemaker's /basandlaria/


Salom.
ani roce
limsor et
hanaalaim
letikun.
naal (f)
tiken

Hello. I want
to give in
these shoes
to be fixed.
shoe he
repaired
MR. WILLIAMS

What has to be fixed?

MR. WILLIAMS

lanaalai
m
haSxorot
veakevim
lasandal
im.

What kind
of heels
do you
want rubber or
leather?

rubb
er
leat
her,
skin
SHOEMAKER

(
f
)

g
u
m
i
o
o
r
.

eyze
akevim
ata roce

How much
will it be?
MR.
WILLIAMS

ak
ev
(m
)
sa
nd
al
(m
)

s
u
l
i
a

sol
e
hee
l
san
dal

suliot xadaSot

Six liras
all
together.

SHOEMAKER /sandlar/ ma carix letaken.


?
New soles
for the
black
shoes and
heels for
the
sandals.

Rubber heels.

gu
mi
(m
)
or
(m

akevey
gumi.
kama
ze
yaale
li.

SHOEMAKER Se3 lrot beyaxad.

889

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32

MR. WILLIAMS
ze harbe kesef.
kesef (m)
Sir, I
have a
uniform
price.
This is
the
price.

SHOEMAKER

adoni.
ecli
mexir

That1s a lot of money.


money, silver

pr
ic
e
un
if
or
m

a
x
i
d
.
z
e
h
u
h
a
m
e
x
i
r
.

exir
(m)
axid
(m.s.
)

890

UNIT

29

HEBREW

Well, all
right. Fix
them,

MR. WILLIAMS

BASIC COURSE

out
nail

masm
er
(m)
: ,
.

nu meyle. taken
otam . vetoci et
hamasmer beoto
hakesef.
meyle hoci

and take out the


nail for the same
money.
so be it
he took

29.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY


Sew the strap.

he sewed
strap

tafar
recua (f)

Polish the shoes.

tfor et harecua.

caxceax et hanaalaim.

he polished

I need new laces.

cixceax

ani carix sroxim xadaSim. .


srox (m)

lace

I need shoe polish.


ointment

ani carix miSxat n a




miSxa (f)

29*3 VERB DRILLS


(a) /tiken/ "he repaired" A. Substitution Drill
Repair the clothes.

B. Substitution-Agreement Drill
I'll repair it before the day is over.

.
- - - -
- - -

891

UNIT

28

HEBREW

C. Substitution-Agreement Drill
Her husband repairs what the children
break.

892

BASIC COURSE


.
- - -

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32

D. Substitution-Agreement

- - - -
- - -

Drill Who fixed the clock?

(b) /hoci/ "he took out"


In the first and second person forms of the past tense the stem vowel is /e/:
/hoceti/ "I brought out".
.

E. Substitution Drill

Take the children


outside.

Student: 1'11 bring the children in now


and 1'11 take them out after they eat.

^


,

-
:

.
.
.
.

F. Expansion Drill

Instructor: 1'11 bring


the children in now.

G. Substitution-Agreement Drill

. -

- - - -
- - -

I took the money out of the


bank.

(c) /tafar/ "he sewed"


The second root consonant of this verb alternates ]2/f. Some speakers
use /f/ throughout the conjugation, e.g., /yitfor/ instead of /yitpor/ "he
will sew".
H. Substitution Drill Sew the
:
.

dresses.

893

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

. -

I. Substitution-Agreement Drill

- - - -
- - - -

I'll sew the clothes.

J. Substitution-Agreement Drill

- - -
- - -

He sewed the straps.

(d) /cixceax/ "he polished"


This is a pi'el verb with four root consonants. K. Substitution Drill

L.
Shine your shoes before you go out.

Substitution-Agreement Drill
..
He'll shine
the
()
shoes for

()
)u
(

- - - - -

M. Substitution-Agreement Drill

You haven't shined your


shoes yet?

894

hebrew

UNIT32
- - - -

895

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

GRAMMAR
NOTES 29.4 /oto ha- / "The same"-"
Examine the following sentence from the Basic Conversation.
/toci et hamasmer beoto hakesef/ "Take out the nail for the same money."
Note that the English expression "the same" is translated by the
construction /oto ha-/. When the following noun is feminine singular the
construction is /ota ha-/, and before masculine and feminine plurals the forms
are /otam ha-/ and /otan ha-/.
m.s. /oto haiS/ "the same man f.s. /ota haiSa/ "the same woman

!
>
m.pl. /otam hamir&amim/ "The same recipes."
f.pl. /otan hamiSpaxot/ "The same f a m i l i e s . "


This construction may be preceded by any preposition, independent or
prefixed, including the direct object indicator /et/. Some speakers omit /et/
before this construction.
/ani gar beoto harexov/ "I live on the same
street." /raiti et ota hahacaga/ "I saw the same
show."
In a construct state noun sequence the /ha-/ is omitted:
/nigaSnu leoto bet kafe/

We went tQ thg same CQffee house

A. Transformation Drill
Instructor: He lives on Mozkin Street. Student: I live on the same street.
. . .
. .
. . .
. . .
. .
. . . .
.
.
. .
.
.- _
.
.

896

hebrew

UNIT32

BASIC COURSE

the new show. Student:I saw the same show.

.
;!- .
.
,
.
.
.
!_ .
.
.

.
.
.
. .
.
.
.
.
B. Transformation Drill
Instructor: He saw

C. Transformation Drill

897

BASIC COURSE

28

HEBREW

.
.
.
.
.
.
.


:
.

UNIT

Instructor: He spoke to some soldiers


Student: I spoke to the same soldiers

.
.

Transformation Drill
Instructor: He speaks five languages,
Student: I speak the same languages.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
E. Transformation Drill

Instructor: He's staying at the Savoy Hotel.


Student: I'm staying at the same hotel.

898

hebrew

UNIT32

.
.

.
.

,
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.

.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6

.

.

DRILL

899

BASIC COURSE

.\
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.

.

RAPID RESPONSE
?

?
?

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

.7 ?

900

28

UNIT

hebrew

UNIT32
REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

. ?

. .

, 0> .

: .
: ?
: > .
:

? .

901

BASIC COURSE

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

?
, ?
:.

;!

! :

: , ?
: . .
: .
:^ . .
: .
: .
:: ? ?
:.
: .

902

28

UNIT

hebrew

UNIT32

.
:
?
:

:
[
:.
?
:

:.

. ,: ,;; -

903

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

30.1 Aches and Pains


H
e
l
l
o
,
M
i
r
i
a
m
.
H
o
w
a
r
e
y
o
u
?

MIRIAM ZAHAVI

C
A
S
P
I
S
a
l
o
m
m
i
r
y
a
m
,
m
a
S
l
o
m
e
x
. body
leg
hand
head

M
O
S
H

Not
good.
I'm
ick.

he got sick

lo tov.
ani
xola.

xala

MOSHE CASPI
What hurts you?

it hurt

ma koev lax?
ka' av
MIRIAM ZAHAVI
M
y
w
h
o
l
e

.
h
a
guf fm
regel
(f yad
(f roS
(m

b
o
d
y

904

hebrew

UNIT32

BASIC COURSE

905

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

MOSHE CASPI
Have you been to
the doctor?

rofe
(m)

doc
tor

MIRIAM ZAHAVI
yes. He said

that I
have the
flu
without
fever.
i
n
f
l
u
e
n
z
a
,
g
r
i
p
p
e
ken.
hu
amar
Seye
S li
Sapa
at
bli
xom.

hayit
ecel
harofe?

S
a
p
a
a
t
(
f
)

906

BASIC COURSE

That's not so bad.

hebrew

UNIT32

terri
ble

MIRIAM ZAHAVI
Wha
t's
wit
h
you
?
How
do
you
fee
l?
uma
itx
a?
eyx
ata
mar
giS
?

hirgiS

MOSHE CASPI
lo nora.

he felt

nora
(m)

907

?

;

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

MOSHE CASPI
1' 11 tell you

the truth,

I don't feel

omar lax

well either.

margiS tov.

et haemet,

gam ani lo

MIRIAM ZAHAVI
?
!; ^
Q

What's the matter ma yeS lexa ?

with?
you

I
have
strong
stomach
pains and my
ears hurt.

pain
stomach,
abdomen strong
ear

MOSHE CASPI
Oho '.
We'll have to open
a
hospital
already.

yeS li
keevey beten xazakim
vekoavot
li
haoznaim.
keev (m)
beten (f)
xazak
(m.s.)
ozen
(f.s.)
oho '.
nictarex kvar liftoax
bet xolim.

MIRIAM ZAHAVI

30.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY


Dov has a cold.

head cold

I caught it from him.


he was attached
from him
ledov yeS nazelet.
nazelet (f)
I've been sneezing
and coughing all
day.
he sneezed

nidbakti mimenu.
davak

ani mit'ateS

908

he
cough
ed

umiSta'el kol
hayom.

hit'
ateS

hebrew

UNIT32

BASIC COURSE

hiSta'el

909

UNIT

28

HEBREW

What does the


thermometer show?
thermometer
The thermometer shows
thirty eight degrees.
degree, a virtue
ma mar'e hamadxom.
madxom (m)
hamadxom mar'e SloSim
veSmone maalot.
maala (f)

910

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

My throat hurts.

UNIT32

ev li hagaron. throat garon


( m)

koev li haxaze.
chest
xaze (m)

koev li halev.

My chest hurts.
My heart hurts.
My tooth aches.
My knee hurts.

koevet li
haberex. knee
berex (f)

My finger hurts.

koevet li
haecba. finger
ecba
(f)
koavot

My legs hurt. My

li

.
.

koavot li hayadaim.

hurt.

My

teeth

koavot li haoznaim.

hurt.

My

knees

koavot li haeynaim.

.
.

ko

.
.

koavot li

The doctor prescribed a


medicine.
he listed
medicine
The drugstore is across (the
street).
oppos ite
.

koavot li haSinaim.

hurt.

.
.

haraglaim.

ears hurt. My eyes

30.3

.
.

koevet li haSen.
Sen (f)

tooth

hands hurt. My

habirkaim.

Get well.
healthy
Health 18
the main
thing.
principl
e health

VOCABULARY

DRILLS

Substitution-Agreement

Drill

harofe raSam
refua.
raSam
refua
(f)
bet hamerkaxat
nimca mimul.
mul
tihye bari.
bari
(m.s.)
haikar habrlut.
ikar (m)
briut

(
f
)

A.

- - -

My

brother is very strong.

B. Substitution-Agreement Drill Get well

- -

911

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

30.4 VERB DRILLS


(a) /xala/ "he got sick"
A. Substitution-Agreement Drill Mr. Cohen is
.

sick today.
- - - - .
-

!7
.

Substitution-

- -
- -
- -
-

Agreement
Drill Yaakov
came down

B.

with the flu.

(b) /ka'av/ "it hurt"

The future stem vowel of this verb is /a/:


/yix'av/ "it will hurt"

Your feet will hurt.

C. Substitution-Agreement Drill
.

- - - -

D. Substitution-Agreement Drill My throat


,

hurt.
- - - -
- , -
(c) /hirgiS/ "he felt"
E. Expansion Drill
Instructor: Take the medicine.
Student: If you take the medicine you'll feel
better.

912

hebrew

UNIT32

.

.
.

.
. :.
.
.

.
.

.

913

BASIC COURSE







.


.


::

;:

BASIC COURSE___HEBREW __________________________________UNIT 30

F.Substitution-Agreement Drill
how do you feel?

?
- - - -

G.Expansion Drill
Instructor: I took the medicine.
Student: After I took the medicine I felt better.

(d)/davak/ "he was attached"


This verb will be drilled here in the nif'al. Some speakers use /b/ instead
of /v/ in the future, /yidabek/
/yidavek/.
H.Substitution-Agreement Drill

You' 11 catch (a cold) from him.

.'1 .
- - - -
- - - -

I.Substitution-Agreement Drill
1

picked it up from

- - - -
- - - -

e)/hit'ateS/ "he sneezed"


J. Substitution-Agreement Drill
He's been sneezing all day.

- - - -

914

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32

f)/hiSta'el/ "he coughed"


K. Substitution-Agreement Drill

He couched an night without a let-up.

