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HM150 Volumetric Flow Measurement

:
in l
10

in s
100

Please insert measured values here !

in l/min
6

HM 150.01 Pipe Friction Losses - Laminar Flow


hloss in mm WC
20
30
40
50
60
80
150

V in l

t in s
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.4

195
138
105
78
72
58
77

in l/s
0.00103
0.00145
0.00190
0.00256
0.00278
0.00345
0.00519

w in m/s
0.145
0.205
0.269
0.363
0.393
0.488
0.735

Re
435
615
808
1088
1179
1463
2205

0.143
0.107
0.083
0.057
0.058
0.051
0.042

Please insert measured values into the white cells !


Constants:

Cross-Section of Pipe
Kinematic Viscosity
Length of Pipe
Diameter of Pipe
Acceleration d.t.Gravity
Density of Water

A=
=
l=
d=
g=
=

0 m
0 m/s
0.4 m
0m
9.81 m/s
998 kg/m

0.147
0.104
0.079
0.059
0.054
0.044
0.029

HM 150.01 Pipe Friction Losses - Turbulent Flow


hloss in mbar
20
40
60
80
100
120
140

V in l

t in s
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4

67
46
35
33
28
25
22

in l/s
0.00597
0.00870
0.01143
0.01212
0.01429
0.01600
0.01818

w in m/s
0.845
1.230
1.617
1.715
2.021
2.263
2.572

Re
2534
3690
4850
5144
6063
6790
7716

0.042
0.040
0.035
0.041
0.037
0.035
0.032

Please insert measured values into the white cells !


Constants:

Cross-Section of Pipe
Kinematic Viscosity
Length of Pipe
Diameter of Pipe
Acceleration d.t.Gravity
Density of Water

Pipe Coefficient of Friction


0.15
0.13

A=
=
l=
d=
g=
=

0 m
0 m/s
0.4 m
0m
9.81 m/s
998 kg/m

0.045
0.041
0.038
0.037
0.036
0.035
0.034

Pipe Coefficient of Friction


0.15
0.13

Lambda

0.1
0.08
0.05
0.03
0

1000

2000

3000

4000
Re

5000

6000

7000

8000

HM 150.02 Pressure Gauge Calibration


2.5

p [bar]

1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5
m [kg]

2.5

0.5

1.5
m [kg]

2.5

0
0.39
0.58
1.15
1.73
2.3
2.87

0
0.33
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5

HM 150.03 Flow over a Notch

Rectangular - profile Weir

V - profile Weir

ho

90
h1
z
b

z = ho + h1 - h

z = ho + h1 - h
with
= 0,63
g = 9,81m/s

ho=const=4,7cm
h1 =const=5,0cm

and

ho=const=4,7cm
h1=const=6,0cm

Please insert measured values into the white cells!


h in cm

V in litre
8.60
8.05
7.20
6.00
5.50

[l/s]
0.1075
0.2273
0.4545
0.7692
1.0000

measured

t in s
10
10
10
10
10

th

z in cm
93
44
22
13
10

[l/s] Deviation [%]


0.1288
-16.502
0.2366
-3.934
0.4412
3.019
0.7944
-3.171
0.9608
4.082

h in cm
1.10
1.65
2.50
3.70
4.20

V in litre
8.50
7.50
6.90
6.00
5.50

[l/s]
0.1087
0.2941
0.4545
0.7143
0.9091

measured

t in s
10
10
10
10
10

z in cm
92
34
22
14
11

[l/s] Deviation [%]


0.1068
1.734
0.2726
7.884
0.4189
8.500
0.7127
0.216
0.9177
-0.937

th

2.20
3.20
3.80
4.70
5.20

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

HM 150.04 (+.16) Pump Test


Single Pump Characteristic Curves

Please insert actual speed in rpm


pS in bar
pD in bar
V in litres

Please
insert
measured
values into
the white
cells!

