Sie sind auf Seite 1von 12

Design parameters

The sizing of the incinerator depends on the waste that the plant investor wants to treat. Typical parameters that designers must know are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Type of Waste (Solid, Liquid or gas Waste) Categories of Waste (Medical, Chemicals, Solvents, Petrochemicals, Petroleum, etc) Typical Waste Characteristics (Calorific Value, Heavy Metals, Halogens, etc) Quantities of Waste (Ton/hours and Ton/year) Waste Variation

All types of waste incinerators


The type of incinerator and the choice of combustion chamber type depends on the characteristics of the non-recyclable waste. Non-recyclable waste can be specified by its calorific value (CV), Chlorine content, homogenicity and density.

Moving grate incinerator


Moving grate incinerators are typical combustion chambers for domestic waste (and also for biomass), because the calorific value of the waste is low. The grate can put air (02) from the bottom through the material to stimulate the combustion. Because the flue gas stream is big and stable, the classical flue gas treatement is a semi-wet scrubbing system. Learn more...

Rotary kiln incinerator


The rotary kiln incinerator has a typical combustion chamber for medical and hazardous (or industrial) waste, because the colorific value of the waste is very high. 2 Different types of rotary kiln are available on the market, to counter flow and the parallel flow. Learn more...

Static heart incinerator


The combustion of fumes/gas/liquids does not generate much ash and therefore a static hearth incinerator can be used.Liquid waste is pumped straight from the tanks to the incinerator. Learn more...

Fluidized bed incinerator


The fluidized bed incinerator is used for waste with a low density and it must be homogenic (ex. WWTP sludge). Also to clean paint from iron or steel, fluidized bed is a common used technology. The combustion chamber has mostly a square chape and there is a lot of sand present. Learn more...

Amunition destruction incinerator


The design of a reaction chamber to detonate small caliber ammunition. Learn more...

Plazma incinerator
xxx

Moving grate incinerator


The moving grate incinerator is used for non-homegenous and low calorific waste. The domestic waste incinerator is offen called a "Waste-to-Energy" plant, WtE plant or "Energy from Waste" plant. The gate fee price of the household waste is app.120 - 125 euro/ton and a household waste incinerator of app. 14 ton/h has an investment price of +/- 90.milj.euro. The biggest grate is capable of incinerating the design throughput of waste (31,25 tons/h) with the highest calorific value (2 200 kcal/kg). In normal practice, a household waste incinerator is capable of operating 8000 hours per year (in full continuous regime). The installation must comply with the regulations regarding:

y y y

Environmental protection requirements on the base of the current EU legislation (emissions, odours, noise,...) Fire fighting standards Safety at work and labour protection rules

The grate need to be cooled because the air is added from the bottom and high temperatures can damage the grate. Two different types of grate cooling systems exist: the air cooled grate and the water cooled grate. Generaly, depends on domestic waste collection and recycling system, if the waste has:

y y y

6 - 10 MJkg --> Air cooled grate 8 - 15 MJ/kg --> Partly watercooled grate 12 MJ/kg and more --> Watercooled grate

The conversion of waste to energy requires an effective control of a complex series of physic - chemical processes, commonly known as combustion. We can distinguish two groups of processes, a horizontal group and a vertical group. 1. 2. Horizontal: the conversion of the waste (a heterogeneous mixture of all kinds of solids and liquids) to gases. Vertical: de oxidation of these gases resulting in complete combustion.

Each of these groups can be further sub-divided into sub-processes

Horizontal
1. 2. 3. Drying: this is the evaporation of the water present in the waste; Outgassing: here volatile compounds in the waste escape as a result of heating up the waste; Degassing/pyrolysis: in this sub-process certain compounds in the waste are transformed to combustible gases;

4. 5.

Burnout: what is left from the previous processes contains mainly combustible solids (fixed carbon) that are now burned in the presence of oxygen and transformed to gases. Cooling of the ashes: the solid non-combustible material (inert) present in the waste have been heated up in the previous processes and are now cooled as much as possible in order to recuperate this heat.

Vertical
1. 2. 3. Gas production: at the lowest level the series of horizontal sub-processes takes place Gas combustion: by adding air (or rather: by adding the oxygen in the air) the gases are fully burned Gas burnout: in this zone the combustion is completed to ensure that the legal requirements are met: for a minimum of two seconds the gases remain at a temperature of at least 850C in the presence of at least 6% (by volume) oxygen after the last addition of oxygen.

A domestic waste incinerator has not only a combustion chamber, there is a whole installation which creates a complete "waste-to-energy" plant. Here is a technical description of the main companents.

