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COMPLEX ALGEBRA Complex numbers are of great importance.

In Physics we come across complex numbers with analytical treatment of for A.C. circuits, forced oscillations of a mechanical system, intensity of light due to interference of multiple reflections in a thin film, probability calculations in quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics and so on. We are very much familiar with real numbers which may consist of rational and irrational numbers. Rational numbers include positive & negative integers, zero and positive & negative fractions while irrational numbers have forms such as
5, 3,

etc and cannot be fractions formed by integers.

But these numbers are not sufficient to obtain solutions for many problems in physics and mathematics. For example what does
9 mean? It is neither rational nor irrational real number and we cannot find

the roots of such number by usual way. Hence we introduce a new type of number: Imaginary Number. i =
1

i2 = -1

An imaginary number has the form iy where y is a real number and i2 = -1 Using this concept of imaginary numbers we write
9

as

i 2 9 , hence the square roots are

+ 3i or 3i. Thus the square roots of negative numbers can be expressed by using the concept of imaginary numbers. COMPLEX NUMBERS: A complex number in rectangular form is expressed as x + iy where x and y are real numbers. The complex numbers are denoted by z. In a complex number z = x + iy, the real number x is known as real part; Re(z) = x and the real number y is known as imaginary part; Im(z) = y. Note that the iy is not imaginary part of z, it is an imaginary number. e.g. z1 = 5 + 4i , z2 = 2 7i are complex numbers. Here Re(z1) = 5 and Im (z1) = 4 Re(z2) = 2 and Im (z2) = 7 The complex number obtained by changing the sign convention of imaginary number is called as complex conjugate of that complex number. e.g. If z = x + iy, then its complex conjugate is written as z* or = x - iy z ADDITION, SUBTRACTION, MULTILICATION AND DIVISION OF COMPLEX NUMBERS: 1) Addition: If z1 and z2 are any two complex numbers then z1 + z2 = (x1 + iy1) + (x2 + iy2) = (x1 + x2 ) + i (y1 + y2 )
_

2) Subtraction: If z1 and z2 are any two complex numbers then

z1 - z2 = (x1 + iy1) - (x2 + iy2) = (x1 - x2 ) + i (y1 - y2 )

3) Multiplication: If z1 and z2 are any two complex numbers then

z1 z2 = (x1 + iy1) (x2 + iy2) = x1 x2 + i2 y1 y2 + i x1 y2 + i x2 y1 = (x1 x2 - y1 y2 ) + i (x1 y2 + x2 y1 )

4) Division: If z1 and z2 are any two complex numbers then

z1 x + iy1 = 1 z 2 x 2 + iy 2 To obtain this division split the R.H.S. in to real and imaginary part. This is to be done by
multiplying and dividing R.H.S. by complex conjugate of the denominator i.e. (x2 - iy2) .This process is called as rationalization of denominator.

z1 x + iy1 = 1 z 2 x 2 + iy 2

x 2 iy 2 x 2 iy 2

x1 x 2 ix1 y 2 + ix 2 y1 i 2 y1 y 2 = 2 2 x2 + y 2
=

( x1 x 2 + y1 y 2 ) + i ( x 2 y1 x1 y 2 ) 2 2 x2 + y2

( x y1 x1 y 2 ) ( x1 x 2 + y1 y 2 ) + i 2 2 2 2 2 x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2
_

MODULUS OF A COMPLEX NUMBER: If z = x + iy, then its complex conjugate is z* or z = x - iy z z* = (x + iy) (x - iy) = x2 + y2 which is always positive. This product of complex number and its complex conjugate is often written as |z|2 . The quantity |z| is known as modulus of z or mod z.

|z|2

= x2 + y2

|z|

= +

x2 + y2

SOME LAWS FOLLOWED BY COMPLEX NUMBERS: If z1 , z2 and z3 are complex numbers then the following laws are found to hold by them.

