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Iridium Appearance silvery white

General properties Name, symbol, number Pronunciation Element category Group, period, block Standard atomic weight Electron configuration Electrons per shell iridium, Ir, 77 /rdim/ i-rid-ee-m transition metal 9,6, d 192.217 gmol
14 7 1 2

[Xe] 4f 5d 6s

2, 8, 18, 32, 15, 2 (Image)

Physical properties Phase Density (near r.t.) Liquid density at m.p. Melting point Boiling point Heat of fusion Heat of vaporization Specific heat capacity solid 22.56


19 gcm3 2739K,2466C,4471F 4701K,4428C,8002F 41.12 kJmol1 563 kJmol1 (25 C) 25.10 Jmol1K1

Vapor pressure P/Pa 1 10 2957 100 3252 1k 3614 10 k 4069 100 k 4659

at T/K 2713

Atomic properties Oxidation states Electronegativity 3,1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 2.20 (Pauling scale)


Ionization energies

1st: 880 kJmol1 2nd: 1600 kJmol1

Atomic radius Covalent radius

136 pm 1416 pm Miscellanea

Crystal structure Magnetic ordering Electrical resistivity Thermal conductivity Thermal expansion

face-centered cubic paramagnetic


(20C) 47.1 nm (300 K) 147Wm1K1 6.4 m/(mK)

Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 C) 4825 m/s Young's modulus Shear modulus Bulk modulus Poisson ratio Mohs hardness Vickers hardness Brinell hardness CAS registry number 528 GPa 210 GPa 320 GPa 0.26 6.5 1760 MPa 1670 MPa 7439-88-5

Most stable isotopes iso

188 189 190 191 192

NA syn syn syn 37.3% syn

half-life 1.73 d 13.2 d 11.8 d


DM DE (MeV) 1.64 0.532 2.000

188 189 190

Ir Ir Ir Ir Ir

Os Os Os

Ir is stable with 114 neutron 1.460 1.046 0.161

192 192

73.827 d


Os Ir

192m2 193


syn 62.7% syn syn syn

241 y



Ir Ir

Ir is stable with 116 neutron IT IT 0.080 2.247 ?

193 194

193m 194

10.5 d 19.3 h 171 d


Ir Ir

Pt Ir



Iridium ( /rdim/ i-rid-ee-m) is the chemical element with atomic number 77, and is represented by the symbol Ir. A very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum family, iridium is the second-densest element (after osmium) and is the most corrosion-resistant metal, even at temperatures as high as 2000C. Although

Iridium only certain molten salts and halogens are corrosive to solid iridium, finely divided iridium dust is much more reactive and can be flammable. Iridium was discovered in 1803 among insoluble impurities in natural platinum. Smithson Tennant, the primary discoverer, named the iridium for the goddess Iris, personification of the rainbow, because of the striking and diverse colors of its salts. Iridium is one of the rarest elements in the Earth's crust, with annual production and consumption of only three tonnes. 191Ir and 193Ir are the only two naturally occurring isotopes of iridium as well as the only stable isotopes; the latter is the more abundant of the two. The most important iridium compounds in use are the salts and acids it forms with chlorine, though iridium also forms a number of organometallic compounds used in industrial catalysis, and in research. Iridium metal is employed when high corrosion resistance at high temperatures is needed, as in high-end spark plugs, crucibles for recrystallization of semiconductors at high temperatures, and electrodes for the production of chlorine in the chloralkali process. Iridium radioisotopes are used in some radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Iridium is found in meteorites with an abundance much higher than its average abundance in the Earth's crust. For this reason the unusually high abundance of iridium in the clay layer at the KT geologic boundary gave rise to the Alvarez hypothesis that the impact of a massive extraterrestrial object caused the extinction of dinosaurs and many other species 65million years ago. It is thought that the total amount of iridium in the planet Earth is much higher than that observed in crustal rocks, but as with other platinum group metals, the high density and tendency of iridium to bond with iron caused most iridium to descend below the crust when the planet was young and still molten.

Physical properties
A member of the platinum group metals, iridium is white, resembling platinum, but with a slight yellowish cast. Because of its hardness, brittleness, and very high melting point (the ninth highest of all elements), solid iridium is difficult to machine, form, or work, and thus powder metallurgy is commonly employed instead.[3] It is the only metal to maintain good mechanical properties in air at temperatures above 1600C.[4] Iridium has a very high boiling point (10th among all elements) and becomes a superconductor at temperatures below 0.14K.[5] Iridium's modulus of elasticity is the second highest among the metals, only being surpassed by osmium.[4] This, together with a high modulus of rigidity and a very low figure for Poisson's ratio (the relationship of longitudinal to lateral strain), indicate the high degree of stiffness and resistance to deformation that have rendered its fabrication into useful components a matter of great difficulty. Despite these limitations and iridium's high cost, a number of applications have developed where mechanical strength is an essential factor in some of the extremely severe conditions encountered in modern technology.[4]
1 troy ounce (31g) of arc-melted iridium

The measured density of iridium is only slightly lower (by about 0.12%) than that of osmium, the densest element known.[6][7] There had been some ambiguity regarding which of the two elements was denser, due to the small size of the difference in density and difficulties in measuring it accurately,[8] but, with increased accuracy in factors used for calculating density X-ray crystallographic data yielded densities of 22.56g/cm3 for iridium and 22.59g/cm3 for osmium.[9]