800 rpm
t in s

-0.17
0.00
-0.15
0.25
-0.15
0.50
-0.14
0.75
-0.14
1.00
Please insert actual speed in rpm
pS in bar
pD in bar
V in litres

10
10
10
10
10

-0.22
0.00
-0.20
0.50
-0.19
0.80
-0.16
1.20
-0.15
1.60
Please insert actual speed in rpm
pS in bar
pD in bar
V in litres
-0.28
0.00
-0.25
0.70
-0.22
1.00
-0.21
1.20
-0.20
1.40

10
10
10
10
10

30.0
33.3
36.0
49.2
57.2

in l/h
1200
1081
1000
732
629
1100 rpm

20.2
23.5
26.5
32.0
37.0

in l/h
1782
1532
1358
1125
973
1400 rpm

t in s

t in s
10
10
10
10
10

15.8
18.1
20.0
21.5
22.7

in l/h
2278
1989
1800
1674
1586

Single Pump Characteristic Curves


2.00

Pressure difference Pump in bar

1.80
1.60
1.40
1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
0

500

1000
Flow in l/h

1500

2000

2500

Series Pumps Characteristic Curves

Pressure Difference Pumps in bar

4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

500

1000
Flow in l/h

1500

2000

2500

Parallel Pumps Characteristic Curves


2.00

Pressure Difference Pumps in bar

1.80
1.60
1.40
1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00

500

1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000


Flow in l/h

Pump efficiency

H = Pump Head in m

= 998 kg/m

g = 9,81 m/s
= 0,92
Motor

Please insert actual speed in rpm


pS in bar
pD in bar
U in V
-0.22
0.00
60
-0.20
0.50
60
-0.19
0.80
60
-0.16
1.20
65
-0.15
1.60
65
in m/h
1.782
1.532
1.358
1.125
0.973

H in m
2.2
7.0
9.9
13.6
17.5

Pin in W
180.0
240.0
270.0
357.5
390.0

1100 rpm
I in A

V in litres
3
4
4.5
5.5
6

Pout in W
10.7
29.2
36.6
41.6
46.3

t in s
10
10
10
10
10

in %
5.45
11.18
12.46
10.71
10.92

20.2
23.5
26.5
32.0
37.0

in l/h
1782
1532
1358
1125
973

Centre of Pressure with vertical Positioning of Water Vessel

s<100mm

s>100mm

lD

lD

C
D

Equations

50 mm

Equations

= 998 kg/m
g = 9,81 m/s

with b = 75 mm

FG in N

l in mm
3

FG in N

s in mm
14.0

86

Please insert measured values into the white cells!


lD in mm
171.3

FD in N

with b = 75 mm

Please insert measured values into the white cells!


lD in mm

2.72

l in mm
s in mm
208.0
120

161.9

FD in N
5.14

Centre of pressure with water vessel tilted

s < sh

s > sh

sh

sh

s
h

st

st
cos

Equations

FG in N
1

l in mm
s in mm
st in mm
270.6
80
20

Please insert measured values into the white cells!


in mm

lD in mm
FD in N
30
176.9
1.53

* 50 mm

Equations

FG in N
5.5

l in mm
s in mm
st in mm
230.0
234
50

Please insert measured values into the white cells!


in mm
60

lD in mm
FD in N
147.7
11.68

Centre of Pressure with 90 Positioning of Water Vessel

s
st

lD

FD

Equations

FG in N
3

lD in mm
FD in N
l in mm
s in mm
st in mm
257.0
270
200
150.0
5.14

HM 150.06 Metacentric Height

zm

xs

x in cm

z in cm
8

xs in cm

in
6

16

Please insert measured value here!

zS in cm
0.44

zm in cm
6.3

1.46

in cm/
0.03

HM 150.07 Bernoulli's Theorem

[mm WC]

[m/s]

[1]