- - -
- -

915

30.5 The Preposition /mi-/ "from"

/
/
/

The preposition /mi-/ "from" has the following suffixed forms:


/mimeni/
"from me" "from you"
1 s.
/mimxa/
"from you" "from him"
2 m.s.

/mimex/
"from her"
2 f.s.
/mimenu/
/mimena/
3 m.
s.

/meitanu/
"from us"
3 f.s.

/mimxem/
"from you"

/mimxen/
"from you"
1 pi.

/mehem/
"from them"
2 m.pl
/mehen/
"from them"
.
2 f.pl
The second person plural has the alternate forms /mikem/ and
.
miken/ .
3 m.pl
There is a literary form /mimenu/ "from us", identical with
.
mimenu/ "from him", but it has been replaced in modern Hebrew
3 f.pl
by /meitanu/. The other forms of this type: /meiti/ "from me",
.
meitxa/ "from you", etc., are also used, but are more formal in
style.

An independent form of the preposition /min/ will also be heard. For the
alteration /mi- ~ me-/. See Grammar Note 5*5
A. Substitution Drill

I got an invitation from you

B Substitution Drill
Buy the book from

me.

C. Expansion Drill
Instructor: I had the flu.
Student: I had the flu and he caught it from me.

916

hebrew

UNIT32

ry -

i



!

.
:


^
* .

.:



ry

:
1


-

-

BASIC COURSE

r.y

?:
.

_ :

ry..
..

ry
:

ry

:.

D. Expansion Drill

Instructor: He lives in Savyon.


Student: He lives in Savyon and I live not far from him.


.
.
.
,

,



1

me.

1 .

u .
/

917

from


.
.


.
.

.
.

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

30.6 Comparatives and Superlatives (a)


Comparatives
The comparative construction is formed by the word
/yoter/ "more" preceding the adjective and the preposition
/mi-/ following it:
/dov yoter xazak mimoSe./ "Dov is stronger than Moshe."
/sara yoter yafa meraxel./ "Sara is more beautiful than
Rachel."
E. Transformation Drill
Instructor: I gave him the order.
Student: He took the order

A reversed construction
may be made by using
/paxot/ "less".

/moSe paxot xazak midov./ "Moshe is less strong than Dov."


/raxel paxot yafa misara./ "Rachel is less beautiful than
Sarah."
Constructions
using
/paxot/
are
more
translated into English as "not as..as" -

idiomatically

"Moshe is not as strong as Dov." "Rachel is not as beautiful


as Sarah."
In formal style /yoter/ may be omitted:
/ata xazak mimenu/

You are

stronger than he is."


/yoter/ and /paxot/ are also used with verbs and adverbs:
/selek ole yoter mitapuxey adama/ "Beets cost more than
potatoes."
/tapuxey

adama

olim

paxot

miselek/

"Potatoes

than beets."
/daber kcat yoter leat/ "Speak a little slower."

918

cost

less

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

UNIT32

When /mi-/ "than" does not immediately precede a noun in the


Hebrew it is usually replaced by /meaSer/ "than" .
/batim olim yoter betel aviv meager berexovot./ "Houses cost more in
Tel Aviv than they do in Rehovot."
In the above example /meaner/ immediately precedes the preposition /be-/ "in".
A. Expansion Drill

Instructor: I am a good swimmer.


Student: I am a good swimmer but David is a better swimmer than I am.
.

.
.

:
!

B. Expansion Drill
Instructor: I don1t have much money.
Student: I don1t have much money, and Moshe has even less than I do.

919

BASIC COURSE

28

HEBREW

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

Instructor: I speak Hebrew.


Student: I speak Hebrew but Miriam speaks better than I do.

.

.

.

.

.
:
.

.

..
;?

C. Expansion Drill

920

UNIT

hebrew

UNIT32

BASIC COURSE

D. Transformation Drill
Instructor: He is healthier than you. Student: You are not
as healthy as he is.

.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.-
.
.
Do this drill in reverse,
also.

.

.

.

.

.
.

.
.

- .
.

E. Transformation Drill
Instructor: The weather is hot.
Student: The weather is hotter today than it was
yesterday.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
The instructor may vary this drill by

921

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

substituting /paxot/ for /yoter/. (b)


Superlatives
The superlative construction is formed by the word
/beyoter/ following the adjective or adverb:
/tel aviv hair hagdola beyoter baarec./ "Tel Aviv is the
biggest city in the

c
o
u
n
t
r
y
.
"

As in English, paraphrases may be used:


/hu hatalmid hatov beyoter bevet hasefer./ "He is the
best student in the

/hu talmid yoter tov mikol hatalmidim./ He is a better


student than all the

s
c
h
o
o
l
.
"

/ze habinyan haxi gadol bair./ "This is the biggest


building in the city."

922

.
.
.

[
o
t
h
e
r
]
s
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
.
"

An alternative construction is formed by preceding the


adjective with /haxi/ . The definite article is omitted
before the adjective when /haxi/ is used.

.
.
.

hebrew

UNIT32
Instructor: His house is big.
Student: His house is the biggest in the
city.

BASIC COURSE

.
.
.
. ;. ..

.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
. .

F.
Transformatio
n Drill
/beyoter/

big.
biggest in the city.

G. Transformation Drill /haxi/


Instructor: His house is
Student: His house is the

.
.
. .
.
,
.

. .
! .
. .
. .
.

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL


.1 ?
.2 ?
?
.3
.4 ?
.5 ?
.6 ?
. - ?

923

UNIT32

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS
: ? : . .:
? : . :
.

: ,?
: .
: , ?
: . .
: .

: , .
:?
: .
: ?
: . .

: .
: ?
40 :.
: .
: .
: .
:.

: ?
: . .
: .
: .
: ?
: . .

924

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32
: .
: ?
: ..
: .
: . .

:! .
: ?
: .
: ?
: . .

: .
: . .
: .
: . .

: .
: , .
: . .
:? ?
:.

: .

. :.

925

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

31.1 Friends Meet at an Office /pgiSat xaverim/


MENAHEM
Hello, Dov.

, :

What are you doing


here?

Salom dov,
ma ata ose
kan.

Oh, hello Menahem,


What are you doing
here?

o
Salom,
menaxem.
ma
ata ose kan.

DOV

MENAHEM
s
imple he
worked

Very
simple.
I
work here.
avad

paSut
ani
kan.

.
,

meod.
oved

paSut (m.s.)

DOV

Really? How long?

??

beemet? kama
zman?

MENAHEM

kvar kim'at Sana.

About a year now.


almost, approximately

kim' at

DOV

In which section do you work?


section, class department,
division
beeyze maxlaka ata oved?

maxlaka (f)

MENAHEM
I work

in the economic
section.
econ
omic
ani oved

bamaxlaka hakalkalit.
kalkali
(m.s.)

DOV

926

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32

How is the work? Interesting?


work, j ob
Yes,
quite
interesting.
I'm
satisfied.
MENAHEM

ken.
day
meanyenet.
ani
sva
racon.

ex
haavoda.
meanyenet?

927

.
.

avoda
(f)

?
?

UNIT

28

HEBREW

31.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY


I
wo
rk
in
th
e
ad
mi
ni
st
ra
ti
ve
se
ct
io
n.
administr
ation
I
wo
rk
in
th
e
ag
ri
cu
lt
ur
al
se
ct
io
n.

I
w
o
r
k
i
n
t
h
e
c
o
m
m
e
r
c
i

a
l
s
e
c
t
i
o
n
.
commerc
ial
I
w
o
r
K
i
n
t
h
e
c
o
n
s
u
l
a
r
agricul
s
e
agricul
c
t
i
o
n
.

I
w
o
r
k
i
n
t
h
e
f

i
n
a
n
c
i
a
l
s
e
c
t
i
o
n
.
financ
ial
I
w
o
r
k
i
n
t
h
e
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
s
consular
e
r
v
i
c
e
.
inform
ation
I
w
o
r
k

928

BASIC COURSE

BASIC COURSE
i
n
t
h
e
p
o
l
i
t
i
c
a
l
s
e
c
t
i
o
n
.
jyolitica
l
I
w
o
r
k
i
n
t
h
e
p
r
e
s
s
s
e
c
t
i
o
n
.

hebrew
ani
oved
bamaxla
ka
haxakla
it.
xaklai
(m.s.)
xaklaut
(f)
ani
oved
Damaxla
ka
hamisxa
rit.
misxari
(m.s.)
ani
oved
bamaxla
ka
hakonsu
larit.
konsul
(m)
konsula
ri(m.s.
'
ani
oved
bamaxla
ka
hakaspi
t:.
kasi-i
(m.s.)

ani
oved
be^erut
hahasba
ra.
hasbara
(f)

ani
oved
bamaxla
ka
hamedin
it.
medini
(m.s.)

ani
newspap
oved
bemaxle
ket
ani oved
haitonu
bemaxleke
t.
t
iton
hamangano
(m)
n.
itonut
manyanon
(f)
(in)

UNIT32

929

BASIC COURSE

28

HEBREW

UNIT

31.3 VOCABULARY DRILLS


A. Substitution-Agreement
"Drill /pa^ut/ "simple
Miriam's job is very
simple.
.

-
-
-
-

-
-
-

Expansion Drill
"/kim'at/ "almost
Instructor: Moshe has been
working here two years.
Student: Moshe has been
working here almost two
years.
.
.8

.
-



.


.

930

.1

.
.2
.
.3

.
.4


.
.5

.
.6

.
.7

hebrew

BASIC COURSE


.

31.4 VERB DRILLS

UNIT32

.


.

/avad/ "he worked"


A.Substitution Drill
work till 5 o'clock.
,

B.Substitution-Agreement Drill
He will work in the
economic section.
.

- - -
- - -

C.Substitution-Agreement Drill
Miriam works in a movie
theater.
.
- - - -
- - -
-

D.Substitution-Agreement Drill
Yonatan worked in the American
Embassy. .

- - - -
- - -
-

E.Transformation Drill - Past


to future
I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t

931

UNIT

28

HEBREW

o
r
s
W
e
w
o
r
k
e
d
i
n
a
g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t
o
f
f
i
c
e
.
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
:
W
e
w
i
l
l
w
o
r
k
i
n
a

932

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32

BASIC COURSE
g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t
o
f
f
i
c
e
.

933

UNIT

28

HEBREW

GRAMMAR NOTES

Do this
drill in
reverse,
also.

3I.5 Too much


The excessive degree,
"too, too much", is
rendered by the phrase
/yoter miday/ "more than
enough" .
/habait yoter miday gadol
biSvilenu./ "The house is
too big for us."
2r/ may be omitted, in
which case /miday/ usually
follows the modifiej is
more formal in style.
/habait gadol miday
biSvilenu./ "The house is
too big for us."

934

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32

BASIC COURSE
I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
o
r
:
T
h
e
t
r
i
p
i
s
v
e
r
y
l
o
n
g
.
S
t
u
d
e
n
t
:
T
h
e
t
r
i
p
i
s
t
o
o
l
o
n
g
f
o
r
u
s
.

935

.1

.
.2

.
.3

.
.4

.
.5

.
.6

.
.7

.
.8

.
.9

.
.10

A.
Transfo
rmation
Drill /
yoter
miday/

BASIC COURSE

28

HEBREW

936

UNIT

hebrew

UNIT32

BASIC COURSE

Transformation Drill /miday/


is too
expensive for
us.

.10

.
.11

.
.12

.
.13

.
.14

.
.15

.
.

.
.8

937

Instru
ctor:
The
hotel
is
very
expens
ive
Studen
t: The
hotel

BASIC COURSE

28

HEBREW

938

UNIT

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32

C. Transformation Drill
Instructor: He ate a lot.
Student: He ate too much.
.
.

.

.

.
.

.