Chemical properties
Iridium is the most corrosion-resistant metal known:[10] it is not attacked by almost any acid, aqua regia, molten metals or silicates at high temperatures. It can, however, be attacked by some molten salts, such as sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide,[10] as well as oxygen and the halogens (particularly fluorine)[11] at higher temperatures.[12]

Oxidation states 3 [Ir(CO) ]3 3 1 [Ir(CO) (PPh )] 3 3 0 Ir4(CO)12 [13]

+1 [Ir(CO)Cl(PPh3)2] +2 IrCl2 +3 IrCl3 +4 IrO2 +5 Ir4F20 +6 IrF6

Iridium forms compounds in oxidation states between 3 to +6; the most common oxidation states are +3 and +4.[3] Well-characterized examples of the highest oxidation state are rare, but include IrF6 and two mixed oxides Sr2MgIrO6 and Sr2CaIrO6.[3][14] In addition, it was reported in 2009 that iridium(VIII) tetroxide (IrO4) was prepared under matrix isolation conditions (6 K in Ar) by UV irradiation of an iridium-peroxo complex. This species, however, is not expected to be stable as a bulk solid at higher temperatures.[15] Iridium dioxide, IrO2, a brown powder, is the only well-characterized oxide of iridium.[3] A sesquioxide, Ir2O3, has been described as a blue-black powder which is oxidized to IrO2 by HNO3.[11] The corresponding disulfides, diselenides, sesquisulfides and sesquiselenides are known and IrS3 has also been reported.[3] Iridium also forms iridates with oxidation states +4 and +5, such as K2IrO3 and KIrO3, which can be prepared from the reaction of potassium oxide or potassium superoxide with iridium at high temperatures.[16] While no binary hydrides of iridium, IrxHy are known, complexes are known that contain IrH and IrH, where iridium has the +1 and +3 oxidation states, respectively.[17] The ternary hydride Mg6Ir2H11 is believed to contain both the IrH and the 18-electron IrH anion.[18] No monohalides or dihalides are known, whereas trihalides, IrX3, are known for all of the halogens.[3] For oxidation states +4 and above, only the tetrafluoride, pentafluoride and hexafluoride are known.[3] Iridium hexafluoride, IrF6, is a volatile and highly reactive yellow solid, composed of octahedral molecules. It decomposes in water and is reduced to IrF4, a crystalline solid, by iridium black.[3] Iridium pentafluoride has similar properties but it is actually a tetramer, Ir4F20, formed by four corner-sharing octahedra.[3]


Hexachloroiridic(IV) acid, H2IrCl6, and its ammonium salt are the most important iridium compounds from an industrial perspective.[19] They are involved in the purification of iridium and used as precursors for most other iridium compounds, as well as in the preparation of anode coatings. The IrCl ion has an intense dark brown color, and can be readily reduced to the lighter-colored IrCl and vice versa.[19] Iridium trichloride, IrCl3, which can be obtained in anhydrous form Vaska's complex from direct oxidation of iridium powder by chlorine at 650C,[19] or in hydrated form by dissolving Ir2O3 in hydrochloric acid, is often used as a starting material for the synthesis of other Ir(III) compounds.[3] Another compound used as a starting material is ammonium hexachloroiridate(III), (NH4)3IrCl6. Iridium(III) complexes are diamagnetic (low-spin) and generally have an octahedral molecular geometry.[3] Organoiridium compounds contain iridiumcarbon bonds where the metal is usually in lower oxidation states. For example, oxidation state zero is found in tetrairidium dodecacarbonyl, Ir4(CO)12, which is the most common and stable binary carbonyl of iridium.[3] In this compound, each of the iridium atoms is bonded to the other three, forming a tetrahedral cluster. Some organometallic Ir(I) compounds are notable enough to be named after their discoverers. One is Vaska's complex, IrCl(CO)[P(C6H5)3]2, which has the unusual property of binding to the dioxygen molecule, O2.[20] Another one is Crabtree's catalyst, a homogeneous catalyst for hydrogenation reactions.[21] These compounds are both square planar, d8 complexes, with a total of 16 valence electrons, which accounts for their reactivity.[22]

Iridium has two naturally occurring, stable isotopes, 191Ir and 193Ir, with natural abundances of 37.3% and 62.7%, respectively.[23] At least 34 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in mass number from 164 to 199. 192 Ir, which falls between the two stable isotopes, is the most stable radioisotope, with a half-life of 73.827days, and finds application in brachytherapy[24] and in industrial radiography, particularly for non-destructive testing of welds in steel in the oil and gas industries; iridium-192 sources have been responsible for a number of radiological accidents. Three other isotopes have half-lives of at least a day188Ir, 189Ir, 190Ir.[23] Isotopes with masses below 191 decay by some combination of + decay, decay, and proton emission, with the exceptions of 189Ir, which decays by electron capture, and 190Ir, which decays by positron emission. Synthetic isotopes heavier than 191 decay by decay, although 192Ir also has a minor electron capture decay path.[23] All known isotopes of iridium were discovered between 1934 and 2001; the most recent is 171Ir.[25] At least 32 metastable isomers have been characterized, ranging in mass number from 164 to 197. The most stable of these is 192m2Ir, which decays by isomeric transition with a half-life of 241years,[23] making it more stable than any of iridium's synthetic isotopes in their ground states. The least stable isomer is 190m3Ir with a half-life of only 2s.[23] The isotope 191Ir was the first one of any element to be shown to present a Mssbauer effect. This renders it useful for Mssbauer spectroscopy for research in physics, chemistry, biochemistry, metallurgy, and mineralogy.[26]

