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2/6/2012

What is science?
The word science in Latin means to know Cover the field of systematic knowledge about nature and enables us to explain what happen in the world Example: - Why volcanic eruption occur? - How the formation of rainbow occur?

1.0 The Scientific Investigation

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The Scientific Method


The process of gathering facts based on an observable event or phenomenon
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Steps involve in the Scientific Investigation


Identifying a problem Identifying the variables Making a hypothesis Controlling the variables Planning the investigation Carrying out the investigation - Collecting data - Analysing and interpreting data - Discussion - Making conclusion 7. Writing a report by imeldanyaun

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1. Identifying a problem
Observe a specific phenomenon. Pose question related to the phenomenon. In the form of statement/question. Example: Situation: A plant grows under sunlight. Problem statement: Do plants need sunlight to grow?

2. Identifying the variables


Variables are factors that we can change or manipulate Related to the problems They must be factors that effect the outcome Examples: - time, mass, temperature, colour of solution and quantity

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2/6/2012

3. Making a hypothesis
Hypothesis general statement or a possible explanation to the problem under investigation Based on observation Could be tested through experiment Example:
Problem statement: Do plants need sunlight to grow?

4. Controlling variables
Variables factors/condition which influence the result of the experiment Three types: 1. Manipulated variable factor/condition that we change in the experiment 2. Responding variable factor/condition that change according to the one that we change 3. Fix/Constant variable factor/condition that are kept the same throughout the experiment
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Hypothesis: Plants need sunlight to grow. Relate the manipulated variable with responding variable

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5. Planning the experiment


Gathering relevant information about the experiment Determining the materials and apparatus needed Identifying variables that will influence the result of the experiment Determining the technique to be used Determining the procedure to do the experiment Determining how to make observation and measurements to be taken

6. Carrying out the investigation


Follow the procedure and technique that have been decided. Include control experiment, which is similar in every aspect to the test experiment except that the manipulated variable is kept constant for comparison At the end of the experiment, clean the apparatus, put them back I the right place and dispose the unwanted materials in a proper manner.
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Collecting data
Data result of the experiment Obtained by means of observation and measurement Should be accurate and objective

Recording data
Presenting the data Can be presented in the form of tables, graphs, charts or diagram In a table, the quantity must have unit, the first column shows the manipulated variables and the second row shows the responding variable. In a graph, x-axis shows the manipulated variable and the y-axis shows the responding variable
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Analysing and interpreting data


Include calculation Determine the relationship between manipulated variable with responding variable Relate the information gathered with the problem that is being investigated The data can be interpreted through tables, graph or charts Observation, measurements and calculation must be shown clearly
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Making conclusion
Find out whether the result support or refute the hypothesis. If the hypothesis is rejected, form a new hypothesis and repeat the investigation until the hypothesis is accepted.

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7. Writing a report
Present the result of the experiment in writing Must be accurate, complete and clear

Format of a report
Objective/aim Problem statement Hypothesis Variables Materials and apparatus Technique Procedure Results Discussion Conclusion
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Scientific Attitudes And Noble Values


Refer to page ---- in your textbook. Why we need to practice scientific attitudes and noble values in scientific investigation?

Test yourself
What is Scientific Method? What are the steps involve in a scientific investigation? Give two examples of scientific attitudes and noble values?

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