1. Commutative law of Addition:

z1 + z2 = z2 + z1

2. Associative law of Addition:

z1 + ( z2 + z3 ) = ( z 1 + z2 ) + z 3

z1 z2 = z2 z1

4. Associative law of Multiplication:

z1 ( z2 z3 ) = ( z1 z2 ) z3 5. Distributive law z1 ( z 2 + z3 ) = z1 z 2 + z 1 z 3

Ex. 1. Add, subtract, multiply and divide the following complex numbers. 2 + 3i and 5 + 2i Let z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = 5 + 2i Addition:
z1 + z2 = (x1 + x2 ) + i (y1 + y2 )

(2
Subtraction:

+ 3i ) + (5 + 2i ) = ( 2 + 5 ) + i ( 3 + 2 ) Thus
z 1 + z2 =

= 7 + 5i 2

z1 - z 2

(x1 - x2 ) + i (y1 - y2 )

(2
Multiplication:

+ 3i ) - (5 + 2i ) = ( 2 - 5 ) + i ( 3 - 2 ) Thus
z1 z 2 z1 - z2

= -3 + i + i26 + 4i + 15i )

= x1 x2 + i2 y1 y2 + i x1 y2 + i x2 y1

(2

+ 3i ) (5 + 2i ) = ( 10
z1 z2

i2 = -1

= 10 - 6 + 9i Thus
Division:

= 4 + 9i

z1 x + iy1 = 1 z 2 x 2 + iy 2

x 2 iy 2 x 2 iy 2

z1 2 + 3i 5 2i = x z 2 5 + 2i 5 2i

=
=

10 4i +15 i + 6 25 + 4

Solve:

Add, subtract, multiply and divide the following complex numbers.

1)

6 - 5i and 3 - i

2)

3 + 4i and 2 - 3i

We know that i =
1

Hence

i2 = -1

Since 0 is a real number, the given number is a real number.

Solve: Ex. 3. If p + iq =

Find the value of i + i2 + i3 + i4 .

3 + 2i find the values of p and q. 5 3i

We have p + iq = =

3 + 2i 5 3i
3 + 2i 5 + 3i x 5 3i 5 + 3i

p
p

+ iq = + iq

15 + 9i +10 i 6 25 + 9 =
9 +19 i 34

Equating real and imaginary parts,

p =

9 34

and q =

1 i 9 3 4

Ex. 4. If 2P + Q + i (P + 2Q) = 7 + 8i find the values of P and Q. Equating real and imaginary parts, 2P + Q = 7 ...(1) P + 2Q = 8 -3Q = -9 We have P + 2Q = 8 (2) Multiplying eqn (2) by 2 and subtracting from eqn (1) we get

=3

P + 6 = P = 2

8 and Q =3

Thus P = 2

Ex. 5. If (3 + i ) x + (1 - i) y = 1 + 7i find the values of x and y

We have (3 + i ) x + (1 - i) y = 1 + 7i

3x + ix + y - iy = 1 + 7i (3x + y) + (x y)i = 1 + 7i 3x + y = 1 ...(1)

and x - y = 7 ....(2)
Adding eqns 1 and 2 we get 4x = 8

We have Ex. 6. If
We have
x +iy x +iy

x-y = 7

x = 2 2 y = 7 y = -5

Thus x = 2 and y = -5 = a + ib show that x = a2 b2 and y = 2ab. = a + ib

Squaring both sides, x + iy = (a2 b2) + 2ab Comparing real and imaginary parts, we have x = a2 b2 and y = 2ab. 1 _ _ find |z| , z and z z 2 3i
2 + 3i 1 1 = x 2 3i 2 3i 2 + 3i

Ex. 7. If

z =

We have z =

=
=

2 + 3i 2 + 3i = 4 +9 13
x2 + y 2
2

|z|
|z|
_ z

Here x =
2

2 1 3

and y =

3 1 3
1 13

2 3 = + + 13 13

4 +9 = 169

13 = 169

= z* =

2 3i 13

2.

If z =

1 +i 5 1 i 5

, find | z | .
1 + 2i 4 . 1 3i

3. Find the modulus of

4. Simplify 2 ( 1 + i ) ( 1 + i ) + 1.

ARGAND DIAGRAM: A complex number z = x + iy is represented by the point in the complex plane with Cartesian coordinates (x, y). The real part of z is plotted on the X-axis, which is called as real axis while the imaginary part is plotted on Y-axis, which is called as imaginary axis. Such representation is called the Argand diagram . Fig.1 shows graphical representation of complex numbers 3 + 4i, 2 3i, -4 + 2i 0n the Argand Diagram Fig: 1

POLAR FORM OF A COMPLEX NUMBER:

Consider a complex number z = x + iy represented by a point P on a Argand diagram as shown in Fig. 2. The Cartesian coordinates of this point P are (x,y). The point P can also be represented by the polar coordinates (r, ) , where r is the distance of the point P from the origin and is the angle made by the position vector r with the +ve X-axis. From figure we have cos =
x r y r

and

sin =

x
We have

= r cos and y = r sin

z = r ( cos + i sin )

z = x + iy, substituting the values of x and y.

