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SEKOLAH MENENGAH AGAMA AL MADRASAH AL ALAWIYAH AD DINIAH

BI0L0GY FORM 4 CHAPTER 9

TITLE : EDANGERED ECOSYSTEM (The Importance of Proper Management of Development Activities and the Ecosystem)

Name:Mohd Hadi Mustaqim Bin Zairi Class:4 Pure Science/Adam Teacher2s name:Madam Rohaiza Binti Bahari

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.. (Mohd Hadi Mustaqim Bin Zairi) 1.0The need for development and the effects of an increasing population on the ecosystem. 1.Lower death rate, better medical care and better basic facilities have contributed to an increase in the human population.

2.As the human population increase the day by day the needs of daily life will increase like energy , water and etc led to deforestation , using a lot of energy and else. 3.It led to many economic activities and development projects .

4.This activity led the frequent human interference with the balance of the nature and leads the pollutions to the environment.

5.The negative effects of hasty , unplanned and unmanaged development are various environment mental problems. 6.This problem threaten our health , management of resources and the ecosystem. 7.In order to reduce the negative effect ,all the human activity that occurs the problem must be balanced by to manage the environment in a sustainable manner.

1.2The important of proper management of development activities. 1. Sustainable development is one way to balance the demands and needs for resources with the need to conserve the resources. 2 .A nation needs to have continuous development and improvement in the lives of it is people , especially in areas such as health , education and living condition. 3. This development can be sustainable without jeopardizing or depleting the source of the country. 4 .Development activities must take into consideration the environmental impact that will follow. 5 .It is important that short-terms gains be balanced with the long-term effects on the environment. 6 .a~ Sustainable development depends largely on the rate at which renewable resources are used. 6.b~The goal in sustainable development is to exploit natural resources in a sustainable way, so that over time, these resources can be replenish and renewed for future generations to continue to use them.

7. For example ,forest must be managed properly as they have vital environmental functions and enormous economic potential which can be tapped . Sustainable development means that timber can continue to be harvested while the biodiversity of rainforest is protected.

1.3 Measure taken in the management of development of development activities. Implementation of law. 1. The government has implemented laws to protect and govern biological resources and the invironment.

2.Many laws and regulations are designed to control pollution which affects the quality of the environment. Below are some acts: ~The National Forestry Act,1984:This acts aims to protect and preserve the forest and wildlife of the country. ~The Protection of Wildlife Act,1972.

3.It is hoped that these legislations will protect the quality of the environment from irresponsible person (single) or companies.

Use of technology 1.Install catalytic converters in vehicles to clean up exhaust emissions and convert the harmful gases released during the combustion of fossil fuels to less harmful products.

2.Use unleaded petrol to reduce emission of lead into the environment. 3.Treat sewage in sewage treatment plants before it is discharged to reduce water pollution. 4.Treat toxic waste from factories before it is discharged into the environment. 5.Use microorganisms to clean up the environment .For example ,certain bacteria are used break down oils spills at sea. 6.Develop hydrogen-based fuel-cell vehicles to reduce the burning of fossils fuels. 7.Use technology to reduce carbon commissions from power plants .Liquefy carbon dioxide and store it underground. 8.Reduce methane emissions . by-product of cattle and other lives stock waste and introduce better controls on nitrous oxide emissions from nitrogen fertilisers.

Education on the management of resources

1. Public must be educated on the importance of protecting and caring for the environment through the mass media and various environmental campaigns. 2. The public must be educated on the concept of the 4Rs.It stand for recycle , reuse , reduce and recover. 3 .Recycling means collecting and segregating waste according to the types of the materials and turning this waste into new products. ~For example newspaper, magazine or boarding paper are recycled by converting into pulp a reused as recycled paper. ~Aluminium cans, glass and metal pieces can be melted down and made into new products. 4.Reuse means use thing such as old plastic containers and bottle again for other purposes instead of throwing them away. 5.Reduce means less using of materials for example using of nonbiodegradable plastic instead of using biodegradable plastic which is good for our environment. 6.Recover means to harness heat energy from the burning of materials or refuse in factories or incinerations plants. 7.Important of recycle are:~Fewer landfills will be needed dispose of rubbish and wastes.

~It cuts down the use of natural resources. ~ It saves energy ,like less energy is needed to melt scrap metal and use it again that extract it from the ore.

