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Different Body Surface Landmarks Vertebrae Cervical Region C5 C7 C1 Localization Points Mastoid Process Thyroid Cartillage Vertebra Prominence

Thoracic Region T4-5 T7-8 T9 T10


Suprasternal Notch Sternal Angle Inferior Angle of Scapula Xiphoid Process Xiphoid Tip

Lumbar Region L1 L3 L4 Sacral and Coccygeal Region Spine(ASIS) Greater Trochanter


Kidneys Transpylonic Plane Inferior costal Margin Iliac Crest

S1-2 Coccyx

Anterior Superior Iliac Symphisis Pubis and

Body Habitus Sthenic- This represent the nearer average but slightly heavy-set and frequently more muscular-type persons. The chest and abdominal organs are nearer average in shape and location but tend toward the hypersthenic. Hypersthenic- This Stocky , massive build body type represents only 5% of the population. The thoracic cavity is wide and deep from front to back with a short vertical dimension, indicating a high diagraphragm. This also makes the upper abdomen very wide, affecting the location of organs such as the gallbladder, stomach and colon. Astenic- This is the more extreme slender body type(10%) with a thoracic cavity that is narrow and shallow but with a long vertical dimension, indicating a low diaphragm. The upper abdomen is also narrower on top and wider at its lower dimension, placing most of the abdominal organs low in the abdomen. Hyposthenic-This represents the nearer average but most slender and sometime taller body type. The gallbladder and stomach are lower and nearer the centerline, with the colon also located somewhat lower in the abdomen.

Body Movements Flexion vs. Extension Flexion- decreases the angle of the joint Extension- increases the angle as the body part moves from a flexed to a straightened position. Ulnar vs. Radial Deviation Ulnar Deviation- is to turn or bend the hand and wrist from the natural position toward the ulnar side. Radial Deviation- is toward the radial side of the wrist. Dorsiflexion vs. Plantar Flexion of Foot Dorsiflexion- to decrease the angle Plantar flexion- extending the angle joint Eversion vs. Inversion Eversion- is an outward stress movement of the foot at the ankle joint.

Inversion- is inward stress movement of the foot as applied to the foot without rotation of the leg. Valgus vs. Varus Valgus- the bending of the part outward or away from the midline of the body. Varus- meaning knock-kneed, the bending of a part inward or toward the midline Medial vs. Lateral Rotation Medial- is a rotation or turning of a body part, moving the anterior aspect of the part toward the inside plane. Lateral Rotation- rotation of an anterior body part toward the outside Abduction vs. Adduction Abduction- is the lateral movement of the arm or leg away from the body. Adduction- is a movement of arm or leg toward the body, to draw toward each other. Supination vs. Pronation Supination- palm up in supine position or forward in erect position Pronation- palm down or back Protraction vs. Retraction Protraction- is a movement forward from a normal position Retraction- is a movement backward or the condition of being drawn back. Elevation vs. Depression Elevation- is a lift, raising or moving of a part superiorly Depression- is a letting down, lowering, or moving of a part inferiorly Rotation vs. Tilt Rotation- is to rotate a body part on its axis Tilt- is a slanting or tilting movement with respect to the long axis Circumduction- to move around in the form of a circle.