Constants

Measuring Point
1
2
3
4
5
6

A in m
0.000633
0.000397
0.000154
0.000232
0.000460
0.000633

wref
1
1.59
4.11
2.72
1.37
1

g = 9,81 m/s

Measuring Point
1
2
3
4
5
6

t for 10 l water in s
36.3
36.3
36.3
36.3
36.3
36.3

Measuring Point w measured in m/s


1
0.420
2
0.626
3
1.826
4
1.321
5
0.852
6
0.657

h total in mm WC h stat in mm WC

in l/s
0.275
0.275
0.275
0.275
0.275
0.275

w calc in m/s
0.434
0.691
1.786
1.182
0.595
0.434

369
369
370
364
359
352

280
269
120
195
242
250

h dyn in m WC
9
20
170
89
37
22

Velocity Distribution Venturi Tube


2.00
1.80
1.60

w in m/s

1.40
1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00

3
Measuring Points

Pressure Distribution Venturi Tube


400
350

h in mm WC

300
250
200
150
100
50
0

3
Measuring Points

Venturi tube used as Flowmeter

V in liter

t in s
10

in l/s
36.3

0.275

h1 in mm WC
h3 in mm WC
280
120

in bar

K in
0.02

2.18

HM 150.08 Impact of Jet

w2

w2

w1

w1

Plate

=
ANozzle

w1 in m/s
Fth in N
in l/s
0.198
2.52
0.286
3.63
0.41
5.26
0.482
6.12
0.741
9.42

Hemisphere

998 kg/m
ANozzle

0 m
F in N
0.50
1.04
2.17
2.95
6.96

0.16
0.21
0.28
0.36
0.48

998 kg/m

0 m

w1 in m/s

in l/s
0.5
1
2
3
7

Fth in N
2.07
2.66
3.57
4.55
6.05

F in N
0.67
1.11
2.00
3.25
5.75

0.5
1
2
3
6

HM 150.09
Orifice and Jet (horizontal discharge of water jet)

Please insert values into the white cells!


Water Head in m
0.4
Measured x-Position in m Measured y-Position in m Calculated y-Position in m
0.00
0.000
0.000
0.07
0.003
0.003
0.14
0.016
0.012
0.21
0.036
0.028
0.28
0.064
0.049
0.35
0.097
0.077
0.42
0.140
0.110
0.49
0.192
0.150

Measured and Calculated Jet Trajectory

y-Position in m

0.00
0.000

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.050

0.100

0.150

0.200
x-Position in m

0.40

0.50

0.60

HM 150.11 Fluid Friction

Determination of Pressure loss for turbulent Flow in a Pipe

Constants:

Pipe

Pipe length
Inner diam.
Cross-Sect.
Roughness k
Acceleration d. t. Gravity

Kinematic Viscosity Fluid

t for 10 l in s
132
85
57
40
31
25
20

in l/min
4.55
7.06
10.53
15.00
19.35
24.00
30.00

Please insert values into


the white cells!

0.8 m
0.02 m
0.000227 m
0 mm
9.81 m/s
1 10-6 m/s

w in m/s
0.334
0.518
0.773
1.101
1.421
1.762
2.203

Re
5651
8776
13087
18650
24064
29839
37299

0.036
0.033
0.030
0.027
0.025
0.024
0.023

look at table

before you insert value

h losscalc in m h loss meas in m


0.010
0.010
0.021
0.020
0.042
0.040
0.079
0.080
0.123
0.120
0.179
0.160
0.265
0.250

Influence of Flow on Pressure loss

Pressure loss hloss in m water column

0.300
0.250
0.200
0.150
0.100
0.050
0.000
0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00
Flow in l/min

20.00

25.00

30.00

Coefficients of Resistance

ATTENTION: This simplified formula is for the


calculation of Coefficients of one fitting and not,
like described in the Instruction Manual, for a
pair of fittings.

di in mm
17

l in mm
t for 10 l in s h loss in m
203
22
0.35

Bend 90
di = 17 mm
l = 203 mm
k = 0,001 mm

in l/min
27.3

w in m/s
2.00

Elbow 90
di = 17 mm
l = 322 mm
k = 0,001 mm

Re
33865

Knee 90
di = 17 mm
l = 247 mm
k = 0,001 mm

0.023

Please insert here the pressure loss over one fitting


(if the measurement was over two fittings, please
divide the measured value by 2) !
The programming can be used for other fittings, for example the pipe valves in chapter 3.3 !!