The discovery of iridium is intertwined with that of platinum and the other metals of the platinum group. Native platinum used by ancient Ethiopians[27] and by South American cultures[28] always contained a small amount of the other platinum group metals, including iridium. Platinum reached Europe as platina ("small silver"), found in the 17th century by the Spanish conquerors in a region today known as the department of Choc in Colombia.[29] The discovery that this metal was not an alloy of known elements, but instead a distinct new element, did not occur until 1748.[30]

Iridium Chemists who studied platinum dissolved it in aqua regia (a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids) to create soluble salts. They always observed a small amount of a dark, insoluble residue.[4] Joseph Louis Proust thought that the residue was graphite.[4] The French chemists Victor Collet-Descotils, Antoine Franois, comte de Fourcroy, and Louis Nicolas Vauquelin also observed the black residue in 1803, but did not obtain enough for further experiments.[4] In 1803, British scientist Smithson Tennant (17611815) analyzed the insoluble residue and concluded that it must contain a new metal. Vauquelin treated the powder alternately with alkali and acids[10] and obtained a volatile new oxide, which he believed to be of this new metalwhich he named ptene, from the Greek word (ptnos) for winged.[31][32] Tennant, who had the advantage of a much greater amount of residue, continued his research and identified the two previously undiscovered elements in the black residue, iridium and osmium.[4][10] He obtained dark red crystals (probably of Na2[IrCl6]nH2O) by a sequence of reactions with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid.[32] He named iridium after Iris (), the Greek winged goddess of the rainbow and the messenger of the Olympian gods, because many of the salts he obtained were strongly colored.[33][34] Discovery of the new elements was documented in a letter to the Royal Society on June 21, 1804.[4][35] British scientist John George Children was the first to melt a sample of iridium in 1813 with the aid of "the greatest galvanic battery that has ever been constructed" (at that time).[4] The first to obtain high purity iridium was Robert Hare in 1842. He found that it had a density of around 21.8g/cm3 and noted that the metal is nearly unmalleable and very hard. The first melting in appreciable quantity was done by Henri Sainte-Claire Deville and Jules Henri Debray in 1860. They required burning more than 300L of pure O2 and H2 for each kilogram of iridium.[4] These extreme difficulties in melting the metal limited the possibilities for handling iridium. John Isaac Hawkins was looking to obtain a fine and hard point for fountain pen nibs and in 1834 managed to create an iridium-pointed gold pen. In 1880 John Holland and William Lofland Dudley were able to melt iridium by adding phosphorus and patented the process in the United States; British company Johnson Matthey later stated that they had been using a similar process since 1837 and The Greek goddess Iris, after whom iridium was had already presented fused iridium at a number of World Fairs.[4] The named. first use of an alloy of iridium with ruthenium in thermocouples was made by Otto Feussner in 1933. These allowed for the measurement of high temperatures in air up to 2000C.[4] In 1957 Rudolf Mssbauer, in what has been called one of the "landmark experiments in twentieth century physics",[36] discovered the resonant and recoil-free emission and absorption of gamma rays by atoms in a solid metal sample containing only 191Ir.[37] This phenomenon, known as the Mssbauer effect (which has since been observed for other nuclei, such as 57Fe), and developed as Mssbauer spectroscopy, has made important contributions to research in physics, chemistry, biochemistry, metallurgy, and mineralogy.[26] Mssbauer received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1961, just three years after he published his discovery.[38]


Iridium is one of the least abundant elements in the Earth's crust, having an average mass fraction of 0.001ppm in crustal rock; gold is 40 times more abundant, platinum is 10 times more abundant, and silver and mercury are 80 times more abundant.[3] Tellurium is about as abundant as iridium, and only three naturally occurring elements are less abundant: rhenium, ruthenium, and rhodium, iridium being 10 times more abundant than the last two.[3] In contrast to its low abundance in crustal rock, iridium is relatively common in meteorites, with concentrations of 0.5ppm or more.[40] It is thought that the overall concentration of iridium on Earth is much higher than what is observed in crustal rocks, but because of the density and siderophilic ("iron-loving") character of iridium, it descended below the crust and into the Earth's core when the planet was still molten.[19] Iridium is found in nature as an uncombined element or in natural alloys; especially the iridiumosmium alloys, osmiridium (osmium The Willamette Meteorite, the sixth-largest rich), and iridiosmium (iridium rich).[10] In the nickel and copper meteorite found in the world, has 4.7ppm [39] iridium. deposits the platinum group metals occur as sulfides (i.e. (Pt,Pd)S), tellurides (i.e. PtBiTe), antimonides (PdSb), and arsenides (i.e. PtAs2). In all of these compounds platinum is exchanged by a small amount of iridium and osmium. As with all of the platinum group metals, iridium can be found naturally in alloys with raw nickel or raw copper.[41] Within the Earth's crust, iridium is found at highest concentrations in three types of geologic structure: igneous deposits (crustal intrusions from below), impact craters, and deposits reworked from one of the former structures. The largest known primary reserves are in the Bushveld igneous complex in South Africa,[42] though the large coppernickel deposits near Norilsk in Russia, and the Sudbury Basin in Canada are also significant sources of iridium. Smaller reserves are found in the United States.[42] Iridium is also found in secondary deposits, combined with platinum and other platinum group metals in alluvial deposits. The alluvial deposits used by pre-Columbian people in the Choc Department of Colombia are still a source for platinum-group metals. As of 2003 the world reserves had not been estimated.[10]