31.6 The Passive Participle


(a) A passive participle
is formed with many
roots in the pattern C!
aC2uC3 These participles
are used as adjectives
and are inflected for
gender and number.
The English translations
of most of these participles
are past participles:
"opened", "closed", etc.
Others are translated as
adjectives: "simple",
"certain", etc.
Examples which have
occurred so far are:
/
paSut
/
"simp
le"

/
batua
x/
"cert
ain"

/
namux
/

939

BASIC COURSE

28

HEBREW

"shor
"t

.1 .

.2 .
.3 .

(b) The third consonant of lamed hey


verbs is /y/

.4 .
.5 .

in this pattern:

.6 .

/
panuy/
"vaca
"nt
/
a
s
u
y
/

.7 .
.8 .

"
m
a
d
e
,
d
o
n
e
"

/
r
a
'
u
y
940

UNIT

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

UNIT32

/
"
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e
"

(c) When the third radical i s (


but not ) then the third
consonant of the participle
varies. In some verbs it is /'/; in
others it is /y/; in still others it
is /y/ in the masculine singular
but / in the feminine and plurals.
m.
s.
f.s
.

/karu,

karuy/

.
f.s
.

/kru'a, kruya/
,
available"

m.s

"called"

/
macuy/ /

mecuya/

941

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

A. Transformation Drill /sagur/ "closed"


Instructor: He
window.
window is

m.
s.
f.s.

closed the
Student: The
closed.

/nasuy/
/nesu'a/

married

.
.

.
.

.
.

B. Transformation Drill /patuax/ "open"

Instructor: They
opened the office.
Student: The office
is open.
.
.
.
.

C- Transformation Drill /panuy/ "vacant"

Instructor: They
.
.

.
.

cleared the
house. Student:
The house is
Vacant.

942

hebrew

UNIT32

BASIC COURSE

.
.
.
.

"D. Transformation Drill /asuy/ "made, done


Instructor: He did a
good repair job.
Student: The repair
job was done well.

.
.
.

! .
.
.

.
.

943

hebrew UNIT 1

BASIC COURSE

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL


.1 ?
.2 ?
.3 ?
.4 ?
.5 ?

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

: ,?
: .
: ,?
: .
: . .

: ?
: .
: ?
: . .
: . .

: ?
: .
: ?
: .
: ?

BASIC COURSE

hebrew UNIT 1

. . :

BASIC COURSE

: ?
: .
:?
: .
:?
: .

: .
:?
: .
: ?
: . . .

: ?
: . .
: ?
: . .
: . .

: .
: . .
: ?
: .
: , ?
: . .

: ?
: 8- ,1 3- .
: _ 1 ?3
: . .4-

946

HEBREW

UNIT 31

32.1

BASIC COURSE
hebrew
Friends meet at an office (contd.)

UNIT32
MENAHEM

What's with
you, Dov? Do
you still
work at the
electric
company?

ma
it
xa
,
do
v.
at

m
a
l
?

o
d
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
i
t
y

o
v
e
d
b
e
x
e
v
r
a
t

h
a
x
a
S

xaSmal(m
)

,
?

DOV
No, I
changed
my job,
and I
work
in a
commercial
firm.

h
e
e
x
c
h
a
n

lo,
hexl
afti
et
meko
m
haav
oda,
vean
i
oved
bexe
vra
misx
arit
.

ged

hexlif

MENAHEM
In
the

sa
me

w
o

947

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

rk?
As a
bookk
eeper
?

dut
y,
fun
cti
on
not
ebo
ok,
led
ger

beoto
hatafki
d?
kemenah
el
pinkasi
m?
tafkid (m)
pinkas

DOV
No.

I'm a
certified
public
accountan
t.
cco
unt
ant
cer
tif
ied
,
ord
ain
ed
aut
hor
ize
d,
ple
nip
ote
nti
ary

lo.
ani roe xeSbon
musmax.
roe
xeSbon
(m)T

musmax
(m.s.)

MENAHEM
Finally,
you
finished
your
studies.

end
h

sof
sof
siy
amt

e
finish
ed

a
e
t
h
a

948

BASIC COURSE
limudim.

hebrew
s
o
f
(
m
)

UNIT32

siyem

DOV

Yes. Barely.
About six
months ago.
ken.

bekoSi
.
lifney
kexaci
Sana.

949

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

32.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY


She is a secretary.
secretary
She works as a secretary.
She works as a secretary.
line, turn
She works like a horse.

horse

hi mazkira.
mazkir (m)

hi ovldet kemazkira.
hi ovedet betor mazkira.
tor (m)

hi ovedet kino sus.


sus (m)

.
0 0

32.3 VERB DRILLS

(a) /hexlif/ "he exchanged" A. Substitution Drill Change your clothes.

.
.

B. Substitution-

- - - -

Agreement Drill Sara will change her

-- - -

job.

(1)Substitution-Agreement Drill

He replaces me in the evening.

.
- - -
-

(2)Substitution-Agreement Drill

we exchanged the books this morning.

.
- - -
- - -

950

UNIT

28

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

GRAMMAR
NOTES 32.4 The Prepositions /ke-/, /kmo/
Students should note very carefully the usage of prepositions /ke-/ and
/kino/.
(a) Zkz/
(3)Before numbers /ke-/ means "approximately, about", /lex kearbaa

rexovot./ "Go about four blocks." /lifney kexaci Sana"/ "About a


half year ago."
/hu oved kexameS Sanim baxevra./ "He's been working about 5 years in the
company."

This may be paraphrased with /beerex/.


/hu oved beerex xameS Sanim baxevra./
/hu gar xamiSa rexovot mikan beerex./ "He lives about 5 blocks from here."

Both forms may be used.


/hu gar beerex kexamiSa rexovot mikan./
(4)Before other words it means "as".

/hi ovedet kemazkira./ "She works as a secretary." This may be paraphrased with /betor/. /hi ovedet
betor mazkira./

(b) /kmo/
/kmo/ means "like, similar to, etc." It may be used before the
conjunction /Se-/.

/ata medaber ivrit kmo israeli./ "You speak Hebrew like an Israeli."
/ata medaber ivrit kmo Semedabrim baarec./ "You speak Hebrew like they do
in Israel."
Traditional English grammar prescribes the use of as in the last sentence above. However, this does
not accord with actual English usage, and some confusion may arise in the use of /ke-/ and /kmo/ by speakers
of English. The following examples illustrate possible mistakes and absurdities which may be caused by this
confusion.
/hi ovedet kemazkira/ means (paraphrased) "She is employed as a secretary."
/hi ovedet kmo mazkira/ means "Her working habits,schedule, manner of operation, etc., are those of
a secretary; but her real job is something else."

951

BASIC COURSE__________________________________HEBREW ___________________________________________UNIT ?2

Two English translations are:


"She works like a secretary." "She works as a secretary does."
but not "She works as a secretary."
/hi ovedet kmo sus/ means (figuratively, of course) "She works like
a horse."
/hi ovedet kesus/ would mean that she is doing the actual work of a
horse, pulling a wagon, etc. That is, "She works as a horse."
(c) Suffixed forms of /kmo/
The suffixed forms of /kmo/ are:

1 s.

m.s.

2 f.s
2.

3
m.s
1 .pi.3

f.s.
2m.pl.
2
f.pl.
3m.pl.

3 f.pl

/kamoni/
/kamoxa/
/kamox/
/kamohu/
/kamoha/

/kamonu/
/kamoxem, kmoxem/

/kamoxen, kmoxen/
/kamohem, kmohem/
/kamohen,
kmohen/
"like me" "like you" like you"
"like him" "like her"
"like us" "like you" "like you"
"like them" "like them"

A. Transformation Drill

.Instructor: He is a waiter. Student:


He works as a waiter

.
.

.
.

.
.

. ;
.

.
.

Transformation Drill
Instructor: She works as a secretary.
Student: She works as a secretary.

.
.

.!

.:

.
.

.~
:

Do this drill in reverse, also.

952

\
.;

.:
:

hebrew

UNIT32

BASIC COURSE

Transformation Drill
Instructor: I live about three blocks from here. Student: I live about
three blocks from here.
.
.
.
, .
.
.

1 .
.
! .
.
.
.

D. Expansion Drill
Instructor: I speak Hebrew like an Israeli.
Student: I speak Hebrew like an Israeli, and David speaks like me.

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL


.1 ?
.2 ?
?
.4 ?
.5 ?

953

.6

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

: ? : .
: . : .?
. : ! . :
.
: . : , . : ?
: .
: . :? ? :
. : ? ? : . .
: . : , . : .
. : ? : . . :.

954

basic course

hebrew

unit !

, : . ? , :
: . .
. . : . : . :?
1*33 Friends Meet at an Office (contd.)

MENAHEM

How is the salary?

salary

ex hamaskoret?

maskoret (f)

DOV

Very good. d
I'm earning .
almost
double.
a
n
he earned i
double
t
m
o
a
v
r
a
v
i
m
a
e
x
o

k
i
m
'
a
t

hirvi'ax

kiflaim

k
i
f
l
a
i
m
.

.
.

MENAHEM

You're exaggerating a
bit. Double?!
ata
magzimkcat.
kiflaim? 1

.
?

DOV

No.

lo.

bexol harecinut.
kim'at kiflaim.

In all seriousness. Almost


double.
seriousness

recinut (f)

MENAHEM

Soon you'll be rich,


and you won't speak to
me.

bekarov tihye

air, velo
tedaber iti.
ri
ch

.s.)
a
^
ir
(
m

955

basic course

hebrew

unit !

DOV

If you would be
working in a
private firm you,
too, would be
earning more.
if
o
n

prati
lu
haita (m.s.)
oved
bexevra
pratit gam
ata haita
marviax
yoter.
lu

MENAHEM

Possibly. But
here I have
tenure of ten
years.
tenure
length of
service
yaxol lihyot. ax

kan ye li
vetek el 4ser
anim.

.


.

v
e
t
e
k

(m)

956

UNIT 31

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
DOV

yes, tenure is an ken. vetek ze


important thing. davar xaSuv.

important

33.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY


He's not a poor man.
poor
He has a high salary.
high, tall

i"lT p m .

xaSuv (m.s.)

sustenance
hu lo i ani.
ani (m.s.)
yeS lo maskoret gvoha.
gavoa (m.s.)

He makes a good livinc.

hu marviax maspik
lemixya.
mixya (f)

He earns
three times as
much, (as he earned
before)
time
s

hu
marviax
pi
SaloS.
(mima Sehirviax
kodem)

Pi

()

vetek gives rights.


vetek majcne zxuyot.

he transferred ownership
hikna
right, privilege
zxut (f)

333 VOCABULARY DRILLS

/aSir/ "rich"

A.Substitution-Agreement Drill

- -
-

He's richer than I am.

/ani/ "poor"
B.Substitution-Agreement Drill

1 - -
- -

He's not so poor.

957

______________ UNIT

_______________hebrew
____________________BASIC
COURSE

Substitution-Agreement Drill /xaSuv/


""important
He's important to the company.

C.

GRAMMAR NOTES

- - -
D. Substitution-Agreement Drill /gavoa/ "high, tall" 1
(The third consonant of this word is h . At the end of a word it is not
pronounced, but the vowel /a/ must precede it as before a word-final (.
.

The building is
very tall.

Agreement Drill
-
-
-

33-4 VERB DRILLS


/hirviax/ "he
earned" A. Substitution-

David
will
earn
more
in
the
new
job.

- - - - - - - -

B. Substitution-Agreement Drill

Yaakov earns enough.


.

C.

- - - -
Instructor: I'11 earn more
next year. Student: I earned
less last year.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

958

.
.
.
.
.
.

,
.
.
.

Drill

Transformation
Future to Past

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32

Do this drill in reverse, also.

959

UNIT ______________

_______________hebrew
____________________BASIC
COURSE
GRAMMAR NOTES

33-5 Suppositions and Conditional Sentences


Examine the following sentences from the Basic Conversations:

/ani batuax Sehahorim Selxa hayu nehenim meod mehahacaga./ "I am sure
that your parents would have enjoyed the show very much."