1.41

Opening Characteristic of shut-off devices

Slanted-Seat Valve
Flow in l/min
No.of Turns
0
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
1 3/4
2
2 1/2
3
4
5
10

37

in l/min
0.0
10.0
17.1
19.4
21.6
23.1
24.2
25.0
27.3
30.0
31.6
33.3
33.3

Sleeve-type Shut-off Valve


Flow in l/min
37
No.of Turns
0
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
1 3/4
2
2 1/2
3
4
5
10

in l/min
0.0
4.5
9.7
16.7
22.2
25.0
26.9
28.9
33.3
35.3
36.4
36.4
36.4

Opening Characteristic of Shut-off Valves

40.0
35.0

Flow in l/min

30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0

6
Number of turns

10

12

HM 150.12
Orifice Discharge (vertical discharge of water jet)

Determination of contraction coefficient

dOrifice in mm dWater Jet in mm


12
9.80
12
10.20
12
10.90

0.667
0.723
0.825

with dWater Jet = f (

Determination of velocity coefficient

hstat in mm
hpitot in mm
wWater Jet in m/s
wtheoretical in m/s
250
249
2.210
2.215
305
303
2.438
2.446
404
401
2.805
2.815

0.998
0.997
0.996

Calculation of discharge coefficient

0.667
0.723
0.825

0.998
0.997
0.996

0.666
0.720
0.822

HM 150.13 Flowmeter Demonstration


Reference Flow (Volumetric Flow
Measurement with HM 150)

V in litre
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

t in s
3600
1800
900
450
225
112
100
90
56
28

Variable-Area Flowmeter

in l/h

Venturi Meter

in l/h
40
80
160
320
640
1286
1440
1600
2571
5143

in mm WC
38
78
155
316
635
1284
1438
1600
1600
1600

2
4
7
14
27
54
60
67
107
214

48
96
168
336
648
1296
1440
1608
2568
5136

Nozzle

Orifice

Please insert measured values


into the white cells !

in l/h

in mm WC
2
4
7
14
28
56
62
69
111
223

in l/h
46.2
92.4
161.7
323.4
646.8
1293.6
1432.2
1593.9
2564.1
5151.3

in mm WC
2
3
6
11
22
44
49
55
88
176

in l/h
58.6
87.9
175.8
322.3
644.6
1289.2
1435.7
1611.5
2578.4
5156.8

Deviation from Reference Flow

Reference [l/h] Var.-area Flowm.[%] Venturi Meter [%] Orifice [%] Nozzle [%]
40
5.00
20.00
15.50
46.50
80
2.50
20.00
15.50
9.87
160
3.13
5.00
1.06
9.87
320
1.25
5.00
1.06
0.72
640
0.78
1.25
1.06
0.72
1286
0.13
0.80
0.61
0.27
1440
0.14
0.00
0.54
0.30
1600
0.00
0.50
0.38
0.72
2571
0.13
0.29
0.27
5143
0.13
0.16
0.27

HM 150.14+ .31+ .40 Free and Forced Vortex

with constant k = v * r
and g = 9,81 m/s

Please insert measured values into the white cells!

height h in mm radius r in mm
145
80
140
55
135
30
130
22
125
19
120
16
115
14
110
13
105
12
100
10
95
9
90
9
85
9
80
8
75
8
70
7
65
7
60
6
55
6
50
5
45
5
40
4
35
4
30
3
25
3
20
2
15
2
10
1
5
1
0
0

height h in mm radius r in mm
145
140
135
100
125
120
115
110
105
100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
112
45
106
40
101
35
95
30
90
25
82
20
72
15
62
10
49
5
30
0
0

Shape of Vortex
160
140

height in mm

120
100
80
60
40
20
0

20

40

60
radius in mm

80

100

120

HM 150.15 Hydraulic Ram

Equation:

m1*g*h1 = m2*g*h2

Theoretical Mass Flow Ratio

Theoretical Mass Flow Ratio:

Actual Mass Flow Ratio:

in kg/s
0.09

in kg/s
0.025

0.77

0.266

in kg/s
0.069

Please insert measured values here!