KT boundary presence
The KT boundary of 65 million years ago, marking the temporal border between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods of geological time, was identified by a thin stratum of iridium-rich clay.[43] A team led by Luis Alvarez proposed in 1980 an extraterrestrial origin for this iridium, attributing it to an asteroid or comet impact.[43] Their theory, known as the Alvarez hypothesis, is now widely accepted to explain the demise of the dinosaurs. A large buried impact crater structure with an estimated age of about 65 million years was later identified under The red arrow points to the KT boundary. what is now the Yucatn Peninsula (the Chicxulub crater).[44][45] Dewey M. McLean and others argue that the iridium may have been of volcanic origin instead, as the Earth's core is rich in iridium, and active volcanoes such as Piton de la Fournaise, in the island of Runion, are still releasing iridium.[46][47]


Year ($/ozt) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Price [48][49][50]

415.25 294.62 93.02 185.33 169.51 349.45 444.43 448.34 420.4 635

Iridium is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing. During electrorefining of copper and nickel, noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as anode mud, which forms the starting point for their extraction.[48][51] In order to separate the metals, they must first be brought into solution. Several methods are available depending on the separation process and the composition of the mixture; two representative methods are fusion with sodium peroxide followed by dissolution in aqua regia, and dissolution in a mixture of chlorine with hydrochloric acid.[19][42] After it is dissolved, iridium is separated from the other platinum group metals by precipitating (NH4)2IrCl6 or by extracting IrCl with organic amines.[52] The first method is similar to the procedure Tennant and Wollaston used for their separation. The second method can be planned as continuous liquidliquid extraction and is therefore more suitable for industrial scale production. In either case, the product is reduced using hydrogen, yielding the metal as a powder or sponge that can be treated using powder metallurgy techniques.[53][54] Annual production of iridium circa 2000 was around 3tonnes or about 100,000troy ounces (ozt).[55][10] The price of iridium as of 2007 was $440USD/ozt,[48] but the price fluctuates considerably, as shown in the table. The high volatility of the prices of the platinum group metals has been attributed to supply, demand, speculation, and hoarding, amplified by the small size of the market and instability in the producing countries.[56]


The global demand for iridium in 2007 was 119,000troy ounces (3,700kg), out of which 25,000ozt (780kg) were used for electrical applications such as spark plugs; 34,000ozt (1,100kg) for electrochemical applications such as electrodes for the chloralkali process; 24,000ozt (750kg) for catalysis; and 36,000ozt (1,100kg) for other uses.[57]

Industrial and medical

The high melting point, hardness and corrosion resistance of iridium and its alloys determine most of its applications. Iridium and especially iridiumplatinum alloys or osmiumiridium alloys have a low wear and are used, for example, for multi-pored spinnerets, through which a plastic polymer melt is extruded to form fibers, such as rayon.[58] Osmiumiridium is used for compass bearings and for balances.[10] Corrosion and heat resistance makes iridium an important alloying agent. Certain long-life aircraft engine parts are made of an iridium alloy and an iridiumtitanium alloy is used for deep-water pipes because of its corrosion resistance.[10] Iridium is also used as a hardening agent in platinum alloys. The Vickers hardness of pure platinum is 56HV while platinum with 50% of iridium can reach over 500HV.[59][60]

Molecular structure of Ir(mppy)3

Devices that must withstand extremely high temperatures are often made from iridium. For example, high-temperature crucibles made of iridium are used in the Czochralski process to produce oxide single-crystals (such as sapphires) for use in computer memory devices and in solid state lasers.[61][62] The crystals, such as gadolinium gallium garnet and yttrium gallium garnet, are grown by melting pre-sintered charges of mixed oxides under oxidizing conditions at temperatures up to 2100 C.[4] Its resistance to arc erosion makes iridium alloys ideal for electrical contacts for spark plugs.[62][63] Iridium compounds are used as catalysts in the Cativa process for carbonylation of methanol to produce acetic acid.[64] Iridium itself is used as a catalyst in a type of automobile engine introduced in 1996 called the direct-ignition engine.[10] The radioisotope iridium-192 is one of the two most important sources of energy for use in industrial -radiography for non-destructive testing of metals.[65][66] Additionally, 192Ir is used as a source of gamma radiation for the treatment of cancer using brachytherapy, a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radioactive source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment. Specific treatments include high dose rate prostate brachytherapy, bilary duct brachytherapy, and intracavitary cervix brachytherapy.[10]

An alloy of 90% platinum and 10% iridium was used in 1889 to construct the International Prototype Meter and kilogram mass, kept by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures near Paris.[10] The meter bar was replaced as the definition of the fundamental unit of length in 1960 by a line in the atomic spectrum of krypton,[67][68] but the kilogram prototype is still the international standard of mass.[69] Iridium has been used in the radioisotope thermoelectric generators of unmanned spacecraft such as the Voyager, Viking, Pioneer, Cassini,