/lu halta oved bexevra pratit, gam ata halta marviax yoter./ "If you would be working in a private
firm, you, too, would be earning more."
Note that the verb phrase consists of an auxiliary and a main verb. The auxiliary is the past tense
of /haya/, and it agrees in person, gender, and number with the subject The main verb is in the present
tense form, and it agrees in gender and number with the subject.
The supposition may refer to a past contrary-to-fact situation or to a future situation:
or

"Your parents would have enjoyed the show."


"If you would be working in a private f i r m . . . "

The second example above could also be translated "If you had been working in a private firm,
you, too, would have earned more."
The context conveys the tense of the situation.
The construction is the same in both clauses of a n " i f . . . then" sentence. However, if the
supposition is about the past, then the past tense may be used in the if-clause.
/lu avadeta bexevra pratit, gam ata haita marviax yoter./
The future tense may be used in a supposition about the future.
/im taavod bexevra pratit, gam ata tarviax yoter./
In the following drills the instructor states a fact, either affirmative or negative. The student
responds with a supposition about a situation contrary to the fact.

A. Transformation Drill
Instructor: You didn"t work in a private firm, and you didn't earn much money.
Student: If you had worked in a private firm, you would have earned a lot of money.
.. , .1

. ,

. , .2
. ,
. , .3

. ,
. , .4

. ,
. .5

. ,
. :: , , .6

. ,
. .

B. Transformation Drill

960

hebrew

UNIT32

BASIC COURSE

Instructor: She worked in a government office, and she earned a small salary. Student: If she hadn't
worked in a government office, she wouldn't have earned a small salary.
.6 , .

, .
.7 , .

, .
.8 .

, .
.9 :

, -
.
.10 .

.
.11 ;: .

.
.12 .

C. Transformation Drill
Instructor: I won"t send the letter by air mail, and it won't arrive tomorrow. Student: If I would send the
letter by air mail, it would arrive tomorrow.
' .
.13

.
.14 .

.
.15 .

.
.16 .

.
.17 r:-. .

, .

961

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

28

UNIT

D. Transformation Drill
Instructor: I*11 send the letter by air mail and it will arrive tomorrow. Student: If
I didn't send the letter by air mail it wouldn't arrive tomorrow.
.18: .

.
.19 .

.
.20 .

.
.21 .

.
.22 .

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

.1 ?
.2 ?
.3 ?
.4 ?
.5 ?

962

hebrew

UNIT32

BASIC COURSE

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS
: ,? : . .? :
. : ? :.
: . . : .

: . : ?
. : .

: , .
: .
: .
: ?
: .

: .
:? .
: .
: .

: .
: . ?
: .
: . . .
: . .

963

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

34.1Jriends Meet at an Office (concluded)


DOV
Tell
me,
Menah
em.
How
do
you
manag
e
on
your
salar
y?

tagid

he told
he
managed
himself

li,
men
axe
m.
ex
ata
mis
tad
er
bam
ask
ore
t
Sel
xa?
higid
histader

MENAHEM
We manage.
We live on a
budget.

l
i
v
e
,

mistadrim.
anu xayim
betakeiv.

a
l

iv
e
bu
dg
et

xay
takc
iv

(m)
.

.

DOV
What do you mean,

ma zot omeret

atem xayim
?

you live on a budget?


betakciv?
Very simple.
We list all
the expenses,
divide the
income
according to
the expenses
and the
balance we
put in the
bank.
he
listed
he

div
ide
d
bal
anc
e,
rem
ain
der
ban
k
M

E
N
A
H
E
M

964

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

Sam
xil
ek
yit
ra
(f)
ban
k
(m)

aSut
meod
.
roSmim et
kol
hahocaot,
mexalkim et
hahaxnasa
belief em
lahocaot,
veet hayitra
maxnisim
labank.

UNIT32

r
a

DOV

c
a
n
'
t
s
a
v
e
e
v
e
n

he
su
cc
ee
de
d
he
sa
ve
d
ev
en
pe
nn
y

ani lo
macliax
laxsox
afilu
pruta.
hicliax xasax
afilu pruta
(1000 pruta =
IL 1)

a
p
e
n
n
y

MENAHEM

No
wonder.
You've just
finished
your
studies.

wonde
r

lo
pele.
harey
rak
siyamta
et
halimud

im
.

pele (m)

965

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW


DOV
Nevertheless, 1
don't
understand how
you manage.
ani bexol zot

lo mevin
ex ata
mistader.

jd

966

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32

MENAHE
M

Nothing strange. My
wifeworks,
too.

34.2
ADDITION
AL
VOCABULA
RY
I opened
a bank
account.
pataxti
xeSbon
bankai.
I
h
a
v
e
a
n
e
w
c
h
e
c
k
b
o
o
k
.
c
h
e
c
k
I
b
o
r
r
o
w
e

967

1
0
0
0

l
e
n
t

p
o
u
n
d
s
.
h
e

m
e

b
o
r
r
o
w
e
d
T
h
e
b
a
n

1
0
0
0
p
o
u
n
d
s
.
h
e
l
e
n
t
I

UNIT

28

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

g
o
t
a
l
o
a
n
i
n
t
h
e
a
m
o
u
n
t
o
f
1
0
0
0
p
o
u
n
d
s
.

T
h
e
i
n
t
e
r
e
s
t
i
s
h
i
g

968

h
.
i
n
t
e
r
e
s
t
I
p
a
i
d
o
f
f
t
h
e
n
o
t
e
.

ek
l
a
v
i
t
i
e
l
e
f
l
i
r
o
t
.
lava
h
a
b
a
n
k

h
i
l
he vpaid (a
a
debt)
debt
note, bill
y
l
e
i
S
e
l
l
i
e
f
p
i
l
n
i
k
r
a
o
s
t
.

hilva
e
k
k
i
i
m
b
a
x
l
a
t
d
i
a
g
h
.

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32

a
l
v
a
a

b
e
s
a
x

S
e
l
e
l
e
f
l
i
r
o
t
.

h
a
r
i
b
i
t
g
v
o
h
a
.
p
a
r
a
t
i
e
t
h
a
S
t
a
r
.

halvaa( f)

sax

ribit
(f)
.

para Star

969

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW






.
.

IL

LS

A.

Su

bs

ti

tu

ti

on

Ag

re

em

en

Dr

970

28

UNIT

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32

t.

xa

y/

"l

iv

e,

al

iv

e"

34.4
VERB
DRILLS
(a)
/higid/
"he
told"

T
he
past
and
presen
t
tenses
of
this
verb
are
not

971

UNIT

28

HEBREW

used
in
spoken
modern
Hebrew
. The
verb /
amar/
is
used
instea
d. In
the
infini
tive,
impera
tive,
and
future
tense
both
verbs
are
used.

972

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32

BASIC COURSE

A. Substitution-Agreement Drill
?Tell me, Menahem, How do you manage

. ?

- - -

SubstitutionAgreement
Drill I'll
tell him the
whole truth.

973


,.

- -
- -
-
- -
-
B.

C. Transformation DrillFuture to Past


Instructor: 1'11 tell
him where we live.
Student: I told him
where we live.
.

.


.

BASIC COURSE

28

HEBREW


.

.

,

.

.
he (b) /histader/
"managed
The /t/ of the prefix
follows the /s/ of the
.
.
.

.
.

root.
D.Substitution
Drill Get
in line.
E.Transformation Drill
Instructor: I'll get along with the
new boss. Student: I got along with
the new boss.

^
.
.

.
.


.

.

.
.

.
.

974

UNIT

hebrew

UNIT32

.
Do this drill in
reverse, also.

975

BASIC COURSE

BASIC COURSE

28

HEBREW

UNIT

F. Substitution-Agreement Drill
He's managing with the money he has.
.
- - - -

G. Substitution Drill
Write down all the
numbers.

"(c) /raSam/ "he listed

H. Transformation Drill - Future to


Past
Instructor: He'll write down the
correct numbers. Student: He wrote
down the correct numbers.

.


.

.


.

976

.

.

.


.

.

.

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIT32
.

Do this drill in
reverse, also.

I. Substitution-Agreement Drill
we list aii the expenses.
.
- -
-

(d) /xilek/ "he divided"

J. Substitution Drill
Distribute the mail.
>

977

BASIC COURSE

36

HEBREW

UNIX

K Transformation Drill - Future to Past


Instructor: We'11 divide up the work.
Student: We divided up the work.


.

.

.

.

.

.


.

.


.

.


.

.

978

hebrew

UNIT32

reverse
, also.

BASIC COURSE

D
o

L.
Substitu

t
h
i
s

t Drill

d
r
i
l
l

tionAgreemen
The
waitress
serves
the

i
n

food.
.

- - -
"(e) /hicllax/ "he succeeded
M. Substitution-Agreement Drill

Go and succeed

)(

)(

N. Transformation Drill - Future to Past


Instructor: He'll succeed in his new
job. Student: He succeeded in his new
job.

)(

979

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

.
Do this drill in
reverse, also. .
.

980

36

UNIX

hebrew

UNIT32

BASIC COURSE

Substitution-Agreement Drill

He succeeds in everything.
- - - -

"(f) /xasax/ "he saved


P. substitution Drill Save the
money.

Future to
Past

981

Transformation Drill

.

.

.


.

.

.

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

r.
Student:
I saved
what was
left
over.

I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
o
r
:
I
'
l
l
s
a
v
e
w
h
a
t
'
s
l
e
f
t
o
v
e

R. Substitution-Agreement

Do this drill
in reverse,
also.


.

.

.

.

.

.

Drill She

982

hebrew

UNIT32

.
-
-
-

983

BASIC COURSE

saves
every
penny.

hebrew

BASIC COURSE
UNIT32
(g) /lava/ "he borrowed"

Future to
Past

S. Transformation Drill
Instructor: We'11 borrow the money.
Student: We borrowed
.
the money.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

Do this drill in reverse, also.

(h) /
hilva
/ "he
lent"

T.
Substitu
tion-

Agreemen
t Drill

Substitution
Drill
Lend me five pounds.

-
-
-
-

He
borrowed
too
much.

V. Transformation Drill

Future to
Past

Instructor: They'11 lend him the


money. Student: They lent him the
money.

984

U.

UNIt 35

hebrew


.

.

.
.

.


.

.

.
.

BASIC COURSE



.

.

.


.
Do this drill in reverse, also.

985

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

W. Substitution-Agreement Drill
The banks lend at a high interest rate.

.
- - -

X. Transformation Drill - hif il to kal


Instructor: The bank lent me a thousand pounds. Student: I borrowed a thousands
pounds from the bank.

986

UNIt 35

.
1
.
2
.
3
.
4
.
5
.
6

.
.
8
.
9


.
.

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

.
.


.
.

_
.
.

.
.

'.

Note: Many speakers


use the hif'il for both meanings "to lend" and "to
borrow". Context and the difference of prepositions,
/le-/ and /mi-/, relieve any ambiguity.GRAMMAR NOTES
34.5 Nouns with Pronominal Suffixes - Singular Set

987

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Many nouns have an alternant form before the pronominal suffixes. For
example:
/Salom/ "peace"
/Slomi/ "my peace"
/bait / "house"
/beyti/ "my house"
/erec / "country"
/arci / "my country"
The following is a general description of the alternations. In general they
are similar to the alternations of absolute and construct state forms. See Grammar
Note 9*4 (b).
(1) Nouns of the pattern /cacvc/ have an alternant without the /a/:
/Salom/ "peace"
/davar/ "saying"
/garon/ "throat"

/Slomi/ "my peace"


/dvari/ "my saying"
/groni/ "my throat"

If the resulting initial cluster is non-permissible, then /e/ is inserted:


/racon/ "wish"
/makom/ "place"

/reconi/ "my wish"


/mekomi/ "my place

If the first consonant is /x/ or /'/ then /a/ is inserted:


/xaver/ "friend"
/'adon/ "lord"

/xaveri/ "my friend"


/
adoni/ "my lord"

Exceptions to this rule usually reflect a classical Hebrew form of a


different type:
/rayon / "idea"

/rayoni / "my idea"

In classical Hebrew the form was /ra'yon/. Note the spelling

988

BASIC COURSE

UNIt 35

hebrew

2}) Feminine nouns ending in /-a/ have an alternant form with /-at-/:
/gisa/ "sister-in-law" /gisati/ "my sister-in-law"
/avoda/"work"
/avodati/ "my work"
/halvaa/ "loan"
/halvaati/ "my loan"
Sometimes there are other changes in addition to the /-t-/:
/braxa/ "blessing"
/safa/ "lip"
/miSpaxa/"family"

/birkati/ "my blessing"


/sfati/ "my lip"
/miSpaxti/ "my family"

(3) In nouns of the pattern /ovCvC/ the second vowel is dropped.