Extent of utilisation in %

34.77

Efficiency

8.1601 %

HM 150.18 Reynolds Number


w = velocity of flow

[m/s]

d = diameter of tube

[m]

= kinematic viscosity of fluid


V in l

t in s
1

60

Viskosity in 10e-6 m/s


1.004

look at

table

[m/s]

before you insert value

Please insert measured values here!


Re < 2300 = laminar flow
Re =

2114
Re > 2300 = turbulent flow

Temperature in C kin. Viscosity in 10-6 m/s


15
1.134
16
1.106
17
1.079
18
1.055
19
1.028
20
1.004
21
0.980
22
0.957
23
0.935
24
0.914
25
0.894
26
0.875
27
0.856
28
0.837
29
0.812
30
0.801

HM 150.19 Pelton Turbine


Flow in Ltr/min

38

Please insert actual flow here!

Turbine Characteristic Curves

Speed n in rpm Force at Brake in N Head in bar Turbine Torque in Nm Output in W Input in W
Efficiency in %
1600
0.00
0.130
0.000
0.00
8.23
0.00
1500
0.10
0.120
0.003
0.39
7.60
5.17
1400
0.25
0.110
0.006
0.92
6.97
13.15
1300
0.30
0.100
0.008
1.02
6.33
16.12
1200
0.55
0.090
0.014
1.73
5.70
30.31
1100
0.80
0.090
0.020
2.30
5.70
40.42
1000
0.90
0.080
0.023
2.36
5.07
46.50
900
1.00
0.080
0.025
2.36
5.07
46.50
800
1.15
0.080
0.029
2.41
5.07
47.54
700
1.30
0.080
0.033
2.38
5.07
47.02
600
1.40
0.090
0.035
2.20
5.70
38.58
500
1.45
0.100
0.036
1.90
6.33
29.97
400
1.55
0.100
0.039
1.62
6.33
25.63
300
1.65
0.110
0.041
1.30
6.97
18.60
200
1.70
0.110
0.043
0.89
6.97
12.78
100
1.75
0.120
0.044
0.46
7.60
6.03
0
1.75
0.130
0.044
0.00
8.23
0.00
Please insert measured values here !

Pelton Turbine Characteristic Curves


50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

200

400

600

800

1000

speed in rpm

1200

1400

1600

1800

Influence of Flow Rate on Turbine Output


Flow
31.6 l/min Flow
18.8 l/min Flow
11.5 l/min
Brake Force in N Speed in rpm Output in W Brake Force in N Speed in rpm Output in W Brake Force in N Speed in rpm Output in W
0.0
845
0.00
0.0
760
0.00
0.0
660
0.00
0.4
825
0.86
0.4
730
0.67
0.5
525
0.62
0.7
790
1.45
0.7
680
1.25
0.7
490
0.90
1.4
740
2.71
1.0
640
1.68
1.1
415
1.14
1.7
720
3.20
1.4
595
2.18
1.4
330
1.21
2.0
700
3.67
1.8
555
2.62
1.8
245
1.15
2.5
650
4.25
2.1
515
2.83
2.0
150
0.77
2.7
640
4.52
2.5
470
3.08
2.3
75
0.45
3.1
610
4.95
2.9
415
3.10
3.8
545
5.42
3.2
350
2.93
4.1
520
5.58
3.5
300
2.75
4.5
475
5.60
3.8
230
2.29
5.0
420
5.50
4.1
180
1.93
5.5
350
5.04
4.3
130
1.46
5.8
320
4.86
6.0
285
4.48
6.3
250
4.12
6.5
205
3.49

Please

insert

measured

values

h e r e ! (Speed measured with external Tachometer)

Influence of Flow on Turbine Output


6.00

5.00

Output in W

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00

100

200

300

400

500

speed in rpm

600

700

800

900

HM 150.20 Francis Turbine


Flow in Ltr/min

38

Please insert actual flow here!