Weightbridge
Weighing of incoming and outgoing waste flows is performed by means of weighbridges. The vehicle weighbridges are offen from the electronic type. On this system also the invoice is prepaired, and the incinerator plant operator knows how much waste is in the waste bunker.

Waste bunker with overhead cranes and scredder


Waste is left in the bunker and overhead cranes manage the waste of different types in the bunker. Big size waste is scredded and the cranes put the waste in the waste hopper of the furnace.

Furnace
Support burners (and optional start-up burners) are installed to maintain a temperature of more than 850C during at least 2 seconds also during start-up and shutdown. The combustion air is supplied in stages (in different phases) via the air supply system that consists of several fans and air pre-heaters. The combustion residues are evacuated by the ash extractor and are treated by the slag treatment system.

Burners
The burners installed can be removed from the furnace (whilst the incinerator is in operation). When this is done a screen is placed in front of the opening. This enables the burner heads to be cleaned easily.

Ash extractor
The ash extractor is installed at the outlet of the grate. Bottom ashes and siftings are cooled down below +/- 60C before evacuation to the ash transport, a vibrating conveyor. Slag treatement After the ash extractor, the slag is transferred into a bunker by means of a vibrating conveyor. The ashes are transferred into a truck by means of cranes. Slag treatement can be don on the incinerator plant or on a special recycle plant. For example: A band magnet is positioned above the slag ash conveyor belt to separate out the iron in the slag. Also non-ferrous metals can be separated from the ashes (using an eddy current overband system).

Steam boiler
The thermal energy produced in a waste-to-energy installation is recovered by means of the production of steam in a heat recovery boiler (one per line). Downstream the energy of the steam is transformed into electrical energy in the steam turbine. The boiler type wich is well known in municipal solid waste incinerators is the "TAIL-END" type, with several vertical radiant passes and an horizontal convective section. The waste heat boiler is of the water tube type, with natural circulation. Boiler Cleaning Dust and fly-ash, carried by the flue gas stream, causes erosion and fouling of the boiler pipes, resulting in less efficient heat transfer, flue gas temperature increase through-out the boiler and considerable increase of pressure drop. This is why an efficient cleaning system is of great importance in a waste to energy installation.

The rotary kiln incinerator


The rotary kiln incinerator consists of a slightly inclined rotating primary combustion chamber.The waste is introduced at its highest end and deashing takes place at its lowest part.Due to its cylindrical form,the heat is equally refracted to the burning waste and the heat transfer and -control is optimal.Because of the (dis)continuous rotation and the inclination of the kiln,bottom ash is continuously and automatically evacuated.Due to the absence of any moving part in the hot zone,the rotary kiln can be operated under very high temperatures.A rotary kiln is the most versatile incinerator available; it can treat a large range of wastes,varying from low to high calorific values and different particle sizes.The rotating primary chamber must be equiped with a static post combustion chamber,for achieving a complete burn out of the flue gases. The plant must be equiped with a flue gas treatment system,dry or wet - or a combination of both -before releasing the flue gases to the atmosphere. A rotary kiln incineration plant is typically composed by following items :

Rotary kiln incinerator Photo 1 / 12 >>

01 MAIN COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM


Compressed air is used to power guillotine doors and hopper lids in a fail safe mode (normally closed). It is also used to atomise liquid waste and sludges into the combustion chambers and for pulsating (for cleaning) the bags in the baghouse (if applicable).

Attachments and links

y y y y y

Different types of rotary kiln Flue gas cleaning Energy recovery Drying incinerators Incinerator and plastic recycling

02 HYDRAULIC PACK
Hydraulic pack is driven by an electric motor,has a hydraulic oil tank and the pressurised oil is used to power the skip lift and the feeding ram on the incinerator.

Size & capacity_guidelines.xls

03 SKIP (Waste feeding system)


The skip is hydraulically operated and its operation is controled by the central computer.

How to make a business plan of a rotary kiln incinerator plant? Learn more...

04 FEEDER (Waste feeding system)

The waste drops into the hopper by gravity, the ram being retracted. When the hopper door closes (automatically), the guillotine door (fire door) opens and the he ram feeder moves forward to introduce waste into the kiln.When the ram retracts, the guillotine door closes again.