International Prototype Meter bar

Iridium Galileo, and New Horizons. Iridium was chosen to encapsulate the plutonium-238 fuel in the generator because it can withstand the operating temperatures of up to 2000C and for its great strength.[4] Another use concerns X-ray optics, especially X-ray telescopes.[70] The mirrors of the Chandra X-ray Observatory are coated with a layer of iridium 60nm thick. Iridium proved to be the best choice for reflecting X-rays after nickel, gold, and platinum were also tested. The iridium layer, which had to be smooth to within a few atoms, was applied by depositing iridium vapor under high vacuum on a base layer of chromium.[71] Iridium is used in particle physics for the production of antiprotons, a form of antimatter. Antiprotons are made by shooting a high-intensity proton beam at a conversion target, which needs to be made from a very high density material. Although tungsten may be used instead, iridium has the advantage of better stability under the shock waves induced by the temperature rise due to the incident beam.[72] Carbonhydrogen bond activation (CH activation) is an area of research on reactions that cleave carbonhydrogen bonds, which were traditionally regarded as unreactive. [73][74] The first reported successes at Oxidative addition to hydrocarbons in organoiridium chemistry activating CH bonds in saturated hydrocarbons, published in 1982, used organometallic iridium complexes that undergo an oxidative addition with the hydrocarbon.[73][74] Iridium complexes are being investigated as catalysts for asymmetric hydrogenation. These catalysts have been used in the synthesis of natural products and able to hydrogenate certain difficult substrates, such as unfunctionalized alkenes, enantioselectively (generating only one of the two possible enantiomers).[75][76] Iridium forms a variety of complexes of fundamental interest in triplet harvesting.[77][78][79]


Iridiumosmium alloys were used to tip fountain pen nibs. The first major use of iridium was in 1834 in nibs mounted on gold.[4] Since 1944, the famous Parker 51 fountain pen was fitted with a nib tipped by a ruthenium and iridium alloy (with 3.8% iridium). The tip material in modern fountain pens is still conventionally called "iridium," although there is seldom any iridium in it; other metals such as tungsten have taken its place.[80]

Fountain pen nib labeled Iridium Point

An iridiumplatinum alloy was used for the touch holes or vent pieces of cannon. According to a report of the Paris Exhibition of 1867, one of the pieces being exhibited by Johnson and Matthey "has been used in a Withworth gun for more than 3000 rounds, and scarcely shows signs of wear yet. Those who know the constant trouble and expense which are occasioned by the wearing of the vent-pieces of cannon when in active service, will appreciate this important adaptation".[81] The pigment iridium black, which consists of very finely divided iridium, is used for painting porcelain an intense black; it was said that "all other porcelain black colors appear grey by the side of it".[82]



Iridium in bulk metallic form is not biologically important or hazardous to health due to its lack of reactivity with tissues; there are only about 20parts per trillion of iridium in human tissue.[10] However, finely divided iridium powder can be hazardous to handle, as it is an irritant and may ignite in air.[42] Very little is known about the toxicity of iridium compounds because they are used in very small amounts, but soluble salts, such as the iridium halides, could be hazardous due to elements other than iridium or due to iridium itself.[24] However, most iridium compounds are insoluble, which makes absorption into the body difficult.[10] A radioisotope of iridium, 192Ir, is dangerous like other radioactive isotopes. The only reported injuries related to iridium concern accidental exposure to radiation from 192Ir used in brachytherapy.[24] High-energy gamma radiation from 192Ir can increase the risk of cancer. External exposure can cause burns, radiation poisoning, and death. Ingestion of 192Ir can burn the linings of the stomach and the intestines.[83] 192Ir, 192mIr, and 194mIr tend to deposit in the liver, and can pose health hazards from both gamma and beta radiation.[40]