Speed n in rpm
Brake Force in N
1600
0.00
1500
0.10
1400
0.25
1300
0.30
1200
0.55
1100
0.80
1000
0.90
900
1.00
800
1.15
700
1.30
600
1.40
500
1.45
400
1.55
300
1.65
200
1.70
100
1.75
0
1.75

Head in bar
Turbine Torque in Nm
0.130
0.000
0.120
0.003
0.110
0.006
0.100
0.008
0.090
0.014
0.090
0.020
0.080
0.023
0.080
0.025
0.080
0.029
0.080
0.033
0.090
0.035
0.100
0.036
0.100
0.039
0.110
0.041
0.110
0.043
0.120
0.044
0.130
0.044

Please

insert

measured

Turbine Characteristic Curves


Output in W
0.00
0.39
0.92
1.02
1.73
2.30
2.36
2.36
2.41
2.38
2.20
1.90
1.62
1.30
0.89
0.46
0.00

Francis Turbine Characteristic Curves


50

Input in W
Efficiency in %
8.23
0.00
7.60
5.17
6.97
13.15
6.33
16.12
5.70
30.31
5.70
40.42
5.07
46.50
5.07
46.50
5.07
47.54
5.07
47.02
5.70
38.58
6.33
29.97
6.33
25.63
6.97
18.60
6.97
12.78
7.60
6.03
8.23
0.00

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

speed in rpm

values here !

Influence of Vane Position on Turbine Output

Speed in rpm
Vane position Brake Force in N
1
0.40
2
0.65
3
0.85
4
0.90
5
1.05
6
1.10
7
1.20
8
1.25
9
1.30
10
1.30
11
1.35
12
1.40
13
1.35
14
1.30
15
1.25
16
1.20
17
1.15
18
1.10

insert

actual

750 rpm Speed in rpm


Output in W
Brake Force in N
0.79
0.22
1.28
0.44
1.67
0.56
1.77
0.76
2.06
0.80
2.16
0.88
2.36
0.92
2.45
0.96
2.55
1.00
2.55
1.00
2.65
1.08
2.75
1.12
2.65
1.08
2.55
1.00
2.45
0.96
2.36
0.92
2.26
0.92
2.16
0.88

Please

insert

measured

speed

of

turbine

here!

850 rpm Speed in rpm


1000 rpm
Output in W
Brake Force in N Output in W
0.49
0.10
0.26
0.98
0.35
0.92
1.25
0.50
1.31
1.69
0.65
1.70
1.78
0.75
1.96
1.96
0.85
2.23
2.05
0.90
2.36
2.14
0.95
2.49
2.23
1.00
2.62
2.23
1.00
2.62
2.40
1.00
2.62
2.49
1.00
2.62
2.40
0.95
2.49
2.23
0.95
2.49
2.14
0.90
2.36
2.05
0.90
2.36
2.05
0.90
2.36
1.96
0.85
2.23
values

here!

Influence of Vane Position on Turbine Output


3.00
2.50
2.00

Output in W

Please

1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
0

10
Vane Position

15

20

1800

Calibrating Curve Reducer

HM 150.29 Losses in Pipes and Bends


Exercise Stand Characteristic Curve
Actual Flow in l/min

in mm WC
265
215
185
150
90
80
70
65
45
25

Flow in ltr/min
9.81
8.33
7.34
6.35
4.84
4.44
4.19
4.00
3.33
2.61

10.6

Measurement Point

Measurement Object Pressure p in bar


1
0.500
2
Pipe Elbow
0.490
3
0.490
Reducer
4
0.440
Enlarger
5
0.440
Rounded
Elbow
90
6
0.425
7
0.425
8
Bend 90 tight
0.420
9
0.420
Bend 90 large
10
0.415
11 Spherical Valve
0.000

Please insert measured values into the white cells !

Calibrating Curve Reducer


300

Pressure loss in mm WC

250

200

150

100

50

0
0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00
Flow in l/min

8.00

10.00

12.00

Characteristic Curve Exercise Stand


0.520

0.500

Pressure in bar

0.480

0.460

0.440

0.420

0.400

Measuring Points

10

11

Information about the HM 150.17 Software

Colour Code:

Description of Parameter (e.g.

for Flow) with dimension (e.g. l/min).