If the first vowel is /e/ it changes to /i/ or /a/. The student must memorize
which vowel is substituted.
/'ozen/ "ear"
/'ozni/
"my ear"
/beged/ "garment"
/bigdi/
"my garment"
/' erec/ "country"
/' arci/
"my country"
/yeled/ "boy"
/yaldi/
"my boy"
/sefer/ "book"
/sifri/
"my book"
Exceptions to this change of vowel are /nexed/ "grandson" /nexdi/ "my
grandson"; /xelek/ "part" /xelki/ "my part".
The use of pronominal suffixes with nouns to show possession is more literary
or formal. The usual spoken Hebrew construction is /ha
Seli/.
A

Transformation Drill

I washed my garment.

989

BASIC COURSE

:.

-.

:.

!.

HEBREW

:.

990

36

UNIX

UNIt 35

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

Transformation Drill

B.

I read your book.

.
.
.
.
.
:.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

Transformation Drill
I met your daughter.

991

C.

BASIC COURSE

jV
11

HEBREW

.
:.

36

UNIX

.
.

.
.
.

D. Transformation Drill
1 am satisfied with his work.

992

UNIt 35

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

.1 ?
.2 : ?

993

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

,
.

.
.

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

36

.3 ?
.4 ?
CONVERSATIONS

? R E V I E W

:
:
:
:
:

?
.
, ?
. .
.

:
:
:
:

.
. . : . .
?
. .

: *
?
:

994

UNIX

UNIt 35

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

: .
,?
:
. .
:

: . : ? : 6
.

995

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

35.1 Getting up in the Morning

1.
Menahem,
What
time do
you get
up every
morning?

eraor li, menaxem,


beeyze
ata
kam kol boker?

I get up
at 6:30.
And you?

T
e
l
l

DOV

,
,

!

?

m
e
,

,
?

2.
MENAHEM

ani kam
jjeSaa
veata?

vaxeci.

DOV

3.
S
i
x
t
h
i
r
t
y
1
S
o
e
a
r
l
y
?
I
j
u
s
t
a
b
o
u
t

j
u
m
p
o
u
t

k
a
kafac mita
(f)

o
f
b
e
d
a
t
7
:
1
5

he jumped bed
v
a
x
e
c
i
k
o
l

996

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35

)
.

997

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

4.
MENAHEM

5.
What
time
do you
start
workin
g?
beeyze
Saa
ata
matxil
laavod

?
A

6.
DOV

7.
ani
matxil
laavod
beSaa
Smone.
ax ani
tamid
meaxer
.

tamid
ixer

!
.

998

UNIt 35

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

8.
35-2

9.

ADDITIONAL

VOCABULARY

I
shower
every
evenin
g.

ani
mitk
alea
x

kol
erev
.
h
i
t
k
a
l
e
a
x

he
sho
wer
ed

10.
I

have
a
chanc
e
to
comb
my
hair.
he
combe
d his
hair
h
i
t
l
a
b
a
S
t
i

g
o
t
d
r
e
s
s
e
d
i
n
a
h
u
r
r
y
.

t(f
)
l
o
h
i
s
p
a
k
t
i
l
e
h
i
s
t
a
r
e
k
.
histarek

b
i
m
h
i
r
u
t
.

he
got
dre
sse
d
hur
ry
I
didn4t
4 s
tar
t
wor
k
at
8:0
0

labelS

mehiru

DUt

alwa
ys
come
late
.

999

UNIX

36

HEBREW


:.

BASIC COURSE

1000

BASIC COURSE

353

hebrew

UNIt 35

VERB DRILLS

I'll drop over to see you.

(a) /kafac/ "he jumped"


A. Substitution-Agreement Drill

- - -
- -

11.

B. Substitution-Agreement Drill
He jumped out of bed.

.
- - -
- - -

12.

. .
- - - - - -

hair,

^ ,
.

- - - - - -
(b) /ixer/ "he was late"
C.Substitution-Agreement Drill Don't
worry, we won't be late.

- - - - -
- -
D.Substitution-Agreement Drill

Miriam was late this morning.

(c) /hitkaleax/ "he showered"


/hitlabeS/ "he got dressed"
/histarek/ "he combed his hair"

E. Substitution-Agreement Drill
He showered, got dressed, combed his
and left the house in a hurry.

1001

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
GRAMMAR NOTES

35.4 Nouns with Pronominal Suffixes - Plural Set


Plural nouns have alternant forms before the plural set of pronominal
suffixes.
There are usually two such alternant forms - one occurs before the singular
suffixes and first person plural, and the other occurs before the second and third
person plural suffixes.
In more formal pronunciation the stress is on the second syllable of the suffixes
of the latter group. The other suffixes have either one syllable or the stress on the
first of two syllables. In ordinary spoken style the stress is on the first syllable of
all suffixes: /-eyxem, -eyxen, -eyhem, -eyhen/.
^-exa/ /-aix/ /-av/ /
/-eynu/

/-eyxem/

All suffixes of
for example, /-o/
spelling by _ and .
(a) /-im/ Plural Nouns
Before the
suffix the /-im/ is
/banim/"sons"

1 s.
2 m.
s.
2 f.s
.
3 m.
s.
3 f.s
.
1 pi.
2 m.p
l
2 f.p
l
3 m.p
l
3 f.p
l

eta/
/-eyxen/ /-eyhem/ /-eyhen/
the plural set are spelled with a yud . Thus,
and /-av/ "his" are distinguished in the

singular suffixes and the first person plural


dropped and the suffix added.
/sfarim/"books" /binyanim/"buildings"
/avironim/"airplanes

1002

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35

If an Initial three-consonant cluster results, then /i/ or /a/ is inserted between


the first two consonants. The student must memorize which vowel is inserted.
Is.
banay
2m.
2m.pl. banexa
s.2 f.pl.
2f.s.
banaix
3m.pl.
3m.
banav
s.3 f.pl
3f.s.
baneha
Ipl.
baneynu
If the vowel preceding

sfaray
/banim/
sfarexa
bneyxem

binyanay
binyanexa

avironay
avironexa

bneyxen
sfaraix
binyanaix
bneyhem
sfarav
binyanav
bneyhen
sfareha
binyaneha
sfareynu
binyaneynu
the suffix is /a/ then it is dropped before the
person plural suffixes.
/sfarim/

avironaix
avironav
avironeha
avironeynu
second and third

/yeladim/

2 m.pl. sifreyxem

yaldeyxem

2f.pl. sifreyxen

yaldeyxen

3m.pl. sifreyhem

yaldeyhem 3 f.pl. sifreyhen

yaldeyhen
/The /e/ of /yeladim/ was originially inserted to break up the non- permissible
initial two-consonant cluster /yl-/. In the form /yaldeyhem/ the /a/ breaks up an
initial three-consonant cluster /yld-/.)
There are exceptions to these rules:
/katim/ "houses"

/raSim/ "heads"

2 m.pl.
bateyxem
raSeyxem
2f.pl.
bateyxen
raSeyxen
3m.pl.
bateyhem
raSeyhem 3
f-pl.
bateyhen
raSeyhen
In informal spoken Hebrew the /a/ preceding these suffixes is usually retained in
a number of noun patterns:
/mirSamim/ "recipes"

/binyanim/ "buildings" 2

m.pl. mirSameyxem binyaneyxem


2f.pl.

mirSameyxen

binyaneyxen

3m.pl.

mirSameyhem

binyaneyhem

3 f.pl mir&ameyhen binyaneyhen


Note that the /-ey-/ is usually stressed in these forms, also.
(b) /-ot/ Plural Nouns
The plural set of suffixes is added to the plural noun after the /ot/:

1003

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

/aruxot/ "meals"

/pg iSot/"appo intments"

/raayonot/ "ideas

1 s.
2 m.s.
2 f.s.

aruxotay
aruxotexa
aruxotaix

pgiSotay
pgiSotexa
pgiSotaix

raayonotay
raayonotexa
raayonotaix

3 m.s.

aruxotav

pgiSotav

raayonotav

3 f.s.

aruxoteha

pgiSoteha

raayonoteha

1 pi.

aruxoteynu

pgiSoteynu

raayonoteynu

2 m.pl.

aruxoteyxem

pgiSoteyxem

raayonoteyxem

2 f.pl.

aruxoteyxen

pgiSoteyxen

raayonoteyxen

3 m.pl.

aruxoteyhem

pgiSoteyhem

raayonoteyhem

3 f.pl.

aruxoteyhen

pgiSoteyhen

raayonoteyhen

If the vowel in the syllable immediately preceding the /-ot/ is /a/, then it is
often dropped. Any resulting non-permissible clusters are broken up according to the
rules for the /-im/ plurals.
/banot/ "daughters"
/smalot/ "dresses"
1 s.

bnotay

simlotay

2 m.s.
2 f.s.

bnotexa
bnotaix

simlotexa
simlotaix

3 m. s.

bnotav

simlotav

3 f-s.

bnoteha

simloteha

1 pi.

bnoteynu

s imloteynu

2 m.pl.

bnoteyxem

simloteyxem

2 f.pl.
3 m.pl.

bnoteyxen
bnoteyhem

simloteyxen
simloteyhem

3 f.pl.

bnoteyhen

simloteyhen

(in the form /simlotav/ the vowel /!/ breaks up the resulting initial
three-consonant cluster /sml-/.)
The /a/ is not always dropped. There are classes of nouns in which it is
retained in all styles of speech and other nouns in which it is retained in
informal spoken style.
(c) /-aim/ Dual Nouns
The pattern of the dual nouns is similar to /-im/ plural nouns before
suffixes. The /-aim/ is dropped and the suffixes are added. Before the second and
third person plural suffixes a preceding /a/ is usually dropped. Resulting
consonant clusters are broken up according to the same rules as for /-im/ plural
nouns.

1004

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35

/raglaim/ "feet"

/yadaim/ "hands

1 s.

raglay

yaday

2 m.s.

raglexa

yadexa

2 f.s.

raglaix

yada ix

3 m.s.
3 f.s.
1 pi.

raglav
ragleha
ragleynu

yadav
yadeha
yadeynu

2 m.pl.

ragleyxem

yedeyxem

2 f.pl.
3 m.pl.

ragleyxen
ragleyhem

yedeyxen
yedeyhem

3 f.pl.

ragleyhen

yedeyhen

1005

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

36

As
with
/-im/
and
/-ot/
plural
nouns,
the
entire
paradigm is
often
regularized
in informal
speech.
Thus,
for
example,
/yadeyxem/
will
be
heard
as
well
as
/yedeyxem/.
Transformation Drill

UNIX

A.

These are my books.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

13.

14.

1006

UNIt 35

hebrew

1007

BASIC COURSE

UNIX

36

HEBREW

T
r
a
n
s
f

BASIC COURSE

r
m
a
t

o
n

r
i
l
l

M
y

c
h
i

1008

UNIt 35

hebrew

BASIC COURSE


.
.

.
.

.
.

r
e
n

s
t
u
d
y

w
e
l

15.

1009

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

36

.
:

T
r
a
n
s
f

o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

1010

UNIX

UNIt 35

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

r
i


.

.

.


.

.

b
r
o
t
h
e
r
s

l
i
v
e

i
n

1011

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

:
.
.


.
.

:
.
.


.
.

Transformation Drill My friends


are going to Israel.

E.

36

UNIX

.
.

.
.
.

.
,

16.

: . . . .
: .
. .
. .
.
: . .
Transformation Drill Your ideas
are excellent.

.
.
.
.

17.