05 ROTARY KILN
There are 2 different types of rotary kilns : the historical co-current - and the modern more elaborated counter-current design.The co-current rotary kiln oxydises the total amount of waste under overstoechiometric conditions (excess of oxygen),while the counter-current rotary kiln operates partly by understoechiometric oxydation (pyrolysis) of the waste.In this case,the pyrolysis gases are used to fuel the post combustion chamber-thus no auxiliary firing is requiredwhile a co-current rotary kiln needs a burner to be fired permanently to maintain the required temperature level in the post combustion chamber. A counter current rotary kiln allows a precise control of the flue gas stream and therefore its overall dimensions are much more compact than its co-current parent. Also,the combustion air being introduced at the lowest part of this type of rotary kiln,opposite to the direction of the waste flow,it cools down the ash extraction area and as a consequence the bottom ash is cool and dry by nature and not any slagging occurs. For more details,please refer to the attachment.. Example 2: Rotary kiln incinerator with dry scrubbing

Example 1: Rotary kiln incinerator, dry + wet scrubbing

06 MAIN BURNER (natural gas or diesel oil)


The main burner has no other purpose than to preheat the kiln,before feeding any waste.Under normal operating conditions,this burner is not operative. Example 3: Rotary kiln incinerator with wet scrubbing

07 POST COMBUSTION with auxiliary (start) burner


The post combustion chamber(s) is(are) designed to allow a residence time of the flue gases in excess of 2 secondsat 1100 Degr.C.As the burner will only be in service for preheating the post combustion chamber,before any introduction of waste can take place,it automatically retracts upon reaching the correct operating temperature..

Summary table: Waste Medical/hazardous/industrial waste Domestic / household waste Technology Rotary kiln Moving grate

08 SAFETY (emergency) OUTLET


In case of a fatal error (eg. power failure),detected by the control system,the whole plant is automatically and completely shut down (no further feeding will be allowed).The remaining thermal energy is released to the atmoshere by natural draft of a dedicated exhaust system.After the plant returns to its normal operation

condition,this safety device will automatically be desactivated.

Liquid/gas/fluid waste Homogenous waste (ex.WWTP sludge) Ammunition destruction Unburnable waste (ex. Asbestos)

static hearth Fluidized bed Ammunition Plazma

09 COOLING CHAMBER
The particulates,present in the hot flue gas stream,tend to soften and to become sticky at temperatures above 950 Degr.C.For preventing any slagging at the inlet of any heat exchanger,used to recover and/or to cool down the flue gas,we fit a cooling chamber in which the temperature of the flue gases is reduced to 850 Degr.C,by introduction of a small amount of ambiant air.

10 ENERGY RECOVERY
Raw flue gases need to be cooled before being treated and being released to the atmosphere.Cooling may be done either by quenching (wet flue gas treatment) or by exchanging the heat to another medium.This medium can be steam or thermal oil or air.If steam is generated,it can be used to drive a turbo genset or to heat other process equipment.Heat exchangers can be installed,either in line or in by pass of the process flow.In case of dry scrubbing with sodiumbicarbonate a bag house is required to filter out the particulates.If hot air is generated,it can be used for materials drying. Below,we summarise the most frequently used types of energy recovery. 1. 2. 3. Energy recovery: hot air Energy recovery : steam Energy recovery : steam + electricity.

13 DOSING UNIT SODIUM-BI-CARBONATE (dry)


Continuous,proces driven dosing of sodiumbicarbonate for neutralising acid components in the flue gases.The neutralising reaction is completed in a venturi type reactor in which the reaction time is in excess of 2 seconds.

14 DOSING UNIT ACTIVATED CARBON (dry)


Continuous dosing for the absorption of heavy metals and of eventually re-formed dioxins and furans in the heat exchanger.The absorption process is completed in a venturi type reactor (absorption time in excess of 2 seconds)

15 BAG HOUSE (dry scrubbing)


The filtering bags in the baghouse remain permanently coated with a layer of a mixture of sodiumbicarbonate and activated carbon.The neutralising reaction of acids and the absorption of heavy metals and dioxins is further completed during the passage of the flue gases through this layer.At the same time,all particulates are removed from the flue gas stream,before they are evacuated to the

atmosphere.This guarantees an overall efficiency of the dry scrubber for HCl abatement of at least 97%. Particulate emission after the fabric filter is less than 10 mg/Nm

16 ID FAN
One induced draft fan, ebonite coated if a wet scrubber step is added.The rotation speed of the induced draft fan is permanently controled by the system for maintaining a steady negative pressure in the process.

17 CHIMNEY
One chimney for main exhaust.The height can be adapted to local requirements.

Sitemap | Copyright 2012 BIC Group | Site created by Winderickx

Static hearth incinerator


The combustion of fumes/gas/liquids does not generate much ash and therefore a static hearth incinerator can be used.Liquid waste is pumped straight from the tanks to the incinerator. The plant looks as follows :

1. A static hearth combustion chamber


In which the residence time is 2 sec at 1100 or 1200 Degr.C (depending on the halogenides content of the waste) .The incinerator is equipped with a start-up and support (pilot) burner on natural gas and a liquid waste injection system equiped with compressed air atomisation. The waste feed stock has to be blended such that the chlorine content of the mix does not exceeded 2% (in mass) ,when using a dry scrubber.(A wet flue gas scrubber can handle up to 30% of Chlorine,thus no blending is required)

2. A flue gas cooling system.


To drop the temperature from 1100 Degr.C down to max.200 Degr.C.The system may consist of a heat recovery system (steam,thermal oil,hot air,etc) or of a flue gas quenching or as a combination of any.