[1] J. W. Arblaster: Densities of Osmium and Iridium, in: Platinum Metals Review, 1989, 33, 1, S.1416; Volltext (http:/ / www. platinummetalsreview. com/ pdf/ pmr-v33-i1-014-016. pdf). [2] Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds (http:/ / www-d0. fnal. gov/ hardware/ cal/ lvps_info/ engineering/ elementmagn. pdf), in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press. [3] Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Oxford: ButterworthHeinemann. pp.11131143, 1294. ISBN0-7506-3365-4. OCLC213025882 37499934 41901113. [4] Hunt, L. B. (1987). "A History of Iridium" (http:/ / www. platinummetalsreview. com/ pdf/ pmr-v31-i1-032-041. pdf). Platinum Metals Review 31 (1): 3241. . [5] Kittel, C. (2004). Introduction to Solid state Physics, 7th Edition. Wiley-India. ISBN81-265-1045-5. [6] Arblaster, J. W. (1995). "Osmium, the Densest Metal Known" (http:/ / www. platinummetalsreview. com/ dynamic/ article/ view/ pmr-v39-i4-164-164). Platinum Metals Review 39 (4): 164. . [7] Cotton, Simon (1997). Chemistry of Precious Metals. Springer-Verlag New York, LLC. p.78. ISBN9780751404135. [8] Lide, D. R. (1990). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (70th Edn.). Boca Raton (FL):CRC Press. [9] Arblaster, J. W. (1989). "Densities of osmium and iridium: recalculations based upon a review of the latest crystallographic data" (http:/ / www. platinummetalsreview. com/ pdf/ pmr-v33-i1-014-016. pdf) (PDF). Platinum Metals Review 33 (1): 1416. . [10] Emsley, J. (2003). "Iridium". Nature's Building Blocks: An AZ Guide to the Elements. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press. pp.201204. ISBN0-19-850340-7. [11] Perry, D. L. (1995). Handbook of Inorganic Compounds. CRC Press. pp.203204. ISBN0-8492-8671-3. [12] Lagowski, J. J., ed (2004). Chemistry Foundations and Applications. 2. Thomson Gale. pp.250251. ISBN0-02-865732-3. [13] Most common oxidation states of iridium are in bold. The right column lists one representative compound for each oxidation state. [14] Jung, D.; Demazeau, Grard (1995). "High Oxygen Pressure and the Preparation of New Iridium (VI) Oxides with Perovskite Structure: Sr2MIrO6 (M = Ca, Mg)". Journal of Solid State Chemistry 115 (2): 447455. Bibcode1995JSSCh.115..447J. doi:10.1006/jssc.1995.1158. [15] Gong, Y.; Zhou, M.; Kaupp, M.; Riedel, S. (2009). "Formation and Characterization of the Iridium Tetroxide Molecule with Iridium in the Oxidation State +VIII". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48: 78797883. doi:10.1002/anie.200902733. [16] Gulliver, D. J; Levason, W. (1982). "The chemistry of ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, iridium, palladium and platinum in the higher oxidation states". Coordination Chemistry Reviews 46: 1127. doi:10.1016/0010-8545(82)85001-7. [17] Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E.; Wiberg, N. (2001). Inorganic Chemistry, 1st Edition. Academic Press. ISBN0-12-352651-5. OCLC47901436. [18] ern, R.; Joubert, J.-M.; Kohlmann, H.; Yvon, K. (2002). "Mg6Ir2H11, a new metal hydride containing saddle-like IrH and square-pyramidal IrH hydrido complexes". Journal of Alloys and Compounds 340 (12): 180188. doi:10.1016/S0925-8388(02)00050-6. [19] Renner, H.; Schlamp, G.; Kleinwchter, I.; Drost, E.; Lschow, H. M.; Tews, P.; Panster, P.; Diehl, M.; Lang, J.; Kreuzer, T.; Kndler, A.; Starz, K. A.; Dermann, K.; Rothaut, J.; Drieselman, R. (2002). "Platinum group metals and compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley. doi:10.1002/14356007.a21_075. [20] Vaska, L.; DiLuzio, J.W. (1961). "Carbonyl and Hydrido-Carbonyl Complexes of Iridium by Reaction with Alcohols. Hydrido Complexes by Reaction with Acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society 83 (12): 27842785. doi:10.1021/ja01473a054. [21] Crabtree, R. H. (1979). "Iridium compounds in catalysis". Accounts of Chemical Research 12 (9): 331337. doi:10.1021/ar50141a005. [22] Crabtree, R. H. (2005). The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals (http:/ / www. wiley. com/ WileyCDA/ WileyTitle/ productCd-0471662569. html). Wiley. ISBN978-0-471-66256-3. OCLC224478241. . [23] Audi, G. (2003). "The NUBASE Evaluation of Nuclear and Decay Properties". Nuclear Physics A (Atomic Mass Data Center) 729: 3128. Bibcode2003NuPhA.729....3A. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[24] Mager Stellman, J. (1998). "Iridium" (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=nDhpLa1rl44C& pg=PT125). Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. International Labour Organization. pp.63.19. ISBN978-92-2-109816-4. OCLC35279504 45066560. . [25] Arblaster, J. W. (2003). "The discoverers of the iridium isotopes: the thirty-six known iridium isotopes found between 1934 and 2001" (http:/ / www. platinummetalsreview. com/ dynamic/ article/ view/ 47-4-167-174). Platinum Metals Review 47 (4): 167174. . [26] Chereminisoff, N. P. (1990). Handbook of Ceramics and Composites. CRC Press. p.424. ISBN0-8247-8006-X. [27] Ogden, J. M. (1976). "The So-Called 'Platinum' Inclusions in Egyptian Goldwork". The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 62: 138144. doi:10.2307/3856354. JSTOR3856354. [28] Chaston, J. C. (1980). "The Powder Metallurgy of Platinum". Platinum Metals Rev. 24 (21): 7079. [29] McDonald, M. (959). "The Platinum of New Granada: Mining and Metallurgy in the Spanish Colonial Empire" (http:/ / www. platinummetalsreview. com/ dynamic/ article/ view/ pmr-v3-i4-140-145). Platinum Metals Review 3 (4): 140145. . [30] Juan, J.; de Ulloa, A. (1748) (in Spanish). Relacin histrica del viage a la Amrica Meridional. 