Here r and both are real numbers. This representation of a complex number in terms of polar coordinates r and is called the polar form of complex number. The complex conjugate of the above complex number (1) is z* = r ( cos - i sin ) MODULUS OF A COMPLEX NUMBER REPRESENTED IN POLAR FORM: From figure r2 = x2 + y2

r
|z|

x2 + y2 x2 + y2

But we know that |z| = + = r

Thus r represent the modulus of the complex number represented in polar form. ARGUMENT OF A COMPLEX NUMBER: The polar coordinate is called argument or amplitude or phase angle of the complex number.
The argument of a complex number is the angle between the positive x-axis and the line representing the complex number on an Argand diagram. tan =

y x

= tan-1

y x

Ex. 8. Transform z = 3 + i 3
We have

+ i sin )

z = 3 + i3

x2 + y2

=
=

(3) 2 +(3 3 ) 2

9 + 27

3 6

= 6

Also tan

y x

3 3 = 3
3 ) = 600 =

= tan-1 (

+ i sin

Ex. 9. If a complex number z has modulus of 2 and argument of

rectangular form.

, express z in 6

The polar form of the complex number is expressed as z = r ( cos + i sin ) and rectangular form is z = x + iy. We have given |z| = r = 2 and argument = , 6 z = 2 ( cos + i sin ) = x + iy. 6 6 1 3 x = 2 cos 6 = 2 = 3 and y = 2 sin = 2 = -1 6 2 2

Rectangular form of is z = x + iy.

Solve: 1. 2. Express z =

3 - i.

Find the modulus and argument of

3 + 2i 3 3i

EULERS FORMULA: The polar form of the complex number is expressed as z = r ( cos + i sin ). Expressing cos and sin in terms of power series, we have cos = 1_

2
2!

4
4!

6
6!

+ .. [ i2 = -1, i4 = 1, i6 = -1]

cos
sin

= 1+
_

(i ) 2 (i ) 4 (i ) 6 + + + (1) 2! 4! 6!
3!

5
5!

7
7!

+ ..

i sin

= i +

(i ) 3 (i ) 5 (i ) 7 + + + (2) [ i3 = -i, i5 = i, i7 = -i] 3! 5! 7! (i ) 2 (i ) 3 + 2! 3! (i ) 4 + 4!

e [ n = 1 + n + n 2 n3 + + ........ ] 2! 3!

Adding eqns 1 and 2, we get cos + i sin = 1 + i + +

cos

+ i sin

= e i

This relation is called Eulers Formula. EXPONENTIAL FORM OF COMPLEX NUMBERS: The polar form of the complex number is expressed as z = r ( cos + i sin ).

Using Eulers Formula we write

z = r e i . is the argument.

Thus z = r ( cos + i sin ) = r e i . This represent the exponential form of a complex number. Here also r is the modulus and

The complex conjugate of the complex number is z* = r e i . Ex. 10. Transform z = 3 + i

3 into exponential form.

The exponential form of the complex number is expressed as z = r ( cos + i sin ) = r e i We have z = 3 + i 3 3 Comparing with z = x + iy, we get x = 3 and y = 3 3

x2 + y2

=
=

(3) 2 +(3 3 ) 2

9 + 27

3 6

= 6

Also tan

y x

3 3 = 3
3 ) = 600 =

3 Therefore the exponential form of the given complex number is z = 6 e i / 3 .

= tan-1 (

Ex. 11. Find the value of the product cos Using Eulers formula we write
cos + i sin = 4 4
3 3 + i sin cos 8 8
2

3 3 + i sin cos + i sin . 4 4 8 8

e i / 4

(e i 3 / 8 ) 2 = e i 3 / 4

cos + i sin cos 3 + i sin 3

4 4 8 8

.= e i / 4 e i 3 / 4 =
=

e i ( / 4+3 / 4 )

e i

= -1 + 0

3 3 + i sin cos + i sin cos 4 4 8 8

3

= -1

Solve: 1. Transform z = 2

+ 2 i into Polar form & exponential form.

2

3 3 2 2 + i sin + i sin 2. Find the value of the product cos cos . 7 7 7 7 3. Express the complex number i into Polar form & exponential form.

4. Express the complex number i into Polar form & exponential form.