3. An activated carbon dosing system


For abatment of dioxins and furans

4. A sodium Bi-Carbonate injection and dosing system

Incinerator for hazardous gas/fumes/liquids Photo 1 / 7 >>

Attachments and links

Size & capacity_guidelines.xls

For the neutralisation of acid components in the flue gas.

5. A dry filter (bag house)


The bag house is equipied with Teflon sleeves and an automatic fly ash extraction system .

6. An induced draft fan


The speed controled fan regulates the flow in the system

7. A stack
App. 30 m. high

8. A control system
For all process control by PLC Summary table: Waste Medical/hazardous/industrial waste Domestic / household waste Liquid/gas/fluid waste Homogenous waste (ex.WWTP sludge) Ammunition destruction Unburnable waste (ex. Asbestos) Technology Rotary kiln Moving grate static hearth Fluidized bed Ammunition Plazma

Sitemap | Copyright 2012 BIC Group | Site created by Winderickx

Fluidized bed incinerator


The fluidized bed incinerator is used for waste with a low density and it must be homogenic (ex. WWTP sludge). Also to clean paint from iron or steel, fluidized bed is a common used technology. The combustion chamber has mostly a square chape and there is a lot of sand present. The start up and maintance burner is upstares the combustion chamber. At the bottom, the floor of the combustion chamber, there is a mixere of gas and air injected. Every sand particale has now 2 forses: Attachments and links Moving grate incinerator Fluidized bed incinerator Plazma incinerator

y y y

Incinerators for hazardous waste

y y

Rotary kiln incinerator Static hearth incinerator

y y

The graviation forse (Fg) which pulls the sand particle down The pneumatic forse (Fp) which lift the sand particle up

Ammunition destruction incinerator

External links

The sand particles have now the next possibilities: Fgrav. > Fpneu. Fgrav. = Fpneu. Fgrav. < Fpneu.

http://www.cpfd-software.com/

Summary table: Waste Medical/hazardous/industrial waste Domestic / household waste Liquid/gas/fluid waste Homogenous waste (ex.WWTP sludge) Ammunition destruction Unburnable waste (ex. Asbestos) Technology Rotary kiln Moving grate static hearth Fluidized bed Ammunition Plazma

Gravitation

Fluidized bed stage

Pneumatic transport The sand particles are flying up to the top of the combustion chamber

The sand particles are falling down in The sand the combustion particles are chamber floating in the combustion chamber

So, the fluidized bed stage of the incinerator is the stage that the sand floats in the combustion chamber at a temperature of min. 350 degr.C. The most difficult is controlling the correct air-gas mixure and flow regulations at the bottom of the combustion chamber. If the combustion chamber is correct working, there is a blue flame tracking over the fluidized bed zone of the combustion chamber.

Medical waste in fluidized bed?


Medical waste contains hard metal materials, like needles, this is not homogenous and the waste falls through the fluidized bed zone. Sometimes a grid basket is set up in the fluidized bed combustion chamber to catch up the materials which fall through the fluidized bed zone. But

the grid basked disturbs the sand floating process, which creates a bad combustion.

Flue gas treatement


Because of the high concentrations of sand in the combustion chamber, also the flue gas will contain a lot of sand. As a first flue gas treatement step, a cyclone is used.

Sitemap | Copyright 2012 BIC Group | Site created by Winderickx

Ammunition destruction incinerator


BIC have been asked to fabricate a one-off designed reaction chamber to detonate small caliber ammunition. The plant featured an armoured reactor kept at about 500 degC in which the ammunition detonates. The scrap metal leaves the reactor by gravity and a magnet conveyor separates the ferous from non-ferrous metals. The latter are subsequently compressed in a hydraulic press and sent for recycling, separately from the other scrap. The plant features the necassary water cooled safety locks at the feeding and scrap extraction and is built into 2 ISO 20' frames for ease of transport and assembly.

Ammunition destruction incinerator Photo 1 / 1

Attachments and links

Ammunition destruction incinerator Summary table: Waste Medical/hazardous/industrial waste Domestic / household waste Liquid/gas/fluid waste Homogenous waste (ex.WWTP sludge) Ammunition destruction Unburnable waste (ex. Asbestos) Technology Rotary kiln Moving grate static hearth Fluidized bed Ammunition Plazma

Sitemap | Copyright 2012 BIC Group | Site created by Winderickx