Preservation and consideration of soil, water, the flora and fauna of forest, and mangrove swamps.

1.The management of natural resources in an ecosystem involves preservation and conservation. 2.Preservation involves efforts to protect an ecosystem so that natural resources are utilized in a sustainable manner and that the equilibrium of the ecosystem will be maintained. 3.Conservation involves to return an affected ecosystem to its natural equilibrium . 4.Sustainable agricultural development is the effective use and preservation of soil t ensure continuous agricultural productions. ~good farming techniques will prevent erosion and soil depletion. ~Good agricultural practices are :*crop rotation, contour farming , planting cover crops , controlled grazing. 5.Clean water is a precious resources and commodity. As such , water resources and water catchment areas must be preserved. ~River must not be regarded as dumping sites or toxic wastes dumping area which can pollute the water. ~The use of nitrates and phosphates in agriculture must be controlled to prevent runoffs into rivers and ponds. 6.~The Malaysian rainforests , for examples , contain more than 50% of the worlds plant and animal species. ~if deforestation proceeds faster than a forestation ( conservation of a forest area) many of these species could become extinct before they can be documented. ~There are many reasons why forest must be conserve and protected .Forest are a diverse storehouse of plant and animal species which can provide useful and medicinal

product for mankind .These include fruit tree , ornamental plants ,essentials oils ,rattan , resin ,gum and tannin. ~Rainforests play an important role in the regulations of microclimate and the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. ~it is also an important sites for education and research. 7.The following are some sustainable and planned forest project:a)Selective harvesting. b)Reforestation or replanting programmed. c)Restoring programmed for damaged habitats. d)Establishment of forest reserves to prevent the destruction of existing forest and maintaining the equilibrium of the ecosystem. e)Mangrove swamps which rich of biodiversity play an important role as *flood control, nutrient retention ,sediment control and the prevention of coastal erosion. ~When an area of a mangrove swamp forest cleared for agriculture and development many plant and animal species are threatened to the point of extinction. ~Industrial waste pollution also contributes to the threats of extinction. !hence, mangrove swamps found along the coastline must be protected, preserve and conserve.

The practice of biological control.

1.Biological control is the use of natural predators to control the population of pest species. 2.This method involves the prey-predator relationship . 3.The predators do not harm the crops. example~the use of owl to control the population of rats on a oil palm plantations. 5. Biological control is better than chemical control which involves the use of pesticides.

This is because : ~The use of pesticides is indiscriminate and something harmless organism as well as the pest species were killed. ~The effect of pesticides can be persistent for long periods . ~ The concentration of pesticides is amplified as they pass through food chains (biomagnifications).As a result, high concentration of pesticides accumulate in the tissues of final consumers. These pesticides can be toxic and effect the metabolism of the organism. ~Pest develops resistance .Hence a larger amount may now be required to produce similar effect. ~ The cost of using pesticides is high. ~The extensive use of pesticides pollutes the environment.

The use of renewable energy 1.Fossil fuels are non-renewable energy source. Hence there is a need to look for alternative sources of energy. 2.Renewable energy is energy flows that occurs naturally in the environment and can be harnessed for the benefits of humans. 3.Renewable energy is inexhaustible and does not pollute the environment. Example of renewable energy are: ~Solar energy ~Wind energy ~Flowing energy ~Wave energy ~Geothermal energy ~Biomass energy ~Gasohol(ethanol)

~Palm oil fuel

The efficient use of energy 1.Reduce the burning of coal , petroleum and other fossils fuels. 2.Subtitute natural gas for coal at power plants. 3.Improve fuel efficiency in vehicles-use cars that run on energy-efficient engines. 4.Use a cleaner fuel by reducing the content of sulphur in diesel and switching to gas. 5.Improveenergy efficiency in factory. 6.Use more hybrid cars which combine electric and gasoline engines.

CONTENTS!

1.0The need for development and the effects of an increasing population on the ecosystem

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1.2The importance of proper management of development activities.

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1.2Measures taken in the management of development activities.

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~Implementation of laws

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~Use of technology

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~Education on the management Of resources. Page:

~Preservation and conservation of Soil ,water ,the flora and fauna of Forest, and mangrove swamps, Page:

~The practice of biological control `

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~The efficient use of energy

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