1012

UNIt 35
F. Transformation Drill

hebrew

Her cakes are delicious.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

1013

BASIC COURSE

:.

..
.

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

36

UNIX

G Transformation Drill
They cleaned our clothes.


.
.


.

.

W
i
1


.
.

.
.
.

18.

19.
.

1014

BASIC COURSE

UNIt 35

hebrew
.
H.Tra
n
s
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

D
r
i
l
l

M
y

f
e
e
t

1015

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

36

UNIX

r
t

.
o
. .
w
.
.
. .
a
.
r
e
I.Tra
y

o
r

e
n

r
i

20.

1016

UNIt 35

hebrew

. :

1017

?
?

1
?

BASIC COURSE

?
?

?
?

?
?

?
?

BASIC COURSE_________________________________HEBREW_________________________________________UNIT

35
J. Transformation Drill

houses.

Moshe hasn't seen our



.

35.5 Prepositions with Pronominal Suffixes


prepositions occurring with the plural set of pronominal suffixes alternate in the
same way as nouns.

1018

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35

B. Expansion Drill
1 S.

2
2
3
3

m.s.

2
2

m.pl.

f.pl.

f.s.
m. s.
f.s.

1 pi.

f.pl.
3 m.pl.

A. Expansion

.

/lefanim/
"formerly"
.: "before
::
lefanay
me"
.!! :

lefanexa
"before
you"
.

lefanaix
etc.,
.:
lefanav
.
lefaneha
.-
lefaneynu
_ .
.
lifneyxem
.
lifneyxen
. :
lifneyhem
lifneyhen
Drill

Instructo : I'm standing in line.


r
Student: 'm standing
in line, and Moshe
I

/odot/ "about"

.
odotay "about roe"
t you"

odo texa "abou


odotav

odoteha

odoteynu

odoteyxem

odoteyxen

odoteyhem

odoteyhen

is standing in front of me.

Instructor: I stood in line.


Student: I stood in line and Miriam stood behind me.

1019

odotaix etc.,

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

.1 ?
.2 ?
.3 ?
.4 ?
? REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

1020

36

UNIX

UNIt 35

hebrew

: ?
: ,?
: .
: ?
:.
: , .

: ?
: , , ,.
: ?
: .
: ?
: . .

: . ?
: .
: . .
: , .
: .
: . .

: ?
: , .
:? ?
: . .
: .

: ?
: .
: .
: . .

1021

BASIC COURSE

BASIC COURSE

: ?
: . . .
: . .

1022

HEBREW

36

UNIX

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 36

36.1 Getting Up In the Morning (contd.)


1.
MENAHEM
2.
Listen,
Dov,
it makes a
bad
impression
when
you're
late every
day.
impres
sion,
mark
Xma, dov.
ze ose

roem
ra
Seata
meaxer
kol
yom.
roSe
m
(m)

,
.

eyx ze yaxol
lihyot?

3.
DOV
4.
I'11
tell
you,
Menahem.
Even
when I
get up
early
I'm
late.
omar
lexa
menaxem.
afilu
keani
5.

ka
m
mu
kd
am
an
i
me
ax
er
.

MENAHEM
How is that possible?

7.
6.
DOV
8.
I'll c^ive

1023

UNIX

36

HEBREW

ou an
example.
Last week
I left the
house at
seven, and
I thought
this time
I'11 get
there
hine agla
early.
mukdam.
e
x
a
m
p
l
e
l
o
o
k
(
c
o
n
j
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
c
a
l
l
i
n
g
a
t
t
e
n
t
i
o
n

BASIC COURSE

to what
follows)

eten lexa dugma.


beSavua Xeavar
yacati mehabait
beSeva vexaSavti

dugma (f)
hine

9.
MENAHEM

1024

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 36

10.
And what happened?
it happened

11.
DOV
12.
l
o

h
a
m
e
x
o
n
i
t

y
a
x
o
l
t
i

S
e
l
i
.

l
e
h
a
d
l
i
k

e
t

hidlik
mexonit

13.
MENAHEM
What was wrong?

ma haya hakilkul?

uma
kara?

?
kar
a

1025

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

DOV
I didn't have any gasoline. lo haya li
delek.
14.
gasoline
15.

delek (m)

MENAHEM
16.
Dov, you
have to
watch the
amount of
fuel in
the car.
h
e
w
a
t
c
h
e
d

dov, ata
carix
liSmor al
kamut
hadelek
bamexona.

q
u
a
n
t
i
t
y
m
a

chi
ne,
car

S
a
m
a
r
k
a
m
u
t
(
f
)
m
e
x
o
n

a
(
f
)
,

17.
DOV

18.
Yes, I know
but for some reason
I forget.
ken, ani yodea. ax
miSum ma ani
Soxeax.

1026

.
.

.

19.
20.

UNIt 35

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

because of because of something

MENAHEM
21.
You're an absent-minded

t
e
r
e
d
baxur (m)

ata baxur
fellow.
mefuzar.
young man
absentminded,scat

mefuzar (m.s.)

22.
36.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY I
miSum
mi?um
ma

had a flat.
puncture

23.
I had
to
chang
e the
tire.
hayi
ti
cari
x

lehaxl
if et
hacami
g.

cami
g(m)

24.
karta li teunat draxim.
accident

teuna(f)

I had
an
accident.

hitn
agaX
t
i
im
oto
masa
.

25.
he
colli
ded
auto
load,
burde
n

haya li teker.
teker(
m)

tir
e

26.
They're fixing the car
et haoto

metaknim

in the repair shop.

basadna.
.

hitnag
eS oto
(m)
masa
(m)

1027

UNIX

36

HEBREW

repair shop, garage


(f)

BASIC COURSE

sadna

1028

UNIt 35

hebrew

BASIC COURSE
36.3 VERB DRILLS

"(a) /kara/ "it happened

27.
Wha
t
wil
l
hap
pen
?
Stu
den
t:
Wha
t
hap
pen
?ed
?

.

.
Do this drill in
reverse, also.

?

.

.

.

:.

A.
Transformatio
n DrillFuture to
Past
I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
o
r
:

28.
B. "(b) /hidlik/ "he lit
Substitution Drill Turn on the

light.

29.

1029

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

C.
Transformati
on DrillFuture to
Past

Ins
tru
cto
r:
'He
ll
sta
rt
the
car
.
Stu
den
t:
He
sta
rte
d
the
car
.

.

.

1030

36

UNIX

UNIt 35

hebrew


.

.

.

.

BASIC COURSE

Do this drill in reverse, also.

"(c) /Samar/ "he guarded

D. Substitution Drill
watch the children.
.

1031

30.

BASIC COURSE

HEBREW

36

UNIX

E. Substitution-Agreement

;.

Drill I watch my diet.

31.
- - -
)(/Seli/ may be varied or not.

32.
.
F.
Transformation
Drill - Past to
Future
Instructors
The soldiers
guarded the
plane.
Student: The
soldiers
will guard
the plane.


.

.

.


.

.

1032

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35

33.

G
R
A
M
M
A
R
N
O
T
E
S
3
6
.
4
C
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
S
t
a
t
e
o

1033

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

f
P
l
u
r
a
l
N
o
u
n
s
a)/-im/- Plural nouns and dual
nouns
An /-im/-plural noun or
dual noun in the construct
state has the same form as
the noun with a third person
plural pronoun suffix but
minus the /-hem/.
/bateyhem/
"their nouses"
/batey/ "houses
of"
/bneyhem /
"their sons"
/bney / "sons
of"
/
yaldeyhe
m/"their
children
"
/yaldey/
"childre
n of"
/sifreyh
em/"thei
r books"
/sifrey/
"books
of"
/yedeyhem/"their
hands"

1034

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35

/yedey/ "hands
of"
/ozneyhem/"their
ears"
/ozney/ "ears
of"
/
ragleyhem/"their
feet"
/ragley/"feet
of"
b)/-ot/ Plural Nouns
An /-ot/ - plural noun in
the construct state has the
same form as it does before a
pronoun suffix.
/bnotay/ "my
daughters"
/bnot/
"daughters of"
/miSpexoteynu/
"our
families"
/miSpexot/
"families of"
Most /-ot/ plural nouns
will have a construct state
form identical with the
absolute state form.
/ugot/ "cakes"
/ugot gvina/
"cheesecakes"
/aruxot/ "meals"
/aruxot erev/
"evening meals"

1035

BASIC COURSE

Singular to Plural
Instructor: They work in a post
office. Student: They work in post
offices.
; .
.
.
.
.
.
. .
.

HEBREW

36

UNIX

.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Transformation Drill -

34.
Do this drill in reverse, also.

35.
Instructor: We ate an apple
cake. Student: We ate apple
cakes.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.


. .
.
B. Transformation Drill
- Singular to Plural

36.

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

.1 ?
.2 ?
.3 ?
.4 ?
.5 .
.6 ?

1036

UNIt 35

hebrew

: ? : . . : ? :
. . : ? : .

: - - . : ? !
: ..
: ?
: . . : ?
: .

: . : ?
: .
: ?
: . .
: .
: .

: .
: ,?
: ..
: , .
: . .
: ?
: .

: . .
: ?
: .
: ?
: .
: ? .
: . .

: .
: ? ?
: . .
: ?

1037

BASIC COURSE

BASIC COURSE

: .

...

1038

HEBREW

36

UNIX

BASIC COURSE

UNIt 35

hebrew

37-1 Getting Up in the Morning (concluded)


MENAHEM

Keep coming late to work, tamSix leaxer laavoda

the boss will fire you.


he fired (an employee)

hamenahel yefater otxa.


piter

DOV

37.
Of this
I'm not afraid.
He needs me.

38.
39.

he feared

.

.

mize
ani lo mefaxed.
hu carix oti.
paxa
d

MENAHEM

40.
I believe
that he needs you,
but there's a limit
to everything.
he believed
boundary, limit

ani maamin Sehu


carix otxa. ax
lekol davar yeS
gvul.
heemin gvul (m)


.
.

41.
DOV

42.
Listen, Menahem. There
are many things more
serious in life than
coming late to work,
right?
there are(m.pl.)
serious

Sma menaxem.
yeSnam
harbe dvarim yoter
reciniim baxaim meaSer
ixurim laavoda, naxon?
yeSnam
recini

43.

,
.




? .

MENAHEM

44.
Right.

But you don't have to


cross the boundary.

naxon. ax lo carix
laavor et hagvul.

45.
DOV

46.
I know.
I'm like that,
and that's it.
that, this (m.s.)

ani yod^a.
ani kaze,
vezehu ze.
zehu

1039

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1040

BASIC COURSE

UNIt 35

hebrew

37.2 ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY


(Let it remain)
between us he
won't be able to
manage without me.
without,

except

SeyiSaer
beyneynu - hu lo yuxal
lehistader
toil*aday.
bil'adey

47.
37.3 VOCABULARY DRILLS
(a) /yeS ~ yen-/ "there is, there are"
The particle /ye%/ has the suffixed variant
/yeSn-/ is used only with a third person
subject, and the suffix agrees with it in
gender and number - /yeSno, yeSna, yeSnam,
ye&nan./
Only /yeS/ is used with /le-/ in the meaning
"to have".
A. Transformation Drill
48.


.

.

.

.

offices in this
building.

.

.

.

.""

There are many


49.

b)/recini/ "serious"
B. Substitution-Agreement Drill
The

students

are

very

serious.

1041

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

.

""
-

-
-

c)/beyn/ "between, among"

The preposition /beyn/ is used with the


singular set of pronominal suffixes - /beyni/,
etc..
The
construction
"between... and ..." is rendered
/beyn... leveyn.../ or^eyn... le.../.

1042

BASIC COURSE

UNIt 35

hebrew

C. Expansion Drill

Instructor: I"11 tell you something.


50.

Student: I'll tell you something.


me and you.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

Let it remain between

-
-

-
-

-

-

(d) /bil'adey/ "without, except"


The preposition /bli/ "without" has the alternant
form/k>il'ad-/ before pronoun suffixes. The plural set of
suffixes is used with this form. The "plural construct"
form /bil'adey/ occurs in formal style before nouns.
D. Transformation Drill
Instruc
tor: I
won't
go with
Moshe.
Student
: Moshe
will go
without
me.