1. p.606. [31] Thomson, T. (1831). A System of Chemistry of Inorganic Bodies. Baldwin & Cradock, London; and William Blackwood, Edinburgh. p.693. [32] Griffith, W. P. (2004). "Bicentenary of Four Platinum Group Metals. Part II: Osmium and iridium events surrounding their discoveries". Platinum Metals Review 48 (4): 182189. doi:10.1595/147106704X4844. [33] Iridium literally means "of rainbows". [34] Weeks, M. E. (1968). Discovery of the Elements (7 ed.). Journal of Chemical Education. pp.414418. ISBN0-8486-8579-2. OCLC23991202. [35] Tennant, S. (1804). "On Two Metals, Found in the Black Powder Remaining after the Solution of Platina". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 94: 411418. doi:10.1098/rstl.1804.0018. JSTOR107152. [36] Trigg, G. L. (1995). Landmark Experiments in Twentieth Century Physics. Courier Dover Publications. pp.179190. ISBN0-486-28526-X. OCLC31409781. [37] Mssbauer, R. L. (1958). "Gammastrahlung in Ir191" (in German). Zeitschrift fr Physik A 151 (2): 124143. Bibcode1958ZPhy..151..124M. doi:10.1007/BF01344210. [38] Waller, I. (1964). "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961: presentation speech" (http:/ / nobelprize. org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1961/ press. html). Nobel Lectures, Physics 19421962. Elsevier. . [39] Scott, E. R. D.; Wasson, J. T.; Buchwald, V. F. (1973). "The chemical classification of iron meteoritesVII. A reinvestigation of irons with Ge concentrations between 25 and 80 ppm". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 37 (8): 19571983. Bibcode1973GeCoA..37.1957S. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(73)90151-8. [40] "Iridium" (http:/ / www. ead. anl. gov/ pub/ doc/ Iridium. pdf) (PDF). Human Health Fact Sheet. Argonne National Laboratory. 2005. . Retrieved 2008-09-20. [41] Xiao, Z.; Laplante, A. R. (2004). "Characterizing and recovering the platinum group mineralsa review". Minerals Engineering 17 (910): 961979. doi:10.1016/j.mineng.2004.04.001. [42] Seymour, R. J.; O'Farrelly, J. I. (2001). "Platinum-group metals". Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley. doi:10.1002/0471238961.1612012019052513.a01.pub2. [43] Alvarez, L. W.; Alvarez, W.; Asaro, F.; Michel, H. V. (1980). "Extraterrestrial cause for the CretaceousTertiary extinction". Science 208 (4448): 10951108. Bibcode1980Sci...208.1095A. doi:10.1126/science.208.4448.1095. PMID17783054. [44] Hildebrand, A. R.; Penfield, Glen T.; Kring, David A.; Pilkington, Mark; Zanoguera, Antonio Camargo; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Boynton, William V. (1991). "Chicxulub Crater; a possible Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary impact crater on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico" (http:/ / geology. geoscienceworld. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 19/ 9/ 867). Geology 19 (9): 867871. Bibcode1991Geo....19..867H. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0867:CCAPCT>2.3.CO;2. . [45] Frankel, C. (1999). The End of the Dinosaurs: Chicxulub Crater and Mass Extinctions. Cambridge University Press. ISBN0-521-47447-7. OCLC40298401. [46] Ryder, G.; Fastovsky, D. E.; Gartner, S. (1996). The Cretaceous-Tertiary Event and Other Catastrophes in Earth History. Geological Society of America. p.47. ISBN0-8137-2307-8. [47] Toutain, J.-P.; Meyer, G. (1989). "Iridium-Bearing Sublimates at a Hot-Spot Volcano (Piton De La Fournaise, Indian Ocean)". Geophysical Research Letters 16 (12): 13911394. Bibcode1989GeoRL..16.1391T. doi:10.1029/GL016i012p01391. [48] George, M. W. (2008). "Platinum-group metals" (http:/ / minerals. usgs. gov/ minerals/ pubs/ commodity/ platinum/ mcs-2008-plati. pdf) (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries (USGS Mineral Resources Program). . [49] George, M. W. (2006). "Platinum-group metals" (http:/ / minerals. usgs. gov/ minerals/ pubs/ commodity/ platinum/ platimcs06. pdf) (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries (USGS Mineral Resources Program). . [50] Platinum-group metals (http:/ / minerals. usgs. gov/ minerals/ pubs/ commodity/ platinum/ mcs-2011-plati. pdf). U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries (January 2011 ) [51] George, M. W. (PDF). 2006 Minerals Yearbook: Platinum-Group Metals (http:/ / minerals. usgs. gov/ minerals/ pubs/ commodity/ platinum/ myb1-2006-plati. pdf). United States Geological Survey USGS. . [52] Gilchrist, Raleigh (1943). "The Platinum Metals". Chemical Reviews 32 (3): 277372. doi:10.1021/cr60103a002. [53] Ohriner, E. K. (2008). "Processing of Iridium and Iridium Alloys". Platinum Metals Review 52 (3): 186197. doi:10.1595/147106708X333827. [54] Hunt, L. B.; Lever, F. M. (1969). "Platinum Metals: A Survey of Productive Resources to industrial Uses" (http:/ / www. platinummetalsreview. com/ pdf/ pmr-v13-i4-126-138. pdf) (PDF). Platinum Metals Review 13 (4): 126138. .