Cell for insertion of measured values. These cells are used for ExcelCalculations, so please insert the values with the dimension you find
in the yellow cell.
Description of Parameter (e.g. for Flow) with dimension (e.g. l/min).
Cell giving out a calculated result. These cells are protected,
values cannot be inserted.

Description of Parameter (e.g. for Flow) with dimension (e.g. l/min).


Values from literature or already calculated reference values.

Starting Page

The starting page contains buttons, which enable the user to get to the topic he wants to deal with.
Here is a short description, what is behind the buttons:
Topics

Shows the principle of volumetric flow measurement. The actual flow is calculated
from inserted data.

Calculation of pipe friction coefficient from measured data and theoretical


equation, both for laminar and turbulent flow. Comparison in a diagram.

Shows the calibration curve of a 2,5 bar Bourdon type manometer. The
manometer is calibrated with weights.
Determination of flow over a notch by measured values and calculation from
equation for theoretical flow. Comparison between rectangular- profile weir and Vprofile weir.
The data for single pump characteristic curves has to be inserted into a table.
Generation of a diagram (HM 150.04). Showing tendencies for parallel and series
action of two similar pumps (HM 150.16). Determination of pump efficiency (HM
150.04).
Determination of hydrostatic pressure in a water-filled vessel. Determination of the
resultant force. Checking the results with equilibrium of moments.

Determination of the metacentric height of a swimming body. Calculation of all


relevant parameters from inserted values.

Determination of the velocity distribution in a venturi tube. Comparison between


measured values and theoretical calculated values in a diagram.

Calculation and measurement of the force, that can be derived from the energy in a
vertical water jet.

Measurement of the trajectory of a horizontal water jet. The jet comes from a
nozzle on the side at the bottom of a water-filled vessel. Generation of a diagram
with measured values.

Determination of pressure loss for turbulent flow in a pipe, generation of a diagram.


Calculation of coefficients of resistance for several fittings.
Representation of the opening characteristic of shut-off devices in a diagram.

Calculation of discharge coefficient of a vertical water jet. Determination of


contraction coefficient and velocity coefficient of water jet.

Comparison of several different flow meter types. Representation of the


deviation from a reference flow in a table.

Generation of the shape of free and forced vortices in a diagram with measured
values.

Showing the basic principle of a hydraulic ram. Calculation of actual mass


flow ratio, extent of utilisation and efficiency.

Calculation of the Reynolds' Number by given values. Showing also the


influence of temperature on the kinematic viscosity of water.

Development of turbine characteristic curves from measured data.


Generation of a diagram.

Development of turbine characteristic curves from measured data.


Generation of a diagram. The influence of vane position on turbine output is
also represented in a diagram.

Generating diagrams of the calibrating curve of a reducer and the test


stands characteristic curve, where several fittings and armatures are
connected in series. Both diagrams are generated with inserted values.

.....more relevant information


Please, note that if you scroll up and down in one Excel sheet, you will have
to stop to scroll as soon as a button appears (for example, in the bottom right
corner of the screen, the button "Show diagram" appears). If you press the
button, a makro leads you to another area of the sheet. If you scroll until the
button is somewhere in the middle of the screen, it may occur, that the area
cannot be found precisely anymore.

Symbols and Units

Symbol

Name
angle

Unit
degree

efficiency

coefficient of pipe friction

coefficient of friction

kinematic viscosity

m/s

density

kg/m

angular velocity
coefficient of resistance

1/s
1

cross section

Energy

Force

Volume

volumetric flow

Re

m
J

m/h, l/min, l/s

Reynolds Number

Output

Diameter

acceleration d.t. gravity

m/s

height (of Water Column)

mm

wall roughness

mm

length

mass

kg

mass flow

kg/h

speed

min-1

pressure

Pa

pD

delivery pressure

Pa

pS

suction pressure

Pa

radius

time

v,w

velocity

m/s