.

.
.
.

1043

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1044

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35

1045

BASIC COURSE

36

HEBREW

UNIX

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.

4 VERB DRILLS
37

(a /piter/ "he
") fired

to Past
Future
will fire you.

A. Transformation

Drill
Instructor: The
boss

Student: The boss fired you.


. .
. .

1046

UNIt 35

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

Do this drill in reverse, also.B. Transformation Drillpi'el to hitpa'el


Instructor: The boss will fire her from the job.
Student: She will resign from the job.

.
.
.
.
.
.

Do this drill in reverse, also.

fire me. I quit.

.

.

.
:

.
C.
Expansion
Drill
Instruc
tor:
They
didn't
fire
me.
Student
: They
didn't

1047

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

(b) /paxad/ "he feared"


The verb /paxad/ is unusual. In the past tense it
is conjugated in the kal, in the future it is
conjugated in the pi'el - /yefaxed/; in the present
tense it is conjugated in either - /poxed/, /mefaxed/.

D. Substitution-

- -

Agreement Drill I

- - -

won't be afraid of

- -

the dog.

E. Substitution-Agreement Drill

(The conjugations should be drilled separately.)

.( or) .
- - - - - -
-

I'm not afraid of that.

1048

UNIt 35

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

. :

- - -
- - -

F- Substitution-Agreement Drill I was


afraid he'd be late.

(c) /he'emin/ "he believed"

G. Substitution Drill

Don't believe what he tells you.

H. Substitution-Agreement Drill

- - -

I believe that this is correct.

37.5 Abstract Nouns in /-ut/ "-ness"


Abstract nouns may be derived from many nouns and adjectives by adding the
suffix /-ut/.
These nouns are feminine.
/mahir/ "quick"

/mehirut/ "quickness"

/recini/

/recinut/

"seriousness"

"serious" /gadol/

/gadlut/

"greatness"

"great" /efSari/

/efgarut/

"possibility"

"possible" /naim/

/neimut/

"pleasantness"

"pleasant"
37.6 Hortatives
A wish or desire on the part of the speaker that someone else should do
something or that something should happen is expressed by the construction /ge-/
followed by the future tense of the verb.
/SeyiSaer beyneynu/ "Let it remain between us."
/Seyavo maxar/ "Let him come tomorrow."
The English "let" in the above sentences simply expresses the speaker's wish.
It does not mean "permit, allow". This would be rendered in Hebrew /ten lo lavo
maxar./
The construction with /Se-/ may be considered an elliptical sentence with a
preceding clause deleted such as /ani roce/ or /ani mekave/.
/ani roce Seyavo maxar./ "I want him to come tomorrow."

1049

BASIC COURSE
Moshe come earlier.

.
.

5.
.
.
.

HEBREW

36

UNIX


. .
.
.
.

.
A. Transformation Drill
Instructor: I hope Moshe will
come earlier. Student: Let

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

.1 ?
.2 ?
.3 ?
.4 ?

1050

UNIt 35

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

: - : ?
: . : . .

: .
: ?
: .
: ?
: .
:?
: .

: , .
: ?
: .
: , .
:?
: .

1051

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

38.1 Purim Parade


MR. WILLIAMS
What is this
noise in the
street?
raaS (m)

ma ze
haraaS
haze
barexov.

MR. CARMI
I
t
'
s
t
h
e
A
d
l
o
y
a
d
a
.

Pu

ri

m,
Fe
as
t
of
Lo
ts
z
u
adloyada(f)
purim

T
o
d
a
y
i
s
P
u
r
i
m
.
P
u
r
i
m
f
e
s
t
i
v
a
l

1052

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35

1053

36

UNIX

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

MR. WILLIAMS
W
h
a
t

y
z

i
s
P
u
r
i
m
?
W
h
a
t
k
i
n
d
o
f
h
o
l
i
d
a
y
i
s
i
t
?
m
a
z
e
x
a
g
p
u
r
i
m
?
e

1054

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35

g
z
e
.

1055

UNIX

36

Purim
is
t
h
e
h
a
p
p
i
e
s
t
h
o
l
i
d
a
y
,
a
n
d
e
s
p
e
c
i
a
l
l
y
f
o
r
t
h
e
c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n
.

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Wh
y
ju
st
fo
r
ch
il
dr
en
?

They put
on
costumes
, go to
parties,
and eat
poppyseed
cakes,
he
disguise
d
himself
party,
ball
(special
Purim
cake)

M
R
.
C
A
R
M
I

xag
purim hu
haxag
hasameax
beyoter
ubemeyux
ad
layeladi
m.
meyuxad
MR.
WIL
LIA
MS
special
la
ma
da
vk

1056

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

l
a
y
e
l
a
d
i
m
?

ze
n
h a
m a
n (
M
R
.
C
A
R
M
I

mitxap
sim,
holxim
leneSa
fim
veoxli
m
ozney
haman.

UNIt 35

f )


MR
.
WI

hitxa
neMef

LL

IA

MS
T
h
i
s
m
o
r
n
i
n
g
I
s
a
w
c
h
i
l
d
r
e

a dressed
mask

a
v

lavuS
masexa (f)

,
,
.

1057

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1058

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35

MR. CARMI
M
r
.

h
i
b
i
t
t
a
h
a
l
u
x
a
(
f
)

W
i
l
l
i
a
m
s
,
l
o
o
k

a
t

t
h
e
p
a
r
a
d
e
.

mar
Wil
lia
ms,
hab
et
al
hat
aha
lux
a.

he
lo
ok
ed
pa
ra
de
,
pr
oc
es
si
on

1059

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

MR. WILLIAMS
V
e
r
y
i
n
t
e
r
e
s
t
i
n
g
.
L
o
o
k
a
t
t
h
e
b
e
a
u
t
i
f
u
l
f
l
o
a
t
s
.
1
'
v
e
n
e
v
e
r
s
e
e
n

a
p
a
r
a
d
e
l
i
k
e
t
h
i
s
.

m
e
a
n
y
e
n
m
e
o
d
.
r
e
e
e
t
h
a
b
u
b
o
t
h
a
y
a

1060

doll,
mannekin
never

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35
fo
t.
me
ol
am
lo
ra
ft
i
ta
ha

l
u
x
a
k
a
z
o
.

(f

)
meolam...lo

buba

38.2 Additional Vocabulary


eve
r

ey
paam

H
a

h
a
a paam...lo
af

This year no one
w
a
s
d
r
e
s
s
e
d
a
s
a
c
l
o
w
n
.

n
a
a
f
e
x
a
d
l
o

h
i
t
x
a
no one p
e
h
s
a
S
l
a

1
'
1
1

1061

e
l
e
y
c
a
n
.

a
e
.

f
x a d . .
l o

l
e
l

.
10

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
e
o
l
a
m
.
a
f
a

1062

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35

38.3
VOCABULARY
DRILLS
a)/meyuxad/
"special"

A.Substitution
-Agreement
Drill
This plane
is
specially
for
tourists.
.

- -
- -
b)/lavuS/
"dressed"
B.Substitution
-Agreement
Drill
she was
dressed in
a brown
suit.
.

1063

BASIC COURSE

- - - -

1064

HEBREW

36

UNIX

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35

38.4 VERB DRILLS


(a) /hitxapes/ "he disguised himself" A.

- -
- -

Substitution-Agreement Drill
What are you going to be dressed as on Purim?

?;
.

- -

- -
B. Substitution-Agreement Drill
He disguised himself as a movie actor.

(b) /hibit/ "he looked" C. Substitution Drill Look at the costumes.

.
.
.
.
, .
.
D. Transformation Drill Past to Future
Instructor: Moshe
looked out the window.
Student: Moshe will

look out the window.

.
.
. .
.
Do this drill in reverse, also.

(c) /afa/ "he baked"


The future forms of this verb are /yofe / etc. A frequent variant is /yeefe/.

1065

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

E. Transformation Drill - Future to Past


Instructor: My mother will bake a cake for the
holiday. Student: My mother baked a cake for the
holiday.
.
.
?
.

.
.
?
.

GRAMMAR NOTES
38.5 Negative Adverbials

The negative adverbials /meolam, leolam, af paam, af exad, klum, Sum


davar/ are used with /lo/ when the verb occurs in the sentence.
/meolam lo raiti tahaluxa
kazo./ "I've never seen such
a parade."
In equational sentences /eyn/ may be used.
/eyn klum bacincenet./ "There
is nothing in the jar."
In response to a question they may be used without /lo/ or /eyn/, but
they still are negative.
/ma Samata meaxixa./ "What did you hear from your brother."
/Sum davar/

"Nothing"

The adverbials /meolam/ and /leolam/ "never" are used with past, and
future tense forms, respectively.
/meolam lo raiti oto./ "I've never seen
him." /leolam lo er'e oto./ "I'll never
see him."
/af paam/ "never" may be used with any tense.
/af paam lo dibarti ito./ "I've never spoken to
him." /ani af paam lo medaber ito./ "I never
speak to him." /af paam lo adaber ito./ "I'll
never speak to him."

1066

UNIt 35

Instructor: have you ever eaten a


pomegranate? Student: Never.
.
.
.
.

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

.1 1
?
.2
?
.3
?
.4 ?
.5 ?
.6 ?
A. Response Drill

The responses may be varied with /meolam/ etc.

B. Response Drill

.1Instructor: What did you hear from him? Student: Nothing. ?


.2 .
.
?
.
.3 ?
.
. ? .
.
.

The responses may be varied with /klum/.

C. Response Drill
Instructor: Who are you talking
to? Student: Nobody.

.1 <: ?
:?
:. : ,
. 3 ?
.,-, :. ?
.5 ?

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

.1 ?
.2 ?
.3 ,.. ?
.4 ?
.5 ?

1067

BASIC COURSE

.6 - ?

1068

HEBREW

36

UNIX

UNIt 35

REVIEW CONVERSATIONS
: ? :
. : . . :
, .
? : .

: ?
: . ?
: .
: ?: ?
: .

: . ? ?
_ : .
: ?
:.

: ?
: .
: ?
: .

: ?
: . . : -
? :.
: ?
: .
: ?
: .
: :, ?
: .
: . ?
: . .

1069

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

39! Buying clothes


David
,
liste
n. I
need
a new
suit
for
the
holid
ays.
Y
O
N
A

TAN

. ,

dav
idSma
.
ani
car
ix
xal
ifa
xad
aSa
lax
agi
ra.

lefi
mida (f)

DAVID
D
o
y
o
u
w
a
n
t
a
r
e
a
d
y
m
a
d
e

a
dac
co
rd
in
g
to
me
as
ur
e,
si
ze
a
t

s
u
i
t
o
r
c
u
s
t
o
m
m

1070

UNIt 35

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

1071

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

YONATAN
I

i
tx
aa
i
l
o
r

d
o
n
'
t
k
n
o
w
.

(
f

i
n
t
h
e

D
o

n
e
i
g
h
b
o
r
h
o
o
d
?

y
o
u
k
n
o
w
a
g
o
o
d

a
n

DAVID
You
can
order
a
custom
-made
suit.
In the
men's
clothi
ng
store.
a
t
a
y
a
x
o
l

l
e
h
a
z
m
i
n
x
a
manl
i
f
a
l
e
f
i

m
i
d
a
b
a
x
a
n
u
t
l
e
b
i
g
d
e
y

1072

hebrew

BASIC COURSE
g
v
a
r
i
m
.

gever
(m)

UNIt 35

YONATAN
beemet? lo
yadati.

Really? I didn1t
know.
DAVID
If you wish,
I'm ready to go
with you there.

im ata roce ani


muxan lalexet itxa
leSam.
YONATAN
ode lexa
meod.

I'd be very grateful.


Y
o
u
'
1
1

h
e
D
A
V
I
D

n
e
e
d

?
.

a
t
i
e
t
o
m
a
t
c
h

1073

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1074

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

YONATAN
ken. nir'e
eyze mivxar
yeS lahem.