[55] Like other precious metals, iridium is customarily traded in troy ounces, which are equivalent to about 31.1grams. [56] Hagelken, C. (2006). "Markets for the catalysts metals platinum, palladium, and rhodium" (http:/ / www. preciousmetals. umicore. com/ publications/ articles_by_umicore/ general/ show_Metal_PGMmarkets_200602. pdf) (PDF). Metall 60 (12): 3142. . [57] Jollie, D. (2008) (PDF). Platinum 2008 (http:/ / www. platinum. matthey. com/ uploaded_files/ Pt2008/ 08_complete_publication. pdf). Johnson Matthey. ISSN0268-7305. . Retrieved 2008-10-13. [58] Egorova, R. V.; Korotkov, B. V.; Yaroshchuk, E. G.; Mirkus, K. A.; Dorofeev N. A.; Serkov, A. T. (1979). "Spinnerets for viscose rayon cord yarn". Fibre Chemistry 10 (4): 377378. doi:10.1007/BF00543390. [59] Darling, A. S. (1960). "Iridium Platinum Alloys" (http:/ / www. platinummetalsreview. com/ pdf/ pmr-v4-i1-018-026. pdf) (PDF). Platinum Metals Review 4 (l): 1826. . Retrieved 2008-10-13. [60] Biggs, T.; Taylor, S. 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"The use and scope of Iridium 192 for the radiography of steel". British Journal of Applied Physics 5 (7): 238243. Bibcode1954BJAP....5..238H. doi:10.1088/0508-3443/5/7/302. [66] Hellier, Chuck (2001). Handbook of Nondestructive Evlaluation. The McGraw-Hill Companies. ISBN9780070281219. [67] The definition of the meter was changed again in 1983. The meter is currently defined as the distance traveled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1299,792,458 of a second. [68] Penzes, W. B. (2001). "Time Line for the Definition of the Meter" (http:/ / www. mel. nist. gov/ div821/ museum/ timeline. htm). National Institute for Standards and Technology. . Retrieved 2008-09-16. [69] General section citations: Recalibration of the U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, R.S.Davis, Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards, 90, No. 4, JulyAugust 1985 ( 5.5MB PDF, here (http:/ / nvl. nist. gov/ pub/ nistpubs/ jres/ 090/ 4/ V90-4. pdf)); and The Kilogram and Measurements of Mass and Force, Z.J.Jabbour et al., J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 106, 2001, 2546 ( 3.5MB PDF, here (http:/ / nvl. nist. gov/ pub/ nistpubs/ jres/ 106/ 1/ j61jab. pdf)) [70] Ziegler,, E.; Hignette, O.; Morawe, Ch.; Tucoulou, R. (2001). "High-efficiency tunable X-ray focusing optics using mirrors and laterally-graded multilayers". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 467468: 954957. Bibcode2001NIMPA.467..954Z. doi:10.1016/S0168-9002(01)00533-2. [71] "Face-to-Face with Jerry Johnston, CXC Program Manager & Bob Hahn, Chief Engineer at Optical Coating Laboratories, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA" (http:/ / chandra. harvard. edu/ press/ bios/ johnston. html). Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Chandra X-ray Center. 1995. . Retrieved 2008-09-24. [72] Mhl, D. (1997). "Production of low-energy antiprotons". Zeitschrift Hyperfine Interactions 109: 3341. Bibcode1997HyInt.109...33M. doi:10.1023/A:1012680728257. [73] Janowicz, A. H.; Bergman, R. G. (1982). "Carbon-hydrogen activation in completely saturated hydrocarbons: direct observation of M + R-H -> M(R)(H)". Journal of the American Chemical Society 104 (1): 352354. doi:10.1021/ja00365a091. [74] Hoyano, J. K.; Graham, W. A. G. (1982). "Oxidative addition of the carbon-hydrogen bonds of neopentane and cyclohexane to a photochemically generated iridium(I) complex". Journal of the American Chemical Society 104 (13): 37233725. doi:10.1021/ja00377a032. [75] Kllstrm, K; Munslow, I; Andersson, P. G. (2006). "Ir-catalysed asymmetric hydrogenation: Ligands, substrates and mechanism". Chemistry A European Journal 12 (12): 31943200. doi:10.1002/chem.200500755. PMID16304642. [76] Roseblade, S. J.; Pfaltz, A. (2007). "Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of olefins". Accounts of Chemical Research 40 (12): 14021411. doi:10.1021/ar700113g. PMID17672517. [77] Wang, X.; Andersson, M. R.; Thompson, M. E.; Ingansa, O. (2004). "Electrophosphorescence from substituted poly(thiophene) doped with iridium or platinum complex". Thin Solid Films 468 (12): 226233. Bibcode2004TSF...468..226W. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2004.05.095. [78] Tonzetich, Zachary J. (2002). "Organic Light Emitting DiodesDeveloping Chemicals to Light the Future" (http:/ / sa. rochester. edu/ jur/ issues/ fall2002/ tonzetich. pdf) (PDF). Journal of Undergraduate Research (Rochester University) 1 (1). . Retrieved 2008-10-10. [79] Holder, E.; Langefeld, B. M. W.; Schubert, U. S. 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[83] "Radioisotope Brief: Iridium-192 (Ir-192)" (http:/ / emergency. cdc. gov/ radiation/ isotopes/ pdf/ iridium. pdf) (PDF). Radiation Emergencies. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004-08-18. . Retrieved 2008-09-20.


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