Y
e
s
.
W
e
'
1
1

mivxar(m
)

:
.

s
e
e
w
h
a
t
s
e
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
t
h
e
y
h
a
v
e
.

select
ion

DAVID

1075

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

YONATAN
B
y

o
e
s
.
incidentally
a
g
a
v
,
a
n
i

t
h
e
w
a
y
,
I
a
l
s
o

c
a
r
i
x

n
e
e
d

aga
v

g
a
m

z
u
g

p
a
i
r

n
a
a
l
a
i
m
.

o
f
s
h
DAVID

O
h
o

3
9
.
2
A
d
d
i
t
i
o
n
a

l
I
a

1076

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
a
s
e
,
a
n
e
w
c
o
a
t
,
a
n
e
w
h
a
t
.
a
n
e
w
r
a
i
n
c
o
a
t
,
a
n
e
w
r
o
b
e
,
a
n
e
w
w
a
l
l
e
t
,
a
n
e
w
s
w
e
a
t
e
r

1077

e
w
a
n
t

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1078

.
.
.

BASIC COURSE

1079

HEBREW

36

UNIX

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1080

BASIC COURSE

1081

HEBREW

36

UNIX

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1082

BASIC COURSE

1083

HEBREW

36

UNIX

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1084

BASIC COURSE

1085

HEBREW

36

UNIX

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1086

BASIC COURSE

1087

HEBREW

36

UNIX

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1088

BASIC COURSE

1089

HEBREW

36

UNIX

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1090

BASIC COURSE

1091

HEBREW

36

UNIX

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1092

BASIC COURSE

1093

HEBREW

36

UNIX

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1094

BASIC COURSE

1095

HEBREW

36

UNIX

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1096

BASIC COURSE

1097

HEBREW

36

UNIX

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1098

BASIC COURSE

1099

HEBREW

36

UNIX

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

1100

BASIC COURSE

1101

HEBREW

36

UNIX

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

ani
crixa...
a
n
e
w
d
r
e
s
s
,
a
n
e
w
s
k
i
r
t
,
a
n
e
w
b
l
o
u
s
e
,
a
n
e
w
I need...

b
r
a
.
a
n
e
w
s

l
i
p
,
a
n
e
w
u
m
b
r
e
l
l
a
,
n
e
w
s
t
o
c
k
i
n
g
s
.
S
i
m
l
a
x
a
d
a
S
a

...

x
a
c
a
i
t
x
a
ta
far

1102

.

:
.

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
d
a
s
a
.

r
i
a

x
u
l
c
a

x
a
d
a
S
a
.

x
a
d
a
S
a
.

g
a
r
b
a
i
m

x
a
z
i
a

x
a
d
a
&
o
t
.

x
a
d
a
S
a
.

a
n
i
m
a
k
i
r
a

t
a
x
t
o
n
i
t

t
o
f
e
r
e
t

x
a
d
a
S
a
.

t
o
v
a
.

m
i
t

1103

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

GRAMMAR NOTES
39-3 /kvar/ and /od/
/kvar/ generally stresses the fact that the action has been completed or is to be
completed. It is often translated as "already".
/kvar meuxar/

"It's late already."

With expressions of time it is equivalent to the English "has been."


/hu oved kan kvar xodSaim/ "He has been working here for two months."
In questions it is eguivalent to "yet", /od/ is not used.
/kvar axalta?/ "Have you eaten yet?"
With verbs /od/ is usually translatable as "yet" or "still".
/od lo axalti/ "I haven't eaten yet" /od mukdam/ "It's still early."
With nouns /od/ means "another, more".
/od davar exad/ "one more thing."
/ani eSaer kan od Svuaim./ "I'm staying another two weeks here."
With certain time expressions /od/ means "no later than", "as early as", /od
hayom/ "before today is over"
In negative sentences /od/ may be ambiguous.
/eyn od xadaSot./ "There is no news as yet."
or possibly "There is no more news."
On the other hand - /od eyn xadaSot./ "There is no news as yet."

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

? .1
? - .2
. .3
? .4
? .5
REVIEW CONVERSATIONS

1104

UNIt 35

hebrew

: , .
: . . : ? :
. . : . .

: ?
: .
: .
: ?
: .

: ::?
: .
: ?
: , ,.
: .
: . .

: ?
: .
:?
: .
: ?
: .

: ?
, .1
:
:? .
: . ;-.
: ?
: .

1105

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 36

Going to 40.1
the Irrigation Project
MR. WILLIAMS
Hello, Mr.
Carmi.
I'm Mr.
Williams
from the
American
Embassy.

m
e
r
i
k
a
.

I heard about
you in
America.

about
a
t
You're the
a
director of
m
the bureau of
e
development.
d n
e a
v h
e e
l l
o m
p i
m s
e r
n a
t d
h
Sal
a
om
p
mar
i
kar
t
mi.
u
ani
a
mar
x
Wil
.
lia
ms
meh
aSa
gri
rut
haa
mer
ika
it.
Sam
ati
odo
tex
a
od
bea

o
d
o
t

p
i
t
u
a
x

(
m
)

MR. CARMI
Oh Mr.
Willia
ms '.
I've

h
e
a
r
d

a
b
o
u

1106

UNIt 35

hebrew

BASIC COURSE
t you,
too.

ha
im
at
a
me
un
ya
n
li
r^
ot
et
mi
f'
al
ha
ma
im
ha
xa
da
S
ba
ne
ge
v?

Are
you
intere
sted
in
seeing
the
new
irriga
tion
projec
t
in
the
Negev?
project

southern
part of
Israel
o- mar
Willia
ms gam
ani
Samati
odotex
a.
Yes,
certain
ly. My
wife
and I
would
be very
happy
to
visit
there.

mif
'al
(m)

m
e
o
d

l
e
v
a
k
e
cer r
tai
S
he a
vis m
ite .

MR.
WILLIAM
S
ken.
bevaday
. iSti
veani
nismax
Tell me when
it's
convenient
for you to
go, and I'11
take you for
a tour.

neg
ev

vaday
biker

convenie
nt,
comforta
ble
he

told

tour
M
R

C
A
R
M
I
tagid

1107

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

li matay
Senoax laxem
linsoa,
veekax otxem
lesiyur.

h
i
g
i
d
n
o
a
x
(
m

N
e
x
t
T
u
e
s
d
a
y
I
h
a
v
e
f
r
e
e

.s.
)
siy
ur
(m)

t
i
m
e
.
MR.
WIL
LIA
MS
bey
om
Sli
Si
hab
a
yeS
li
zma
n
pan
uy.

pa
nu
y
(m
.s
.)

vacant

MR. CARMI
Very
good.
Then I'11
come to
get you
in the
morning.
At six
o'clock in
the
evening,
You'11 be
back at
home.
tov meod.
az avo
lakcixat
otxem
baboker.

be
Sa
a
Se
S
ba
er
ev
ti
yu
Xu
v
ba
ba
it
.

1108

UNIT 36

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35

1109

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
MR. WILLIAMS
Thank
you.

t
6
a
x

I'm
sure
that
we'll
enjoy
it
very
much.
to
da
ra
ba
.
an
i
ba

S
e
n
e
h
e
n
e

m
e
o
d
.

40.2 At the
Irrigation
Project
MR. CARMI
Look Mr.
Williams.
histakel, mar
Williams.
Here is the
pumping
station, hine
taxanat
haSe'iva.
histakel
taxana (f)

he looked
at station
he drew
(water)

Sa1 av

MR. WILLIAMS
Wha
t I
We'
re
the
re
alr
ead
y?
Whe
re
are
we?

m
a

1110

k
v

,
.

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35

MR. CARMI
W
e

r
e
i
n
U
p
p
e
r
G
a
l
i
l
e
e
.
T
h
e
r
e
i
s
L
a
k
e
K
i
n
e
r
e
t
.

n
i
m
c
a
i
m
b
a
g
a
l
i
l
h
a
e
l
y
o
n
.
h
i
n
e
a
g
a
m

.
galil

elyon (m.s.)
agam
(m)

k
i

top, highest
e

lake, pond
r

a
e

n
t
.
u
MR.
WILLIAMS

I see
the pipes.

pipe

ani
roe
et
haci
noro
t.

c
i
n

1111

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
o
r
(
m
)
MR.
CARMI
T
h
e
p
i
p
e
s
t
a
k
e

u
t

transp
orted
reserv
South
h
a
hovil
maagar
(m)
darom

t
h
e
w
a
t
e
r
t
o
t
h
e
m
a
i
n
r
e
s
e
r
v
o
i
r

i
n
t
h
e
s
o

1112

UNIt 35

1113

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
MR. WILLIAMS
How is
water?
Sweet?

the

eyx hamaim?
metukim?

MR- CARMI
Yes. The waters of Kineret
are sweet.

ken. mey hakineret


metukim.

1114

?
?

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35



,
?

MR. WILLIAMS
ma orex movil
hamaim, mar

( karmi .

What is the
length of
the water
carrier, Mr.
Carmi?

m
)

ore
x

length
T
h
MR.
CARMI
o
mil

W
e
y
o
t
h
MR.
WILLIA
MS
a

1115

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE
I'
a
m
y
ha
pp
y
yo
u
en
jo
ye
d
it
.
Le
t'
s
st
ar
t
ho
me
.
MR.
CARM
a
n
i
s
a
m
e
a
x
S
e
n
e
h
e
n
e
t
e
m
.
n
a
t
x
i
l
l
a
x
z
o
r
h
a
b

1116

BASIC COURSE

hebrew

UNIt 35

40.3
ADDITIO
NAL
VOCABUL
ARY
Galilee
is
in the
north
of
Israel.
The Jordan is
in the east.

ha
ga
li
l
ni
mc
a
bi
cf
on
ha
ar
ec
.

north

hayarden
nimca
bamizrax.
mizrax
T
h
e

t
.
h
a
y
a
m

M
e
d
i
t
e
r
r
a
n
e
a
n

h
a
t
i
x
o
n
n
i
m
c
a

i
s

middl
e
west

i
n

b
a
m
a
a
r
a
v
.

t
h
e
w
e
s
tixon (m.s.)

maarav

1117

cafo
n

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

Have a good time.


he
spen
t
(tim
e)

tevalu beneimim.
bila

1118

hebrew

BASIC COURSE

UNIt 35

GRAMMAR NOTES

404Derived Houns - mif'al


A frequently occurring noun derivation is the pattern /miccac/. Such nouns
usually designate a concrete result of the action of the verb. These nouns are
masculine.
/raSam/ "he listed" /mirSam/ "recipe" i.e. list of

ingredients

/pa'al/ "he worked" /mif'al/ "project" /safar/


"he counted" /mispar/ "number" /saxar/ "he
traded" /misxar/ "commerce" /katav/ "he wrote"
/mixtav/ "letter"
/baxar/ "he chose"
/mivxar/ "selection"
The prefix may be /ma-/ or /me-/ before /'/, /r/, /x/.
/,asa/ "he did"
/,agar/ "he collected"
/ra'a/ "he saw"
/xala/ "he got sick"
/raxok/ "distant"

/ma'ase/ "deed"
/ma'agar/ "reservoir"
/mar'e/ "sight"
/maxala/ "sickness"
/merxak/ "distance"

Occasionally a feminine derivation with /-a/ is used.

/se'uda/ "meal/
/mis'ada/ "restaurant"
/ralvrak/ "telegram" /mivraka/ "telegraph office"
405Derived Adjectives - pa'il
A frequently occurring adjective derivation is /cacic/. These adjectives
express qualities such as expressed in English with "-able".
/Savar/
/miher/
/xideS/
/bxor/

"he broke"
"he hurried"
"he renewed"
"eldest son"

/Savir/
/mahir/
/xadiS/
/baxir/

"breakable, fragile"
"quick"
"modern"
"senior"

RAPID RESPONSE DRILL

? .1
? .2
? .3
? .4
? .5
? .6
? .
? .7

.10 ? .8
?

1119

UNIX

36

HEBREW

BASIC COURSE

TESTS

In addition to the Review Conversations the following two types